DEDICATIONThis book is dedicated to the memory ofmy dad, Edwin Zaring Stuart (“Ned”),and to the everyday heroes in our lives.I feel like I should say thank you to every person I have evermet. However, if I indulged this idea there would be no roomfor the rest of the text in this book. Instead, I’ll try to concen-trate on the folks who made this possible, and I hope that therest of the world will understand. The level of my gratitude isnot to be measured by the location or order of the names.I am indebted to North Light Books, starting with RachelRubin Wolf, who gave me the chance to write this book. I amso grateful that she opened the door. Thank you to MichaelBerger, who ﬁrst made sense of it all, and to Bethe Fergusonand the rest of the staff who will bring this book into focus.Once again, I thank the many people listed in the back ofthe book for their wonderful art and beautiful faces.I thank my mom and dad for a lifetime of love and encour-agement. I thank my “big” brother, Steve, and his wife Dianaand daughter Shiloh for their patience. I thank my “little”brother, Scott and his gracious family, Laurie, Jeff, Bentley andAynslee for putting up with my camera in their faces for years(smile for Aunt Carrie). I thank Don Parks for his caring andthe gift of my wonderful husband, Rick. I thank Donna, J.B.Cole, Skylar and Cortney Lindsey for their continuing love.To the many people over the years who supported us by let-ting us into their homes and hearts, a deeply-felt thank you islong overdue; for Boyd and Cindy Bryant, Kami and GerryHines, Aida and Jim Remele, Kathy and Bob Gonzales, Debbieand Pat Torok, Ed Jany, Jim and Cathy Champion, Toni Red-ding and Norma Shepherd.I thank my dear friends Frank and Barbara Peretti for theirpersonal and artistic inspiration and love over the years. I amtruly, eternally grateful.The best for last—I thank my wonderful husband, Rick, forhis constant love, patience, friendship and artistic inspiration.Most of all, I thank the Lord Jesus for his blessings andgrace.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
TABLE OF CONTENTSINTRODUCTION 8!Looking the Part:Materials and Supplies 12Pencils and Erasers • Other Tools$The Problem 18Why is Drawing so Hard? • Natural Artists%Site 28SITE TOOL: Measuring • SITE TOOLS: Flattening andOptical IndexingQShape 42Train Your Mind • SHAPE TOOL: Isolate • SHAPETOOLS: Simplify and Relate • SHAPE TOOL: Measure• SHAPE TOOL: Invert • SHAPE TOOLS: Renameand Incline • SHAPE TOOL: Negative • SHAPETOOL: Question • SHAPE TOOL: Compare •SHAPE TOOL: FlattenWShade 58Understanding Shade Tools • SHADE TOOL:Values/Lines • SHADE TOOLS: Isolate, Squint andCompare • SHADE TOOL: Question • SHADETOOL: Seek • Accuracy-Checking TechniquesEDrawing Eyes 76Eyes as Shapes • Centering • Relate • EyelidCreases • Shading and Filling the Eye • Eyebrowsand EyelashesRDrawing Noses 94The Nose as a Shape • Nose Site • Wing Site •Basic Wing Shape • Nostril Basics • Nostril Shapes• Nose TricksTDrawing Lips and Teeth 106Parts of the Mouth • Shading the Mouth • Dealingwith TeethUDrawing the Head 116The Structure of the Head • Head Shapes • Cheeks• Chins • Necks • The Female Face • Child vs.Adult Head Shapes • Drawing EarsIDrawing Hair 132Creating Different Types of Hair • Different HairstylesCONCLUSION 141INDEX 142-143
9For the first ten years of my artistic career Ionly painted animals and used the wet-on-wet watercolor technique. I began paintingbirds, and they all had fur rather than feath-ers! I now use my bird paintings for competi-tions.Wings as EaglesWatercolorCollection of the Frame of Mind Gallery,Coeur d’Alene, Idaho28" × 22" (71cm × 57cm)INTRODUCTIONYou will quickly notice in thisbook that I approach drawingfaces from a very differentdirection. It might be easier for you tounderstand if I share some of the roads Ihave traveled down to get here.My background is similar to that ofmost artists. I was originally trained as acommercial artist in the days beforecomputers did all the layout and letter-ing work. I would sit with my classmatesand peer at a table full of junk that theinstructor called a “still life.” It wasassumed that we knew what to look forand how to render it in charcoal or pen-cil. The professor would wander aboutthe room and comment, or shudder, atour efforts. We were in the art depart-ment, which meant that we were“artists,” and as such we were supposedto somehow instinctively know how todraw. We were taught a few techniquesand then left to struggle. It was believedthat art could not to be taught—it was anatural talent that people were bornwith. Because I found drawing hard, Iﬁgured I lacked drawing talent and thatwas that.I decided to focus my efforts onwatercolor painting. I was an impatientartist and watercolors were fast. I coulddraw well enough to get a few basicshapes into the painting and the rest wasall technique.
Starting in 1981, I worked part timeas a forensic artist for the North IdahoRegional Crime Lab in Coeur d’Alene,Idaho. I’d like to boast that I was hiredbecause I had brilliant drawing abilitylike Leonardo da Vinci, crime-solvingskills like Sherlock Holmes and court-room experience like F. Lee Bailey...Well, not exactly. I was hired becausemy dad was the director of the crimelab, and I was the only artist he knew.My original duties were to sketchcrime scenes and prepare trial exhibitsfor the physical evidence presented incourt. One day a ﬂyer for upcomingcomposite drawing classes at the FBIAcademy came across Dad’s desk. Dadalways thought FBI training was inter-esting, so in 1985 I started a two-weekclass in composite sketches at the FBIAcademy in Quantico, Virginia. I wasclueless as to exactly what this meant. Iwould be the ﬁrst composite artist fromIdaho.I learned that a composite drawingusually is a face created by combiningseparate facial features that the victim orwitness of a crime selects from a book offaces. The composite is a form of visualcommunication between law enforce-ment agencies and the witness. It’s usedto identify an unknown suspect.Upon returning to Idaho, I traveledabout the state and eastern Washingtonsketching “the bad guys.” I had somesuccessful identiﬁcations, and my draw-ings improved. In 1986 a detectiveapproached me and asked if I wouldteach him how to draw composites.I thought a lot about his request forthe next year. Could I teach compositesketching? If I taught, would I still beable to sketch, or would I ﬁnd myselfout of work? I ﬁnally decided that Iwould be more effective in this ﬁeld if Itaught. After all, I was doing thirty toforty drawings a year for various agen-cies. If I taught ten students to draw,three hundred to four hundred drawingsa year would be produced and more sus-pects would be identiﬁed.Now I had to decide what to teach. Acomposite artist must do two thingswell: draw and interview. For the nextyear I attended various courses andtraining sessions in interviewing, I readevery article and book on the subjectand interviewed ofﬁcers. I was thenready to teach the interview section. Asfor the drawing part, fortunately theman I met at the FBI Academy, a bril-liant and gifted artist, became my hus-band and drawing mentor. With hishelp, my drawing skills improved.At this point I made a decision aboutmy composite drawing classes that hadnever been done before. I decided toteach composite drawing and notassume that my students could draw.Having chosen this route, I set mycourse of action. The classes were to beone week long, for a total of forty hours.In that time, I only had two and a halfdays to teach every aspect of the humanface. I needed a half day for the inter-view and a day for the students to prac-tice. I reserved Friday for special needs.Many of my law enforcement stu-dents were already gifted artists, andmany had great doodling skills. Butsome couldn’t draw blood with a knife.They all learned to draw equally well.I now have three binders overﬂowingwith the success of this program. Myhusband and I travel across the countryteaching composite and forensic art tolaw enforcement agencies ranging fromthe FBI to two-person departments. Ourstudents’ sketches have identiﬁed suchperpetrators as child killers, rapists,abductors, murderers, bank robbers,drug dealers and the largest serial arson-ist in U.S. history.My original reference materials were“draw the face” type books. I soon real-ized that a more detailed book, such asthis one, was a necessity. The level offacial information I was teaching to mystudents didn’t exist in any drawingbook. Composite artists cannot drawwhat they feel or take artistic license likeregular artists. Their drawings come notfrom their creative dreams but from awitness’s nightmares.I had a great advantage. No otherauthor of portrait books had the sameaccess to faces that I did—boxes ﬁlledwith thousands of mug shots. Over theyears, I placed the mug shots on anopaque projector and measured thou-sands of faces for the information in thisbook. I also had to ﬁgure out how toteach people to draw well in an extreme-ly short time. I studied my students’drawings in class and the compositesthey sent me after successful identiﬁca-tions. I listened to their questions andmy answers.Through teaching adult educationand artist-in-residence programs, Iexpanded the classes to civilians andchildren. Their work also is includedhere.I hope you will enjoy learning aboutfaces in this book. God bless you onyour artistic journey.10
11Composite faces are made up of a variety of features chosen by vic-tims or witnesses from mug shots or from the FBI’s book of facial fea-tures. These drawings act as a tool to help identify unknown suspects.I created this fictional composite from at least ten faces.Composite drawing12" × 9" (30cm × 23cm)
Looking the Part:Materials and SuppliesMy composite drawing classes are quite dif-ferent from most drawing classes. Unlikea college class or one taught through anarts organization, these classes are completed quicklyand with the maximum amount of informationcrammed into ﬁve days. The participants have onlytwo and a half days to learn how to draw any face.Most students are very nervous and intimidated by theprospect of learning how to draw anything in twodays. Students also feel pressure because their depart-ments have paid a fair amount of money for this class,and there are rape victims and homicide cases oftendepending on how well they do. If that isn’t enough,my typical students are armed police ofﬁcers. It’simportant that I clearly explain the ﬁrst rule of art (seebelow) to establish the correct atmosphere for learning.These drawings are both by the same artist,John Hinds, one of my students. Look what adifference just one week of instruction madein his technique!Self-PortraitJohn Hinds12" × 9" (30cm × 23cm)The first rule of artIt’s not how well you draw; it’s howcool your drawing stuff is.!
TIP Keep your pen-cils sharp. Dull pencilsare not only difficult to use, theyare not cool (see The First Ruleof Art on the previous page).B14Ha! So you thought you knew art. Yousimply gotta have the right toys to playwith the art guys. Most of the materialsand supplies I mention are available inart stores, drafting supply stores and thedrafting/arts section of many ofﬁce sup-ply stores.Get the lead outPencils come in a variety of lead grades, although the term “lead” isincorrect. You are actually using graphite. The yellow school pencileveryone has used is usually an HB lead. If you lined up the pencilswith the HB in the middle, the numbers would get larger as theymoved out from the center. An easy way to remember this is to thinkof H as “Hard”—the farther out from HB, the harder the lead. Hard = alighter line. Going the other way, the B might stand for “Bold,” and theleads would become progressively darker. Choose leads depending onyour hand pressure, the paper, personal taste and your budget. I gen-erally use a variety including 2H, HB, 2B and 6B.Make a pointI prefer using a lead holder because I can get a very sharp point on itusing a lead pointer (a special pencil sharpener for this type of pencil).Regular drawing pencils take too long for me to sharpen, not to men-tion that you need to sharpen them with a craft knife or a razor blade.Sharp razor blades cut things close to me, like fingers, so I avoidthem. If you’re using a lead holder (middle pencil), be sure it is justthat—there are also mechanical pencils (bottom pencil), which seemlike lead holders, but the main difference is that they hold a very thinlead that cannot be sharpened.Basic materials
15More than kneads the eyeKneaded rubber erasers start out in neat and dignified-lookingsquares, but they soon resemble wads of chewing gum under yourdesk. Kneaded erasers are very useful for a variety of reasons. Theyare “clean erasers,” that is, they will not make any eraser mess onyour paper and they clean themselves when you pull them out andre-form them into another shape. Kneaded erasers have two importantqualities: They can be pulled into a variety of shapes to erase itsy-bitsy areas, and they can be pushed straight down on your drawing tolighten a tone without messing up a particularly brilliant drawing.The secret life of pink erasersVery few people have spent enough qualitytime with their erasers. Oh, sure, you buy abig, fat pink eraser and think you’re on top.The truth is, pink erasers don’t like yourpaper. They are fine for those big, industrial-strength boo-boos, but they’ll tear up yourpaper if you use them too much. Get one, butkeep it for emergencies.
16The gentle eraserNext to the kneaded eraser, the best all-around eraser is the whiteplastic eraser. It erases well, is gentle on your paper and comes in a“click” pen—always a fashion statement.Only the bestOK, everybody always laughs at my portable electric eraser. They thinkI’m a slave to the latest trends, fancy cars and color weaves. All thisturns to envy when they see how well this little puppy erases. Nothingis greater than an electric eraser. It is small, lightweight and can beheld like a pencil. It quickly and cleanly re-establishes your edges. Notonly does it erase better than any other eraser ever invented, but byusing it you are immediately branded as a real “artist.”Flossing your drawingErasing shields are the dental floss of drawing—inexpensive and indis-pensable tools that allow you to clean hard-to-reach areas. I have amondo version that allows me to shade outside the lines and erasethe overflow up to the very edge without affecting my drawing.
17Blending toolsPaper stumps and tortillions blend pencil strokes into smooth, finisheddrawings. A paper stump is a compressed wad of paper that you useon its side to smooth and shade the pencil lead. The tortillion is rolledpaper that you use on the tip for tiny areas that need smudging. Usingthe tortillion on its side will result in corduroy skin.Rulers and templatesEver say to yourself, “I can’t even draw a straight line”? Neither can I.Nor can I draw a perfect circle. This is where a plastic C-Thru ruler—mypersonal favorite brand name, but you can use whatever ruler worksbest for you—and a circle template come in handy. The ruler has avery useful grid on it and a centering row of numbers. You can find asimilar ruler at the fabric store. The circle template is indispensable inmaking your irises perfect circles.A few words on paperOn the first day of any of my classes, both watercolor and drawing,I always go over materials and supplies—even if my students areexperienced artists. It’s because there is a method to my madnessand a reason I use the tools I use. I once had a woman in classwho ignored my paper suggestion. She bought the cheap, worthlessstuff that is passed off to clueless, emerging artists. She justcouldn’t figure out why her art looked so bad. The paper you usewill make a difference in your art. For drawing I use plate—orsmooth-finish bristol board. Tracing paper is also important.A cheap pad of tracing paper has thousands of uses (OK,so some cheap materials do work well).
The ProblemGrowing up I was very inﬂuenced by my par-ents. Both my dad and mom were teachers.To this day, their students who had a classwith Mom or Dad thirty to forty years ago, will comeup to me and tell me how much they learned from andliked my folks. Dad, especially, was considered a toughteacher—he taught chemistry, physics, math and lawenforcement. Mom and Dad shared their teachingsecret with me, and it has been my rule of thumb forall of my teaching experience: If a student doesn’tlearn, it’s because you are failing as a teacher.Over the years, I have kept that ﬁrmly in mind. Ifsomeone does not draw well in my class, it’s my fault. Ihaven’t found the way to communicate the necessaryinformation to the person in a way that makes senseand works for him or her. This is why I explain why,how and what it takes to draw. This is why I have somany approaches to drawing. And this is why I meas-ure, listen, watch, talk, review and continually improvethe ﬁne art of learning to draw.Most importantly, I truly care that you learn todraw well. I hold back no secrets. I present all theinformation in many different ways, because one waymight make something clearer to you. In my classes, Inever doubt that my students will not learn, because Iwill not fail them as a teacher.Here are two before-and-after drawings byanother of my students, Greg Bean.Sunbathing Baby Hannah inher Daddy’s HandsGreg Bean12" × 9" (30cm × 23cm)$
No matter how you look at it, you know these are all examples of theletter a. Thanks to your mind’s ability to memorize patterns, you don’thave to relearn what this symbol means every time you see it. Thesepatterns also allow you to quickly recall the sound associated withthe letter.20Before you continue in this book, Istrongly advise you to complete a pre-instructional drawing. This is a yardstickby which you will see improvement inyour skill level of drawing. As yourdrawing skills improve, your knowledgeof drawing leaps ahead of your actualability to draw. It is easy to become frus-trated by your apparent lack of progress.Yet, in fact, your abilities have improvedtremendously. Tracking progress byusing pre-instructional drawings willhelp you see clearly what you havelearned and will provide a great deal ofamusement when you go back and seeyour original efforts.Most people, including many artists,have trouble drawing faces. Why is this?It’s because drawing is “seeing.” Mostpeople draw what they think faces looklike, and the end result may not matchthe image in their minds. So, ﬁrst I willhelp you discover why you have troubleseeing. Then, I will show you how artistssee and what tools they use to help themtranslate their mental images into draw-ings. Finally, you will learn what to see,or how to render the facial featuresthemselves.Drawing things the way they reallyare is not a gift given to artists. You maythink drawing has something to do withhand-eye coordination, but it really haseverything to do with how the mindworks. Your mind takes informationfrom the surrounding environment andplaces it into patterns—symbols repre-senting an idea, concept or information.This organization into understandablepatterns is called perception.There are three important points youshould know about perceptions:• Perceptions are ﬁlters throughwhich you see the world.• Perceptions are powerful.• Perceptions do not change.Perceptions are ﬁltersPerceptions are ﬁlters through which yousee the world. Your mind records andprocesses information through the ﬁvesenses. This information, however, is notrecorded like a movie camera. Instead,it’s translated into an understandableform for future use.When you ﬁrst started school, youlearned that the shape shown below wasthe letter a. Whenever you saw thatshape, you knew what it meant and thesound it made. It was not necessary torelearn that shape every time you read itin a word. It could look like any of theshapes you see below, and you wouldstill know it was the letter a and that itrepresented a sound. In fact, you didn’teven think about the shape of the letter aafter you learned it. Your mind providedthe information for you. You no longerreally “saw” or had to think about theletter a.Simply stated, this is how the mindprocesses information. It memorizeswhat a shape represents, like how the let-ter a represents a sound, and every timeyou need to write that sound, your mindWhy is drawing so hard?
21TIP Your drawingsare based on percep-tions formed from patternrecognition and memorization.Bprovides this shape: a. It’s important thatyour mind does this. Imagine whatwould happen if every time you came tothis letter you had to relearn what itmeant!Thus, the ﬁrst point you need to real-ize is that the untrained mind draws pic-tures from memorized patterns. Whenyou draw a face, your mind provides thememorized shapes representing the eyes,nose and mouth, not the real shape ofthe facial features. You draw what youperceive to be real, not what is real.Where did your mind get theseshapes? Let’s look at some pre-instruc-tional drawings and ﬁgure out the sourceof the shapes.Memorized facial patternsThese drawings are typical pre-instruc-tional drawings by nonartists. They havesome rather standard patterns represent-ing the face.A typical pre-instruc-tional facial drawing.Eye patternsThese eyes are part of pattern memorizationfor the average person.Nose patternsNoses offer a variety of shapes such as these.Mouth patternsMouths might have a “have a nice day” smileor an upper and a lower pair of lips.
22Pre-instructional drawingThis drawing is by Taylor Perkins. She was looking at her face whenshe drew this sketch—every detail was in front of her—yet the infor-mation was meaningless. Notice, for example, that her eyes are placednear the top of her head. Had she been able to see her face withoutfilters, she would have noticed that her eyes are in the middle of herface.TIP To break pat-terns, you must firstrecognize that you have them.BPerceptions are powerfulPerceptional ﬁlters will prevent you fromseeing information that is clearly beforeyou. These ﬁlters may prevent you fromdrawing something accurately, even if itis right in front of you.Perceptions do not changePerceptions do not change unless a sig-niﬁcant event occurs. Without instruc-tion, you will continue to see and dothings according to your understandingof them. My greatest wish is that thisbook will constitute a signiﬁcant eventand that as a result, your perceptions ondrawing faces will change.
23After instructionThe photograph that Taylor was looking at provided all the informationshe needed to create a realistic self-portrait, as shown by this drawingshe completed after a bit of instruction. The power of perceptional fil-ters and the persistent nature of the mind to continually process infor-mation into patterns is the challenge to drawing well—but you canlearn!Taylor Perkins, Age 7,self-portrait14" × 11" (36cm × 28cm)Collection of the Perkins Family
24People I call “natural artists” are thosewho, for some reason, have been able todraw accurately without knowing exact-ly why or how they are able to do this.Generally speaking, this ability seems tobe spotty. They can draw some thingswell and other subjects not so well. Suchcomments as, “I can draw animals andlandscapes great, but I can’t draw peo-ple,” are very common.These artists have learned some draw-ing techniques naturally, but have yet tolearn how to change all their perceptionsabout the world around them.Natural artists who have undergonesome form of art training are usuallyable to draw most everything well. How-ever, whether you are a trained artist orare a natural artist, your mind still placesall incoming information into a patternof perception. After a short time, youstop seeing what you are rendering anddraw a pattern. It’s a more sophisticatedpattern, a well-drawn pattern, but a pat-tern nevertheless.Without having the phenomenon ofpattern-memorization explained, youmight have used some technique to“review” the completed drawing. Youmight have to take a break from yourdrawing, turn your drawing to a mirroror place it up on an easel. Now you cansee why this is necessary. It helps breakthe patterns and to “see” your work ofart with fresh eyes. This is called check-ing for accuracy, and it’s a drawing toolthat natural artists use.What are you looking at?The best way to begin your artistic jour-ney is to learn how to look at things.Drawing is seeing.Natural artistsI have taught many art workshops. Iremember in particular this sweetwoman and her ﬁrst oil painting. It wasa half-completed bowl of daisies on atable. The daisies were all facing towardthe viewer, and every one was identical.There wasn’t a single small or big daisyreaching for the sky. I asked the eagerartist if I could see the reference photoshe used for this painting. I needed topoint out the variety of images, shapesand colors. She said there wasn’t a refer-ence photo, the image came from hermind.Your mind pretty much has a patternfor everything. Never try to imaginesomething in your early art career—lookat it. Then you will be able to draw itaccurately. Always look at it.OK, so I’m looking at itI have told you so far that drawing is see-ing, that your brain uses patterns torecord the information and that you relyon those patterns to draw. Furthermore,you know that you need to break thosepatterns of perception by having some-thing in front of you to draw. OK, soyou’re looking at it. Now, a miracle hap-pens and you can draw, right?Ah, not quite. Knowing what theproblem is doesn’t solve the problem.You’ve just completed step one: Why youcan’t draw. Now I will go into step two:What are you looking at?There is simply too much informationfor your tired, pattern-hungry brainto go through without some kind ofmanual or guideline. You need to learnhow to sift through all the informationto make sense of it and be able to use it.Like a “some assembly required” kit, theparts are all there, but it takes a manualto know what you are looking at andwhere it goes. There are four basic com-ponents to assembling a kit—and todrawing:• Site• Shape• Shade• AccuracyYou need to know what the partslook like (shape), where they go (site),what the ﬁnished product looks like(how to make it look real—shade) andhow to ﬁx the wobbly parts (accuracy).SiteIt’s easy to say that artists need to learnhow to see things the way they really are,not the way they think or perceive themto be. Most books say that. Not only domost people not see the reality of theworld around them, they also don’t placethe objects in the correct location. Sure,they know that the eyes are above thenose and mouth and that somewherebeyond that is hair. But there’s more to itthan that.Measuring and determining the cor-rect location and size of different items iscalled proportion. When something is inproportion, it’s correct in scale to theother items in the picture. It’s easy tolook at a picture and know when some-thing is out of proportion, but how doyou draw something in proportion?Learning how to correctly proportionimages in a picture through the use ofartistic tools will be covered in chapterthree.
Heather14" × 11" (36cm × 28cm)25Natural artist?You weren’t born with the innate ability toknow how long a meter is or how many cupsare in a gallon. You learned which of the vari-ous measuring tools to use for each applica-tion. Drawing also has measuring tools. Lookat the two examples shown here, both drawnby the same student. Notice the relative sizeand location of the facial features in the pre-instructional drawing. Even if the featureswere correctly drawn, they are still in thewrong place. Note the difference in the laterdrawing.
26SimplificationThe visible world around you is rich in infor-mation—actually, there is too much informa-tion for any emerging artist to understand. Itfirst needs to be simplified for you to see justexactly what it is that you are looking at. Thisis why it’s easy for people (especially chil-dren) to draw cartoon characters so well. Theshapes are simplified, outlined in black andeasy to see. Most people can draw theseshapes with little or no instruction, other thanwhat they’ve learned about drawing letters.ShapeBasic shapes are not easy to identifywhen drawing. You need to know whatto look for. Shape Identiﬁcation 101started in kindergarten, and ceasedshortly thereafter. Most people are notformally trained to see shapes for draw-ing purposes. You have to learn thisskill. Once you’ve determined the cor-rect size and location of an object, youcan then concentrate on the shapes ofthe object you wish to draw.An artist automatically ﬁlters out allbut the barest shapes to begin with. Thisis not talent, it’s training. We are trainingour minds to see the subtle shapes in thevisual world around us.ShadeThe next step in the drawing process isshading. Shading makes something lookreal (as shown in the example to theright). Most people have never learned,however, to evaluate and see shading.Yes, you can see that black jeans aredarker than blue jeans. But shadingrequires more special knowledge andtools. Learning to shade also involveslearning more about your mind and thepower of your perceptions.AccuracyFinally, you need to be able to learn howto overcome your brain’s desire to putthe world back into patterns. How canyou keep checking to see if you aredoing well? In the back of most do-it-yourself kits is a problem-solving sec-tion. You need a similar chapter in yourdrawing routine. Ask, “What is wrongwith the shape of this face?” This ischecking the accuracy of the image.This is the photo-graph that the draw-ing on the followingpage is based upon.Seeing without outlinesMany children show great interest and talent in drawing cartoons.Often when they are introduced to regular drawing, they will loseinterest or give up. The problem is not their lack of talent or eveninterest; it’s in how they are taught to see the same simpleshapes in the photograph (or world). Drawing the worldaround you involves using the same basic shapes. They’rejust not outlined in black ink anymore.
27Photo by Kelly Dulanty12" × 9" (30cm × 23cm)Look at the girl’s hair and face. Without the appropriate shading herfeatures would have looked unrealistic and incomplete. Learning howto shade properly can save your drawing from the recycle bin.
SiteWhen artists ﬁrst start to draw, they usually begin by sketchingthe overall images—the location and placement of wherethings will go. If they intend to make a realistic picture,they’ll need to make sure everything ﬁts and is the correct size. Once every-thing is scaled, they’ll start reﬁning the details. I will teach you to approachdrawing the face in the same way. We will start with the locations, or sites,of the facial features. Then I will instruct you how to render the correctproportions of the average adult face.Learning proportions and scaling a picture is not a skill people areborn with. I’ll teach you how to ﬁgure out the proportions using tools tohelp you. You’ll learn three primary tools in this chapter: measuring, ﬂat-tening and optical indexing. In the past, you’ve probably heard about van-ishing points, eye levels, two-point perspective, horizon line and parallelperspective. Scrub all that. You can draw anything in perspective usingonly measuring, optical indexing and ﬂattening.Don Parks12" × 9" (30cm × 23cm)%
Any object in front of you is measurable.Most people have been taught to meas-ure an object by comparing it to some-thing they know. Traditionally, you maycompare something to a speciﬁc meas-urement, such as a ruler. There is anexpression “bigger than a bread box”—though most young people today havenever seen a bread box. This is a com-parison. Everything in front of you canbe compared. An object is either thesame size as, larger than or smaller thansomething else.Bigger than a bread boxUsing a map as an example, you checkthe distance from one point to the nextby comparing it to the map scale. Youdon’t use the scale to measure anothermap or the length of a baseball ﬁeld—only the contents of this particular map.You can measure a variety of objectsusing other forms of measurement, suchas a gallon or a meterstick Artists alsomeasure objects. The difference is thatthey measure an object by comparing itto itself.All about baselinesA baseline is a comparison system. Forexample, when compared in a range ofChihuahuas to Great Danes, a “big” dogis a German shepherd. A German shep-herd, however, is not all that big whencompared to an elephant. Size is relativeto what is being compared. When youuse this system in art, you compare thebaseline in the image in front of you tosomething else in the same image. Forexample, you may wish to compare anobject’s length to its width. Becauseyou’ll be drawing this object, you alsohave a straight line that you can use as abaseline in your drawing.Establishing baselines inphotographsThe easiest way to measure objects witha baseline is to use photographs. Photosdon’t move, are already in two dimen-sions and are easy to refer to. To do thissimple exercise, you will need a pencil,an eraser, a sketch pad, a scrap of paperand a large, easy-to-see photograph.ProportionsProportions are like maps—they provide an overall view of where things are and how they fitinto the whole picture. Most people have a pretty good idea where the facial features arelocated. The eyes are above the nose and the nose is above the mouth and so forth. The firstdrawing concept is on how to locate various items we wish to draw with more exactness.Some books written about faces are not always correct on the placement of the facial fea-tures. They may generalize or use some kind of Greek idealized face with a long, thin nose.Once again, it’s important to look at something to draw as you continue this process. It’s hardto measure, line up and view images that you’ve created in your mind.Proportions are a comparison, a relationship between objects dealing with size,volume or degree. You may be able to draw the greatest eyes in the world, but if theyare in the wrong place, the drawing will be off. Proportion is the relationship of dif-ferent elements in a work of art.SiteToolsMeasuring30
Choose a baselineSelect an object in the photograph that ismeasurable with a straight line, such as thewidth of the eye from side to side. Yourbaseline should be easy to see and a fairlyshort line (a small area like the eye). Take ascrap of paper and measure that width.Transfer the baseline width toyour paperPlace the same length of line on yourpaper. The line you have marked on yourpaper is your baseline. With this one single,simple line, you can proportion and renderevery other facial feature.Place the correct measurementsMark each measurement on your paper.Compare and measure theother featuresCompare the proportion of one feature tothe baseline. Using the same scrap ofpaper, you can now measure every otherpart of the face by comparing it to thewidth of the eye.EyeEyeEyeEyeEstablishing baselines in photographs! $ %Q31
32How to establish a baseline on a three-dimensional subjectSelect the baseline on the subjectSelect a portion of the face or body to use as your baseline. Thebaseline should be a fairly small horizontal or vertical line. Remem-ber that a baseline is something you will compare everything elseto in your drawing.Measure the baselineExtend your arm straight out in front of you, holding the pencil asillustrated here. Close one eye and use the tip of the pencil tomark the start of the head. Use your thumb to mark the end of thehead. This measurement is your baseline.! $
33Compare the baseline measurement to the figureUsing the measurement of the tip of the pencil to your thumb,compare the figure to establish if something is the same size, larg-er than or smaller than that measurement. For example, comparedto the height of the head, the height of this person’s body is six“heads.”Using this system, you can compare the height of the head toall other parts of the body. Whatever measurement you choose tomake the head on your paper, you will compare the rest of thebody to that starting point.%Anticipated problemsThree important secrets to using a pencil as a measuring device:1. Hold your pencil as if it were a piece of paper in front of you. Inother words, don’t angle the pencil away from you. You’re trying todraw a three-dimensional object on a two-dimensional piece ofpaper. You cannot draw into the paper, so hold your pencil flat.2. Extend your arm fully. If you keep moving your arm tovarying lengths, your measuring will be off.3. Always close the same eye.
34OK, so I measured it. Now what?Let’s summarize what you’ve learned sofar. To establish the correct proportionsof a three-dimensional world and put itonto your two-dimensional piece ofpaper, you do the following:1. Select a baseline from some object infront of you that should be straight,short and horizontal or vertical to you.2. Use a pencil, pen or other straightobject held in front of you at arm’slength to record the length of thebaseline.3. Make a mark on your paper to repre-sent that same length.4. Use the baseline measurement forcomparison to other objects in the pic-ture in front of you. Everything shouldbe the same length, longer or shorterthan that baseline.5. Use the drawing baseline to make thesame proportions on your paper.Measuring the faceYou can locate the eyes by using thesame concept of measuring the head andcomparing it to the body. This is an easyexercise for all ages.Here’s the finished drawing that will be the base for the exercise inmeasurement.
35Measure the location of the eyesCompare the distance from the top of the head to the eyes. Thiswill be the first and simplest baseline.Lay one hand flat on top of your head, and take a pencil inyour other hand. Hold the pencil tip with your flat hand. The handholding the pencil should point toward your eyes. Use the pencilto help you measure the distance from the top of your head toyour eyes and locate the eyes.Compare to the distance between the eyes and chinCompare the previous distance to the distance from your eyes toyour chin. On most people, the distance between the top of thehead and the eyes is about the same as the distance between theeyes and the chin.Measure the face to locate features! $
36Enlarge your drawing the easy wayScrappy solutionTo enlarge a drawing, take a scrap of paper and mark the originalmeasurement on one side and the enlarged measurement on theother. In other words, make the baseline larger.Eyeball itBy establishing the eye as the original baseline, you can now com-pare that measurement to every other feature on the face. Use theoriginal baseline side of the paper every time you measure a fea-ture on the original photo.OriginalPhotoMySketchOriginal PhotoMySketch! $
37Reuse or ReverseYou will use the enlarged side of the paper to draw that same fea-ture again and again. You can proportionally enlarge a drawing toany size using this method. Reverse it to make something smaller.More measuring aidsThis site-measuring technique is very useful. Not only can youmeasure something in front of you and draw it the same size, youalso can use the same tool to enlarge or reduce a picture. To drawsomething the same size, mark the established baseline and oneother measurement on your paper.There are more tools—some of them are pretty expensive—tohelp you measure. Besides being able to enlarge or reduce the sizeof a picture, you can also use these tools to help you measurecurved shapes. Probably the most useful tool, although expensive,is the proportional divider. This device offers an adjustable way tomeasure and compare two images. It has a sliding screw thatallows you to adjust the width to any two images—your drawingand the image you wish to draw.OriginalPhotoMy Sketch%
38Measuring curved shapesMeasuring a curved shape with a straightedge can cause you problems. It is difﬁ-cult to correctly see and accurately drawcurved shapes. How can you measure acurve with your straight-edged measur-ing tool? The good news is that you usethe same tool, you just measure the startand ﬁnish of the curve.Straighten the curveYou can measure the curve of the cheek in the photograph by usingthe eye baseline. Draw two lines, one at the start of the curve of thecheek and one at the chin. The horizontal and vertical lines are meas-urable distances and give you the start and end of the curve. Take themeasurement of the eye and compare it to the cheek. Her cheekcurves down two and a half eyes and over one-half eyes. Measure howfar up and over the curve goes. You have also created a negativespace that will be explored in more detail in chapter four.Width of eye
If I make an imaginary line straight down from the eye in this photo-graph, it will bring me to the outside of the nose. I now know how fardown the nose comes to (because I measured it compared to the eye)and how wide the nose is.Flattening and Optical IndexingSiteTools39Flattening ToolWhen you ﬁrst used your pencil as ameasuring device, you extended yourarm and closed one eye. Why did I askyou to close one eye? Try it with botheyes open. It doesn’t work. It takes botheyes to have depth perception, which youdon’t want, because you’re drawing on atwo-dimensional piece of paper. Closingone eye ﬂattens the world around you.Aha! You’ve just established a drawingtechnique! To draw a three-dimensionalimage on a two-dimensional piece ofpaper, you must close one eye.Optical Indexing ToolThe next tool to help you ﬁnd out wherethe facial features are located is called“optical indexing.” That is a fancy wayof saying things line up. What featureson your face line up? Is it possible to usethe location of one facial feature to ﬁndout where the others are located? Take alook at the two drawings on this pageand the two photos on the next page,and notice how the features line up.The edges of themale nose line up withthe start of thewhite of the eye.The mouth is roughly as wide asthe center of the eye.The eyebrow often ends in linewith the nose on the outside ofthe eye.Ears are roughly aslong as the nose, andmay run from theeyes/eyebrows to thebase of the nose.The eyebrow willoften start at theinside corner ofthe eye.Note: You will soon begin to notice thatyou will see the same generic male andfemale faces throughout the book. Usingthe same face to teach multiple lessonswill help you to better see all the partsthat make up the whole. Refer back toindividual lessons as necessary.
TIP You can create a reusable gridthrough a variety of methods:• Make a grid on a computer and print it on anacetate overhead.• Draw a grid on acetate overhead material.• Draw a grid, run it through a copier and makecopies on acetate.• Make a grid on a clear insert or folder, andslide the photo into the insert.B40Grid/optical indexingUsing a grid is probably one of the old-est systems artists have used to establishcorrect proportions. There are two typesof grids (or optical indexing) you canuse: First, you can draw equally-spacedhorizontal and vertical lines across yourpaper. Repeat this pattern on your pho-to. Now draw the shapes that occurwithin each square and locate where theshapes cross the guidelines. If your gridis the same size as your photo, you candraw each shape the same proportion onyour paper. You can also enlarge orreduce the size of drawings by simplyadjusting the size of the grid on yourpaper and proportionally changing thesize of the shapes on your paper. Second-ly, draw an occasional horizontal andvertical line or two (or as many as youneed) to orient you on the paper. Thiswill help you establish location and pro-portion on your drawing. Either of theforms of optical indexing are extremelyuseful for establishing proportions.
Using the flattening and optical indexing tools, I was able to accurate-ly line up the features of Jeffery’s face. The optical indexing tool wasespecially useful for helping me draw his glasses in proportion to therest of his face.41jeffery stuart14" × 11" (36cm × 28cm)
ShapeYou have learned how to map out the locations of the facial fea-tures. Now you need to focus on the features themselves—theshapes that make up the face—train your mind how to seek outshapes. In this chapter you’ll learn about a series of tools and techniquesthat artists have learned or developed to help them see better. Artists gen-erally use these tools without even really thinking about them. The moretools or “ways of seeing” you have at your disposal, the easier it is for youto draw accurately.Even young children can demonstrate this ability to seek out and dis-tinguish shapes. It is this ability that enables them to write letters. Drawingis the same concept, but you must hone this ability to a higher level. Thischapter will teach you to discern the subtle shapes in the information-richvisual world.This drawing is based on an award-winningphotograph by B. Kelly Dullanty. It wasused with his written permission and therelease of the subject in the photograph.That might seem to be a lot of work for justthis one drawing, but the alternative iscopyright infringement—also known asstealing.wedding12" × 9" (30cm × 23cm)Q
44Learning to recognize shapes in a photo-graph or image takes training. You needto train your mind what to look for.Once you become aware of something,it’s easier to see it. For example, whenyou are buying a new car you spend timestudying the cars on the market. Youthen go to a dealer and look over theselection. You might fall in lust with aparticular model and color. Afterwards,it seems like everybody has the car youwere looking at. Did everyone suddenlygo out and buy the same car? No, youhave simply become aware of the shapeand color of that particular car, and younow recognize it among all the other carson the road. The same thing happenswith the shapes in facial features.Say “cheese”Because drawing is seeing, you shouldalways have a reference image in front ofyou. Ninety-eight percent of successcomes from having the correct photo-graph. Your selected photograph shouldbe clear, interesting, big and preferablyblack and white. If the photograph issmall, enlarge it. A computer with ascanner and a reasonable photo programwill do the job nicely. Or take the photo-graph to a copy center and enlarge it to a8" × 10" (20cm × 25cm) image. Use theirbest copier to retain all the detail.Many people start with a studiophotograph of a family member. Thoughtheses types of photographs are clear,large and well done, there are a fewdrawbacks. They’re copyrighted by thephotographer, so if your drawing turnsout well, you can’t display it. Second, thelighting is often boring. Flattering, butboring.Oldies but goodiesConsider the antique photographs sitting in the attic of Great-GrandmaSparks or the wife of your second cousin once removed. An interestingdrawing comes from a photograph that is easy to see, clear, large indetail, interestingly lit and preferably black and white. Artists shouldalso own or have a clear copyright use of the photograph. You’ll oftenfind these qualities in the antique photos of your family.Train your mind• Measure• Invert• Rename• Incline• Negative space• Question• Compare• FlattenTools of the tradeOkay, so you have found the perfectphotograph, now it’s time to move on tolearning some tools to help you trainyour mind to recognize shapes. Theyare:• Isolate• Simplify• Relate
Everyone needs practiceSee, nobody’s perfect. Here’s an example of one of my early efforts.Look at me now!Isolating features can help you better see the individual shapes thatmake up the entire drawing. Once I learned this tool, I was better ableto accurately draw a horse.When I was a little girl, I loved horses. Iloved to ride horses, and I loved to drawhorses. I was very fortunate because Ilived on a 680-acre ranch where wecould have lots of horses. Like the draw-ing on the right, my ﬁrst efforts at draw-ing a horse were typical of a youngchild. I knew the horse didn’t look likemy drawing, especially the hooves. Icould see horses hooves. I studied them.I looked at photographs, and I tracedthe shape of the hoof with my ﬁnger. Iisolated the hoof and looked at it sepa-rately from the rest of the horse, asshown in the drawing on the right. Theﬁrst artistic technique I used was to iso-late the shape. Look at the works of anyartist, and you will ﬁnd sketches of eyes,hands and parts of the face. These artistsare isolating each of the different com-ponents of the whole of the art that theywill be doing.45IsolateShapeToolsDEFINITIONIsolateTo see shapes by studyingindividual shapes separately.
46In chapter two, I mentioned that childrenﬁnd drawing cartoon and comic stripcharacters easy. This is because the draw-ings are outlined with black ink. Thesimple shapes—curves and lines—areeasy to see. A photograph, or real life,doesn’t have the same black outlines toshow the artist what to look for. To seethe subtlety of the shapes takes training.In linear drawing, there are only twobasic shapes: a straight line or a curvedline. The lines go up, down, right, left,but they are either straight or curved.When artists look at the face, they don’ttry to ﬁnd eyes or lips, they seek the sim-plest linear shapes. Seeking the simpleshapes removes your memorized, incor-rect perception of what constitutes an eyeand allows you to focus on the actualreality of an eye. Artists seek the simplestexpression of shape as a foundation forbuilding the face. They look for the sim-ple curve, line, circle or shape, ratherthan an eye, nose or lips.The dictionary deﬁnes “relate” as bring-ing into logical or natural association, tohave reference. The face has a uniqueshape that helps artists relate other infor-mation. The iris, the colored part of theeye, is a perfect circle. The pupil, theblack center of the iris, is also a perfectcircle and is in the center of the iris. Theaverage adult iris does not vary muchfrom face to face. You can use this infor-mation to help you see and draw better.Look at the correctly drawn eye onthe next page. Then, follow the steps tolearn how to draw a correctly propor-tioned iris.Bad drawing, bad, bad! Now sit...Using the relate tool, place the pupil in the center of the iris beforedrawing the lid and other eye parts. You’ll resolve the problem of off-centered pupils and the resulting comments like, “I don’t know, Marge,there’s something wrong with this picture.”Simplify and RelateShapeToolsDEFINITIONSimplifyA tool for learning to see shapesby seeking the simplest expres-sion of that shape in the form ofa straight or curving line.DEFINITIONRelateA tool for learning to see shapesby using one shape to help see asecond shape.Pupil secretsYou might be wondering how big tomake the pupil of the eye. The answer is:It depends. The pupil expands and con-tracts to light. Studies have shown that italso expands and contracts as a reactionto seeing something likable or unlikable.Most artists unconsciously record thispiece of information. Therefore, an eyewith a small pupil is less likeable than aneye with a larger pupil. If you want peo-ple to like your drawing (or in otherwords, get paid for your portrait), makethe pupil large. If you are drawinga bad-guy composite of a cold-blooded killer, make those pupilspinpoint—you’ll naturallydislike the guy.
47A correctly propor-tioned eye.Relating shapesThere is an association between the various parts of the eye thatyou can base on the circle of the iris. Using a circle template, drawa circle.X marks the spotUsing the top and bottom sides of the circle in the template, con-nect the lines to the center of that circle.Circles within circlesCenter the pupil of the eye in the middle of the iris. Check that youare using the correct circle size on the template; it should fit nicelyaround the center of the lines.Draw a correctly proportioned eye using your template! $%
48In the last chapter, you learned that youcan measure anything in front of you.This method helps locate the facial fea-tures, which then can be measured. Oncea single shape is in place, you can usethat shape to locate and determine otherlocations and shapes. Remember thatthere is one shape that occurs in everyaverage face: It’s the perfect circle of theiris.Go ﬁgure...Measure it for yourself. Knowing thatyou can correctly measure an eye on aphotograph means you should neverdraw an incorrect eye. It’s truly as plainas the nose on your face.You can use the width of the eye tomeasure the height of the eyebrow, thelength of the nose and any other meas-urement you might need to check.Just as you established a baselinewithin the site tools section, you canselect and use a baseline in the shapetools.Eyeballing a measurementYou can use the width of the iris to determine how wide the eye willbe. The iris of the average adult eye is one-half the width of the whiteof the eye. Note that I said white—not the entire eye. You still have abit of your eye left over.ShapeToolsMeasure1⁄41⁄41⁄2DEFINITIONMeasureA tool for seeing shapes bymeasuring a smaller shape andcomparing it to a larger shape.
49Another way to learn to see shapes is toinvert, or turn, the line drawing upsidedown. Sometimes the mind can’t make“heads or tails” (pardon the pun) of thepicture you want to draw, so instead oflooking for a speciﬁc feature, try com-pleting your drawing using shapes. Byworking upside down, as shown in theexample on this page, you focus on see-ing shapes rather than the familiarimage. Turning a photo upside down andchecking your work is also a way tocheck for accuracy, which is covered inchapter six.DEFINITIONInvertA technique for seeing shapes byturning the line drawing you’retrying to copy upside down.TIP The invert tool is an aid to helpartists “see” better, however, it worksbest if used on line drawings. Turning a photoupside down and trying to draw it is quite diffi-cult. Instead, use a line drawing to help youcopy the image on your paper. The inversiontool is excellent training for anyone.BInvertShapeTools
50Turning something upside down forcesyour brain to look for shapes. Even theverbal or mental act of referring to facialfeatures within the image you’re drawingas “shapes” is a way to train your mind.For example, when you refer to the iris,call it by its shape, a circle. By speakingor thinking of something in terms ofshapes, you start to really see things interms of shape.Speaking is believingIn college I studied various theories ofpsychological thought. Though I neverstudied psychology and art together,there is at least one shared concept: label-ing. In the behavioristic model of infor-mation processing, labeling is where anRemember to renameIt is hard to realize the effect the labeling of afacial feature has on the way you think aboutit, but look at this pre-instructional drawing.The instructions were to draw a face. Whatwas meant was to draw the entire head thatincludes the face and the hair—but to theartist the word “face” meant eyes, nose andmouth. Look how disproportionate this draw-ing appears. It is almost all “face.”Enter the lowly rulerThe amazing plastic, grid ruler comes to therescue for inclines. Using the side of the pho-tograph as a vertical guide, you can place thegrid of the ruler over the shapes of the facialfeature and check to see what is where. Thetilt of the eye is easy to see using the guide-lines. Don’t assume that you can see the sub-tle curve or angle of a shape.ShapeToolsRename and InclineDEFINITIONRenameA tool for seeing the shape infacial features by renaming thatfeature in terms of shape.Facial features are not always symmetri-cal, and will vary from one side to theother. Eyes may be level with each other,or one may be higher or lower. Eyes maytilt up in the corner or down. Lips go up,down, wiggle about or curve. Unfortu-nately, people’s eyes have difﬁculty see-ing these subtle variations.object or situation has been given aname, and actions are made in terms ofthat name. For example, if you label afeature an iris, you will think of it as aniris and draw your memorized pattern ofan iris. If you think of it as a circle, youwill begin your drawing with a circleand draw the shapes you actually see.DEFINITIONInclineA tool for checking subtleangles in the facial features byusing a ruler.
51Negative space is deﬁned as the emptyspace surrounding a positive (solid)shape. The whole of a picture is made upof positive and negative spaces (orshapes). People normally look at a shapeand draw it—like a vase or a ﬂower. Ifthe drawing doesn’t look right, theywonder how it became distorted. Artists,being the tricky folks that they are, payattention not only to the subject (positiveshape or space) but also to the “nothing-ness” next to that subject—the shapescreated between the ﬂowers or next tothe vase.I’ve been framed!It’s often easier to see negative space if it is framed by a viewfinder. Aviewfinder places a box around something so that the edges of thesubject touch the edges of the box. By looking through a viewfinder,you can more clearly teach your mind to concentrate on the trueappearance of a shape. You can make a simple viewfinder by cutting asquare out of a piece of paper. Look through the open area and youwill see the world nicely framed.DEFINITIONNegative SpaceA tool that allows you to seea positive shape (solid space)clearer by focusing on thenegative shape (empty space)next to it.Negative SpaceShapeTools
52Are you positive?How can there be negative space on a face when the entire face is a positive shape? Actually,positive space is really the object you’re drawing, and negative space is the area between thoseobjects. Drawing the eyes and eyebrows means that there will be space between the two. Thisspacing is just as critical as the shape of the features.When I look at certain shapes, I always check both the positive and negative shapes. Forexample, I will check to see if an iris is drawn correctly by checking the shape and size of thewhite of the eye.Negative space:distance betweenthe eyebrow andhairline.Negative space:distance betweenthe eye andeyebrow.Negative space:distance betweenthe nose and mouth.Negative space:distance betweenthe mouth and chin.Negative space:distance betweenthe nose and theside of face.Negative space:distance betweenthe eye and eyelid.
From the beginningThis tool is sonamed because youask questions: Whatis the line/edgedoing? In what direc-tion is it going?53I was ﬂying home late one night fromteaching a composite drawing class. Ihad read every book I brought, I didn’tenjoy reading any of the provided maga-zines, there was no movie and I wasbored to tears. Fortunately, the youngboy sitting next to me was also boredand was trying to sketch pictures fromthe ﬂight magazine. They were very com-plex photographs. After watching himstruggle for a few moments, I asked himif he wanted help. “Sure,” he said.He had roughed in a head shape, so Iplaced my ﬁnger in the neck area. (Sim-plify—I was literally pointing out thelocation and shape to the child.) I asked,“What does this edge do?” He replied,“It is going slightly downward andaway” (from the face). He then drewthat edge in the correct downward angle.I said, “Does it go downward forever?”Child: “No, it changes direction andgoes down the arm.”Me: “Where does it change direction?”Child: “Right here” (pointing to thelocation).We had identiﬁed the shape and thelocation on the drawing where some-thing was different. The particular spoton the photo we were drawing was bothmeasurable and locatable using opticalindexing.Using this questioning technique, thechild was able to complete a very com-plex drawing of a model. My ﬁnger onthe location on the photograph and myverbal questions required the child toboth see that information and articulatewhat he was seeing. The resulting draw-ing was quite remarkably skilled.QuestionShapeToolsDEFINITIONQuestionA tool for seeing angles andshapes more clearly by askingyourself exactly what it is youare seeing.
54Does this line go on forever?As you are drawing the first line in one direction, the face eventuallyhas another angle, and your line goes too far. Something has changed,so you might ask, “What happened?” In what direction is yourline/edge going now? Your final question is, “Where on the face didthis change occur?” Asking questions makes you articulate certainpoints and locations that are not guesswork or trial and error. Theycan be seen, but first you have to know what you are looking for.Angle checkpointsThe average face tends to have certain places where an angle wouldbe located: the transition between the chin and jaw, the jaw andcheekbone, the cheekbone to temple and the temple across the fore-head.
55It’s often a struggle to make a drawingand a picture look alike. This is espec-ially true when you are drawing a familymember. It may be that the mouth iscausing the difﬁculties, so you draw itagain. And again. And again. The paperstarts to thin in that area from all yourerasings. You may become frustratedbecause you can’t see what the problemis in that shape.Drawing is difﬁcult at times, especiallywhen the shapes you see are subtle.There is a simple solution to helpingyour poor, beleaguered brain see the elu-sive shape: the compare tool.CheatPlace a sheet of tracing paper over the photograph and trace theoutline of the shape causing the difficulties.CompareMake your drawing look realDEFINITIONCompareA tool for seeing shapes moreclearly by tracing that shapefrom the photograph, tracingyour own drawing and comparingthe two shapes as line drawings.ShapeTools!
And the answer is...Move your hand over, and look at the two shapes side by side.You have removed the “background noise” of the information-richphotograph and created the shape in its simplest form. The subtledifference between the shapes is apparent when you compared itin this manner.Trace againMove the tracing paper over to your drawing. Place your handover the tracing you have just done, so you can’t be influencedby it. Trace the same shape on your drawing that is causing youproblems.56$ %
By closing my one eye, I was better able totranslate this three-dimensional image to mytwo-dimensional paper. Without this tech-nique, Aynslee’s image would most likelyhave looked strange and out of proportion,almost like looking into one of those carnivalmirrors.57You previously learned how to take athree-dimensional image in front of youand transform it into a two-dimensionalimage on your paper by closing one eye.This is true for ﬁnding the site or locationof an object as well as the shape of anobject. A facial feature, like the nose, canbe difﬁcult if you don’t ﬂatten it by clos-ing one eye.Aynslee12" × 9" (30cm × 23cm)FlattenShapeToolsDEFINITIONFlattenA tool for seeing a three-dimensional shape more clearly byclosing one eye to level theimage into two dimensions.
ShadeProbably the single most requested topic my students ask for isinformation about shading. How do you make something lookreal? This chapter covers techniques on how to “see” shading andthe correct shading that is speciﬁc to each feature.Understanding shading is the critical step for taking a line drawingand transforming it into a lifelike work of art. Shading brings a three-dimensional quality to the drawing. Traditional training in shading atmost art schools involves an instructor placing a variety of white objectssuch as balls, plates, sheets and boxes on a table with a light on one sideand then telling the horriﬁed students, “Draw this.” If your instructor wassomewhat enlightened, he or she might give you a clue like “squint.”Yeah, right. Your brain tells you that the objects are shapes, white, differ-ent from each other and, er, well, white... After all, if you could draw stufflike that with no instruction, you could have saved yourself the class fees.corrine16" × 20" (41cm × 51cm)W
60To understand shading, you need toknow three things: What to look for,how to evaluate what you’re seeing andany useful techniques to make yourdrawings better. The only additional tipfor shading your drawing is practice.Shading involves hand-eye coordination.Emerging artists have trouble withshading not because it is more technicalor difﬁcult; they struggle because itrequires new physical skills that comewith practice.Shading involves training the eye tosee what artists call “value changes.”Value means the lightness or darkness ofa color. A value change is where some-thing changes from light to dark or viceversa. The ﬁve tools you will learn are:• Values/Lines• Isolate• Compare• Question• SeekShading techniquesThere are many techniques for shading,including varying the pencil direction,making linear strokes, building up leadand smudging the lead. I prefer the shad-ing technique of smudging the lead.Smudging requires a smooth paper sur-face. It has a few tricky areas, but it’sfaster and requires less pressure and con-trol of the pencil.Understanding shading toolsRub a dub-dubSmudging requires a paper stump or tortillion (see chapter one). Thestump is just rolled paper with nothing on it. You use it to pick uplead (graphite) from one area of the drawing and blend it out. Thepaper needs to be smooth, plate-finish bristol board or illustrationboard. Textured paper is better for other techniques because it snagsthe lead.The fine art of smudgingThe lead may come from the drawing itself or by scribbling on a pieceof paper with a soft pencil (2B-6B work well). As you pick up lead andmove it around with the paper stump, it gradually gets lighter as thelead is worn off the stump. This is why it’s easier to smudge—the toolis helping you maintain the correct amount of lead.
61Hold it right thereThis is the standard way you hold your stump. It only works if you aresmudging a small area. Use the tip of the paper stump for these smallareas. You will use the stump’s tapered side, held flat against thepaper, for larger areas. Place it across your flat hand and smudgeusing the tapered area.Keep your grubby fingers offYour hands contain oils that will transfer to the paper, causing thepaper to react with the graphite in adverse ways. Place a piece of trac-ing paper under your smudging hand as shown here.The white stuffPreserve the white areas of your drawing. Remember that you aregrinding lead into the paper, and though the paper is smooth andcleans up well, you want to keep from grinding lead into the areasyou know will remain white. Work from your dark areas and blendtoward your lighter areas.The long and short of itTo make the skin on the drawing look smooth, use long smoothstrokes on your paper. Short, jerky strokes make for bad skin. If neces-sary, go outside the edges of the face and erase later. (I know, I know,I just told you to not smudge where you want to retain the whiteareas, which might be outside the face. That’s okay. Sometimes youneed to break an art rule to achieve a goal—in this case, smoothskin.)The same holds true for your original pencil shading—long, smoothstrokes applied with an even hand make for smooth skin and hair. I’mstarting to feel like a commercial.LayersWhen you smudge, you lift a small part of the lead from one areaand transfer it to another. This means that not only are youblending into one area, you are lightening another. Smudgingis not a one-time application. You may need to go backand darken the original area again and apply layers ofblending to get the right value.
Apply even pressureTake your paper stump and blend into the face using long, smooth strokes.Establish an edgeStart with an HB pencil. Using the side of the face as an example, evenly scribble asmooth, continuous tone next to the line that represents the side of the face. Keep yourpencil on the paper and the pressure on the pencil even and steady.62Using the right pencil hardness, pressureand stroke make a terriﬁc difference inyour shading. You cannot go back andtry to blend a zig-zag black line donewith a 6B lead. You will end up with azig-zag smudge.!$Step-by-step shading technique
Repeat as necessaryYour goal is to not go immediately to the finished value but to build values up on theface. You may need to go back and add more lead, smudge again, add more lead andsmudge again.63%Shading techniques summary• Use smooth paper.• Use the right tool.• Hold it correctly.• Keep tracing paper under your hand as you smudge.• Preserve your white areas.• Use long strokes for smooth skin.• Keep applying more dark layers as you smudge.• Use even pressure and smooth pencil strokes.
ShadeToolsValues/Lines64Now we will delve into the deep, innerpsychology of art, asking the age-oldquestion, “What is a line?” When youdraw, you usually start with lines to tellyou where you are on the paper andwhere the edges of various items occur.Beyond algebra and other math applica-tions, you have probably never thoughtany more about lines. Your brain, how-ever, loves lines and will lie to you aboutthem.It’s true. In chapter two, you learnedthat the mind places everything into pat-terns of perception, memorizes that pat-tern and uses that pattern instead of thereality of what is actually present in thephoto. Your mind ﬁgures it knows allabout things like facial features andtherefore will provide information aboutthat feature, regardless of reality. Percep-tions are more powerful than facts.Drawing lines represent one of twothings: a thin, dark value on the face(such as the crease in the eyelid) or avalue change. A line in the latter instanceI got you, babeBecause your mind tells you that there is a line on the bottom lid, youdraw it in. This is fine if you’re drawing Cher, circa 1965, “I Got You,Babe...” but it is incorrect for most other eyes.Look at this illustration. Your mind accepts the lines you originallyuse as correctly defining the shapes of the face. Your mind (percep-tions) really likes those same lines and will leave them in place at theend of the drawing.DEFINITIONValues/LinesA tool for understandingvalues/lines in which the closerin value two shapes are to eachother, the less a line is neededto separate them.shows where a dark and a light valuecome together. Here’s a secret: There arefew true lines on the face. Most of theshading on the face comes from valuechanges, not lines. When you draw linesto indicate value changes, you tend toleave the lines in place. I think of this asCarrie’s Dictum: The closer in value twoshapes are to each other, the less you candraw a line to separate them.Eyeball to eyeballA close examination of the eyes, for example, will show us that thebottom lid is a shelf. This shelf picks up light and is light in color. Yousee it often because it is actually lighter than the so-called white of theeye. There are no lines on the bottom lid; it’s a series of valuechanges.
65Once drawn, never erasedLook at this drawing. You know it is incorrect, and certainly doesn’tappear real. But what’s the problem? Your mind has accepted the linesas reality, but they are not really there and so you are frustrated.Handling lines like an adultYou have two choices when shading: Either kill the line (that is, shadeup to the line and make the line disappear because it’s now the sameshade at that point), or don’t draw the line in the first place.
66Line killingThe side of the face is an example of linekilling (and you thought this was a nonviolentart book). You do have to draw the side ofthe face originally with a line, but there is noline there. You see the face because it iseither lighter or darker than whatever isbeside it. Dark hair, for example, forms theside of the face. The face may also get darkeras it reaches the edge. This is not a line,mind you, but a tonal change. Therefore,shade up to the line and make it disappear.This will indicate that the area is now all thesame value.
67No line at allBetter yet, given your mind’s ability todeceive you, don’t draw some lines in at all.The upper lip has qualities that you may needto originally draw, but watch that lower lip. It’snot necessary to complete the lower lip as aline. You need only indicate where the lipends and the shadow begins.Problem areasThe most common problem areas in using lines to separate valuechanges are the lower eyelids, the sides of the nose, the edge of theface and around the lips, in particular the lower lip. These areas con-tain no lines and should not be sketched as linear separations. Eitherkill the line by absorbing it into the shading or don’t draw it in at all.Notice how odd the right side of her face looks with the lines left inthe drawing.Susie12" × 9" (30cm ×23cm)
A way to physically check that yourshading is the correct value is to com-pare the values between your drawingand the photograph. To do this, you cancreate a value scale.ShadeToolsIsolate, Squint and Compare68The correct values on a drawing willmake the image come to life. A full rangeof shades—from the white of the paperto the darkest dark your pencil canmake—is usually necessary to make aninteresting drawing. The shading, or val-ues, of a photograph also has a shape. Ithas a starting place and an ending placethat you can ﬁnd on the face. Train youreye to see the shape of the shading.If you have a photographic modiﬁca-tion program on your computer, you canscan a photograph and use a “cutout”program to isolate the values in the pho-tograph. This can be useful in showingyou the locations of the shading.Shading has a shape. Squinting at thephotograph helps you see the generaloutline and shapes of the shadows.Squinting will also drop out those peskylines you felt you needed to separate thevarious parts of the face. Squinting is theoriginal, low-tech way of seeing shadingand values.Value scaleThe value scale is a simple, homemade tool to help the eyes see the correct light or dark areasof a photo and the corresponding values in a drawing. To make a value scale, divide a piece ofpaper into ten equal boxes. Leave one box on the top white. Make the bottom box the darkestdark you can make with a pencil. Then shade the boxes so that they get progressively lighterfrom the bottom box to the top, white box. Punch a hole in the center of each box. By placingthis simple guide over a photograph, then over your drawing in the same location, you can seeif you have reached the correct value.DEFINITIONIsolateA tool for more clearly seeingthe correct shading by isolatingthe shading and seeing it as ashape.DEFINITIONSquintA tool for seeing value changesmore clearly by squinting.DEFINITIONCompareA tool for seeing value changesby creating a value scale forcomparison.
Missing something?In this drawing, you cannot see one side of the face. Your perceptionand memory tell you that there are always two eyes on the averageperson. You know there are two eyes. The minor fact that the eyes arenot completely visible won’t deter you in your quest to draw that face.You know there are eyes in there somewhere.In the end it doesn’t matter. This drawing still looks complete, evenwithout being able to see absolutely everything on her face.Question69I have stressed throughout the book thatyou need to be looking at your subject inorder to draw it. Even though you arelooking at it, your mind will provideinformation that simply isn’t there orisn’t true.Most errors occur when the artistloses faith in the viewer. The artist thinksthe viewer will not be able to understandwhat they are looking at, unless thatartist puts in every little detail. It doesn’tmatter if a part of the photo is missing.Ask yourself, “Why do you see it?”This simple act forces the artist to ques-tion what exactly makes it visible. Issomething lighter or darker? Is it separat-ed by a line? If you don’t see it, thendon’t draw it.GuessworkYou have just stumbled upon a problem. Your brain may tell you thatjust because we cannot see something, there is no excuse for notdrawing it, right? So, you draw it. Because you cannot see the detailsof the eyes, you guess at what they look like. After all, by golly, youworry that if you don’t draw those eyes, people are going to thinkyour drawing is wrong.So you are wrong in your guesswork. Ask questions. Talking toyourself will help you understand what you are trying to shade. Ask:Why do I see this shape? If it’s the same value, I can’t see it. If I can’tsee it, I don’t draw it. If it looks like a big black blob, that’s what Idraw. If it’s a uniform white, it stays all white. Don’t outline somethingjust because you know it is there. So does everyone else. Draw whatis actually in the photo. Your viewer also knows that the nose has aside to it and that the eyes are separate from the skin of the face.DEFINITIONQuestionA tool for seeing value changesby asking yourself why you see aparticular shape. If you don’t seeit, don’t draw it. If you see it,there is usually a value change.ShadeTools
70It doesn’t have to make senseMy husband, Rick, wanted to do a self-portrait showing himself as an old-time riverboat banjopicker. He got permission from the local museum to use a historical photograph of a riverboat.As Rick was shading in the riverboat, all he saw were dabs of light and dark on the deck. Whenhe took a break from his drawing and stepped back, the dabs became people. He didn’t try tomake the dabs look exactly like people; it was correct and real in the photograph. After he hadused the questioning technique, he came to realize he couldn’t make it “more correct” or “morereal” by applying reasoning to it. Don’t try to argue with reality. Draw what you see, where yousee it, to the correct shade.
SeekShadeTools71I have a confession: My husband, whomI adore, loves the banjo. There, I’ve saidit. He studies the banjo. He plays banjoand bluegrass music in my presence. Hetakes banjos apart. He knows who madewhat banjo, the year each was at its peakand every major banjo picker in theworld. Rick can walk into a music store,a pawn shop, a garage sale, an attic or aliving room, see a banjo and know every-thing about it in seconds. He knowswhat to look for. Why am I rattling onabout banjos? All of you know (or aremarried to) someone who has this sameability—though it might be cars, guns,dogs, (I can do this with Great Pyrenees),sports teams, clothes, hair styles orantiques. You know what you’re lookingfor. Your eye is trained to seek some par-ticular detail that is totally obscure to theaverage person.Artists, too, seek one particular detailwhen they work on their art. Artists seekto ﬁnd something round or rounded in asubject. Why seek? Because artists havelearned that round shapes have a particu-lar shading pattern. If you know theshading pattern of a rounded surface,you will know what to look for in thephotograph. Even if it is not clearly pres-ent in the photo, or is missing altogether,artists know that if they include this pat-tern in their drawings, that feature willappear rounded.In fact, some artists draw using onlyrounded or round shapes. They think inround. They teach in round. They illus-trate in round. The problem with draw-ing and locating features using roundedshapes is that curves and curving shapesvary. My students, in their original draw-ings, will always err where there is acurve in the drawing, not where there isa straight line. Locate using straight lines.Think shading in curves.OK, so now you are going to throwout the fact that I just said if you don’tsee it, don’t draw it. This is the exceptionthat proves the rule...or something likethat.The face has many rounded surfaces.If you know the shading on a round sur-face, and you know where the face hasrounded areas, you will know how toshade the face better.Round shading patternThe ball has a pattern that is as follows: light-est light, which is the highlight; dark, which isthe shadow area; reflected light, which is lightbouncing off the floor or from other objects;and a cast shadow, which is the shadow thatis created by the object.Cast shadowReflected lightDarkLightest lightDEFINITIONSeekA tool for seeing a particularshading pattern by seeking outround objects in your subject.
72Round facesIdentify the round shapes on the face: forehead, nose, eyes, cheeks,lips, chin, ears, face, even hair. Apply this pattern to a face and youwill make it round: lightest light, dark, reflected light and cast shadow.Cast shadowCast shadowReflected lightReflected lightDarkDarkLightest lightLightest lightCast shadowReflected lightDarkLightest light
The seek tool works especially well here. There are many rounded sur-faces that contain the particular shading pattern of: lightest light,dark, reflected light and the cast shadow.73Courtney12" × 9" (30cm × 23cm)
74The ﬁnal general drawing principle is tocheck your work for accuracy. As youwork, your mind is processing and plac-ing your drawings into patterns of per-ception. After a fairly short amount oftime, you will no longer really see yourwork. You need ways to break that pat-tern of perception. It’s like proofreadingsomething.You tend to miss the typosand other errors, but you can correct thisby having someone else read it or byreading it aloud.Many artists already use one or moretechniques to check the accuracy of theirart. These two pages are a summary ofmany of these techniques. I advise you toincorporate one or more of the followingtechniques into every work of art you do:• Invert• Distance• Time• Tools• Reverse• Friend and family factor• Other artist factor• CombinationInvertInverting your art simply means to turnit upside down so that it looks different.Turn both your drawing and the originalphoto upside down and place them sideby side. You may see any errors or prob-lems more clearly.DistanceWhenever I complete a watercolor ordrawing, I place it at a different distancefrom which I painted or drew it. I usuallyprop it across the room and study it fromafar. Changing the distance alters theway the art looks. I recall one ﬂyingosprey painting I propped in just such away. It looked ﬁne, but something wasbothering me. After a day of walkingaway, walking back, wandering aroundthe room and sneaking peeks at thepainting, I realized that the wing wasbent at the wrong angle. I made a simplecorrection and this piece was acceptedinto a juried show and the travelingshow as well.TimeBecause your mind has placed the draw-ing into a pattern, if you walk awayfrom that work, you will see it differ-ently when you return. I often take adrawing away from a student, wanderabout the room for a minute or two,then hold it at a distance for the studentto see it with fresh eyes. Build in breaksaway from your work. Caution: Whenyou ﬁrst return to your drawing, imme-diately write down the corrections yousee or you will forget.ToolsThere are tools that will help you seebetter. Many artists think it’s cheating touse a tool to help them draw. That’s likethinking a hammer is cheating because ithelps you to work faster. Tools are justthat—physical aids to make you a betterartist. One common tool is a ruler forchecking for angles. Another tool is apiece of red ﬁlm held in front of youreyes. It will block the art into values andwill help you make those corrections.Other tools will show you shading,angles and perspective. You may pur-chase some of these tools or make themyourself.ReverseHolding art up to a mirror is a long-standing artistic technique. The reverseof the art shows some problems moreclearly.Friend and family factorSometimes you can’t see it but otherscan. Ask your friends and family mem-bers what they think of the work. Iremember asking my (non-artistic) momfor her opinion on a painting I liked. Shesaid all she could see was the blue blobof paint on the nose. She missed mywonderful art because a blue blob cap-tured her attention (and assuming mypurpose was not to express my feelingson noses, blue blobs, or a commentaryon Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer),her observation made me revisit thepainting.Other artist factorCritiques are useful for getting outsideinput on your work. They help you seethe art with fresh eyes. My husband isan artist, so I have a built-in radar onmy art. Of course, it is not good havingyour husband stare critically at yourwork, then incredulously state, “You’renot done yet, are you?” This may notmake for the most harmonious mar-riage.CombinationOf course, a combination of the accura-cy techniques is an artist’s best bet. Eachof my composite sketches and paintingsreceives a combination check for accura-cy. With my composites, I prop thedrawing on the table at a distance, takea break, return and place the drawing onthe ﬂoor and walk around it. I ask thewitness to take a break and then recheckthe drawing from a different distancewhen he or she returns.Checking for accuracy
Walking away and taking a break helped me iron out some of theintricate shading issues in this drawing. Sometimes all you need is alittle time for everything to click.JB & Cole16" × 20" (41cm × 51cm)75
Drawing EyesSo much has been written about the eye. Henry Theodore Tucker-man wrote, “The eye speaks with an eloquence and truthfulnesssurpassing speech. It is the window out of which the wingedthoughts often ﬂy unwittingly. It is the tiny magic mirror on whose crystalsurface the moods of feeling ﬁtfully play, like the sunlight and shadow on aquiet stream.” Given that the eye is indeed the window of the soul, artistsneed to get the window right.drooling childPhoto by Kelly Dulanty12" × 9" (30cm × 23cm)E
78Eyes are shapes, so you will use the shape and shading tech-niques to help draw them better. This section is the practical,step-by-step application of the various techniques presented inthe ﬁrst few chapters. You will isolate the feature of the eyes,simplify the shape and rename the parts of the eye as shapes.The parts of the eyeLateral canthusCreaseSclera Shelf oflower eyelidPupil IrisMedial canthusUpper eyelidEyebrowEyes as shapes
Subtract out the doohickeyYou probably thought the inside corner ofthe eye was called the medial canthus. Icall it the doohickey. On most people, it isa small, triangular, pinkish area in theinside corner of the eye. Now that youknow it is the doohickey, you need toignore or subtract out that measurement.Look for the inclineWhen you draw a horizontal line through the eyes, from the out-side to the inside corners, it’s immediately apparent if the eyes arelevel, one higher or lower, or tilted at the corner.Start with a lineYou will need a ruler, a circle template, a pencil and an eraser todo this exercise. Draw a line 71⁄2-inches (19cm) long. Break it upinto 11⁄2-inch (4cm) sections. This will become an imaginary linerunning across the eyes. You learned earlier that there are “fiveeyes” across the average face: an eye between the side of the faceand the eye, the eye itself, an eye between the eyes, a second eyeand the space between the eye and the side of the face.79! $%Locate and measure the eye
80Now that you have established the initial measurements, youmust ﬁnd the center of the white of the eye—not the center ofthe entire eye (remember you are ignoring the doohickey). Thisis where you center the iris. You might need to refer back topages 46-48 to refresh your memory on how to draw a correct-ly proportioned eye.Looking for circlesThe iris, on the average adult face, is one-half the width of thewhite of the eye. You could fit two irises into the white of the eye,as shown in the photograph above. The point where the two cir-cles touch is the center. Mark this point.Place the circlesThe circle of the iris is not centered on the line you’ve drawn fromtop to bottom; about one-fourth of the circle extends below theline with most of the iris above the line. Find a circle in the tem-plate that is one-half the width of the eye. Draw that entire circle,using the center mark you just made.Don’t forget to center it! $
81Apt pupilsYou will be repeating the process youlearned on page 47, but let’s review it onemore time. Using the marks at the top, bot-tom and sides of the circle template, con-nect the lines to find the center of thecircle. Center the pupil of the eye in themiddle of the iris.%
Wide-open eyes82This is a good place to stop and revisitthe topic of “relate.” Remember, thismeans that once you have a shape, youcan relate other shapes to that shape.The circle of the iris is a good example.Another feature you can relate shapes tois the upper eyelid. Notice where on thecircle of the iris the eyelid touches. Onwide-open eyes, the entire circle shows.On average eyes, the lids are above thepupil. “Sleepy eyes” show very little cir-cle (see page 84). Don’t vary the circle toﬁt into the eye; vary the lids according tothe iris.Relate
85Above the eye, the upper eyelid forms a crease. In the averageeye, this looks like a line following the upper eyelid. When thecrease is very high above the eye, it’s called “heavy lids.” Whenit’s very close to the eye or doesn’t show at all, it’s called “over-hanging lids.” Pay close attention to the location, direction andappearance of the upper lid crease.Eyelid creasesAverage eyesHeavy lidsOverhanging lids
Keep it neatBefore shading the eyes, erase the interior guide lines you have made.Leave the crosshairs in the iris, as you can use them in shading.Eyes contain one or more highlights in them. To keep your whiteswhite, leave these areas white rather than try and erase out the high-lights.86Both the upper and lower lids have athickness to them, as shown in the draw-ing to the right. The upper lid’s thicknessis indicated by its cast shadow and by theappearance of an edge in one corner. Thelower lid is a shelf that will often pick uplight. If fact, in the outside corner of theeye, the shelf of the lower lid is oftenlighter than the white of the eye. Makesure that you haven’t made the shelf asingle line, and that your lines aren’tshowing when you are done shading.Lower lids
87Shade the irisTo keep the circle of the iris neat, leave thecircle template in place initially as youshade. After filling in the black pupil, fanoutward with a dark pencil to keep it fromlooking so stark. Go around the outside ofthe iris (with the circle template in place),and fan inward for the same reason.Pay close attention to the contrastbetween the black pupil and the color ofthe eye. Because you’re drawing in blackand white, it’s the contrast between theblack pupil and the shading on the iris thatyou see. With some very dark eyes, youwon’t see a separate pupil and an iris—it’sall dark. Some eyes have a darker rim onthe edge of the iris.Back to the step-by-step demonstration. You will need toincorporate all of the lessons from the last few pages, so don’tbe afraid to go back to the information at any point.Finish the eye with flairTIP Shade outwardfrom the black pupil tothe edge of the circle template.This will enhance the appear-ance of the eye.B!
Add the finishing touchesFinally, use your kneaded eraser to lighten the iris on the sideopposite of the highlight. This creates the appearance of lightpassing through the transparent cornea.Shade the eyeUsing the paper stump, place the shadow cast by the upper lid,and a shadow in the corners where the “ball” of the eye goes backinto the head. Erase and absorb the lines of the lower lid into theshading.Fill in the irisThe iris is made up of linear shapes fanning out from the center. Using an HB pencil (onlighter colored eyes), fill in between the pupil and the outer rim. Keep the highlight white.Then, use a paper stump to blend the shading together, again saving the highlight. Ondark-colored eyes, use a darker lead to fill in the space between the pupil and iris edge.88$% Q
89Eyebrows are made of short hairs. Inter-estingly enough, a pencil stroke is shapedlike a hair; fat where it starts and taper-ing off into a thinner end. “Comb” eye-brow hair with your pencil—place thepencil lines in the direction the eyebrowhair grows.Eyebrows and eyelashesEyelashesYou generally won’t be able to see eyelasheswhen you look straight on at most eyes. Theexceptions to this are mascara-coated lashesand very heavy, long lashes. The lashes comeforward and curl upward, appearing as aragged edge. One way to imply long lashes isto place their shadow into the highlight of theeye.Eyebrow locationEyebrows vary quite a bit. Most start at theedge of the eye and end in a line that runsfrom the nose past the eyes.
90Eyebrow shapeEyebrows may curve, be straight, close to the eyes, have a bend inthem or arch high or low.
91Use your tools!Once again, use the tools for “seeing” thatyou have learned about in the past few chap-ters. Eyebrows have a site that you can deter-mine by measuring. As shown in these threephotos, place a ruler next to the eyebrows tosee their incline. Then use the eyes to relatethe location of the curve of the brows.
92Overhanging lids of a person of European descentOverhanging lids of a person of Asian descentExamples of completed eyesSo, you think you have learned how to draw every eye, huh?Not so fast! You must also take into consideration how vary-ing eyelids and eye shapes can change the appearance of irisesand eyelashes. Study the next few examples, and see if you canpoint out the differences between them.
Drawing NosesYou might have noticed that few poets have waxed eloquently onthe nose. Even emerging artists seem to stumble when it comes todrawing noses. If much of this chapter seems remedial, it isbecause the nose needs more attention... you don’t want to blow it. OK, anumber of puns and nose comments are running through my mind. Iadmit this is a hard chapter to write. But noses are really quite simple todraw once you understand the structure of what you are looking at.Cris Harnisch12" × 9" (30cm × 23cm)R
96Once again note that noses are shapes.As seen in the illustration, the nose shapeis created from two rounded shapes: theball and the column. The nose is not cre-ated from lines.The parts of the noseWingSeptum NostrilTipBridgeKnow your noseOne shotLook at your photo and try to ﬁnd the multiple shapes thatmake up the nose in that one image. Drawing a nose willbecome much easier once you have identiﬁed all the indi-vidual parts that create the total image.
MaleThe width of the nose is bigger; it starts atthe white of the eye.FemaleNotice how the width of the nose begins atthe corner of the eyes.97Note: I am referring to the average nosein the following description.The site of the nose is contained with-in a rectangle that begins in the forehead.It is as wide as the inside corner of theeyes on the female face (shown on thebottom left) and the start of the white ofthe eye on the male face (shown on thebottom right). Most people make thenose too long and too narrow. This isbecause the nose causes the artist to over-rule what he or she really sees and per-ceives to be true. The nose starts in theforehead, but artists really don’t payattention to it until it is level with the eye.They therefore draw the nose the correctlength from the eye down to the tip, notfrom the forehead, and the resulting noseis too long. Most books also show themale nose as too narrow—the width ofthe nose on the female face. Male nosesare wider.Nose site
98The wings of the nose are about one-third the height of the nose, if you meas-ure from nose tip to the top of theeyebrow, as shown in this drawing.1⁄31⁄31⁄3Wing site
Basic wing shapes99The wings of the nose may be round,ﬂared, ﬂattened or any combination ofthese shapes (as seen here).
To get the hang of the nose (if you pardon the expression),study the nostril area. OK, so art isn’t as glamorous as youonce thought. The size and shape of the nostril help deﬁne theshape of the tip of the nose. The more the nostril shows, themore the tip of the nose tends to tilt up; the less the nostrilshows, the more the tip of the nose tends to turn down. Onsome people, you cannot see the nostrils at all.Nostril basics100
The nostrils have differing shapes. Somenostrils are round, some are more trian-gular and some are quite oval.Nostril shapesA word about bridgesYou’ve looked at the tip of the nose. Nowstudy the start of the nose, the bridge.The nose begins in the forehead. I knowthat may seem obvious, but I have seensome drawings where the nose is con-nected to the eye. Some noses are on thesame plane as the forehead. Some nosesdip inward at a point below the eye-brows, while others are very flat acrossthe bridge or protrude like the bowof a ship. Artists create all theshape of the bridge of thenose by shading.101
102If you identify the shape of the nose high-light, ﬁnd where the nose picks up themost light and “read” the nose as a seriesof lights and darks, you will have cor-rectly shaded the nose... up to a point.There are a few tricks to make your noselook more realistic. Many of these tricksinvolve not drawing the photographexactly as you see it but adding or sub-tracting details. The tricks are:• Seek reﬂected light.• Watch the level of nostril darkness.• Avoid lines.• Ask yourself questions.• Link to other features.Now, look at the man’s face again andsee if you can you use these tricks to helpyou make the nose look more realistic.Seek thereflectedlight.Ask questions: Whydo you see the sideof the nose? Is itlighter or darker?Avoid drawinglines.Watch that youdon’t make thisa black hole.Place thehighlight.Link to otherfeatures.Nose tricks
103Seek reﬂected lightIn chapter ﬁve, I reviewed the techniquefor making something round—I called it“seek.” Artists seek to ﬁnd round pat-terns and, when discovered, they shadethat round object with a speciﬁc shadingpattern. The tip of the nose is rounded(as in the drawing to the right); if youshade that particular pattern, even if youdon’t see it, you will have rounded thenose.Watch the level of nostril darknessBe careful when you draw the dark areasof the nostril. Two gigantic black holes inthe face make viewers feel like they arestaring down a shotgun barrel. Even ifthe photograph shows the nostrils as twoblack holes, don’t get out the 6B lead anddarken them in to that level. Make thedarkest area near the top, as shown inthe lower two drawings, and get lightertoward the bottom.Look at the image on the left; it looks liketwo black holes rather than nostrils. Comparethat to the image on the right, which is shad-ed more realistically. This just goes to showthat shading can make or break your draw-ing. Keep these images in mind when you goto grab that 6B pencil.
Begin with the bottomCreate the bottom of the nose with lines.Finish the shadingCreate the top and sides of the nose withshading only. This will show the distinctionbetween the cheek and nose without usingany of those pesky lines.Blend away the LinesShade this area, all the while rememberingto blend in the lines of the nose. Resistthe temptation to leave them in!104Get into the habit of never using lines to indicate the side of thenose. Avoiding lines on the side of the nose will limit the temp-tation to leave them in your completed drawing.Shade the nose without lines! $ %
105Ask yourself questionsAsk yourself why you see the variousparts of the nose. If two areas are thesame shade, your eye cannot separatethem, so you can’t draw them separate.Lighting varies from photo to photo andface to face. Look at this drawing, studyand question the areas of light and dark.Link to other featuresBe sure you link the nostrils, tip, length,direction, general shape of the nose andshading to the other available informa-tion on a face. Use the tools presented inthe earlier chapters to help you. Remem-ber, your mind is always trying to get theupper hand and tell you what it thinks istrue of the art you’re working on, notwhat is visually true.You can see this wingof the nose becauseit is lighter thanthe cheek.You can see thereflected light areabecause of the darkshadow that is castbeneath the nose.The nose wing is lighterthan the cheek.You are able to see thisside of the nose becauseit goes from light todark, then back to light.
Drawing Lips and TeethLips are a fairly simple series of shapes. You will quickly notice aline that forms where the upper and lower lip meet. The upper liplooks like a mountain range with two distinct peaks; the lower liplooks basically like a half-circle. You will also quickly notice that a smileeffects the other facial features. The lips widen and thin out, the cheekspucker, the eyes crinkle and the jaw changes.Teeth, on the other hand, are a real problem for many people. Theycan be difﬁcult to shade realistically, especially as they move farther backin the mouth. This is also one of the few places you will be able to usesome artistic license when drawing the face. If you draw exactly what yousee, the hard lines between the teeth will create the appearance a picketfence.In this chapter, you’ll tackle both lips and teeth. I will show you somehelpful tricks and techniques to realistically render the mouth and avoidthe picket fence look.Christian Easterling14" × 11" (36cm × 28cm)T
108The lips can be divided into three majorareas of concentration: the upper lip, theline where the lips come together and thelower lip.The parts of the mouth Parting line Lower lipUpper lipPhiltrumParts of the mouth
109OK, so the face has one line...I usually start with the line of the mouth. Yes, the mouth is one of the few facial areas thatactually contains a line. It is formed from the upper lip and lower lip touching each other. Payparticular attention to this line. Does it go up or down at the corners? Is it straight or wavy? Usea ruler to help you see the direction.
110Upper lipsThe upper lip is like a mountain range withtwo mountains. Some people have rollinghills, some have the Rockies and some havethe Himalayas. Pay close attention to thelocation and shape of the two points of theupper lip.
111In the grooveThe top of the two mountains come to apoint at two ridges that extend up to thenose and form a rounded groove called thephiltrum. Some people have a pronouncedphiltrum, while on others it is slight.Lower lipsThe lower lip may be equal in size to theupper lip or smaller or larger. Use caution inindicating the lower lip. The top example isthe correct way, while the lower example isincorrect. Do not completely outline the lowerlip. Remember in chapter five the lower lipwas used as an example of a problem area.
112Correct shadingThough upper and lower lips are about the same shade, artists usu-ally shade the upper lip darker than the lower lip. This will help dif-ferentiate the two lips and add to the illusion of depth in the work.Think of a pumpkinConsider a pumpkin when you shade the mouth. The ribs of thepumpkin help define its roundness. The “ribs” of the mouth help todefine the roundness of the lip. This concept of shading somethingwhile thinking of the roundness of a pumpkin, is the same for shadingmustaches, hair and other features.Don’t drop the ballWe could, in a manner of speaking, say that the lips contain “fiveballs,” that is, the lips form rounded shapes. These shapes may notappear in many mouths, but if you are sensitive to them, you will seekthem when you shade the mouth.What to look forWithin the lip there are small lines or grooves. Use caution here, asthey are usually subtle. Shading in the direction of the lip structure willhelp you define the roundness of the lips.Shading the mouth
113Lip rimsAround the mouth you might see a lighterarea caused by a lip rim. This is a narrow areawhere light is captured around the mouth.Other mouth shapesThe mouth forms a barrel, or rounded shape,over the teeth. There may be pouches anddips of lighter or darker areas caused by theshape of the underlying teeth, jaw andmuscles.
114Drawing teeth seems to cause a greatdeal of grief to some budding artists.This is usually due to the “picket fenceeffect.” They draw each tooth as a sepa-rate shape and place hard lines betweenthe teeth.Gently, gentlyThink of shading teeth as gently indicating the location and shape of teeth, rather than pound-ing out the details of each tooth. Don’t floss the teeth with your pencil. Gradually shade theteeth darker as they go back into the mouth. Then indicate the gum line, add shadows toround the teeth and call it quits.Round the bottom ofthe tooth.Don’t draw lines toseparate individualteeth.Increase the shadingas you move towardthe back of themouth.These areas arevery dark.Indicate the top shape of the tooth.Dealing with teethDon’t fence them inIf you emphasize theseparations betweeneach tooth, your draw-ing of the mouthbecomes distractingand unrealistic.
115Smile changesWhen a person smiles, not only does the mouth change size andshape, the entire face becomes involved. Eyes pucker, cheeks bulgeand the nose broadens and flattens. There is no hard-and-fast rule asto what changes take shape within a smiling face. The important partis to draw what you see using the tools provided.Detective Carolyn Crawford14" × 11" (36cm × 28cm)
Drawing the HeadIhave placed drawing the head toward the end of this book, because Itend to draw from the center of the face outward. There is no hard-and-fast rule on this. In this chapter, you will learn about head shapesand ears. In addition, I’ll review the difference between the adult, child andmale/female proportions.In general, I will be teaching you how to draw the head as if youwere looking at the person straight on. Obviously, not all drawings willinclude this angle, but it would be almost impossible for me to includeexamples of every angle. The best understanding of the basic head shapeswill come from the level, straight-on view of the head.Diana, Shiloh and AynsleeStuart (detail)14" × 11" (28cm × 36cm)U
118Facial reconstructionForensic artists have a number of duties, including facial reconstruc-tion or approximation. They start with the skull of an unknown personand attach tissue-depth markers made from an electric eraser (as seenhere). This provides the outline of the face.I have developed a different attitudetoward drawing heads ever since I com-pleted a facial reconstruction class byBetty Pat Gatliff. This remarkablewoman has spent years teaching (andcreating) three-dimensional facial recon-structions. She sculpts with clay directlyover the skulls of unidentiﬁed people, asshown in the drawing. Handling skulls,even if they’re plastic ones you can pur-chase through art supply stores, is awonderful way to understand the struc-ture of the face.EggheadGenerally speaking, people’s heads areegg-shaped. The bones and muscles ofthe face combine to create many differentappearances.Location, location, locationAlthough faces differ with the underlyingbone structure, I seek certain points onthe face where “something happens.”For example, I know that if the personhas prominent cheekbones, the bottomof their cheek will be even with the baseof the nose. This is not always the case,but it is an example of certain parts ofthe face that I check.The structure of the head
The parts of the headHere are a few areas to seek out before you begin to draw any face;you can expect “something to happen” in each of these locations.Knowing these points and how they influence the appearance of thefacial features will give you a great jumping off point.119The bottom of thecheek occurs at thebase of the nose.The chin tends to roundat the outside cornersof the mouth.The jaw willgenerally angle in tothe chin belowthe level of themouth opening.If the face hashollow cheeks,they tend to occurin this area.The top of thecheek is below eyelevel.
LongRound120To give you a general idea, I have shown some of the mostcommon head shapes. The shape of the forehead is created bythe hairline (or lack thereof). Foreheads may be high, low,rounded, squared or a variety of different shapes.Head shapes
122Prominent SunkenCheeks may be prominent, average orsunken. The cheeks generally start belowthe eye and end near the bottom of thenose.Cheeks
123On average, the lower face tends to bedivided into three parts between the baseof the nose and the chin. The ﬁrst part isbetween the nose and the opening of themouth. The second section is betweenthe mouth opening and the deepest pointon the mandible (lower jaw). The thirdsection is between the deepest point onthe chin and the bottom of the chin. Achin may be long, short, rounded,square, pointed, double, protruding orreceding, or it may have a cleft.About 1⁄3 ofthe faceChins
Don’t stretch your drawing too thin!There is one fact that you must remember when drawing necks: Youmust start them at the shoulder area and continue it up to the eararea. Don’t forget to check that the length of the neck is in proportionto the angle you are viewing it at.124Like other parts of the face, necks vary insize and shape. If there is a common mis-take that artists make, it is in making theneck too long and thin. The neck beginsat the shoulder area and attaches at thechin, but it doesn’t end there. It continuesup to the ear area, although we usuallydon’t see the entire length when we lookat a person straight on. Therefore, checkthat the length of the neck is in propor-tion to the angle you are viewing it at.(The neck will appear shorter if you lookat it straight on, and longer if you view itfrom the back.) Clothing ﬁts relativelyhigh up on the neck.Necks
125Female faces tend to be more narrow in the chin and jaw areaand have a more narrow nose. The eyes are the same widthapart as on male faces. Yet, because a female face is more nar-row, the eyes may look larger in relation to the rest of the fea-tures. Also, the eyebrows tend to be higher and thinner onfemale faces.The female face
This drawing clearly shows how faces can change in appearance asthe person ages. Notice how the lower face lengthens, the lipsbecome fuller and hair tends to be less fine. Look at the illustrationon the next page for more details that are specific to the faces ofchildren.126Children have different proportions that change as they growolder (this is especially apparent in the face). The lower facegrows and lengthens with age.Diana, Shiloh and Aynslee Stuart11" × 14" (28cm × 36cm)Child vs. adult features
127Drawing a child’s faceMany people have trouble making children look young. You need tobe aware of certain secrets when drawing the face of a child. Forexample, the child’s face should have very little mid-face shading—especially around the eyes and nose—the iris is very large and thehair is fine.The eyebrows tendto be thin.The corners of theeyes are rounded andvery small.Children have veryshort noses.The lips are smallerand may be fuller.Keep the shadingvery light.There is almost noshading on the sideof the nose.The iris is very largeand the white areasare very small.Hair is fine;use a verysharp pencil.
Triangular fossa128The main parts of the earLearning the parts of the ear early on will save you a lot of grief later;you will always know what parts to look for, no matter how muchthey may vary from person to person. Plus, you can impress yourfriends with your in-depth knowledge of ear anatomy!The ears are an important and difﬁcult feature to accuratelydraw. They are very detailed and vary greatly from person toperson.AntihelixAntitragusLobeTragusHelixDrawing ears
129More locationsIf you looked at the front of a face, level, youwould see that the ears start at the eyebrowsand end around the base of the nose. Statedanother way, ears are about as long as thenose.Ears are about aslong as the nose.
130ProfileFrom the side, the distance from the back of the eye to the back ofthe ear is about the same as from the bottom of the eye to the chin.
131Two viewsThe ear looks different from the side than from the front.
Drawing HairDrawing hair can be interesting, to say the least. Because there areso many hairstyles, this chapter covers just a few general tricksand techniques.In order to make “great” hair, you should be prepared to spend somequality time with your pencil; you are going to be at it for awhile.Dull pencil points make for “ﬂat” hair, not ﬁne hair. Don’t just startscribbling somewhere; hair has a start, end, highlights and dark areas.Drawing hair also includes beards and mustaches. You will apply the sameprinciples to facial hair as you did to create the hair on top of the head.bentley stuart14" × 11" (36cm × 28cm)I
134Hair may be ﬁne, coarse, thick or thin,straight or wavy and a host of otherappearances. You can draw many ofthese variables by varying the thicknessof the pencil lead and using differentgrades of lead. Draw thick, coarse hairwith a blunt 6B pencil. Use a sharp HBlead for ﬁne hair. Children’s hair is usual-ly ﬁne, so make sure your pencil point issharp.Combing the hairAs shown in this series of steps, use yourpencil to “comb” the hair. Lay your pen-cil strokes the direction the hair would begrowing or combed.Build darksOnce you establish the direction, start toﬁll in the strokes. If the hair is ﬁne, donot try to get dark in a single layer ofpencil lines. Build the darks by continu-ing to place more lines in the same place.Start with a very sharp 2H or HB pencil.Progressively move to darker leads(2B-6B).Pencil linesA pencil stroke is likea hair—fat at thebeginning and finetoward the end.Establish an outlineStart by getting the basic information downon paper.Creating different types of hairCreate long, dark hair!
Don’t be impatient!Keep building up the smooth strokes. Hairtakes time to accurately render.135Start to form the hairLay your pencil flat and begin to establishthe direction of the hair.$ %
Ahh... Finally done!The end result was definitely worth the wait! Just remember tokeep building up your strokes until you hair looks complete.136Gina Garofano14" × 11" (36cm × 28cm)Q
Continue to buildKeep layering the strokes and begin to establish the dark andlight areas.Begin the highlightsEstablish the outline of the hair and highlights. Begin to placeyour pencil strokes back into the highlight. Remember, the end ofthe stroke should reach into the highlight.137It’s better to leave space for the highlights in the hair ratherthan to try and erase them out. The highlight in the hair shouldhave the end stroke of the pencil coming into it. This meansyou need to place your pencil lines “backward” into the high-light on the top, as shown in the next four images. Don’t leavethe highlight a large, white area. Place a line or two completelyacross the white highlight area.Build hair highlights! $
Anchor your highlightsPlace a few strands across the light areas to blend them into therest of the hair. This will help save the hair from looking like it hasfloating white spaces.Don’t forget the light areasAs the hair becomes more defined, check and make sure you areleaving lighter areas for the highlight.138% Q
139Pencil strokesYou can create some hairstyles by placing a 6B pencil on its side andmaking very small strokes.Curly or wavy hairTreat curly or wavy hair the same as straight hair. Establish the direc-tion of your pencil strokes and where the highlights will occur. Then,settle in for a long afternoon of lines, lines and more lines.Different hairstyles
140Light-colored hairGray or blonde hair will still have dark areas in it. Remember to squintto see those darks.Susie Toronto, A.K.A.“Kukana”14" × 11" (36cm × 28cm)
Ihope you have arrived at a betterunderstanding of drawing in generaland drawing the face in particular. Ithink drawing is the underlying disciplineof all good art. It is the basis which otherskills are built upon. Creativity in art isknowledge based—and you now have agreat deal of foundational knowledge.I would love to see any of you in oneof my classes some day. I enjoy teachingand seeing you grow as an artist.I would like to take a bit of time tothank and talk about a number of veryspecial people who have either appearedin this book or allowed me to use theirwork.The watercolor appearing in the frontis located at the gallery that representsme: Frame of Mind Gallery, 119 N 2nd,Coeur d’Alene, ID 83814 (208) 667-6889. A big hug and thank you to theowners Shane and Merlin Berger. Wehave been together for a wonderful eight-een years and counting.John Hinds and Greg Bean are formerlaw enforcement students—and previ-ously untrained artists—who have takentheir art well beyond the forensic artﬁeld. Both ofﬁcers have had considerablesuccess in their composite identiﬁcationsas well. John Hinds is a retired sheriff’sdetective who currently works as a foren-sic artist in the New England area. Histraining in forensic art started in 1989with extensive training through StuartParks Forensic Consultants, then furthertraining with the FBI at Quantico, Vir-ginia. John’s composites have been fea-CONCLUSIONtured in newspapers and news programs,such as “Dateline NBC”. One of hisdrawings led to the identiﬁcation, arrestand conviction of the worst serial arson-ist in U.S. history.Detective Greg Bean, Bellevue PoliceDepartment, Bellevue, Washington, sentme his pre-instructional and the twodrawings: “Sunbathing baby Hannah inher daddy’s hands. Family reunion, Stur-gis, Michigan, August, 2001” and “Cort-ney from a photograph by Jean atMount Rushmore, August, 2001.”Taylor Perkins, age 7, is a home-schooled student who attended aspecial class I offered for home-schooledstudents.Kyle and Suzan Helmhout, HaydenLake, Idaho, attended my class at NorthIdaho College in Coeur d’Alene. Theydrew their daughters, Laci, age 1, andHeather, age 5, after four lessons of twohours each.After a chance, but wonderful, meet-ing at an art show, I worked out a greatworking relationship with the talentedphotographer Kelly Dullanty. Kelly has acouple passions in life: jewelry designand photography. As a gifted designer forover ﬁfteen years, he has created count-less jewelry pieces that are works of artin and of themselves and are treasured bytheir owners. Photography has been apart of Kelly’s life for over thirty years,working in the darkroom and casuallydeveloping his skills. During the pastfour years he has taken this passion seri-ously and has become an award-winningartist in this medium. His portraits andstill life studies draw the viewer into theenergy of the moment.The wonderful faces that formed thephotographs and drawings: GarrettMcDonald, age 12, a rising young artistin North Idaho; Corrine Oberg, a beauti-ful young lady and aspiring model; Cros-by Cross, age 8, a multi-talented youngman, Coeur d’Alene, Idaho; AlexisEmery, art student, Coeur d’Alene, Chris-tian Easterling, age10, a visitor to ourranch and the son of a friend of mybrother. Thank you all for your smilinginspiration.Many law enforcement studentsagreed to let me turn them into “mugs”for my book and I do owe them a greatbig “thank you” and a frog sticker.Thanks to Detective Cris Harnisch,Oconomowoc Police Department,Oconomowoc, Wisconsin, Gina Garo-fano, Poughkeepsie, New York, Detec-tive Carolyn Crawford, Portland PoliceBureau and Detective Lieutenant JerryScalley, Woburn Police Department,Woburn, MA. Thanks, guys.Once again I thank my husband, RickParks, for his drawing for the book. Youhave great facial features (your ears,nose, eyes, and proﬁle really helped thecause). You are a brilliant artist, banjopicker and Christian man. What morecould I want?Finally, thank you Susie Toronto,Hayden Lake, Idaho ( aka “Kukana”).One talented artist and “Wild, WackyWoman.” Keep it up, girl.
AAccuracy, tools for checking, 24, 25, 74–75Angles, inclined, 50Asymmetry, 50BBaselines, 30–33Blending tools, 17Bone structure and head shape, 118–119Bridge, of the nose, 101CCartoons, 25Centering eyes, 80Cheekbones, 119Cheeks, 38, 122Childrens head shapes, 126Chins, 119, 123, 125Circles, shading, 71Color of eyes, 87, 88Color of hair, 140Comparing value changes, 68Composite drawing, 10Computers, as drawing aides, 68Contrast, within the iris, 87Curly hair, 139Curvescheek, 122of eyebrows, 93measuring, 38DDarkness, 105, 134Distance, and accuracy, 74EEars, 128–131Electric pencils, 14Enlarging, 36–37Erasers, 15–16Expressionand eyes, 82–84and facial feature change, 115Eyebrows, 89–93Eyelashes, 89–93Eyes, 78–93childrens, 127INDEXand expression, 82–84and eyelids, 85–86and iris location, 46–47, 48, 80measuring their location, 35, 78–79in various shapes, 89–90FFacial featureschecking subtle angles of, 50and curves, 38measuring their location, 34–35and optical indexing, 39–40and shading based on shape, 71–73See also speciﬁc feature nameFacial reconstruction, 9, 118Female faces, 97, 125Flattening to two-dimensions, 57Foreheads, and nose placement, 97GGender, and facial differences, 97, 125Graphite, 14Grid rulers, 50Grids, 40HHair, 134–140childrens, 127eyebrows and eyelashes, 89–93highlighting, 137–138shading, 112styles, 139–140texture, 134–135HB lead, 14Head shapesand bone structure, 118–119child vs. adult, 126–127Highlightingeyes, 87, 88hair, 137–138noses, 102Holders, lead, 14IInclined angles, 50Indexing, optical, 39Inverting images, 49, 74Irisesmeasuring, 47, 48and pupil placement, 80shading, 87–88Isolating shapes, 45, 68JJaws, 119, 123, 125KKneaded rubber erasers, 15–16LLead, grades of, 14Lightand changes in value, 60and feature visibility, 105and shading of eyes, 88and shading of lips, 113and shading of noses, 102Linesavoiding on noses, 104of hair, 134killing, 65–66of the mouth, 67, 109, 112and value change, 64Lips. See mouthsLocation. See siteLong head shape, 120Lower eyelids, 86Lower lips, 67, 108, 111MMale noses, 97Materialsfor drawing eyes, 79erasers, 15–16for measuring, 33, 37paper, 17pencils, 14templates and blending tools, 17Measuringchins, 123curves, 38ear location, 129–130eyes, 48, 78–79proportions, 30
tools for, 37Mechanical pencils, 14Memorization, 21Mirror technique, 75Mouths, 108–113childrens, 127and lines, 67, 109and lip shape, 110–111shading, 112NNecks, 124Negative space, 51, 52Noses, 96–105childrens, 127and ears, 129female, 125placement of, 98and shape of nasal wings, 99Nostrils, 100–101OOptical tools, 39Outlines, 26Oval head shape, 121PPaper, 17Paper stump, 60Patterns, perceivedbreaking, 24and untrained drawings, 20–23Pencilsand eye color, 88handling of, 61and lead grades, 14and measuring proportions, 32–33, 35Perceptionquestioning, 53–54testing the accuracy of, 74and untrained drawings, 20–23, 24Philtrum, 108, 111Photographsand checking subtle angles, 50and establishing baselines, 30–31as references, 44Pointers, lead, 14Positive space, 51, 52Pre-instructional drawings, 19–22Proportional divider, 37Proportionsenlarging, 36–37of iris to eye, 47measuring, 30–33and use of grids, 40Pupils, 46–47, 80QQuestioning perception, 53–54, 69RRectangular head shape, 121Referenceschoosing the right, 44importance of using, 24and measuring baselines, 30–33reﬂected light, 103Renaming, 50Round shapesof heads, 120within the jaw, 113within the lips, 112shading of, 71, 103Rubber erasers, 15Rulers, 15, 50SScale, of values, 68Seeing, drawing as, 20, 24Shading, 60–73childrens faces, 127deﬁned, 24, 25of eyes, 87limited to visible value changes, 68–69and lines, 64–67of lips, 67, 112of noses, 101, 103–104Step-by-step techniques for, 62–63of teeth, 114–115shape, 44–57deﬁned, 24, 25of eyebrows, 92–93of eyes, 47–48, 78–79ﬂattening, 57of heads, 118–121of noses, 96, 99, 101Shading and, 71–73, 103Sharpeners, pencil, 14Shields, for erasing, 16Simpliﬁcation, 46Site, 30–41deﬁned, 24and enlarging, 36–37and measuring proportions, 30–33of noses, 97, 98and optical indexing, 39–40and the pencil technique, 34–35See also measuringSkin texture, 61Smiles, 115Smudging, 60–61Squinting, 68, 140Symmetry, 50TTechniques of feature assembly, 24–26Teeth, 114–115Templates, 17, 79Three-dimensional subjectsﬂattening to two-dimensions, 57and measuring baselines, 32–33Tortillion, 17Tracing, 55–56Triangular head shape, 121Two-dimensional referencesand checking subtle angles, 50establishing baselines in, 30–31ﬂattening objects to, 57UUpper lips, 67, 108, 110, 111VValueschanging, 60and lines, 64scale of, 68Viewﬁnders, 51WWings of the nose, 96, 98–99
Learn how to render the male and femalehuman form in a classic style! Clem Robinsmakes it easy by combining direct observa-tion of the human form with an analyticalstudy of anatomy, perspective, light, shade,and composition. Each chapter includesexplanatory text, plus annotated drawings orstep-by-step demonstrations.ISBN 1-58180-204-8, paperback, 144 pages,#31984-KGet the ﬁnestin drawinginstruction fromNORTH LIGHTBOOKSBert Dodson’s successful methods of teachinghave made this book one of the most popu-lar, best-selling art books in history! He pro-vides a complete system for developingdrawing skills, including 48 practice exercises,reviews, and self-evaluations. Topics includelearning to control proportion, scale, move-ment, depth, pattern, and more!ISBN 0-89134-337-7, paperback, 224 pages,#30220A bestseller for three decades, this extraordi-nary book shows you how to reduce complexfigures into a variety of easy-to-draw shapes.It’s a powerful combination of classic, proveninstruction, detailed anatomy studies examin-ing bone and muscle structure, and specialguidelines for drawing the head, hands andfeet.ISBN 0-89134-097-1, paperback, 144 pages,#7571-KThe key to creating a likeness is to see anddraw the big shapes of dark and light. Thisbook makes it easy. In nine step-by-stepdemos, you’ll learn how to master basic draw-ing techniques, render facial features andexpressions, then draw a variety of people indifferent poses and lighting conditions.ISBN 1-58180-245-5, paperback, 128 pages,#32023-KThese books and other ﬁneNorth Light titles are availablefrom your local art & craftretailer, bookstore, online supplieror by calling 1-800-448-0915.