Mediu r notiuni de baza - culoare
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×
 

Mediu r notiuni de baza - culoare

on

  • 986 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
986
Views on SlideShare
986
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
9
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

Mediu r notiuni de baza - culoare Mediu r notiuni de baza - culoare Document Transcript

  • PRIMARY AND SECONDARY Brenda Hoddinott R-01 INTERMEDIATE: COLOR BASICSIn this lesson, you discover how to make secondary colors from primary colors, and explore abasic color wheel, complementary colors, and warm and cool colors.Colored pencils are a wonderful medium for drawing everything and anything. They beautifullyportray soft delicate drawings such as portraits and flowers, and also work very well for subjectsneeding a bolder, more colorful approach. “Painting” with colored pencils is relativelyinexpensive, not messy, and easily travels with you wherever you go.This lesson is divided into the following four parts: PRIMARY TO SECONDARY: Use colored pencils to make secondary colors from primary colors. COMPLEMENTARY COLORS: Explore complementary colors and make a basic color wheel. WARM AND COOL COLORS: Discover some of the associations and emotions attached to primary and secondary colors. EXPLORING COLORS IN A DRAWING: Examine a drawing that is rendered in colored pencil with mostly primary and secondary colors.Suggested drawing supplies include good quality white drawing paper, and three colored pencils,red (magenta), blue (cyan) and yellow. 8 PAGES – 15 ILLUSTRATIONS This article is recommended for artists of all ages and abilities, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2004 (Revised 2006)
  • -2- PRIMARY TO SECONDARY Primary colors are the basic hues, colors or pigments of red, yellow, and blue. Hue refers to any definite color within the vast range of possibilities. Pigment is the basic ingredient, usually a powder or dry substance, used in the manufacture of various colors in colored art media. All colors originate from primary colors, and no combinations of other colors can make primary colors. Primary colors are high intensity and go together well if you want a drawing to be incredibly bright. By mixing the primary colors together in different combinations, you can create millions of different colors. 1) Use red (magenta), yellow, and blue (cyan) colored pencils, to make three color swatches. ILLUSTRATION 01-01 Your colored pencils may be different than mine, so simply choose those that are closest in color. Colored pencils come in a wide variety of qualities from student to professional. The permanency rating of the pigment used in the mixture, helps determine the ultimate quality of the pencils. During the manufacturing process, various synthetic and/or organic pigments are added to binding agents (such as clay or chalk) and wax. In the following exercise, you use combinations of the three primary colors to make secondary colors. Secondary colors are the hues, pigments or colors of orange, green, and purple created by mixing two of the primary colors together. Red and yellow make orange, yellow and blue make green, and red and blue make purple. 2) Layer your red and yellow colors on top of one another to make orange. Don’t press too hard with your pencils or you’ll destroy the tooth of your paper; then the second color will not adhere to the paper. In this case, I added the red on top of the yellow. ILLUSTRATION 01-02 + =Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • -3- 3) Layer yellow and blue over one another to make green. I lay down a base of yellow and then add blue on top. ILLUSTRATION 01-03 + = 4) Layer blue and red over one another to make purple. The blue is added on top of the red. ILLUSTRATION 01-04 + = COMPLEMENTARY COLORS Complementary colors are very different from one another, and when placed beside each other, their strong contrasting colors seem to make one another brighter and more vibrant. When used in a drawing, sets of complementary colors create harmony because they contain all three primary colors. Colored pencils were originally developed for commercial artists and illustrators. Over the past two decades, “painting” with colored pencils has gained a new respect as a medium for fine art. Sets of complementary colors are easy to find on a color wheel because they are directly opposite one another (see Illustration 01-08). Color wheel refers to a method of arranging colors within a circular format to easily reference primary, secondary, and complementary colors. Examine three basic sets of complementary colors in Illustrations 01-05, 01-06, and 01-07. 5) Find all three primary colors in each of the three following sets of two colors.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • -4- ILLUSTRATION 01-05 YELLOW AND PURPLE (purple is made with red and blue) ILLUSTRATION 01-06 ORANGE AND BLUE (orange is made with yellow and red) ILLUSTRATION 01-07 RED AND GREEN (green is made with yellow and blue)Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • -5- Having a color wheel, close by when you draw, serves as an easy reference for choosing colors for your drawings. In this exercise, you make your own color wheel in two simple steps. 6) Use a compass to draw a large circle with a smaller circle on its inside. 7) Make color swatches of all the primary and secondary colors. Begin with the yellow at the top of the color wheel and work your way in a clockwise direction, until you end with orange. Use only your red, yellow and blue pencils. Should you ever forget which sets of colors are complementary, you need only look for the sets that are opposite one another on the color wheel. ILLUSTRATION 01-08 BASIC COLOR WHEEL WARM AND COOL COLORS In this section, I tell you about some of the associations and emotions attached to the primary and secondary colors. WARM COLORS WARM COLORS Yellow, orange, and red, are considered warm colors as in the colors you see in fire. They are dramatic, bright, bold and energetic.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • -6- ILLUSTRATION 01-09 YELLOW: is bright, cheery, and powerful and is the color of happiness, sunshine and flowers such as daffodils. ILLUSTRATION 01-10 ORANGE: is a combination of yellow and red. Think of orange as energetic, vibrant, and flamboyant. ILLUSTRATION 01-11 RED: is the warmest and most energetic color and is associated with love, energy, and danger (as in a red traffic light). COOL COLORS COOL COLORS Cool colors, blue, green, and purple, are usually soothing and calming. Think about the colors in snow and ice. ILLUSTRATION 01-12 BLUE: represents tranquility, harmony, and peace. Think of a blue sky, a calm ocean, or an iceberg. ILLUSTRATION 01-13 GREEN: is soothing, nurturing, and calming, and symbolizes nature, good luck, youth, and generosity. Some greens that are made with more yellow than blue can be considered as warm colors. ILLUSTRATION 01-14 PURPLE: is spiritual, mysterious, and exotic, and represents royalty, nobility, and enlightenment. Some purples (made with more red than blue) can easily fall into the category of warm colors.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • -7- EXPLORING COLORS IN A DRAWING My cartoon drawing of a dog named “Wobby” is rendered in colored pencil with mostly primary and secondary colors. Because his face looked so sad, I choose to use mostly blue for this drawing. To keep the drawing bright, I used other primary colors for this puppy, yellow for the insides of his ears and the under pads of his paws, and red (almost pink) for his nose. I chose stripes of both primary and secondary colors for coloring his rainbow collar (bow). ILLUSTRATION 01-15 8) Find at least one example of each of the three primary colors and the three secondary colors in his collar (bow). Take some time to examine colored drawings, and take note of how the colors are used to enhance the subject and/or the moods of artworks. To render a drawing of Wobby, check out lesson Y-02 Advanced: Creating in Color.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • -8- BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • OIL PAINTING Brenda Hoddinott R-02 INTERMEDIATE: COLOR BASICSThis article is designed to help you prepare a practical shopping list for buying useful brushes toenhance your painting experiences. Good brushes are a painter’s most important tools. I sharemany of my favorite types of brushes and discuss their uses. You also discover lots of basicinformation about brushes to help you become a better informed shopper when you finally hit theart store. INTRODUCTION: This article is designed to help you dig through the maze of artists’ brushes, and zoom in on those that are most practical for your specific needs. BECOMING FAMILIAR WITH BRUSHES: A basic understanding of brush construction is very handy when you are wandering around an art supply store trying to decide which brushes to buy. COMPARING SOFT HAIRS AND STIFF BRISTLES: Even though there are lots of different types of brushes, they can be separated into two basic groups, based on whether their bristles/hairs are soft or stiff. EXPLORING BRUSH SIZES AND BRUSHSTROKES: The sizes of the brushes you use play a big role in determining how your finished paintings will look. IDENTIFYING SHAPES AND TYPES OF BRUSHES: Different types of brushes are easily identified by their unique shapes. For example, some brushes are designed for pushing paint around on the canvas, and others can be used for drawing or blending. EXAMINING TYPES OF HAIR AND BRISTLES: Brushes are made from either natural or synthetic hairs or a combination of both, and vary greatly in softness, quality and cost. Recommended for artists and aspiring artists, of all levels and abilities, with an interest in learning about oil painting brushes. 11 PAGES - 13 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada, 2003 (Revised 2006)
  • -2-INTRODUCTIONWhen you take a trip to any major art store, expect to be totally memorized and overwhelmed byall the types of brushes on the shelves. You’ll see hundreds of shapes, brands, colors, and sizes.Choosing your first set of paint brushes is probably the most traumatic aspect of shopping forpainting supplies!The selection becomes a little smaller when you locate the paintbrushes that are specificallydesigned for oil painting. However, even when you find the correct section, you discover manyshapes, such as script liners, filberts, rounds, flats, brights, and fan brushes. Then, to furtherconfuse you, each shape comes in a variety of bristles (hairs) such as synthetic, hog, mongoose,and sable. And, after that, you have to choose from all the different sizes of bristles and lengthsof handles!Catch your breath and relax! Thisarticle is designed to help you digthrough the maze of artists’ brushes,and zoom in on those that are mostpractical for your specific needs.Here’s a photo of several brushesfrom my collection. Some are muchworn - as a matter of fact, a few ofthem are over ten years old - buteach of them has a uniquepersonality when working on apainting!Figure 01: a few of my favorite oilpainting brushesBECOMING FAMILIAR WITH BRUSHESGood quality artists’ paintbrushes are expensive, but you begin to appreciate this when you findout how they are made. Manufacturing high quality paintbrushes is a surprisingly complexprocedure. An understanding of the basics of brush construction is very handy when you arewandering around an art supply store trying to decide which brushes to buy.A paintbrush has the following three fundamental parts, and each plays an important role indetermining if a brush is suitable for your oil painting needs. Brush hairs (sometimes called bristles): are on the end of a paintbrush and are the means by which you apply paint to your painting surface. Ferrule: is a cylinder (usually made of metal) that holds the brush hairs (or bristles) in their proper place, and joins them to the handle. Handle: is the part of a paintbrush held by the artist, and is usually made of wood and available in short and long lengths.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • -3-A brush begins its life as a pre-measured bundle of natural hair or synthetic fibers. The brush isthen shaped, bound on the end, inserted into the ferrule, and measured for suitable length. In agood quality brush, you find at least as much of the brush inside the ferrule as what you see onthe outside. The visible part of the brush hair (the head of the brush) is usually less than half thetotal length, which gives the brush a nice springy feel as you paint.Bristles (or hairs) are then positioned into the ferrule, and secured with a setting compoundspecifically designed for its final use.The top section of the ferrule is bent soas to sturdily fasten the brush head. Itsother end is dented into the wood of thehandle to securely hold it in place.Figure 02: a small selection of brush hairsand bristles securely fastened into varioustypes of ferrules.Brush hairs/bristles can be long, short, thick, or thin, and are made from natural or synthetichairs, bristles or fibers (or a mixture of any of these), and are responsible for carrying paint toyour canvas, placing the pigment exactly where you want it, and/or moving the paint around tocreate an image. Hog bristles and sable are popular natural products used in the manufacturing ofbrushes. Synthetic brushes are usually less expensive and often work just as well!A good quality ferrule (the tube which connects the brush hairs to the handle) is a taperedcylinder without any seams. Refer to the next photo: the first three ferrules are shaped forbrushes known as flats or filberts; the next three are shaped to hold rounds or script-liners; andthe one on the far right is designed to hold a fan brush. Stay away from brushes with a seam in the ferrule. These brushes are usually very poor quality and won’t last very long. Figure 03: The size and shape of the ferrule determines the size and shape of the brush head.You can choose brushes with either short or long handles. Short handled brushes work well forartists who like to work on a small easel or at a table, and/or prefer detailed or close up painting.If you find a long handled brush you absolutely love, you can always have the handle cut shorterso its end doesn’t poke you in the eye as you work.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • -4-A long handled brush is great for artists who prefer to work at an easel, at arms length away fromtheir canvases. Most artists who love to paint loosely on large canvasses tend to prefer longhandled brushes. When you shop for a paintbrush, check that the ferrule is firmly attached to the handle. A brush with a loose ferrule probably has a poor quality handle, which may separate from the brush and fall apart after a couple of uses.Paintbrush handles comes in tons of different colors, andare usually made from nicely finished wood that has beenvarnished or painted. However, on occasion, you maydiscover brush handles made from something different.Watercolor brush handles are short since the work isusually at close range. Oil and acrylic brushes havelonger handles for use at a greater distance on uprightcanvases. There is no reason not to use any brush you feelwould best suit the work, unless of course therecommendations of the brush manufacturer state that thebrush is only suitable for a specific medium. Long-handled brushes can be cut for watercolorists, orextensions can be added to short handled brushes for oilpainters.If the handle of a brush looks cheap and poorly finished,chances are it’s a poor quality brush.Figure 04: a small sampling of brush handlesCOMPARING SOFT HAIRS AND STIFF BRISTLESEven though there are lots of different types of brushes, they can all be separated into two basicgroups, based on whether their bristles/hairs are soft or stiff. Beginners to oil painting need toexperiment with both types before they can choose their favorites. Soft and stiff brushes areavailable in numerous shapes and sizes to suit individual artistic needs.Stiff brushes are the work horses of oil painting and are primarily used for applying paint to asurface (such as canvas or wood). Relatively inexpensive stiff brushes often work as well as themore expensive ones, and are ideal for thick oil paint. Natural hog bristles/hairs are a traditionaloption and are very popular with oil painters. But, before you buy, check out some of thewonderful new synthetic varieties now available. When choosing brushes, press the bristles into the palm of your hand to see how they feel and how quickly they bounce back into their original shape. Oil painting brushes need to be somewhat firm but also flexible and springy.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • -5-This very loosely renderedpainting of flowers is doneentirely with stiff brushes.I could have used blendingbrushes to smooth out the paint,but I chose to leave it as it was,with the brush work and theheavy texture of the paint clearlyshowing.Figure 05: painting of flowersrendered with stiff brushesSoft brushes work beautifully for blending paint in sections of your painting where you dontwant brush marks to show. You can choose from natural hairs, such as sable, but I find many ofthe good quality synthetic alternatives work equally well and are cheaper.As you check out soft brushes at the art store, you may discover that some of the brush tips feelstiff to the touch. Manufacturers sometimes pre-shape their brushes and protect them with a coatof hardening agent, which holds the hairs stiffly in place until you wash them. Before they hit thedisplay aisles of art supply stores, many brushes are even fitted with protective plastic sleeves tomake sure they aren’t damaged before you buy them.This section from one of mypaintings is only about 3 incheswide. I’ve enlarged it so you cansee the fine details (the full sizedpainting is 12 by 24 inches).The blending of colors andvalues, and the fine details, weredone with soft brushes.Figure 06: detail of paintingrendered with soft brushes Always hold soft brushes up to a bright light, and check them over very carefully for unruly hairs, before you buy them.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • -6-EXPLORING BRUSH SIZES AND BRUSHSTROKESSome artists think they should blend all their paintings so the brush strokes can no longer beseen. This is totally a matter of personal preference.I think big, simple brush strokes are gorgeous,and the thick texture of the paint adds a reallycool three dimensional feel to the painting’ssurface.The sizes of the brushes you use play a big rolein determining how your finished paintings willlook. I encourage beginners to start paintingwith big brushes; they hold more paint andallow for nice big bold strokes. The smaller thebrush the more fussy picky artists tend tobecome. Bigger brushes also encourage you tostay focused on your entire canvas, rather thanon intricate details which tend to beunrealistically difficult for beginners.Figure 07: tiny section of painting, rendered withbig brushes, results in very noticeable brushstrokesThe brushes I use for oil painting are various sizes from very tiny to big. Most brushes arenumbered according to size - but, giving you their numbers won’t help. Many different countriesmanufacture paintbrushes and the numbering systems tend to vary.I used small brushes for this section of a painting, and the colors are very smoothly blended, thebrushstrokes are barely visible, and the subjects are very intricately detailed. The larger sectionswere painted with a small brush that was springy and fun to work with.I used an even smaller brush toadd details, and a very tinyscript liner brush for the veryintricate work.In reality, this segment is only1 inch wide, but I’ve enlargedthis illustration so you can seethe details.Figure 08: view of a tiny sectionof a painting (four times its actualsize), rendered entirely with small,soft brushesCopyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • -7-IDENTIFYING SHAPES AND TYPES OF BRUSHESGood brushes are integral to achieving the results you desire. A poor quality, badly shaped, ordamaged brush may be frustrating to work with and will prevent you from painting to the best ofyour ability. In this section, I discuss brushes that I personally use. As your painting skillsimprove, try additional types of brushes to see which work best for your artistic objectives.Different types of brushes are easily identified by their unique shapes. Some brushes aredesigned for pushing paint around on the canvas. Others can be used to draw or blend. You needan assortment of various brushes to help you create paintings you’ll love.FLATS: have square ends and relatively longbristles and are great for making long, clean-edged strokes of color. They tend to respondquickly to each subtle variation in pressure asyou move the brush on your painting surface.The strokes of flats are angular and they workbeautifully for painting strong edges such as thesides of a building. Their thin edges can also beused for painting sharp lines. Flats come withsoft hair or stiff bristles in various sizes fromvery tiny to several inches wide.Figure 09: flats have square ends and long bristlesWide flat brushes are great for working on big canvases. They tend to be less expensive athardware and painting supply stores, than at art supply stores. Large flats handle nicely forcovering solid areas and backgrounds because they are springy without being too soft. Smallflats work well for painting finer details, especially for subjects that need strong edges. They aregreat for laying in rough outlines of color and getting into tight corners of the painting.BRIGHTS: are shorter than flats, but also have square ends. Theyallow more control over how much paint you apply, than a flat brush,because the hairs are shorter and the brush is less springy (more firm).They hold a lot of paint when adequately loaded, allowing you tomake either long bold or short repetitive strokes.Figure 10: brights have square ends and short bristlesFILBERTS: are available with either soft hairs or stiff bristles and differ from flat brushes inthat they are rounded on the tip. They are approximately the same length as flats, but create asofter, less angular brushstroke. I think of them as a hybrid between a round and a flat becausewhen they are manufactured, they start off as a round and are then flattened by the ferrule toretain their rounded edges.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • -8-Filberts come in lots of different sizes. Largefilberts are great for painting larger sectionsof paintings, such as backgrounds, and theirbrushstrokes are big, loose, and broad.Smaller ones make gorgeous delicate,rounded brushstrokes that look wonderful indetailed areas.Figure 11: filberts have rounded ends and longbristlesROUNDS AND SCRIPT LINERS: have brush hairs that are availablein various sizes including fat, thin, long, and short, but they always cometo a point. Both rounds and script liners are highly versatile and work wellfor drawing a preliminary composition on your canvas. They perform bestwith very thin paint.Rounds are great for painting and blending detailed sections of yoursubject. Script liners are fantastic for rendering very intricate details in thattheir smooth ends hold a lot of paint, thereby allowing you to paint long,continuous thin strokes of color.Figure 12: Both rounds and script liners have pointed tips, but the brush hairs ofscript liners (also called riggers) are much longer and thinnerBLENDING BRUSHES: are used for blending brushstrokes so as to create a smoother surface.Blending brushes are not designed to move paint around on your canvas, but rather to smooth outthe brushwork. Work them VERY gently and lightly across your canvas, in circular, diagonal, orside to side strokes. Apply very little pressure, or you’ll end up with a muddy mess of color and aruined painting. Remember, many artists blend very slightly or do not blend at all. Rather, they prefer to leave big bold brushstrokes of color.Fan brushes come in both bristle and soft hair and are availablein various sizes. Unlike other types of brushes, blenders usuallywork best when they are dry. Take note of how the shape of thetop section of the ferrule contributes to the unique fan-shape ofthis brush.Figure 13: my personal favorite type of blending brush is a soft-hairedfan brush (named so for obvious reasons)Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • -9- When shopping for a blending brush, gently pull on the hairs. If any come out of the ferule, don’t buy the brush! Nothing is more frustrating than picking brush hairs out of wet paint!EXAMINING TYPES OF HAIR AND BRISTLESBrushes are made from either natural or synthetic hairs, or a combination of both. Brushes rangegreatly in softness, quality and cost. Following are three of the most popular brush types: BRISTLE Brushes are perfectly suited for oils, are made from hog (pig) bristles, and are stiff enough to easily move thick oil paint around on your painting surface. Bristle brushes are the workhorses of painting and are flexible and springy. Inexpensive bristle brushes tend to work as well as more expensive one; however, they usually “shed” as they get older. Therefore, buy the best quality you can comfortably afford. SABLE is a soft hair, ideal for creating gentle and smooth effects with oils. The better the quality of a sable brush, the more paint it can hold while still maintaining its fine point. Kolinsky red sable is considered very high quality brush hair, and tends to be quite expensive. However, when properly taken care of, the very fine hairs are very durable and last for years and years. Regular red sable is a little coarser than Kolinsky, but is generally much less expensive. SYNTHETIC HAIR OR MIXED BRISTLE brushes are durable, easy to clean, and ideal for either beginners or professionals. Today’s synthetic brushes are much better quality than their predecessors. Generally speaking, I find the synthetics to work as well as the natural hairs, and they tend to be less expensive. However, the very best quality ones can be as expensive as natural hairs. Buy the best quality brushes you can comfortably afford and you’ll have wonderful friends that will serve your painting needs for many years to come. Any brush can apply paint to a surface. However, the key is to find the brushes that work well for you in making the types of marks you like. My best advice when shopping for brushes is to simply choose several different shapes, sizes, and types and experiment with each, until you find your favorites!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • - 10 -PAINTBRUSH RELATED TERMSBlending brushes: are used for blending brushstrokes so as to create a smoother surface.Bright: is the name of a shape of paintbrush with short bristles or hairs and a squared tip,primarily used for short controlled strokes and impasto.Bristle Brushes: are made from hog (pig) bristles, are flexible and springy, and are stiff enoughto easily move thick oil paint around on your painting surface.Brush hairs (sometimes called bristles): are on the end of a paintbrush and are the means bywhich you apply paint to your painting surface. They can be long, short, thick, or thin, and aremade from natural or synthetic hairs, bristles or fibers (or a mixture of any of these).Brush head: is the visible part of the brush hair or bristles.Fan brushes: come in both bristle and soft hair, are available in various sizes, usually work bestwhen they dry, and are often used for blending paint. The unique shape of the top section of theferrule contributes to the fan-shape of this brush.Ferrule: (pronounced fer’-el) is a cylinder (usually made of metal) which holds the brush hairs(or bristles) in their proper place, and joins them to the handle.Filbert: is a versatile paintbrush shape similar to a flat, but with rounded corners, which worksbeautifully for making thick or thin strokes with soft edges.Flat: is a popular shape of brush with long bristles or hairs and a squared tip, for making diversetypes of controlled and broad, sweeping strokes suitable for backgrounds and loose brushwork.Handle: is the part of a paintbrush held by the artist, is usually made of wood, and is available inshort and long lengths.Round: is a highly versatile type of brush with a pointed round tip. Rounds are capable ofyielding thick to thin strokes, and work well for “drawing” on your canvas.Sable Hair: is a soft hair, which is ideal for creating soft effects with oils.Script Liner (sometimes called a Rigger or Liner): is a paintbrush with long thin hair and apointed tip, which is well suited for producing long continuous lines without frequent reloading,and is fantastic for rendering very intricate details.Synthetic Hair or Mixed Bristle: brushes are durable, generally inexpensive, easy to clean, andideal for either beginners or professionals.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • - 11 -BRENDA HODDINOTTAs a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda utilizesdiverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, contécrayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott<BIOGRAPHYBorn in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. Shedeveloped strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning,and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as aself-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments haveemployed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal policedepartments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal CanadianMounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “ForensicArtists International”.Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing andpainting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired andtrained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brendachose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing,drawing, painting, and developing her websites.Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach tocurriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes forstudents of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels andabilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as aresource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughoutthe world.LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com