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Gold Coast, Australia Keynote Jan 2010
 

Gold Coast, Australia Keynote Jan 2010

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Presentation by Govindan Nair, Keynote Speaker, at Global Conference "Pacific Rim Real Estate Society Conference on Climate Change and Property" Jan 17-19,2011 Gold Coast, Queensland, ...

Presentation by Govindan Nair, Keynote Speaker, at Global Conference "Pacific Rim Real Estate Society Conference on Climate Change and Property" Jan 17-19,2011 Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia

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    Gold Coast, Australia Keynote Jan 2010 Gold Coast, Australia Keynote Jan 2010 Presentation Transcript

    • Climate Change and Real Estate From Global Research to Local Practice January 18, 2011 Keynote Address by Govindan (“Govind”) NairLead Economist, The World Bank, Washington DC, USA (retired)President, Hemispheres Solutions LLC, Virginia USAAdjunct Professor, The George Washington University, USA gnair@hemispheres-solutions.com gnair@gwu.edu
    • Climate Change and Real Estate: Viewing Impacts and Actions at Different Scales Global Metropolitan Project/Building Professionals and Individual Citizens Copyright Hemispheres Solutions LLC Gold Coast Jan 18, 2011
    • Research to practice: three key implications for global and local action• TIMING (how quickly to act) – Substantial lag times and inertia both in climate systems and built environment investments – Limited ability to substitute acting tomorrow for acting today• COLLECTIVE ACTION (how jointly to act) – Minimizing mitigation costs requires acting on all worldwide opportunities to reduce GHG emissions – Global commons and equity concerns• INNOVATION (how differently from the past to act) – Transform energy and land use patterns incl. urban design – Transform behaviors and adaptive policies to complex climate changeGold Coast Jan 18, 2011
    • Research to practice: normative framework • TIMING (how quickly to act) – Substantial lag times and inertia both in climate systems and built environment investments – Limited ability to substitute acting tomorrow for acting today • COLLECTIVE ACTION (how jointly to act) – Minimizing mitigation costs requires acting on all worldwide opportunities to reduce GHG emissions – Global commons and equity concerns • INNOVATION (how differently from the past to act) – Transform energy and land use patterns incl. urban design – Transform behaviors and adaptive policies to complex climate change Gold Coast Jan 18, 2011
    • Source: World Bank, World Development Report 2010, Multicountry Poll July 2010 Gold Coast Jan 18, 2011http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWDR2010/Resources/CC_Poll_Report_July_01_2010.pdf pp.8 &11
    • How U.S. public attitudes to climate change have evolved Source: http://environment.yale.edu/climate/files/SixAmericasJune2010.pdfGold Coast Jan 18, 2011
    • The coordination problem: do citizens have sufficient knowledge of climate change?• Only 57% know that the “only 8 percent of Americans have greenhouse effect refers to gases knowledge equivalent in the atmosphere that trap heat; to an A or B, 40 percent would receive• Only 50% of Americans a C or D, and 52 percent would get an understand that global warming F” is caused mostly by human activities;• Only 45% understand that carbon dioxide traps heat from the Earth’s surface; Yale Project On• Only 25% have ever heard of Climate Change coral bleaching or ocean Communication October acidification. 12, 2010• Large majorities incorrectly think that the hole in the ozone layer and aerosol spray cans contribute to global warming Source: http://environment.yale.edu/climate/publications/knowledge-of-climate-change/Gold Coast Jan 18, 2011
    • Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) rising at an accelerating rate “Five years after Dr. Keeling’s death, his discovery is a focus not of celebration but of conflict. “ New York Times Dec 22, 2010 Gold Coast Jan 18, 2011
    • Global temperature anomalies in the 2000s: record years in a record decadeSource: World Meteorological Organization www.wmo.int Gold Coast Jan 18, 2011
    • Global annual average temperature and CO2 concentration continue to climb, 1880–2007 Source: World Development Report 2010 The World BankSource: Adapted from Karl, Melillo, and Peterson 2009.Note: Orange bars indicate temperature above the 1901–2000 average, blue bars are below average temperatures. The green line shows the rising CO2concentration. While there is a clear long-term global warming trend, each individual year does not show a temperature increase relative to theprevious year, and some years show greater changes than others. These year-to-year fluctuations in temperature are attributable to natural processes,such as the effects of El Niños, La Niñas, and volcanic eruptions. Gold Coast Jan 18, 2011
    • A SNAPSHOT OF SOME EXTREME EVENTS (*) OVER THE PAST DECADE *In the absence of a standard definition of an extreme event, this map includes single and/or a succession of weather phenomena leading to abnormal meteorological and/or climate conditions with high impacts such as heat waves, severe storms, flooding, droughts, etc.Source: World Meteorological Organization Heat waves / Extreme high temperatures 20 8 1 15 29 30 Cold waves / Extreme low 23 4 temperatures / Snow storms 34 14 29 32 3 Severe or prolonged 24 31 21 droughts 11 17 19 6 33 26 12 18 10 Intense storms / 13 Flooding / Heavy rainfall 9 5 Tropical cyclones, 2 28 hurricanes and typhoons 27 22 7 25 16 Gold Coast Jan 18, 2011
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    • The emissions gap between where the world is headed and where it needs to go is huge, but a portfolio of clean energy technologies can help the world stay at 450 ppm CO2e (2°C) ) Source: The World BankWorld Development Report 2010 Sources: WDR team, based on data from Riahi, Grübler, and Nakićenović 2007; IIASA 2009; IEA 2008b. Note: Fuel switching is changing from coal to gas. Non-biomass renewables include solar, wind, hydropower, and geothermal. Fossil CCS is fossil fuels with carbon capture and storage. While the exact mitigation potential of each wedge may vary under different models depending on the baseline, the overall conclusions remain the same. Gold Coast Jan 18, 2011
    • TWO DIFFERENT SETS OF ASSUMPTIONS USED IN THE SAME ECONOMIC MODEL Looking at tradeoffs: The loss in consumption relative to a world without warming for different peak CO2e concentrations Source: The World Bank, World Development Report 2010Source: Adapted from Hof, den Elzen, and van Vuuren 2008, figure 10.Note: The curves show the percentage loss in the present value of consumption, relative to what it would be with a constant climate, as a function ofthe target for peak CO2e concentrations. The “Stern assumptions” and “Nordhaus assumptions” refer to choices about the value of key parameters ofthe model as explained in the text. The dot shows the optimum for each set of assumptions, where the optimum is defined as the greenhouse gasconcentration that would minimize the global consumption loss resulting from the sum of mitigation costs and impact damages. Gold Coast Jan 18, 2011
    • Viewing different economic results as the “cost of climate insurance” “A better approach to climate policy [than the limitations of integrated assessment models], drawing on recent research on the economics of uncertainty, would avoid the limitations of the narrow cost -benefit comparisons of IAMs and reframe the cost of mitigation as buying insurance against irreversible and catastrophic events, the avoidance of which would yield large but unquantifiable benefits. Policy decisions should be based on a judgment concerning the maximum tolerable increase in temperature and/or atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations given the state of scientific understanding. In this “…. the primary reason framework, the appropriate role for economists would for keeping be to determine the least-cost strategy to achieve that target.” GHG levels down is to insure against high- temperature catastrophic climate risks” Martin Weitzman, Harvard economist The “Stern assumptions” (which include relatively high climate sensitivity and climate damages, and a long time horizon combined with low discount rates and mitigation costs) produce an optimum peak CO2e concentration of 540 parts per million (ppm). The “Nordhaus assumptions” (which assume lower climate“..if there is a significant chance sensitivity and damages, a shorter time horizon, and a higher discount rate)of utter catastrophe, that chance produce an optimum of 750 ppm. …. A strong motivation for choosing a lower— rather than what is most likely peak concentration target is to reduce the risk of catastrophic outcomes linked toto happen — should dominate global warming. From this perspective, the cost of moving from a high target forcost-benefit calculations. And peak CO2e concentrations to a lower target can be viewed as the cost of climateutter catastrophe does look like insurance—the amount of welfare the world would sacrifice to reduce the risk ofa realistic possibility, even if it is catastrophe.not the most likely outcome.Weitzman argues — and I agree Extracts from : Weitzman (2010), Ackerman,— that this risk of catastrophe, F., S. J. DeCanio, R. B. Howarth, and K.rather than the details of cost- Sheeran. 2010, World Bank Worldbenefit calculations, makes the Development Report 2010most powerful case for strong Gold Coast Jan 18, 2011climate policy .“
    • What does the way forward look like? Two options among many: Business as usual or aggressive mitigationSource: Clarke and others, forthcoming.Note: The top band shows the range of estimates across models (GTEM, IMAGE, MESSAGE, MiniCAM) for emissions under a business-as-usualscenario. The lower band shows a trajectory that could yield a concentration of 450 ppm of CO2e (with a 50 percent chance of limiting warming to lessthan 2°C). Greenhouse gas emissions include CO2, CH4, and N2O. Negative emissions (eventually required by the 2°C path) imply that the annual rate ofemissions is lower than the rate of uptake and storage of carbon through natural processes (for example, plant growth) and engineered processes (forexample, growing biofuels and when burning them, sequestering the CO2 underground). GTEM, IMAGE, MESSAGE, and MiniCAM are the integratedassessment models of the Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics, the Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency,International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Gold Coast Jan 18, 2011 World Development Report 2010
    • Source: The World Bank, World Development Report 2010, web pagehttp://econ.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTDEC/EXTRESEARCH/EXTWDRS/EXTWDR2010/0,,contentMDK:22303545~pagePK:64167689~piPK:64167673~theSitePK:5287741,00.html Gold Coast Jan 18, 2011
    • Source: Asian Development Bank,http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/Economics-Climate-Change- Southeast Asia* is highlySEA/default.asp vulnerable to climate change impacts Sea levels have also risen in Southeast Asia is among the Southeast Asia in the last regions with the greatest need few decades, for adaptation, which is critical between 1 and 3 mm per to reducing year on average, marginally the impact of changes already higher than the locked into the climate global average. P. 33 system.p. xxvi Given the region’s [In Ho Chi Minh City]……………… rapid economic For areas affected by minor flooding, growth, its GHG land values are quite large, in excess emissions have been of VND140,000 trillion ($8.75 trillion) rising twice as fast as for regular flooding and VND200,000 trillion ($12.5 the global average. P. trillion) in extreme events—values exceeding 126 national nominal gross domestic product. For more serious flooding, land values at risk would range from VND500 trillion ($31.25 billion) to VND710 trillion ($44 billion). But *This AdB study covers four countries: the figures are quite high Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand and and may suggest that land Vietnam values are overestimated. p.118 Gold Coast Jan 18, 2011
    • Decision making on the global scale is insufficient to translate research into practice • “The quest for appropriate responses to climate change has long focused on the need for an international agreement—a global deal. ………Although establishing an effective international climate regime is a justified preoccupation, it should not lead to a wait-and-see attitude, which can only add to the inertia and constrain the response.” p. 342-3 Extract from World Development Report 2010, The World Bank, http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWDR2010/Resources/5287678-1226014527953/WDR10- Full-Text.pdfGold Coast Jan 18, 2011
    • The Global Level: Key points • Scientific consensus on anthropogenic global warming Global • Broad economic consensus on projected economic losses based on a range of models differences in results from using different Metropolitan assumptions can be viewed as the cost of “climate insurance” Project/Building • Varying degrees of public misperceptions worlwide of the scientific consensus and varying public attitudes worldwide toward sense of urgency Professionals and Individual • Projected climate change impacts generally Citizens stronger in Asia Pacific generally than other regions as is potential for energy efficiency gains • Timing is key – timeframe for stabilizing worldwide Co2 emissions between 2020 and 2030Copyright Hemispheres Solutions LLC Gold Coast Jan 18, 2011
    • Sources: United Cities and LocalGovernments, http://www.cities-localgovernments.org/index.asp&World Mayors Summit on Climatehttp://www.wmsc2010.org/acerc For the first time ever, local governments werea-de-2/ officially recognized in UN climate documents as "governmental stakeholders" ; based on Mexico City pact signed by 152 cities at the World Mayors Summit on Climate held in Mexico city on 21st November 2010 including Nates (France), Manaus (Brazil), Dakar (Senegal), Durban (South Africa), etc Gold Coast Jan 18, 2011
    • “Buildings alone represent an average of 60% of total global emissions, and there are more than 20 million vehicles in just 19 key C40 cities. “ Source: http://www.c40cities.org/Gold Coast Jan 18, 2011
    • Economic growth worldwide continues to depend on cities Difference in GDP per capita, labour productivity and employment between OECD metro-regions and their national average (2005)Gold Coast Jan 18, 2011
    • A 50-cm sea level rise, combined withpredicted socioeconomicdevelopment patterns, could result by2070: in a tripling of the population at risk ofcoastalflooding ANDa tenfold increase in the amount ofassets exposed, or from 5% of 2008 GDPto 9% of 2070’sGDP in : Kamal-Chaoui, Lamia and Alexis Robert (eds.) (2009), Cited “Competitive Cities and Climate Change”, OECD Regional Development Working Papers N° 2, 2009, p.53-54 OECD publishing Gold Coast Jan 18, 2011
    • Asian cities are especially vulnerable Worldwide: 3,351 cities in low- elevation coastal zones Of the total urban population in Asia, 17 percent lives in the low elevation coastal zones 64% of these cities in developing countries 18 of Asia’s 20 largest are coastal, or located on a riverbank or in a delta Half of above in Asia (excl Australia, NZ) In South-East Asia, more than one third of the urban population lives in such a setting Data Sources: UNHABITAT, 2008, Bangkok Metropolitan Administration 2009Gold Coast Jan 18, 2011
    • Climate change poses key threats to Cities are major contributors to CO2 emissions. Roughlyurban infrastructure and quality of half of the world’s population lives in urban areas, andlife. in Europe, 70% of the largest this share is increasing over time, projected to reachcities have areas < 10 meters above 60% by 2030. Cities consume a great majority –sea level. Port cities most at risk for between 60 to 80% – of energy production worldwidecoastal flooding are located and account for a roughly equal share of global CO2both in rapidly .growing developing emissionscountries such as India and China (e.g.Kolkata, Shanghai,Guangzhou) and in wealthy of Citations from: Kamal-Chaoui, Lamia and Alexis Robert (eds.) (2009),“Competitive Cities and Climate Change”, OECDcountries such as the United States Regional Development Working Papers N° 2, 2009,(e.g. Miami, New York City), OECD publishingthe Netherlands (e.g. Rotterdam, Heat waves will beAmsterdam) and Japan (e.g. Tokyo, felt more strongly in urban areas dueOsaka to urban heat island effects. Climate change: Why cities matter Gold Coast Jan 18, 2011
    • …but GHG emissions per capita may be lower in cities than elsewhere• detailed analyses of urban greenhouse gas emissions for individual cities suggest that, per capita, urban residents tend to generate a substantially smaller volume of carbon emissions than residents elsewhere in the same country (Dodman, 2009) e.g – per capita emissions in New York City are only 29.7 per cent of those in the United States as a whole (PlaNYC, 2007) – those in London are just over half of the British average (Mayor of London, 2007) – those in Rio de Janeiro are only 28.0 per cent of those of Brazil as a whole (Dubeux and La Rovere,2007) – those in Barcelona are only 33.9 per cent of those of Spain as a whole (Baldasano et al., 1999)• relatively low levels of emissions are influenced by urban density patterns: – the density of buildings – the average dwelling unit size; and – the extent of public extracted from: Dodman, David Urban Form, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate VulnerabilityGold Coast Jan 18, 2011
    • Emissions from transport are much lower in denser citiesSource: World Bank 2009b.Note: The figure does not correct for income because a regression of transport emissions on density and income reveals that density, not income, is akey factor. Data are for 1995. World Development Report 2010
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    • The problem of inertia in the builtenvironment – like inertia in the climate system • Investments in real estate and buildings are lumpy and long-lived (many decades) • Decisions on land use and urban design (density and structure of metropolitan regions) have long lasting impacts (more than a century) Gold Coast Jan 18, 2011
    • Framing the policy choices in the Kaya equation• CO2 = (CO2 / E) * (E / GDP)* (GDP / POP) * POP carbon dioxide intensity of energy use Energy energy- intensity of CO2 = energy-related carbon related economic dioxide emissions (CO2) carbon output GDP = gross domestic dioxide product E= energy emissions POP=population (CO2) Key policy leversGold Coast Jan 18, 2011
    • Until now, improvements in two policy levers -- energy and carbon intensity -- have not been enough to offset rising energy demand boosted by rising incomesSource: IPCC 2007.Note: GDP is valued using purchasing power parity (PPP) dollars. Source: World Bank, World Development Report 2010
    • Energy projections with Kaya equation • CO2 = (CO2 / E) * (E / GDP)* (GDP / POP) * POPGold Coast Jan 18, 2011
    • Energy projections with Kaya equation • CO2 = (CO2 / E) * (E / GDP)* (GDP / POP) * POPGold Coast Jan 18, 2011
    • Only half the energy models find it possible to achieve the emission reductions necessary to stay close to 450 ppm CO2e (2°C)Source: Clarke and others, forthcoming.Note: Each dot represents the emissions reduction that a particular model associates with a concentration target—450, 550, 650 parts per million(ppm) of CO2 equivalent (CO2e)—in 2050. The number of dots in each column signals how many of the 14 models and model variants were able to finda pathway that would lead to a given concentration outcome. “Overshoot” describes a mitigation path that allows concentrations to exceed their goalbefore dropping back to their goal by 2100, while “not to exceed” implies the concentration is not to be exceeded at any time. “Full” refers to fullparticipation by all countries, so that emission reductions are achieved wherever and whenever they are most cost-effective. “Delay” means high-income countries start abating in 2012, Brazil, China, India, and the Russian Federation start abating in 2030, and the rest of the world in 2050. World Development Report 2010
    • F4.9 Global actions are essential to limit warming to 2°C (450 ppm) or 3°C (550 ppm). Developed countries alone could not put the world onto a 2°C or 3°C trajectory, even if they were to reduce emissions to zero by 2050.Sources: Adapted from IEA 2008b; Calvin and others, forthcoming.Note: If energy-related emissions from developed countries (orange) were to reduce to zero, emissions from developing countries (green) underbusiness as usual would still exceed global emission levels required to achieve 550 ppm CO2e and 450 ppm CO2e scenarios (blue) by 2050. World Development Report 2010
    • Framing the policy choices in the Kaya equation • CO2 = (CO2 / E) * (E / GDP)* (GDP / POP) * POP carbon dioxide Energy intensity of intensity of energy use economic energy- output related carbon dioxide Carbon emissions (CO2) productivity= Co2/GDPGold Coast Jan 18, 2011
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    • carbon budget compares to the current carbon budget Source: The World Bank, World Development Report 2010Sources: Emissions of greenhouse gases in 2005 from WRI 2008, augmented with land-use change emissions from Houghton 2009; population from World Bank2009c.Note: The width of each column depicts population and the height depicts per capita emissions, so the area represents total emissions. Per capita emissions of Qatar(55.5 tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per capita), UAE (38.8), and Bahrain (25.4)—greater than the height of the y-axis—are not shown. Among the larger Gold Coast Jan 18, 2011countries, Brazil, Indonesia, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Nigeria have low energy-related emissions but significant emissions from land-use change;therefore, the share from land-use change is indicated by the hatching.
    • Average US passenger family car every 2 ½ months A household’s use of electricity every six weeks. One ton of CO₂ emission equivalent each A household’s use of heating and cooking fuel every four The typical use of a microwave months (if energy use were oven every seven years or of a spread equally throughout the refrigerator every 15 months. year)>> every four years in Hawaii or every six weeks in Maine Data source: based on multiple US government data sources, cited in Frank Ackerman and Elizabeth A. Stanton “The social cost of carbon”, real-world economics review, issue no. 53, 26 June 2010, pp. 129-143, http://www.paecon.net/PAEReview/issue53/AckermanStanton53.pdfGold Coast Jan 18, 2011
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    • The importance of carbon pricing“Providing a strong, stable carbon price is thesingle policy action that is likely to have thebiggest effect in improving economic efficiency andtackling the climate crisis. Clarity on policy and prices is allthe more important now, with companies facing such uncertaintybecause of the financial crisis: the two risks compound each other,damping investment. We may not be able fully to resolve the risks ofthe financial crisis quickly; but we can take actions now that willmarkedly reduce uncertainties about future carbon policies andprices.”Extract (underline and bold added) from Joseph Stiglitz and Nicholas Stern,Financial Times, March 2, 2009 Obama’s chance to lead the greenrecovery Gold Coast Jan 18, 2011
    • It’s not just about energy: Carbon pricing changes the mitigation potential of various sectors of the economy including buildingsSource: Barker and others 2007b, figure TS.27. Source: The World Bank, World Development Report 2010Note: EIT = economies in transition. The ranges for global economic potentials as assessed in each sector are shown by black vertical lines. Gold Coast Jan 18, 2011
    • F4.8 Estimates of global mitigation costs and carbon prices for 450 and 550 ppm CO2e (2°C and 3°C) in 2030 from five models Sources: WDR team, based on data from Knopf and others, forthcoming; Rao and others 2008; Calvin and others, forthcoming. Note: This graphic compares mitigation costs and carbon prices from five global energy-climate models—MiniCAM, IMAGE, MESSAGE, POLES, and REMIND (see note 28 for model assumptions and methodology). MiniCAM, POLES, IMAGE, and MESSAGE report abatement costs for the transformation of energy systems relative to the baseline as a percent of GDP in 2030, where GDP is exogenous. a. The mitigation costs from REMIND are given as macroeconomic costs expressed in GDP losses in 2030 relative to baseline, where GDP is endogenous. World Development Report 2010
    • Both energy efficiency and low-carbon technologies needed to achieve sustainable energy development in East Asia Reference (baseline) scenario Sustainable Energy Development scenario Co-2 emissions stabilize in 2025 Low-carbon urbanization models that focus on compact city design, enhanced public transport, green buildings, clean vehicles, and distributed generation. Adapted from : World Bank, Winds of Change, East Asia’s Sustainable Energy Future, 2010 p. 4 http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTEASTASI APACIFIC/Resources/226262-Gold Coast Jan 18, 2011 1271320774648/windsofchange_fullreport.pdf
    • Illustration of the challenge of moving to sustainable Asian cities Low-carbon mobility: strategies for Asia’s future built environment “AVOID” strategy: well suited especially to Asian cities in early development. • land use planning is key •Opportunities to capitalize upon higher populations densities of Asian cities yet unrealized • relatively little research in this area “SHIFT” strategy refers to modal choice • density and design of many cities which geew without infrastructure for private cars increases neccesity for this shift • public transport, walking, and cycling, and motorcycles instead of cars “IMPROVE” strategy refers to vehicles technologies and low-carbon fuel types “If low-carbon policy is to be fully integrated in the transport sector, then associated policy instruments will need to becited in: Asian Development Bank, Rethinking Transport and Climate Change,www.adb.org/.../adb.../ADB-WP10-Rethinking-Transport-Climate-Change. pdf …..reflected in the transport strategies devised at the city/local, regional, and Gold Coast Jan 18, 2011 national levels.”
    • Policy choices towards a low-carbon mobility in high density urban environmentsGold Coast Jan 18, 2011
    • Research to practice: normative framework • TIMING (how quickly to act) – Substantial lag times and inertia both in climate systems and built environment investments – Limited ability to substitute acting tomorrow for acting today • COLLECTIVE ACTION (how jointly to act) – Minimizing mitigation costs requires acting on all worldwide opportunities to reduce GHG emissions – Global commons and equity concerns • INNOVATION (how differently from the past to act) – Transform energy and land use patterns incl. urban design – Transform behaviors and adaptive policies to complex climate change Gold Coast Jan 18, 2011
    • References • Ackerman, F., S. J. DeCanio, R. B. Howarth, and K. Sheeran. 2010. “The Need for a Fresh Approach to Climate Change Economics.” In Assessing the Benefits of Avoided Climate • Change: CostBenefit Analysis and Beyond. Gulledge, J., L. J. Richardson, L. Adkins, and S. Seidel (eds.), Proceedings of Workshop on Assessing the Benefits of Avoided Climate Change, March 16–17, 2009. Pew Center on Global Climate Change: Arlington, VA. p. 159–181. : http://www.pewclimate.org/events/2009/benefitsworkshop • Asian Development Bank, The Economics of Climate Change in Southeast Asia:A Regional Review, 2009, http://www.adb.org/Documents/Books/Economics-Climate-Change-SEA/default.asp • Asian Development Bank, Rethinking Transport and Climate Change, www.adb.org/.../adb.../ADB-WP10-Rethinking-Transport-Climate-Change. pdf • Barrett, Scott, Johns Hopkins University, Economics The Open Access Open Assessment E-Journal Vol. 3, 2009-5 | March 3, 2009 | http://www.economics-ejournal.org/economics/journalarticles/2009-5 • Kamal-Chaoui, Lamia and Alexis Robert (eds.) (2009),“Competitive Cities and Climate Change”, OECD Regional Development Working Papers N° 2, 2009, OECD publishing, Organisatiion for Ecnomiic Cooperation and Development • Krugman, Paul, Building A Green Economy, The New York Times Magazine, April 7, 2010 http://www.nytimes.com/2010/04/11/magazine/11Economy-t.html?pagewanted=all • Liliana Andonova, Colby College,Michele M. Betsill, Colorado State University, Harriet Bulkeley, Durham University, Transnational Climate Change Governance, Paper prepared for the Amsterdam Conference on the Human Dimensions of Global,Environmental Change, 24-26 May 2007 • London School of Economics and Political Science, The Hartwell Paper, May 2010, http://www2.lse.ac.uk/researchAndExpertise/units/mackinder/theHartwellPaper/Home.aspx • Frank Ackerman and Elizabeth A. Stanton “The social cost of carbon”, real-world economics review, issue no. 53, 26 June 2010, pp. 129-143, http://www.paecon.net/PAEReview/issue53/AckermanStanton53.pdf • Bangkok Metropolitan Administration 2009, Bangkok Assessment Report on Climate Change 2009 http://www.unep.org/dewa/pdf/BKK_assessment_report2009.pdf • Dodman, David Urban Form, Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Vulnerability in UNFPA & International Institute for Environment and Development, Population Dynamics and Climate Change, 2009 •Gold Coast Jan 18, 2011
    • References • Neff, Todd, Connecting Science and Policy to Combat Climate Change, Scientific American, March 17, 2009. http://www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=connecting-science-and-po • Pacific Institute, THE 2010 CLIMATE B.S.* OF THE YEAR AWARD , http://www.pacinst.org/press_center/press_releases/climate_bs_award.html • Rachlinski, J. Psychology of Global Climate Change, 2000 Univesity of Ill.inois Law Review299 (2000) • Smith, V. Kerry HOW CAN POLICY ENCOURAGE ECONOMICALLY SENSIBLE CLIMATE ADAPTATION?, NATIONAL BUREAU OF ECONOMIC RESEARCH, Working Paper 16100, June 2010 • http://www.nber.org/papers/w16100 • Stiglitz, Joseph, and Stern, Nicholas, Obama’s chance to lead the green recovery, Financial Times March 2, 2009 • http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/7c51644a-075b-11de-9294-000077b07658.html#ixzz1A4kssZbj • UK DirectGov, Stern Review on Economics of Climate Change, http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/Nl1/Newsroom/DG_064854 • UK Energy Research Centre, The Rebound Effect: an assessment of the evidence for economy-wide energy savings from improved energy efficiency • October 2007, www.ukerc.ac.uk/Downloads/PDF/07/0710ReboundEffect/0710ReboundEffectReport.pdf • United Cities and Local Governments, http://www.cities-localgovernments.org/index.asp • U.S. Energy Information Administration, International Energy Outlook 2010, http://www.eia.doe.gov/oiaf/ieo/emissions.html • Weitzman, Martin L (2010) GHG Targets as Insurance Against Catastrophic Climate Damages Department of Economics, Harvard University (mweitzman@harvard.edu). June 3, 2010 version http://www.economics.harvard.edu/faculty/weitzman/files/1A1A.InsuranceCatastrophicRisks.pdfGold Coast Jan 18, 2011
    • References • UNFPA & International Institute for Environment and Development, Population Dynamics and Climate Change, 2009 • World Bank, World Development Report 2010: Development and Climate Change, http://econ.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTDEC/EXTRESEARCH/EXTWDRS/EXTWDR2010/0,,menuPK:5287748~pagePK:64167702~piPK:64167 676~theSitePK:5287741,00.html • World Bank, World Development Report2010, Public attitudes toward climate change: findings from Multicountry Poll July 2010, http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWDR2010/Resources/CC_Poll_Report_July_01_2010.pdf • World Bank, World Development report 2010, Regional Vulnerability To Climate Change, http://econ.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTDEC/EXTRESEARCH/EXTWDRS/EXTWDR2010/0,,contentMDK:22303545~pagePK:64167689~piPK:6 4167673~theSitePK:5287741,00.html • World Bank, Winds of Change: East Asia’s Sustainable Energy Future, 2010 http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTEASTASIAPACIFIC/Resources/226262-1271320774648/windsofchange_fullreport.pdf • World Mayors Summit on Climate http://www.wmsc2010.org/acerca-de-2/ • World Meteorological Organization, http://www.wmo.int/pages/index_en.html • Yale University, Yale Project on Climate Change Communication, http://environment.yale.edu/climate/ & http://environment.yale.edu/climate/files/SixAmericasJune2010.pdf •Gold Coast Jan 18, 2011
    • Thank You! Gold Coast Jan 18, 2011
    • Gold Coast Jan 18, 2011