Media in The UK Television | Radio | Newspapers | Magazines•The United Kingdom has a diverse range of providers, themost prominent being the state-owned public servicebroadcaster, the BBC (British Broadcasting Corporation).•The BBCs largest competitors are ITV plc, which operates 11of the 15 regional television broadcasters that make up the ITVNetwork•News Corporation, who hold a large stake in satellitebroadcaster British Sky Broadcasting and also operate anumber of leading national newspapers such as The Sun andand the longest-established daily paper The Times.
Media in The UK• Regional media is covered by local radio, television and print newspapers.• Trinity Mirror operate 240 local and regional newspapers in the United Kingdom, as well as national newspapers such as the Daily Mirror and the Sunday Mirror.• 3.75 hours of television per day and 2.81 hours of radio.• The main BBC public service broadcasting channels accounted for and estimated 28.4% of all television viewing;• The three main independent channels accounted for 29.5% and the increasingly important other satellite and digital channels for the remaining 42.1%.
Media in The UK• The United Kingdom print publishing sector, including books, server, directories and databases, journals, magazines and business media, newspapers and news agencies, has a combined turnover of around £20 billion and employs around 167,000 people.• Sales of newspapers have fallen since the 1970s and in 2009 42% of people reported reading a daily national newspaper.• 82.5% of the United Kingdom population were Internet users, the highest proportion in the world.
Media Organisations & Unions• Some of the main employers organisations: the BritishMedia Industry Group ,Cable CommunicationsAssociation , ITV Network Centre; NationalAssociation of Press Agencies• Some of the major industry bodies: CommonwealthPress Union, Institute of Local Television, RadioJoint Audience Research.• The major publisher groups: Association of BritishEditors, British Society of Magazine Editors.• The main trade union: Broadcasting, Entertainment,Cinematograph and Theatre Union, National Union ofJournalists
Most Important Media Awards• The British Academy Television Awards (BAFTAs) are the mostprestigious awards given in the British television industry, analogous to theEmmy Awards in the United States. They have been awarded annually since1954, and are only open to British programmes. After all the entries have beenreceived, they are voted for online by all eligible members of the Academy.The winner is chosen from the four nominees by a special jury of nine academymembers for each award, the members of each jury selected by the AcademysTelevision Committee.• The National Television Awards is a British television awards ceremony,sponsored by ITV and initiated in 1995. Although not widely held to be asprestigious as the BAFTAs, the National Television Awards are probably themost prominent ceremony for which the results are voted on by the generalpublic. Unlike the BAFTAs, the National Television Awards allow foreignprogrammes to be nominated, providing they have been screened on a Britishchannel during the eligible time period.
The Office of Communications • OFCOM is the government-approved regulatory and competition authority for the broadcasting, telecommunications and postal industries of the United Kingdom.• The CODE covers the 10 main sections.Protection of under-eighteens | Harm and Offence | Crime | Religion | Impartiality and Accuracy | Elections | Fairness | Privacy | Sponsorship and commercial references.
OFCOM• Ofcom licenses all UK commercial television and radio services in the UK. Broadcasters must comply by the terms of their license, or risk having it revoked. Ofcom also publishes the Broadcasting Code, an extensive series of rules which all broadcast content on television and radio must follow.• As the regulatory body for media broadcasts, part of Ofcoms duties are to examine specific complaints by viewers or listeners about programmes broadcast on channels that it has licensed. When Ofcom receives a complaint, it asks the broadcaster for a copy of the programme, it then examines the programme content to see if it is in breach of the broadcasting code.
CAP• The Committee for Advertising Practice (CAP, or BCAP) is the body contracted by Ofcom to create and maintain the codes of practice governing television advertising.• The CODES cover advertising standards (the TV Code), guidance notes, scheduling rules, text services (the Teletext Code) and interactive television guidance. The main sections of the TV Code concern compliance, progammes and advertising, unacceptable products, political and controversial issues, misleading advertising, harm and offence, children, medicines, treatments, health claims and nutrition, finance and investments, and religion.
ASA• The Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) is an independent body responsible for resolving complaints relating to the advertising industry within the UK.• It is not government funded, but funded by a levy on the advertising industry. It ensures compliance with the Codes created by CAP.• The ASA covers all forms of advertising, not just television advertisements. The ASA can refer problematic adverts to Ofcom, since the channels carrying the adverts are ultimately responsible for the advertising content, and are answerable to Ofcom. Ofcom can issue fines or revoke broadcast licenses if necessary.
Licensing• In the United Kingdom and the Crown dependencies, a television license is required to receive any publicly broadcast television service, from any source. This includes the commercial channels, cable and satellite transmissions. The money from the licence fee is used to provide radio, television and Internet content for the British Broadcasting Corporation, (2011 - £3.662 billion)• Licence fee income:• 50% - BBC One and BBC Two• 15% - local TV and radio• 12% - network radio• 10% - digital (BBC Three, BBC Four, BBC News 24, BBC Parliament, CBBC, CBeebies)• 10% - transmission costs and licence fee collection• 3% - BBC Online, Ceefax, and Interactive Content (including bbc.co.uk and BBC Red Button)
Productions• 27,000 hours of original programming are produced every year in the UK television industry, excluding news, at a cost of £2.6 bn.• 1 Hour Production = aprox £10K• Ofcom has determined that 56% (£1.5bn) of production is in-house by the channel owners, and the remainder by independent production companies.• Ofcom is enforcing a 25% independent production quota for the channel operators, as stipulated in the Broadcasting Act 1990.
In-house Production• ITV plc, the company which owns 11 of the 15 regional franchises, has set its production arm ITV Productions a target of producing 75% of the ITV1 schedule, the maximum allowed by Ofcom.• This would be a rise from 54% at present, as part of a strategy to make ITV1 content-led chiefly in order to double production revenues to £1.2bn by 2012.• In contrast, the BBC has implemented a Window of Creative Competition (WOCC), a 25% proportion over and above the 25% Ofcom quota in which the BBCs in-house production and independent producers can compete.• Channel 4 commissions all programmes from independent producers.
Television in The UK • Public television broadcasting started in the United Kingdom in 1936. • There are over 480 channels. • There are six main channel owners who are responsible for most viewing. • As of 24 October 2012, all television broadcasts in the United Kingdom are in a digital format, following the end of analogue transmissions in Northern Ireland. Digital content is delivered via terrestrial, satellite and cable as well as over IP.
Independent Production• As a consequence of the launch of Channel 4 in 1982, and the 25% independent quota from the Broadcasting Act 1990, an independent production sector has grown in the UK. Most successful companies;• Talkback Thames• Endemol UK• Hat Trick Productions• Tiger Aspect Productions.
Television Viewing in Britain• The most popular leisure pasttime• About 96 per cent of population have television in their homes.• Average viewing time is over 25 hours a week• TV productions win international awards (Idol/Talent Shows, Quiz Shows)• Half of the programmes are bought abroad• Children’s TV has been very active ( Teletubbies or Blue Peter on BBC 1)
The UKs five most watched channels,• BBC 1 - since 1936, general interest programmes.• BBC 2 - minority and specialist interests.• ITV - broadcasting is approximately 34% informative and 66% light entertainment.• Channel 4 - since 1982, 15% educational programmes, encourages innovation and experiment. Rest is general interest and light entertainment programs.• Channel 5 – since 1997, a general entertainment channel, with internally commissioned shows.
The BBC (British BroadcastingCorporation)• The largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees, with about 23,000 staff.• The BBC is authorized by the Communications Act 2003 to collect the all media license fees. (£3.662 billion)• The BBC is a corporation, independent from direct government intervention, with its activities being overseen by the BBC Trust.
• The BBC Trust is the governing body of the BBC. It is operationally independent of BBC management and external bodies, and aims to act in the best interests of license fee payers. • The Trust currently comprises:• Lord Patten of Barnes, Chairman• Dr Diane Coyle OBE, Vice Chairman and former Economics Editor of The Independent.• Richard Ayre, former Deputy Chief Executive of BBC News.• Anthony Fry, an investment banker.• Alison Hastings, the Trustee for England and a former regional newspaper editor.• Rotha Johnston CBE, the Trustee for Northern Ireland and an independent businesswoman.• Elan Closs Stephens CBE, the Trustee for Wales and former chairman of Welsh-language broadcaster S4C.• David Liddiment, a former Director of Programmes at ITV.• Bill Matthews, the Trustee for Scotland.• Mehmuda Mian, a solicitor and former member of the Independent Police Complaints Commission.• Suzanna Taverne, former managing director of the British Museum• Lord Williams of Baglan, former diplomat, appointed as International Trustee
The Division of Programmes• Light entertainment (variety shows, soap operas, situation comedies, game shows)• News/current affairs• Documentaries• Children’s TV• Music• Sport• Films/TV movies• Drama/plays
Radio in The UK• There are around 600 licensed radio stations in the United Kingdom.• Three main categories:1- BBC Radio: 10 National + 40 Local Radio Services2- Commercial Radio: Need license from Ofcom. Most local commercial stations in the United Kingdom broadcast to a city or group of towns within a radius of 20-50 miles, with a second tier of regional stations covering larger areas3- Community Radio: Community radio stations broadcast to a small area, normally within a 3 mile (5 km) radius, and are mostly not-for-profit organisations, owned by local people, on which the broadcasters are volunteers. They are recognised under the Communications Act 2003 as a distinct third tier of radio in the United Kingdom.
The most popular British radio stations• Clare FM• Anna Livia• Live 95• Welsh Radio International• Imperial College radio• Capital FM• BBC Radio 1 and 2
The division of newspapers B r it is h n e w s p a p e rs D a il y M o r n in g E v e n in g S unday T a b lo id s " T h e S u n d a y T im e s " " D a ily M ir r o r "R e g io n a l N a t io n a l
Top 10 UK DailyNewspapers • 1 The Sun (2,751,219) • 2 Daily Mail (2,011,283) • 3 Daily Mirror (1,122,563) • 4 Daily Star (624,029) • 5 Daily Telegraph (596,180) • 6 Daily Express (586,707) • 7 The Times (405,113) • 8 Financial Times (319,757) • 9 Daily Record (276,003) • 10 I Newspaper (243,321)
Top 5 UK SundayNewspapers • 1 Daily Mail (1,921,010) • 2 Sunday Mirror (1,753,202) • 3 Sunday Times (967,975) • 4 Sunday People (770,772) • 5 Daily Star (644,804)
Magazines in Britain• 7,000+ different periodicals• Classified as:• consumer general interest• special interest• business to business
Weekly Magazines 1. Whats On TV (3.4m) 2. Radio Times (2.6m) 3. TV Choice (1.7m) 4. TV Times (1.6m) 5. Auto Trader (1.2m) 6. TV Quick (1.0m) 7. Nuts (0.9m) 8. Zoo (0.7m) 9. The Big Issue (0.6m) 10. TV Easy (0.5m)
Monthly Magazines 1. Sky Magazine (7.5m) 2. Sky Sports (3.0m) 3. Sky Movies (2.3m) 4. National Geographic (2.0m) 5. BBC Top Gear (1.9m) 6. Saga magazine (1.7m) 7. Readers Digest (1.6m) 8. FHM (1.6m) 9. BBC Gardeners World (1.4m) 10. Mens Health (1.1m)
The most popular periodicals • The Radio Times • Woman`s Own • Smash Hits • Q • Big