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Mediu n desene animate
Mediu n desene animate
Mediu n desene animate
Mediu n desene animate
Mediu n desene animate
Mediu n desene animate
Mediu n desene animate
Mediu n desene animate
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Mediu n desene animate
Mediu n desene animate
Mediu n desene animate
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Mediu n desene animate
Mediu n desene animate
Mediu n desene animate
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Mediu n desene animate

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  • 1. Brenda Hoddinott N-01 INTERMEDIATE: 3-D CARTOONS This project takes you step-by-step through the process of drawing an adorable cartoon of a young child with curly hair. You use hatching and crosshatching graduations to shade the facial forms, and squirkles to create the texture of curly hair.There’s a method to my madness in having you occasionally draw cartoons instead of realisticportraits. Cartoon drawings don’t have a lot of intricate details, thereby allowing you to focusyour full attention on the skills being introduced.The lesson is divided into the following two sections: SETTING UP YOUR DRAWING: In this section, you set up your drawing format and outline Misha’s head and face. A simple grid helps you draw a symmetrical face and accurate facial proportions. You need HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B pencils, a ruler, vinyl and kneaded erasers, and good quality drawing paper. ADDING SHADING TO MISHA’S FACE: With this adorable little face completely outlined, you then add shading with hatching, crosshatching, and squirkle graduations. Light from the right affects the placement and value of every section of shading.Suggested drawing supplies include good quality white drawing paper, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6Bpencils, a ruler, and kneaded and vinyl erasers. This lesson is recommended for home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators, as well as artists of all ages with basic drawing skills that include hatching, crosshatching, and squirkling. 9 PAGES - 11 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2004 (Revised 2006)
  • 2. 2 SETTING UP YOUR DRAWING In this section, you set up your drawing format and outline Misha’s head and face. A simple grid helps you draw a symmetrical face and accurate facial proportions. You need HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B pencils, a ruler, vinyl and kneaded erasers, and good quality drawing paper. ILLUSTRATION 01-01 1) Draw a square as your drawing space. Suggested sizes include 4 by 4, 6 by 6, or 8 by 8 inches. 2) Measure the halfway point on each of the four sides of the square and mark them with dots. 3) Divide your drawing space into four equal sections by connecting the opposite dots. Draw these lines VERY lightly because you have to erase them later! ILLUSTRATION 01-02 4) Draw a U-shape (Misha’s face) in the lower half of your drawing format. Use the grid lines to visually measure spaces so both sides of the face are symmetrical, rather than lopsided. Draw slowly. Check both sides of the face often to make sure they are both the same shape and width.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 3. 3 ILLUSTRATION 01-03 5) Draw the ears on either side of the head. ILLUSTRATION 01-04 6) Outline two almond shaped eyes on the face and add slightly curved lines (eyebrows) above the eyes.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 4. 4 ILLUSTRATION 01-05 7) Draw an oval shape (the nose) below the eyes. ILLUSTRATION 01-06 8) Lightly sketch the outline of the top half of the head. 9) Use your 6B pencil to shade the eyes, leaving the highlights white. The light source is from the right.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 5. 5 ILLUSTRATION 01-07 10) Draw a curved line below the nose (the mouth) and add a tiny curved line on each end of the mouth. Rotate your paper and view the face from different perspectives as you draw. This little trick often allows you insight into any problem areas. 11) Draw another curved line above the bottom of the face to represent a chubby chin. ILLUSTRATION 01-08 12) Erase your grid lines. 13) Draw wiggly lines around the upper section of the face to separate it from the hair. For lots of information on various shading techniques, refer to the lessons on squirkling and hatching in D-level: Beginner, F-level: Beginner, and L-level: Intermediate.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 6. 6 ADDING SHADING TO MISHA’S FACE This adorable little face is completely outlined and it’s time to add some shading! Light from the right affects the placement and value of every section of shading. 14) With 2H and HB pencils, lightly shade the entire face with hatching graduations. The shading is lighter on the right, closer to the light source. ILLUSTRATION 01-09Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 7. 7 15) Use crosshatching graduations to add smoother values to the face and nose. Use HB and 2B pencils. By drawing a second set of hatching lines, crossing over the first, you create crosshatching. With the addition of crosshatching lines, the overall shading becomes a little darker, which makes Misha’s face look three-dimensional. You can easily fix areas of shading you don’t like. Pat a too-dark section of shading with a kneaded eraser to make it lighter. Add more shading lines to make a section darker. ILLUSTRATION 01-10Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 8. 8 16) Shade the hair with graduated squirkles. Use a 4B pencil for darker values (on the left) and HB for lighter sections. Lots of little curls extend around the edges of the head and onto the ears and forehead. A graduation of squirkles creates the texture of curly hair and makes the hair look three-dimensional. ILLUSTRATION 01-11 Sign your name, add today’s date on the back of your drawing, and then pat yourself on the back!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 9. 9 BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 10. Brenda Hoddinott N-02 INTERMEDIATE: 3-D CARTOONS In this fun lesson, you use graduated hatchingtechniques to define the three dimensional forms of an adorable penguin named Tux. You first establish the proportions of his head, body, feet and wings; thenoutline the various shapes and forms; and finally using graduated hatching lines to characterize the feathers.While Tux’s markings don’t definitively place him into any one specific penguin variety, he isnonetheless easily identified as a penguin.This project is divided into the following two sections: PUTTING PROPORTIONS ON PAPER: You begin by setting up your drawing format and sketching the proportions of the penguin with help from a simple grid. You then draw a neat outline in preparation for shading. ADDING SHADING AND TEXTURE: You work with only three graduations – light, medium, and dark – to shade the three dimensional forms of the entire penguin. Finally you draw the details of Tux’s tuxedo, eyes, wings, tail, feet, and beak.Suggested drawing supplies include good quality white drawing paper, a ruler, kneaded andvinyl erasers, and various graphite pencils, such as 2H, 2B, HB, 4B, and 6B. This project is recommended for artists, aged ten to ninety-nine, who have some basic drawing skills, and also for home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. 22 PAGES - 28 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada
  • 11. 2 PUTTING PROPORTIONS ON PAPER Penguins share many characteristics with other birds, such as being warm-blooded, having feathers, a beak, two legs, and laying eggs. They are incredibly adorable and easily identified by dark overcoats of feathers which look like long-tailed tuxedo jackets. Even though penguins can’t fly and look clumsy when walking on land, they are very strong swimmers. Penguins use their wings as flippers to smoothly propel themselves quickly through the cold waters of their homes in search of food. Their unique markings identify at least eighteen different types of penguins who range in height from less than fourteen inches to more than four feet. In other words, penguins come in lots of shapes and sizes, and with various markings. Hence, in this project, you have the creative license to draw a penguin that looks very different than Tux. Setting up accurate proportions is the foundation of drawing. If the proportions of your subject are off, no amount of beautiful shading or fancy pencil marks can save your drawing. You begin by setting up your drawing format and sketching the proportions of the penguin with help from a simple grid. You then draw a neat outline in preparation for shading. The size of your drawing format determines the height of your penguin. Consider the following sizes of rectangular formats for the different shapes of penguins: Short: 4 by 5 inches, or 6 by 7.5 inches, or 8 by 10 inches Medium: 4 by 6 inches, or 6 by 9 inches, or 10 by 12 inches Tall: 4 by 7 inches, or 6 by 10.5 inches, or 8 by 14 inches ILLUSTRATION 02-03 ILLUSTRATION 02-02 ILLUSTRATION 02-01Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 12. 3 ILLUSTRATION 02-04 1) Set up a vertical rectangular (often referred to as “portrait”) drawing space and divide it into six equal squares (or rectangles, depending on your choice of drawing format). My drawing format is 4 by 6 inches with 2 inch squares. 2) Lightly sketch a oval-shape for the penguin’s body, very slightly toward the left of your drawing space. Don’t press too hard with your pencil. You will need to erase these lines later. Make sure you leave room to add the penguin’s head, tail, and feet. Don’t press too hard with your pencils! No matter how careful you are, when you draw with a grid, accidents do happen. If you draw some lines in the wrong grid squares, simply erase that section, redraw the grid lines, and keep on going! Lightly drawn lines are easy to erase!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 13. 4 ILLUSTRATION 02-05 3) Draw an upside-down U-shape as his head on the top of the body. When drawing with a grid you may find it easier to draw only the contents of one square at a time. ILLUSTRATION 02-06 4) Add a rounded shape in the lower right to mark the location of his tail feathers.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 14. 5 ILLUSTRATION 02-07 5) Sketch the placement of the feet. Observe that the foot on the right appears to be much larger than the other. In real life when viewing a penguin from the front, both feet would be the same size. In that this foot is closer to the viewer, perspective dictates that it needs to be drawn bigger than the one farther away. 6) Refine the shape of the head by making it smaller, rounder on the upper right, and less round on the left, bottom and lower right. Focus on only the upper two squares (or rectangles). Keep in mind that the penguin’s face will be turned slightly toward the left. ILLUSTRATION 02-08 Double check the proportions of each section of your sketch as you go, by visually measuring the shapes of the positive and negative spaces.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 15. 6 ILLUSTRATION 02-09 7) Sketch a curved line on the left to indicate the upper chest (you may prefer to call it the breast). 8) Add a curved line on the right to mark the other side of his body and the back of his neck. 9) Sketch the outline of his bill (or beak). Penguins’ bills come in various shapes and sizes depending on the type of penguin. Feel free to make the beak larger, smaller, thicker or thinner. ILLUSTRATION 02-10 10) Erase the tiny section of the outline of his head that was inside the perimeter of the beak. 11) Indicate the opening of his beak with another slightly curved line. ILLUSTRATION 02-11 12) Add two circular shapes to mark the placement of his eyes.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 16. 7 ILLUSTRATION 02-12 13) Add a curved line on the side of his head to mark the location of a section of lighter feathers. ILLUSTRATION 02-13 14) Give the penguin a smaller belly by modifying the lower section of the outline of his tummy (on the left). Note that the chest stays the same size so as to give him a proud posture and a more sophisticated appearance.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 17. 8 ILLUSTRATION 02-14 15) Sketch the outline of the lower section of his body. 16) Redraw the feet so the bottoms are flat rather than rounded. ILLUSTRATION 02-15 17) Outline the circular shape of the upper section of his chest. 18) Add the outlines of the shoulder and the upper section of the wing.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 18. 9 ILLUSTRATION 02-16 19) Redraw the tail section slightly smaller than the original sketch. 20) Draw the outlines of both wings (you may wish to call them flippers). 21) Erase the grid lines and check your drawing carefully. 22) Make any changes to the proportions until you are totally happy with your drawing. Throughout all stages of drawing, constantly double check the proportions of your sketch. Pay close attention to the lengths, angles, and curves of the various lines which outline the different parts of his head, body, wings, and feet. The directions, in which the lines curve, help create the illusion of form.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 19. 10 ILLUSTRATION 02-17 23) Erase all your grid lines. ILLUSTRATION 02-18 24) Lighten all your rough sketch lines with your kneaded eraser until you can barely see them. 25) With a nice sharp pencil slowly and carefully redraw the entire penguin. Sketch an additional line around each eye. Take note of the double lines on the fronts of the wings which indicates their thickness. Draw the feathers of the tail and upper legs. Add the outlines of his feet and toes.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 20. 11 ADDING SHADING AND TEXTURE You work with only three graduations – light, medium, and dark – to shade the three dimensional forms of the entire penguin. Finally you draw the details of Tux’s tuxedo, eyes, wings, tail, feet, and beak. Dig out your 2H, HB, 2B, and 4B pencils. 26) Before you begin shading Tex, practice your hatching skills by drawing three different raggedy-textured graduations of light, medium, and dark values. Remember, different values are created by: varying the density of the lines you draw; varying the pressure used in holding your pencils; and using different grades of pencils from 2H to 6B. The hatching lines used to draw Tex’s feathers are ragged and uneven with lines of various lengths and thicknesses. While some hatching lines are dark and others are light, you still need to maintain an overall difference of values from light to dark. Use a 2H pencil to make a vertical light gradation that is white at the top and becomes darker at the bottom. Draw a medium graduation that begins light (HB) at the top and becomes darker at the bottom. Graduate the texture of dark feathers by using a 2B at the top and ending with very dark values done with a 4B. ILLUSTRATION 02-19 LIGHT: 2H PENCIL MEDIUM: HB PENCIL DARK: 2B AND 4B PENCILS Remember, light affects the placement and value of every section of shading. Keep in mind that a full range of values gives contrast between the light and the shadow areas. The light source is from the upper left in this drawing, so the shading will be a little darker on the lower right.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 21. 12 Before you begin shading, closely examine his head and take note of the directions in which all the hatching lines curve. ILLUSTRATION 02-21 27) Add dark textured shading to his face and the top of his head. 28) Use medium textured shading graduations to draw the feathers on his cheek. 29) Add smooth medium shading to the beak (bill). ILLUSTRATION 02-22 30) Add dark shading in the shadow areas of the bill with a 2B. 31) Fill in the pupil of the eye with a 6B pencil. 32) Use medium shading to complete the irises and the circular rims around each eye.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 22. 13 ILLUSTRATION 02-23 33) Beginning under the chin, add shading to the penguin’s chest and tummy. Use light graduations of textured shading and watch very closely the directions in which the feathers grow. Note that all the shading lines used everywhere on the penguin’s chest and tummy are curved rather than straight. Switch to an HB pencil as your shading lines get close to the wing on the right, and for the sections that are in shadow close to the bottom of his body.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 23. 14 34) Using dark textured graduations, add shading to the section of Tux’s “tux” on the left. Note that the darkest section is close to his body under the upper section of his wing. 35) Add medium graduated values to the light sections of his wing on the right. ILLUSTRATION 02-24 Watch very closely the different directions in which the hatching lines curve. Take your time. The directions, in which the hatching lines curve, are important, because they help give the illusion of depth to the various forms. ILLUSTRATION 02-25Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 24. 15 36) Add the lightest areas of dark shading to the legs, feet, and tail, and add a cast shadow under the body of the penguin with medium graduations. ILLUSTRATION 02-26Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 25. 16 37) Add dark shading to his feet, legs, tail and toes. 38) Add talons to the ends of his toes. 39) Use a combination of hatching and crosshatching to add darker sections to the cast shadow on the surface below Tux. ILLUSTRATION 02-27 Add final touches if needed. Refer to the completed drawing on the next page. Sign your name and put today’s date on the back of your drawing! You have just completed a major project! If you enjoyed drawing Tux, try you hand at drawing an adorable giraffe named Dandy, or a Dalmatian named Shadow. These two projects, along with others (including an adorable young owl, named Hooter) are available in the advanced section of Drawspace.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 26. 17Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 27. 18 BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Fine Art Education http://www.finearteducation.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. ART PUBLICATIONS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 28. Brenda HoddinottN-03 INTERMEDIATE: 3-D CARTOONSIn this project, you draw a fun cartoon of a three-eyed alien, by using hatching and crosshatchingto shade realistic eyes, and the three dimensional forms of a cylinder and two spheres.Skills presented include: drawing with curved and straight lines, identifying and shading lightand shadow areas on forms, and shading graduated values with hatching and crosshatching.This lesson is divided into the following two sections: Outlining Silly’s Shapes: You use both straight and curved lines to outline the proportions of the various shapes that make up Silly Cylinder. Turning Shapes into Forms with Shading: You use hatching and crosshatching graduations to transform Silly’s shapes into forms. The light source is from the upper left; hence the shading is darker on the right.Suggested drawing supplies include 2H, HB, 4B and 6B Pencils, vinyl and kneaded erasers, andgood quality drawing paper. This lesson is recommended for artists with basic drawing skills, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators of advanced students. 8 PAGES – 16 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada 2002 (Revised 2006)
  • 29. 2Outlining Silly’s ShapesIn this section, you use both straight and curved lines to outline the proportions of the variousshapes that make up Silly Cylinder. Curved lines are created when a straight line curves (orbends). Proportion is the relationship in size of one component of a drawing to another or others.The word shape refers to the outward outline of a form.1. Draw two straight horizontal lines parallel to the top and bottom of your drawing space. Leave plenty of room above the upper line to later add his antennas. A drawing space (sometimes called a drawing format) refers to the area within a specific perimeter, such as a page in your sketchbook, or an outline of a shape of any size, such as a square, rectangle or circle.2. Draw curved lines connecting the ends of your horizontal lines on either side. Examine the areas where these curved lines meet the straight lines. These “rounded corners” are curved rather than forming a sharp point.3. Draw another curved line on the inside of the right side of your shape forming a vertical oval (called an ellipse). This curved line is almost identical (slightly straighter) to the curve on the left side of your shape. An ellipse is a circle viewed from an angular perspective. It appears to be an oval with both ends being identical in size and shape. This particular ellipse looks like a circle that has been stretched upward and downward. Now you have a cylinder. Turn your paper around and peek at your cylinder from various angles and adjust any sections you aren’t happy with.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 30. 34. Draw three circular shapes on the front side of the cylinder to represent the outlines of the whites of the eyes. The white of the eye (sometimes called the eyeball) is the large spherical section that is light in value.5. Add two antennas at the top of “Silly Cylinder”. Note the way these lines curve and that one end of each antenna begins inside the cylinder shape.6. Draw a circle on each end of the two antennas.7. Add three circles inside the whites as irises. The iris of an eye is the colored circular shape surrounding the pupil. The pupil of an eye is the dark circle inside the iris, which adjusts its size to different lighting conditions. Each of the irises is located in a different place on the whites. The first is “looking” to the left. The second is looking down and the third is looking up. This is part of what gives this cartoon its silly facial expression. You may choose to draw the circles freehand, but it’s perfectly ok to use a compass or some other tool.8. Outline pupils inside the irises and fill then in very darkly with your 6B pencil. Notice the little spot that is missing in the upper left (the shape of a backwards “C”). It almost looks as if someone took a bite out of the circle. The inside of the C-shaped section (the highlight) will remain white. The highlight of an eye is a bright spot that defines where light bounces off its surface.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 31. 4 9. Outline the top half of the highlights inside each of the three eyes. The top half of the outline of each highlight completes a tiny circle.Turning Shapes intoForms with ShadingIn this section you use hatching and crosshatching graduations to transform Silly’s shapes intoforms. Hatching is a series of lines (called a set) drawn closely together to give the illusion ofvalues. Crosshatching is a technique for rendering an infinite range of values within shading, inwhich one set of lines crosses over (overlaps) another set. A graduation (also called graduatedshading) is a continuous progression of graduated values from dark to light or from light to dark.Form, as applied to drawing, is the illusion of the three-dimensional structure of a shape, such asa circle, square or triangle, created in a drawing with shading and/or perspective.The light source is from the upper left; hence the shading is darker on the right. Light sourcerefers to the direction from which a dominant light originates.The placement of a light source tells youwhere to draw all the light values andshadows. For example, the highlights are inthe upper left of the eyes.10. With your 2H pencil, draw very faint outlines of the highlights in each of the balls on the end of the antennas. By marking these areas, you’ll remember to leave them white when you add shading to these circles to transform them into spheres.11. Draw a long wiggly line with a tiny curved line on each end to represent the mouth.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 32. 512. Use your HB pencil and crosshatching to add light and middle values to the end of the cylinder. Values are the different shades of gray created when you draw by varying both the density of the shading lines, and the pressure used in holding your pencils. By drawing the light and middle values first, you can then layer your dark shading on top of your light shading with your 4B pencil. This layering creates a nice smooth transition between the different values.13. Visually locate and then draw the dark shadow areas on the top and left side of the ellipse with your 4B pencil.14. Add the light shading to the upper section of the cylinder with curved hatching lines and your HB pencil. This shading is done with curved hatching lines which follow the curved lines that outline each end of the cylinder. The shading graduates from a medium value at the top to a light value (almost white) and then back to a medium value again closer to the mouth. The shading becomes light again just above the mouth.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 33. 615. Use your HB pencil and curved hatching lines to shade the light values on the lower section of the cylinder.16. With your 4B pencil graduate your medium and dark values from the mouth downward toward the lighter values.17. Add a really dark shadow area under the mouth. Use your 6B pencil. This dark shading creates the illusion that the upper section of the mouth is in front of the lower section.18. Shade in the balls on the end of the alien’s antennas. Note that the highlights are left the white of the paper. The curved hatching lines follow the curves of the circle shape. The shading lines graduate from the highlight towards the lower right of each sphere. The values begin light (close to the highlight) and become dark and then light again close to the lower right edge of the sphere. Let your pencils from light (HB) to dark (4B) do a lot of the work in creating different values.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 34. 719. Add shading to the irises of the alien’s eyes. First of all, use your HB pencil to fill in the entire space inside the big circle (except for the highlight of course). Pull and stretch your kneaded eraser until it becomes soft, and then mold it to a point. Finally, use the point of your kneaded eraser to gently pat the shading on the side of the circle opposite the highlight. Keep doing this until it becomes lighter than the rest of the shading.20. Visually locate and then shade in the dark areas of the irises of the eyes with your 4B pencil. The darkest areas of irises are usually pretty easy to identify because they are often on the same side as the highlight.Use your vinyl eraser toclean up any smudges orfingerprints on yourdrawing paper.Put today’s date onthe page, sign yourname and pat yourselfon the back!ChallengeCreate an alien life form from your imagination with at least one eye. Use circles and cylindersand make sure the shading includes both hatching and crosshatching.Remember, there is no right or wrong way to draw. You, as an artist, can draw forms in oodles ofdifferent ways, such as drawing just the light and shadow areas, or outlining with detailed linesand then adding shading. Take time to experiment with different ways of drawing, until you findthe styles with which you are most comfortable.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 35. 8Brenda HoddinottAs a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda utilizesdiverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, contécrayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott<BIOGRAPHYBorn in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. Shedeveloped strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning,and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as aself-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments haveemployed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal policedepartments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal CanadianMounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “ForensicArtists International”.Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing andpainting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired andtrained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brendachose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing,drawing, painting, and developing her websites.Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach tocurriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes forstudents of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels andabilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as aresource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughoutthe world.LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 36. Brenda Hoddinott N04 INTERMEDIATE: 3-D CARTOONS In this project, you draw the fascinating face and spiffy hairstyle (or should I say feather-style) of Emma the Emu.Very few people would consider emus to be the most beautiful birds in the world; yet their funnyfaces present them as incredibly appealing and memorable. The neck and head of an adult Emuis mostly bald except for a few shaggy, unruly feathers. Emus are the tallest birds in their nativeAustralia, ranging in height from 5 to 6 feet, with long powerful legs that allow them to run veryquickly. As with other flightless birds such as penguins, emus’ wings are not designed to giveflight to their disproportionately large bodies.This project is divided into two sections: OUTLINING EMMA: You draw a simple line drawing of Emma’s funny face. The first goal is to sketch the shapes of the various parts of Emma proportionately correct. From there you outline her head and beak. SHADING EYE, FEATHERS AND BEAK: You begin adding shading to Emma by completing her gorgeous eye. You then add her scruffy and wild fluffy feathers with hatching lines, and finally add hatching and crosshatching lines to make the forms of her beak look three-dimensional.Suggested drawing supplies include good quality white drawing paper, various graphite pencilsincluding 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B, kneaded and vinyl erasers, and a pencil sharpener. 10 PAGES – 18 ILLUSTRATIONS This lesson is recommended for artists and aspiring artists, from age 12 to adult with basic drawing skills, including the shading techniques of hatching and crosshatching. The curriculum of this lesson is easily implemented into instructional programs for home schooling, academic and recreational learning environments. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada - 2007
  • 37. -2-OUTLINING EMMAYour first goal is to sketch the shapes of the various parts of Emma proportionately correct.From there you outline Emma’s head and beak. Don’t press too hard with your pencils. Not onlydo these areas become impossible to erase or touch up, but they also leave dents in your paper. ILLUSTRATION 4-01 Proportion is the relationship in size of one component of a drawing to another or others. Shape refers to the outward outline of a form. Basic shapes include circles, squares and triangles. 1. Use an HB pencil to draw a circular shape as Emma’s head. Leave space around the circle to later add her feathers, beak, and neck. Drawing a circle freehand isn’t easy. Try rotating your paper and looking at your drawing from ILLUSTRATION 4-02 different perspectives. This little trick often allows you insights into the problem areas. Looking at the reflection of your circle in a mirror will also help you to see areas in need of fixing. 2. Sketch a triangular shape to identify the placement of the beak. As you work, constantly compare your drawing to mine and double check your proportions. Pay close attention to the lengths, angles, and curves of the various lines which outline the different parts of her head, eyes, and beak. ILLUSTRATION 4-03 3. Add a circular shape close to the center of the large circle to mark the placement of Emma’s eye. Use an HB pencil, and keep your lines very light so they can be easily erased. Always place a piece of clean paper under your hand as you draw. Each time you work on a new section, remember to move your paper so it’s always under your hand. This prevents you from smudging your drawing, and protects the paper from the oils in your skin.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 38. -3- ILLUSTRATION 4-04 4. Sketch two slightly curved lines to mark the edges of Emma’s neck. Curved lines are created when a straight line curves (or bends). Curved lines can be drawn thick or thin. 5. Use your kneaded eraser to lighten your sketch until the lines are very faint. 6. Outline the upper and lower beak with a freshly sharpened HB pencil. Take note that this new outline does not follow the original lines of the rough sketch. Actually, very few initial sketch lines end up as part of the final outline; hence, you need to examine each illustration very closely before you draw.The parts of a bird’s eye are similar to those of many ILLUSTRATION 4-05animals including humans. Take a moment to review thenames of the parts of an eye.1. Highlight: is a bright area that makes an eye look shiny.2. Pupil: is the dark circular shape within the iris.3. Iris: is the circular section surrounding the pupil.4. White of the eye: is the visible section of the eyeball.5. Eyelid: (also called rim) is a fold of skin around the eye. ILLUSTRATION 4-06 7. Add the slightly curved line that separates the top and bottom sections of the beak. 8. Outline the perimeter of Emma’s circular shaped eye. 9. Add the iris of Emma’s eye in the upper left section of the eye. Note that the iris seems to be partially hidden under the outline of the eye. 10. Draw a tiny circle as the highlight of the eye in the upper right of the iris.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 39. -4- ILLUSTRATION 4-0711. Draw a narrow circular shape around the eye. This rim around the eye represents the eyelid. ILLUSTRATION 4-08 12. Outline the pupil of the eye inside the iris. 13. Sketch a teardrop shape close to the pointed end of her beak. ILLUSTRATION 4-0914. Add lines to indicate the directions in which the shaggy feathers will grow. Use the highlight of the eye as the center point; in other words each line will seem to originate from the highlight. ILLUSTRATION 4-10 15. Check over your drawing carefully to make sure you are happy with everything. If you don’t like something, simply erase it and redraw that section.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 40. -5-SHADING EYE, FEATHERS, AND BEAKIn this section, you draw Emma’s gorgeous eye and wild fluffy feathers, and add shading withhatching and crosshatching to the forms of her beak. The light source is from the upper right andin front of Emma.Forms are created in drawings by adding shading to transform shapes into three-dimensionalstructures, such as a circle becoming a sphere. Hatching is a series of lines (called a set) drawnclosely together to give the illusion of values. Values are the different shades of gray created in adrawing with shading. Crosshatching is a shading technique in which one set of lines crossesover (overlaps) another set. Light source is the direction from which a dominant light originates. To render different values you need to vary the density of the lines and the pressure used in holding the pencils, and use several grades of pencils from 2H to 6B.16. Use your 6B pencil to fill in the pupil of the eye. ILLUSTRATION 4-1117. Add shading to the iris. The shading is darker close to the top section of the eyelid (use 2B). The lightest shading is below and to the right of the highlight (use HB or 2H).18. Use HB and 2B pencils to add shading to the rim around the eye.19. Add light shading around the edges of the whites with a 2H pencil. ILLUSTRATION 4-12 ILLUSTRATION 4-13 ILLUSTRATION 4-14 If you have very little hatching experience, or if your hatching skills have become a little rusty, try your hand at the exercises and projects in F-LEVEL BEGINNER: HATCHING.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 41. -6-20. Add dark and medium shading to the inside of her nostril.21. Use your HB pencil to add several scruffy looking lines to indicate the feathers on Emma’s head. Draw these lines from the perimeter of the eye outward and from under her beak downward. The more uneven you make these lines the better the feathers will look. In other words, some need to be long and others short; some are straight, and others are slightly curved; and a few are quite thick and more are very thin. ILLUSTRATION 4-15 Even though this is a cartoon drawing of an Emu, the feathers are actually rendered fairly convincingly. In reality, the shaggy grey or brown feathers on the head and neck of emus are scarce and unruly, with lots of the neck and head showing through.22. Add short hatching lines with an HB pencil, from the edges of the eye outward to fill in the shape of Emma’s head behind the wild feathers. Refer to Illustration 4-16. Remember, hatching lines used to draw feathers are ragged and uneven with lines of various values, lengths, and thicknesses.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 42. -7-23. Use an HB pencil to fill in more feathers under her beak.24. Add shading to the neck with short hatching lines and an HB pencil. The shading on the neck is darker at the top, in the shadow section under the beak.25. Use hatching lines and an HB pencil to define the forms of the beak. Keep in mind that the shadow sections are on the side opposite the light source. Hence, in that the light is from the upper right, the shading needs to be darker on the lower left. ILLUSTRATION 4-1626. With a freshly sharpened 2B pencil, add wiggly lines to the ends of several of the longer feathers (Refer to Illustration 4-17).Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 43. -8-27. Add some wiggly lines to the neck with a very sharp 2B to indicate a few short scruffy feathers.28. Outline her eye and the upper sections of her beak with a freshly sharpened 2B pencil.29. Use your 4B pencil and hatching lines to make the sections of the face around her eye and beak darker. ILLUSTRATION 4-1730. Use your HB pencil and crosshatching to add more details and complete the shading of Emma’s beak.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 44. -9-31. Compare your drawing to mine and make any adjustments you wish to your shading. To make a section darker, simply add more lines. You can pat the shading lines with your kneaded eraser to make a section lighter. ILLUSTRATION 4-18CHALLENGEFind a few reference photos and draw a realistic, close-up portrait of an Emu. You’ll bepleasantly surprised by how simple the shading will seem; the techniques taught in this cartoonproject are the same as needed for drawing a realistic portrait of the head and face of an Emu.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 45. - 10 -Brenda HoddinottAs a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda utilizesdiverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, contécrayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. Brenda HoddinottBiographyBorn in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. Shedeveloped strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning,and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as aself-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments haveemployed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal policedepartments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal CanadianMounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “ForensicArtists International”.Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing andpainting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired andtrained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brendachose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing,drawing, painting, and developing her websites.Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach tocurriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes forstudents of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels andabilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as aresource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughoutthe world.Learn-to-draw booksDrawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is availableon various websites and in major bookstores internationally.The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the YearAward 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book isavailable on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 46. Brenda Hoddinott N-05 INTERMEDIATE: 3D CARTOONS In this lesson, you sketch Freaky’s proportions, outline him with nice neat lines, and then add shading with blended hatching.This project is divided into the following five parts: SKETCHING BASIC PROPORTIONS: In this section, your goal is to sketch Freaky on your drawing paper proportionately correct, by drawing various lines and shapes. OUTLINING FREAKY’S FACIAL FEATURES: In this section you outline Freaky’s face, including his eyes, mouth, and teeth. As you know, the eyes of an actual frog differ significantly from this cartoon drawing. OUTLINING FROG LEGS AND FEET: At first glance, the lower half of Freaky’s body seems rather complex; however, the process becomes quite simple when you draw only one section at a time. In this part, you sketch the proportions of his feet, webbed toes and legs. COMPLETING THE LINE DRAWING: In this section you first erase unnecessary sketch lines, and then redraw Freaky, including his body, legs, feet, eyes, mouth, warts, and teeth. ADDING A SMOOTH, SHINY TEXTURE: In this section you blend the various values of the shading so as to make Freaky’s texture smoother. Final details are added by outlining the contours with a fine tip marker or a freshly sharpened pencil.For this project you need good quality white drawing paper, different grades of graphite pencils(such as 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B), kneaded and vinyl erasers, blending tools such as Q-tips andfacial tissues, and a pencil sharpener. 21 PAGES – 40 ILLUSTRATIONS This project is recommended for artists from age 12 to adult, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2004 (Revised 2006)
  • 47. -2- SKETCHING BASIC PROPORTIONS There’s a method to my madness in having you draw cartoons of animals. First of all, your brain won’t get stuck telling you something is anatomically wrong, because cartoons are not supposed to look real! Secondly, cartoons are fun to draw! In this section, your goal is to sketch Freaky on your drawing paper proportionately correct, by drawing various lines and shapes. Proportion is the relationship in size of one component of a drawing to another or others. As you draw, compare your drawing to mine and double check the proportions. Keep your lines very light. Most of them need to be erased before you finish. 1) Draw a square as your drawing format. Suggested sizes range from 5 by 5 to 12 by 12 inches. 2) Measure and mark the halfway points of the top and bottom sides of the square. 3) Connect the center points of the top and bottom of the square, with a vertical line that divides the square into two identical rectangles. This vertical line is a line of symmetry, which will help you draw both sides of the frog the same size and shape; however each side will be a mirror image of the other). 4) In the rectangle on the left side of the square, draw half a heart-shape. ILLUSTRATION 05-01 ILLUSTRATION 05-02 Freaky Froggy actually looks like he is part frog and part toad. However, did you know that many scientists consider toads to be frogs!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 48. -3- ILLUSTRATION 05-03 5) Draw the other half of the heart in the rectangle on the right. Use your line of symmetry to help you judge the distances. If you want to be really precise, you can always measure with a ruler from the line of symmetry outward on both sides. This heart identifies the location of Freaky’s face and body. Did you know that ancient ancestors of today’s frogs existed on earth more than 190 million years ago? ILLUSTRATION 05-04 6) Add an upside down U-shape below the heart shape. Again use your line of symmetry to help you sketch both sides the same size and shape. The U-shape marks the inner bottom sections of his feet. Did you know that some frogs can use their powerful legs to jump up to twenty times the length of their bodies?Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 49. -4- ILLUSTRATION 05-05 7) Draw two more curved lines below the heart- shape but above the U- shape. These lines mark the locations of the upper section of his feet. Did you know that some really large frogs can gulp down a whole mouse in one bite? However, the menus of most frogs include such scrumptious delicacies as snails, tiny fish, worms, and spiders. OUTLINING FREAKY’S FACIAL FEATURES In this section you outline Freaky’s face, including his eyes, mouth, and teeth. As you know, the eyes of an actual frog differ significantly from this cartoon drawing. ILLUSTRATION 05-06 Note of the names of the following parts of Freaky’s eyes: 1. The upper eyelid is a movable fold of skin that opens and closes to protect the eyeball. 2. A highlight is the brightest area where light bounces off the surface of the eye. 3. The pupil of an eye is the dark circular shape within the iris. 4. The iris is the colored circular section of the eyeball surrounding the pupil. 5. The white of the eye (the visible section of the eyeball) is light, but not really white.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 50. -5- ILLUSTRATION 05-07 8) Draw two ovals as the outlines of his eyes. The ovals overlap the upper section of the body (the heart shape). ILLUSTRATION 05-08 9) Sketch a slightly curved horizontal line as his mouth. 10) Add a short curved line on each end of his mouth to complete his smile. ILLUSTRATION 05-09 11) Sketch a couple of squares as his teeth. Did you know that, Unlike Freaky, most frogs do not have teeth – and none have teeth like this?Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 51. -6- ILLUSTRATION 05-10 12) Connect the outside edges of his teeth to the upper section of the opening of the mouth. 13) Add a short horizontal line below his mouth to mark the lower lip. ILLUSTRATION 05-11 14) Add slightly curved lines to mark the lower edge of his upper eyelids. 15) Sketch a partial circle in each eye as the irises. The irises touch the line marking the top of his body. ILLUSTRATION 05-12 16) Extend the lines marking the lower and outside edges of each eyelid. These lines make the eyelids look wider than the eyes.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 52. -7- Did you know that frog’s legs are a popular delicacy for people in many countries of the world, especially the Southern United States and Europe? Supposedly, they taste a lot like chicken! ILLUSTRATION 05-13 17) Add a small circular shape in the upper right of each iris. 18) Sketch partial circles inside each iris as the pupils. ILLUSTRATION 05-14 19) Check over the upper section of your sketch, and fix any areas you aren’t happy with. Did you know that frogs swallow their food whole. Even those frogs that have teeth don’t use them to chew (or smile)! Rather, their teeth are used to grab and hold on to their dinner.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 53. -8- OUTLINING FROG LEGS AND FEET At first glance, the lower half of Freaky’s body seems rather complex; however, the process becomes quite simple when you draw only one section at a time. In this part, you sketch the proportions of his feet, webbed toes and legs. 20) Draw an upside down U-shape, at an outward angle, above each foot. ILLUSTRATION 05-15 These lines identify the shape of the frog’s big powerful back legs. Watch closely the positions of the outlines of his legs in relation to the rest of the lines and spaces in the drawing. ILLUSTRATION 05-16 21) Add smaller upside- down U- shapes, as the frog’s front legs. Observe that the two front legs are drawn completel y inside the heart- shape.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 54. -9- ILLUSTRATION 05-17 22) Extend the front legs toward the line of symmetry. 23) Add curved lines to the bottoms of the feet to mark the webs between the toes (as in Illustration 05-18). ILLUSTRATION 05-18 Did you know that frogs often lead a double life, on land and in water? When big hungry land predators come looking for some fresh frog legs for dinner, frogs can jump into the water and swim away. If the frog’s menu of pond delicacies becomes boring, they can hop onto shore and look for more appetizing cuisines.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 55. - 10 - COMPLETING THE LINE DRAWING In this section you first erase unnecessary sketch lines, and then redraw Freaky, including his body, legs, feet, eyes, mouth, warts, and teeth. Pay close attention to the lengths, angles, and curves of the various lines. Remember; don’t press too hard with your pencils. These areas become impossible to touch up, and also leave dents in your paper, spoiling the overall appearance of your drawing. 24) Erase all sketch lines that are no longer needed. Refer to the before and after drawings below, and erase the following: Line of symmetry Lines inside the outer edges of his eyelids Lines inside the whites of his eyes (part of the original heart-shape) Lines inside the inner sections of his back legs (part of the original heart-shape) Lines inside the lower sections of his back legs Lines inside his tiny front legs Line under his eyes in the center (V-shape) 25) Use your kneaded eraser to lighten all remaining sketch lines until they are so faint that you can barely see them. ILLUSTRATION 05-19 ILLUSTRATION 05-20Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 56. - 11 - 26) Redraw his eyes with crisp neat lines (use a 2B pencil). Keep your pencil point sharp as you work. 27) Draw over his mouth and teeth with dark thin lines. ILLUSTRATION 05-21 ILLUSTRATION 05-22 ILLUSTRATION 05-23 28) Add circles (warts) of various sizes on his body and legs. Don’t worry about drawing his warts the same size, or in the same places, as mine. However, the warts become much more interesting when their sizes vary from large to tiny. Don’t miss the three that are only half circles! Many people think that all frogs have smooth, moist skin, and that all toads have dry, warty skin. However, did you know that some frogs have warty skin, and some toads have slimy skin?Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 57. - 12 - ILLUSTRATION 05-24 29) Outline both sides of his body. His body is also his face in this cartoon! Did you know that because frogs’ big bulging eyes are on top of their heads, they can see in many different directions at once? They also have excellent eyesight, which allows them to distinguish various colors and see in dim light! No wonder it’s so hard to sneak up on a frog! ILLUSTRATION 05-25 30) Outline his legs and feet with thin dark lines. Frogs can easily catch fast moving insects. They hide quietly under the surface of the water for a long time, with only their eyes and nose visible, patiently waiting for their unsuspecting lunch to swim, float or fly by.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 58. - 13 - ILLUSTRATION 05-26 31) Complete your line drawing by adding his front legs. Freaky’s front legs look more like arms and his front feet look more like hands! Tiny fish-like creatures with gills and a long tail, called tadpoles, hatch from frog eggs. Tadpoles have gluttonous appetites, and will eat almost anything, including algae and other underwater vegetation. Older tadpoles may dine on tiny insects, and sometimes even other smaller tadpoles. SHADING VALUES WITH HATCHING Before you can use blending to make Freaky’s skin look shiny, you need to carefully add shading. Shading refers to the various shades of gray (values) in a drawing that make drawings look three-dimensional. Shading is also the process of adding values to a drawing so as to create the illusion of form and/or three-dimensional space. Depending on the shading effects you want, you can make the individual lines in hatching sets far apart or close together. In this section, you add a full range of values to Freaky with hatching graduations. Hatching is a series of lines (called a set) drawn closely together to give the illusion of values. Keep the following in mind: Draw some hatching lines close together and others farther apart. Press very lightly with your pencil for light lines and apply more pressure to achieve darker lines. Keep a pencil sharpener (and sandpaper block if you have one) handy so you can easily keep your pencil points nice and sharp. Always place a piece of clean paper under your hand as you draw to protect your drawing from accidental smudges. Take your time and watch closely the various directions in which the hatching lines curve.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 59. - 14 - Light affects the placement and value of every section of shading in a drawing. A full range of values from light to dark gives contrast between the light and the shadow areas. As you can tell by the locations of the highlights in his eyes, the light source in this cartoon is from the right. Therefore, the values need to be lighter on the right than on the left. Light source The direction from which a dominant light originates. The placement of this light source affects every aspect of a drawing. 32) With an HB pencil add light shading to the eyes, body legs, and feet of the frog. ILLUSTRATION 05-27 The hatching lines on the eyelids are slightly curved and follow the contour of the outlines. The hatching lines of the iris all seem to converge toward the center of the pupil. The shading is darker on the right side of the iris than on the left. The hatching lines are mostly curved and follow the contours of the various sections of his body, legs and feet. The shading on his webbed feet is very light along his three toes. Note the thin dark shadow to the left of each Unlike this cartoon of a toe, which helps make the toes frog, real frogs have look three-dimensional.. four toes on each front leg and five on each back leg.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 60. - 15 - ILLUSTRATION 05-28 33) Use HB and 2B pencils to add dark shading on the side of the eyelids that is in shadow. The shading on the right and in the center is lighter. 34) Use a 4B to fill in the tiny sections of the eyelids on the lower outsides. ILLUSTRATION 05-29 35) With an HB pencil add the shadows to the iris and the whites of the eyes, under the eyelids. 36) Fill in each pupil with a 6B pencil. 37) Add darker shading to the sections of the irises, close to the highlights. ILLUSTRATION 05-30 38) Add darker shading to the shadows to the left of, in between, and underneath the eyes (Use a 2B or 4B). Make sure you have left a section of reflected light on the lower left of each eye.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 61. - 16 - ILLUSTRATION 05-31 39) Add shading to the mouth and lips. 40) Shade in the shadow on the teeth created by the cast shadow of the upper lip. 41) Add light shading to the left side of each tooth (use a 2H). ILLUSTRATION 05-32 42) Draw eyelashes on the outside edge of each eyelid. 43) Add shading to the shadow sections of his body, face, legs and feet. Use 2B for the medium values and 4B for the dark. Remember, the light source is from the right, so the shading is darker on the left. Frogs eat humungous quantities of insects. Did you know that even a small frog can devour a hundred mosquitoes a day?Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 62. - 17 - 44) Add dark shading (a cast shadow) on the left of and slightly below each wart. Use a 2B pencil. This cast shadow is darkest close to the edge of the circle. The shading graduates a little lighter the farther away it is (Refer to Illustration 05-33). 45) Outline a tiny circle in the upper right of each wart as the highlight. Refer to Illustration 05-34.This outline should be so light you can barely see it! 46) Add a crescent shape of dark shading to the left of each highlight (use a 2B). ILLUSTRATION 05-33 ILLUSTRATION 05-34 ILLUSTRATION 05-35 ILLUSTRATION 05-36 ILLUSTRATION 05-37 47) Use a 2H pencil to add light shading to the remainder of each wart, except for the highlights (as in Illustration 05-36). Refer to Illustration 05-37 to see Freaky with shading added to all his warts.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 63. - 18 - ADDING A SMOOTH, SHINY TEXTURE If this is your first attempt at blending, take some time to experiment on some scrap paper before you begin this section. Graphite tends to be very difficult to blend properly, especially for beginners. 48) Take your time and patiently blend Freaky’s face, body, legs, feet, and spots. Use a circular motion to blend the lightest values first, such as around the highlights. Continue blending from light to dark values. Work on only one section of Freaky at a time. ILLUSTRATION 05-38 Remember, easy does it! Be careful not to rub the surface of your paper too roughly, or you will damage and possibly ruin your drawing. Keep in mind that many sections of dark shading will not need to be blended. Also, there’s nothing wrong with using blending for some sections of a drawing and not for others. It’s completely a matter of personal preference. 49) Clean the smudged graphite from around the edges of your drawing. You can use your kneaded eraser molded to a point, or the sharp corner edge of a vinyl eraser.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 64. - 19 - 50) Use 2B, 4B, and 6B pencils to add darker shading to the shadow sections and any other sections that are too light. 51) Blend the sections close to and around the dark shadow sections. Gently blend the graduations in each section from the lighter sections toward the darker; but, remember, you may not need to blend the dark shadows. However, if the shading becomes too light in the dark shadowed areas, add more graphite. 52) Erase the messy blended smudges that extend outside the edges of your drawing. 53) Use your kneaded eraser, molded to a point or a wedge, to lighten the highlight sections that have become too dark from the blending. ILLUSTRATION 05-39 When blending NEVER use your fingers! As a matter of fact, try not to ever touch your drawing paper with your fingers or hands in sections you plan to blend. The powder component in graphite works like the fingerprinting powder used by criminal investigative sections of police departments. Your skin can transfer oil to the paper. This oil becomes visible after blending, especially in the lighter values. It’s darn near impossible to create a smooth, even tone with graphite in those areas with finger or hand prints.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 65. - 20 - 54) Redraw any sections of the outline that have become smudged or too light with thin neat lines. Use either a dark pencil or a very fine-tipped black marker. If you use a pencil, keep the point very sharp. ILLUSTRATION 05-40 Did you know that frogs are native to every continent in the world except Antarctica? Find time to go for a walk in a natural frog habitat close to where you live. Take a sketch book, drawing materials, and/or a camera and capture some drawings or photos of frogs.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 66. - 21 - BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 67. BILLTHEBrenda HoddinottN-06 INTERMEDIATE: 3D CARTOONSIn this lesson, you sketch Bill within a simple grid of twelve squares, outline him with neat lines,and then add shading with hatching and crosshatching.This cartoon of Bill the Corny Rattler is based on a combination of a rattle snake and a littlegreen grass snake. While, I’ve never seen a live rattle snake, I once had a pet grass snake, namedBill. Bill was brought to me when he was just a baby (less than 6 inches long) and had in someway been injured. Thankfully, he not only survived, but thrived and grew quickly, living in aterrarium in my studio for several years. He indulged in a continuous buffet of crickets, spiders,and other bugs, and as an adult was about 14 inches long.This project is divided into the following parts: SKETCHING LONG PROPORTIONS: In this section, your goal is to sketch Bill on your drawing paper proportionately correct, by drawing various lines and shapes within the squares of a grid. COMPLETING THE LINE DRAWING: In this section you replace your rough sketch with neat lines and add additional details. SHADING BILL WITH CROSSHATCHING: In this section, you add a full range of values to your outline of Bill with crosshatching graduations.For this project you need good quality white drawing paper, different grades of graphite pencils(such as 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B), kneaded and vinyl erasers, and a pencil sharpener. This project is recommended for artists from age 12 to adult, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. 14 PAGES – 34 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2004 (Revised 2006)
  • 68. -2- SKETCHING LONG PROPORTIONS In this section, your goal is to sketch Bill on your drawing paper proportionately correct, by drawing various lines and shapes within the squares of a grid. A sketch is a quickly rendered drawing that illustrates the important elements of your drawing subject with very few details. Sketching refers to the method used for creating a quick, rough representation or outline of a planned drawing subject. Proportion is the relationship in size of one component of a drawing to another or others. Shape refers to the outward outline of a form. Basic shapes include circles, squares and triangles. A grid is a precise arrangement of a specific number of squares, of exact sizes, proportionately drawn on both a photo and drawing surface. Grids help artists with numerous challenges, such as rendering precise proportions and correct perspective. There’s a method to my madness in having you draw cartoons of animals. First of all, your brain won’t get stuck telling you something is anatomically wrong, because cartoons are not supposed to look real! Secondly, cartoons are fun to draw! Don’t press too hard with your pencils! Lightly drawn lines are easier to erase! 1) Draw a rectangle and divide it into 12 squares, 6 across by 2 down. To maintain the same proportions as in my drawing, suggested sizes include 6 by 2 inches with 1 inch squares, or 12 by 4 inches with 2 inch squares. Use a 2H or HB pencil. ILLUSTRATION 06-01 Eastern Smooth Green Snakes (like Bill) are not recommended as house pets, because they rarely adapt well to life in captivity, and often refuse to eat. My decision to keep Bill was based on the fact that he may not have been capable of hunting for food in the wild, due to his weakened condition. Hence, I chose to try and keep him alive. For the first two days, he refused to eat the small crickets I offered him, but when I finally tempted him with a tiny spider, he quickly gobbled it up. From that point onward, he had a voracious appetite.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 69. -3- As you sketch the snake, don’t press too hard with your pencil! No matter how careful you are when drawing with a grid, accidents can happen! If you draw some lines in the wrong squares, simply erase that section, redraw the grid lines, and keep on going! 2) Draw a long curved line which extends across all six squares, to mark the position, size, and shape of one side of Bill’s long body. Curved lines are created when a straight line curves (or bends). Note that ten of the twelve squares contain some section of this line. Begin sketching at whichever end of the line you prefer; however, pay close attention to the locations and curves of the various sections, in relation to the sides of the grid squares. ILLUSTRATION 06-02 3) Sketch a second curved line to mark the other side of Bill’s body. Observe that the section of his body on the right (where his head will be) is quite thick; his body progressively becomes thinner closer to the end of his tail. Again, watch the grid lines very closely and use them as guidelines for drawing Bill’s body more accurately. ILLUSTRATION 06-03Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 70. -4- 4) Add a circular shape to the thinner end of Bills body as his rattler (Illustration 06-04). 5) Sketch a second, slightly larger circular shape on the other end of his body as a section of his head (Illustration 06-05). 6) Sketch a U-shape as his snout (Illustration 06-06). ILLUSTRATION 06-04 ILLUSTRATION 06-05 ILLUSTRATION 06-06Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 71. -5- 7) Lightly sketch the outlines of Bill’s two eyes. ILLUSTRATION 06-07 COMPLETING THE LINE DRAWING In this section you replace your rough sketch with neat lines and add additional details. ILLUSTRATION 06-08 ILLUSTRATION 06-09 8) Outline the various parts of Bill with neat lines (Illustration 06-08). You can lighten or erase your rough sketch and grid lines now or later. Remember; don’t press too hard with your pencils, or you may leave dents in your paper, spoiling the overall appearance of your drawing. 9) Draw the five circular shapes that make up the rattler on the end of his tail.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 72. -6- 10) Erase both the grid lines and the original sketch lines, which are no longer needed. ILLUSTRATION 06-10 11) Add four lines along the inside outlines of his body to mark the underbelly sections of the snake. Note the lines - the one at the end of his tail, two along the sections of his body to the left and right of the rattler, and one under his neck ILLUSTRATION 06-11 ILLUSTRATION 06-12 12) Sketch a curved line to indicate the opening of Bill’s mouth. Eastern Smooth Green Snakes tend to be very skittish, easily stressed and shy, and do not like to be handled. As pets, they prefer to remain hidden under the rocks and foliage in their tanks, emerging on rare occasions to catch their meals.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 73. -7- 13) Add a curved line along each eyeball to mark the lower edges of the eyelids. 14) Draw a tiny circular shape in the upper left of each eye as the highlights. ILLUSTRATION 06-13 ILLUSTRATION 06-14 15) Draw circular shapes that cut into the highlights, as the pupils of the eyes. 16) Add the nostrils and the opening of the mouth. ILLUSTRATION 06-15 ILLUSTRATION 06-16 17) Use your kneaded eraser to lighten the outline of Bill’s underbelly.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 74. -8- ILLUSTRATION 06-17 18) Redraw his underbelly with a series of small rounded shapes, rather than solid curved lines. According to perspective, the rounded shapes (on Bill’s underbelly), that are farther away from the viewer need to appear smaller than those that are closer. Hence, they are drawn various shapes and sizes. Note the locations of the smallest rounded shapes along his body. Most of the larger ridges are on the lower center section that which is closer to the viewer. ILLUSTRATION 06-18 SHADING BILL WITH CROSSHATCHING In this section, you add a full range of values to your outline of Bill with crosshatching graduations. Crosshatching is a technique for rendering an infinite range of values within shading, in which one set of lines crosses over (overlaps) another set. Keep the following in mind: Draw some crosshatching lines close together and others farther apart. Press very lightly with your pencil for light lines and apply more pressure to achieve darker lines. Keep a pencil sharpener (and sandpaper block if you have one) handy so you can easily keep your pencil points nice and sharp. Always place a piece of clean paper under your hand as you draw to protect your drawing from accidental smudges. 19) Add shading to both sides of Bill’s body, as in illustrations 06-19 and 06-20. Use crosshatching and HB and 2B pencils. The light source in this cartoon is from the left; therefore, the values need to be lighter on the left than on the right.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 75. -9- Light source refers to the direction from which a dominant light originates. The placement of this light source affects every aspect of a drawing. The light source tells you where to draw all the light values and shadows. Values are the different shades of gray created when you draw by varying both the density of the shading lines, and the pressure used in holding various pencils. Also, make sure you leave a light section along his body to indicate his rounded form. Form, as applied to drawing, is the illusion of the three-dimensional structure of a shape, such as a circle, square or triangle, created in a drawing with shading and/or perspective. ILLUSTRATION 06-19 ILLUSTRATION 06-20 ILLUSTRATION 06-21 20) Add shading to the section of his upper body behind his head. This shading is darker than on most other parts of his body. His head and eyes are blocking the light from reaching these sections, resulting in a cast shadow on his upper body,Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 76. - 10 - ILLUSTRATION 06-22 21) Add shading to Bill’s face and head. Use a 2H pencil for the light values, HB for the middle, and a 2B for the dark values around the mouth and eyes. A 4B is ideal for the darkest values of the nostrils and the opening of the mouth. ILLUSTRATION 06-23 22) Add shading to the iris. 2B and 4B pencils work well for the dark shadows. 2H and HB pencils are great for the lighter values, such as the lower right section of the iris. ILLUSTRATION 06-24 23) Add dark shading to the pupil of each eye and the sections of the eye directly under the eyelid.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 77. - 11 - ILLUSTRATION 06-25 24) Add shading to his eyelids. Take note of the light areas, around the center sections of their lower edges. ILLUSTRATION 06-26 25) Use crosshatching to add shading to the five circular shapes that make up his “rattler”. Don’t miss the highlights, and the dark shading on the lower right sections of each. 26) Take your time and add shading to each section of his belly. Refer to illustration 06-27 and the four close ups on the next page. ILLUSTRATION 06-27Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 78. - 12 - ILLUSTRATION 06-28 ILLUSTRATION 06-29 ILLUSTRATION 06-30 Note that the sections of his belly that are closer to the light source are lighter in value than those on the right. ILLUSTRATION 06-31 27) Use horizontal hatching lines to add a cast shadow to the right of Bill’s tail section and under the rattler. ILLUSTRATION 06-32 By drawing the shadow of the rattler on the surface below, you create the illusion that the rattler is raised. A cast shadow is a dark section on a surface that receives little or no light. The values of a cast shadow are darkest right next to the object and become gradually lighter farther away.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 79. - 13 - 28) Add the cast shadows to the lower right of the front section of Bill. Observe where the shading begins to the lower right of his head. No cast shadows are drawn close to his head and upper body; hence, these parts of Bill appear to be raised. ILLUSTRATION 06-33 Congratulations, you’re finished! Pat yourself on the back, sign your name and put today’s date on the back of your drawing. ILLUSTRATION 06-34Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 80. - 14 - BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 81. HAIRY N-07 INTERMEDIATE: 3D CARTOONS This lesson offers an ideal transition from beginner level projects into intermediate. Thirty-seven illustrations and simple step- by-step instructions bring together many Brenda Hoddinott beginner level skills including: Using a line of symmetry to help sketch accurate proportions, Identifying values according to a dominant light source, Mapping values by outlining their shapes, and Using a shading map to render both smooth shading and the texture of hair with hatching graduations. This lesson is divided into four parts: LEARNING TO DRAW IS LEARNING TO SEE: You rely primarily on your visual skills to render proportions. MAPPING OUT A SHADING PLAN: A shading map allows you to plan where to place the light, medium, and dark 18 PAGES – 37 values. ILLUSTRATIONS SHADING THE FACE, NOSE AND Recommended for beginner and EARS: Basic hatching graduations are intermediate level artists with well rendered with straight lines.developed basic skills, as well as home CURVED LINES BECOME schooling, academic and recreational REALISTIC HAIR: Contour hatching fine art educators graduations provide texture and form to Published by Hoddinott Fine Art the hair.Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada, 2005 (Revised 2006) Suggested drawing supplies include good quality white paper, various graphite pencils, kneaded and vinyl erasers, and a pencil sharpener.
  • 82. -2- LEARNING TO DRAW IS LEARNING TO SEE! This section challenges you to sketch the proportions of Harry’s head by relying primarily on your visual skills rather than verbal instructions. Proportion is the relationship in size of one component of a drawing to another or others. You sketch the understructures of the head as a base on which to draw the hair. You will then need to erase some of these lines after completing the outlines of the hair. Keep your lines very light by pressing very gently with your HB pencil. As you sketch Harry, keep in mind that the outlines of the head and the sides of the face will need to be erased. Therefore, make sure you keep your lines very light and don’t press too hard with your pencils! My sketch appears dark because I have adjusted the lines in a computer program so you can see them. In fact, my lines are so faint that they are barely visible! 1) Use your ruler to draw a vertical line down the center of your drawing space. This line of symmetry serves as a reference to help keep both sides of your drawing symmetrical. Symmetry is a balanced arrangement of lines and shapes on opposite sides of an often-imaginary centerline. 2) Sketch an egg-shape any size you wish, with the smaller end close to the bottom of your drawing space, and then add ears on either side. ILLUSTRATION 07-01 ILLUSTRATION 07-02 Many drawing subjects, including frontal views of faces, look more believable when drawn the same on both sides. To become more familiar with using a line of symmetry, try your hand at Beginner Lesson B-03: Simple Symmetry.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 83. -3- 3) Use a freshly sharpened HB pencil to neatly outline Harry’s head and ears. Remember to keep your lines very light! Begin with the ears, and then add the top of the head and the outline of the face. As you sketch, constantly check the relationships of lines and spaces to one another and to the line of symmetry. If you wish, you can erase the rough sketch lines; however, some artists prefer to leave them in – your choice! ILLUSTRATION 07-03 ILLUSTRATION 07-04 ILLUSTRATION 07-05 ILLUSTRATION 07-06Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 84. -4- 4) Pat your sketch with a kneaded eraser to lighten all the lines until they are very faint. 5) Neatly draw a nose and the outlines of the two strands of hair on either side. Use a freshly sharpened HB pencil. These curved lines meet the outer edges of the nose, creating the illusion that the nose is in front of the hair. 6) Add a tiny circle under the nose as the mouth, and a curved line below the mouth as the edge of the lower face. ILLUSTRATION 07-07 ILLUSTRATION 07-08 ILLUSTRATION 07-09 ILLUSTRATION 07-10Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 85. -5- 7) Outline Harry’s hair with thin neat lines and re-draw the outer sections of his ears. The outlines of the hair are drawn outside the perimeter of the head; hence, the upper half of the head appears wider and higher after the hair is added. Note the two little cowlicks on top of the head. If you’re not happy with some of the lines you draw, simply erase that section, redraw the lines, and keep on going. ILLUSTRATION 07-11 ILLUSTRATION 07-12 ILLUSTRATION 07-13 ILLUSTRATION 07-14Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 86. -6- ILLUSTRATION 07-15 Cartoon drawings of people often follow many of the same basic rules of facial proportions as realistic portraits. I tell you more about adult facial proportions in Beginner Lesson H-01: Horizontal Facial Proportions Adults. 8) Outline the remaining two small sections of hair below the ears. ILLUSTRATION 07-16 9) Erase the rough sketch lines of the upper section of the head, the inner sections of the ears, and the sides of the face. 10) Compare your drawing to mine and fix any sections you aren’t happy with. Observe that some sections of hair appear to be behind the ears, and others are in front, covering the eyes and most of the face. 11) If your outlines seem too dark, pat the drawing with your kneaded eraser to lighten it.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 87. -7- MAPPING OUT A SHADING PLAN A shading map allows artists to plan where they want to place different values in a drawing. Values are the different shades of gray created when you draw by varying both the density of the shading lines, and the pressure used in holding various pencils. The drawing of Harry will use light, medium, and dark values. ILLUSTRATION 07-17 ILLUSTRATION 07-18 ILLUSTRATION 07-19 (LIGHT - 2H PENCIL) (MEDIUM - HB PENCIL) (DARK - 2B PENCIL) To give you an idea of how a shading map works, examine the next illustration which shows the map and the completed shading of Harry’s nose. Light values (L) are rendered with a 2H pencil, medium values (M) with an HB, and dark values (D) with a 2B. The highlight (H) is left white. Highlight refers to the brightest area of a form where light bounces off its surface and is usually the section(s) closest to the light source. Light source refers to the direction from which a dominant light originates. The placement of this light source affects every aspect of a drawing. The light source tells you where to draw all the various values and shadows. ILLUSTRATION 07-20 H – Highlight L – Light value M – Medium value D – Dark value The actual process of using a shading map to add values to this particular drawing was to first add light values, then medium, and finally dark. However, you should experiment with other options, such as adding the dark or medium values first, to determine which works best for you. ILLUSTRATION 07-21 ILLUSTRATION 07-22 ILLUSTRATION 07-23 ILLUSTRATION 07-24Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 88. -8- ILLUSTRATION 07-25 12) Add circular shapes to represent highlights on the nose and ears as in Illustrations 07-26. The light source is from the upper left (refer to Illustration 07-25). Use either a 2H or HB pencil and keep the lines very faint. As you add mapping lines, don’t apply any pressure to your pencil. Just the weight of the pencil itself will provide a very light outline that can be easily erased. 13) Map the dark values on the nose and ear on the right and mark them with a “D” (Illustration 07-27). ILLUSTRATION 07-26 ILLUSTRATION 07-27Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 89. -9- 14) Map the dark values of the part in the hair, and the shadows on the face. ILLUSTRATION 07-28 Dark shading will identify the part in the hair and the sections above each ear. The light source creates strong cast shadows on the face from the hair and nose.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 90. - 10 - 15) Outline the mapping lines of the dark values of hair in the lower sections, and mark them with a “D”. ILLUSTRATION 07-29 While you don’t need to draw your mapping lines exactly like mine, it is important to have them located in approximately the same locations. Note whether the sizes and proportions of the various sections of your map are similar to mine, and adjust as needed.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 91. - 11 - 16) Map the medium values and mark them with an “M”. ILLUSTRATION 07-30 Take your time! Working from the far left toward the right may prevent you from missing some sections.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 92. - 12 - 17) Outline the light values (L), and mark them with an “L”. ILLUSTRATION 07-31 The unmarked sections on this shading map represent the lightest values of all, the highlights, which will be mostly left white. If you feel that you may become confused while adding values, mark the highlight sections with an “H”. Check over your map carefully and make sure you’ve included all the outlines of each value.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 93. - 13 - SHADING THE FACE, NOSE AND EARS Basic hatching graduations comprised of straight lines are used to add shading to Harry’s face, nose and ears. Hatching is a series of lines (called a set) drawn closely together to give the illusion of values. Depending on the shading effect desired, the individual lines in hatching sets can be drawn far apart or close together. Graduations (often called graduated shading) are a continuous progression of values that graduate from dark to light or from light to dark. You begin by adding the light values, then the medium values, and finally the dark values. Refer to page 7 of this lesson to get a sense of how the shading is accomplished. Don’t forget that you can turn your sketchbook around as you draw the hatching lines. You should complete all the lessons in F-level Beginner: Hatching before adding shading to this drawing. 18) Use hatching graduations to add the light values to the face, nose, and ears. Generally speaking, different values are created by: Varying the density of the lines. Density refers to whether the individual hatching lines are close together or far apart. Varying the pressure used in holding your pencils. For light lines you press very gently with your pencil. Press harder with your pencil to make darker lines. Using various pencils, such as HB, 2B, and 4B. For example, an HB makes lighter lines than 2B or 4B. ILLUSTRATION 07-32Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 94. - 14 - 19) Add the medium and dark values as in Illustrations 07-33 and 07-34 on the next page. ILLUSTRATION 07-33 ILLUSTRATION 07-34Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 95. - 15 - CURVED HATCHING LINES BECOME REALISTIC HAIR In this section, you follow a shading map by first adding the dark values, then the medium values, and finally the light. The hair-textured hatching graduations are rendered with curved lines that follow the perceived contours of the head. 20) Use gently curving hatching lines to add the dark (D) values to the hair. Well drawn hair is rendered with curved hatching lines that follow the perceived contours of the head and/or individual strands of hair. ILLUSTRATION 07-35Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 96. - 16 - 21) Graduate the medium values into the dark shading and the (L) sections of the map. The hatching lines are of various lengths, rather than long and continuous. ILLUSTRATION 07-36 The hatching lines used on the top half of the head are all curved and follow the contour of the skull. The dominant light source is from the upper left. Hence, the hair is lighter closer to the light source and darker in the shadow areas further from the light source. The sections of hair in front of the ears overlap those behind the ears, thereby helping to enhance the illusion of depth.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 97. - 17 - 22) Graduate the light values into both the medium values and the highlight sections which are largely left white. Observe that the values range from white in the shiny areas (highlights) to almost black in the dark shadow sections. ILLUSTRATION 07-37 Take note of how the form of the understructure of the head is accentuated by the shading of the hair. The values are light in some places and dark in others, creating the illusion of depth, and enhancing the illusion that some sections of hair are closer to the viewer. From the part in the hair at the top of the head, the shading begins dark, graduates to light, and then back to dark in the shadow sections and on the ends.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 98. - 18 - 23) Add final touches to any sections of shading that you are not happy with. Step back from your drawing and have a look at the overall values. You can make some areas lighter by patting the lines with your kneaded eraser shaped to a wedge. You make sections of the hair darker by simply drawing more hatching lines in between others, wherever you need them. Sign your name, write the date on the back of your drawing, and put a smile on your face! BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 99. Brenda Hoddinott N-08 INTERMEDIATE: 3-D CARTOONS Cartoons are always fun to draw, and a lighthearted way to strengthen your drawing skills. My sketch of this mischievous looking toddler incorporates both crosshatching and hatching shading techniques.Each individual section of his hair is drawn with a hatching graduation in which curved hatchinglines follow its contours. Crosshatching graduations are ideal for shading the smooth skin tonesof his ears, face, and features.This project is divided into four sections: SKETCHING PROPORTIONS: You render a rough sketch to establish basic proportions. NEATLY OUTLINING PRECIOUS: You use the rough sketch as a guideline to add additional details. HATCHING HAIR AND SHADING EYES: You use various pencils from HB to 4B, and curved hatching lines to add a full range of values to Precious’s hair. CROSSHATCHING FACIAL FORMS: You use various pencils and diagonal crosshatching lines to accentuate the three-dimensional facial forms.Suggested supplies include 2H, HB, 2B, 4B and 6B pencils, vinyl and kneaded erasers, a pencilsharpener, a sandpaper block, and good quality drawing paper. 10 PAGES - 38 ILLUSTRATIONS This lesson is recommended for artists with basic drawing skills, including the shading techniques of hatching and crosshatching. The curriculum of this lesson is easily implemented into instructional programs for home schooling, academic and recreational learning environments. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada - 2007
  • 100. 2SKETCHING PROPORTIONSCartoons are always fun to draw, and a lighthearted way to strengthen your drawing skills. In thissection, you render a rough sketch to establish basic proportions. A rough sketch is a quicklyrendered drawing that illustrates the important elements of a subject with very few details.Proportion is the relationship in size of one component of a drawing to another or others.1) Lightly sketch the outline of his head. Refer to Figures 8-01 and 8-02. The top section is as simple as drawing an upside-down U. The lower section is two straight lines that meet at his chin.2) Add two curved lines to mark his hairline. Refer to Figure 8-03. The point in the center is commonly referred to as a widow’s peak.3) Sketch a horizontal oval as his nose, close to the bottom of his head. FIGURE 8-01 FIGURE 8-02 FIGURE 8-034) Sketch his ears a FIGURE 8-04 FIGURE 8-05 little lower than halfway down from the top of his head.5) Add two circles to mark the locations of his eyes.6) Sketch a long and a short curved line as his mouth.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 101. 3NEATLY OUTLINING PRECIOUSIn this section, you use the rough sketch as a guideline to add additional details. Rather thandrawing new lines over the old rough sketch lines, you need to examine my drawings closely anddraw precise outlines with a sharpened HB pencil. Remember to keep these lines very light.7) Outline Precious with neat lines that follow the contours of the various shapes of his head, ears, and facial features. Refer to Figures 8-06 to 8-18. Examine the lengths of the new lines and the various directions in which they curve. Pay close attention to intricate details and FIGURE 8-06 continually adjust your drawing as necessary. The top of his skull is rounded, his ears are large, and he has chubby cheeks and a tiny chin. The placement of his features determines his age to be around three or four. FIGURE 8-07 FIGURE 8-08 FIGURE 8-09 The curved lines above his eyes help create his mischievous facial expression. A neatly rendered oval becomes his nose.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 102. 4 FIGURE 8-10 The mouth is neatly outlined with lines that are centered on his face. FIGURE 8-11Twelve tiny circles are outlined; two for thehighlights in his eyes and five small freckleson each side of his face. FIGURE 8-12 Short curved lines are added above his eyes as the upper eyelid creases. FIGURE 8-13His eyebrows are shaded lightly with anHB pencil.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 103. 5 FIGURE 8-14 Several short lines mark the edge of his hairline. The “leaf-shaped” clumps of hair are outlined with curved lines, as in Figures 8-15 to 8-18. FIGURE 8-15 FIGURE 8-16 FIGURE 8-17 FIGURE 8-18 8) Erase any rough guidelines that you don’t want in the final drawing. Before I began shading, I erased several of my old sketch lines; most importantly the one that indicated the top of his head. 9) If your lines look too dark, lighten them with your kneaded eraser by gently patting the entire drawing.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 104. 6 FIGURE 8-19 HATCHING HAIR AND SHADING EYES In this section, you use various pencils from HB to 4B and curved hatching lines to add a full range of values to the hair. Hatching is a series of lines drawn closely together to give the illusion of values. 10) Shade in his hair with graduated hatching, remembering to leave lighter areas for the shiny sections. Refer to Figures 8-19 to 8-23. FIGURE 8-20 A strong contrast in FIGURE 8-21 values enhances the forms of the individual strands of hair. FIGURE 8-22 FIGURE 8-23The light source is from above and to theright, so the individual strands of hair areslightly lighter on the top of his head andin front.Light source is the direction from which adominant light originates.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 105. 711) Darken the outlines with an HB pencil, and add shading to the eyes and eyebrows. Refer to Figures 8-24 and 8-28. Curved FIGURE 8-24 lines identify the lower edges of his brows and the perimeter of his eyes. FIGURE 8-25 Outline the pupils and add medium values to the irises. Note the cast shadow from the brow on the upper section of his irises. FIGURE 8-26 Shade in the pupils very darkly, leaving the highlights white. Use a 4B pencil and hatching to give texture to the eyebrows. FIGURE 8-28 FIGURE 8-27 FIGURE 8-29 CROSSHATCHING FACIAL FORMS In this section you use various pencils and diagonal crosshatching lines to accentuate the three-dimensional facial forms. 12) Use crosshatching and FIGURE 8-30 various pencils from 2H to 2B to shade in his face and ears. FIGURE 8-31 The values of the FIGURE 8-28 ear on the left are darker closer to the edge of his face. The overall values of the face are darker on the left.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 106. 8 FIGURE 8-32 A white FIGURE 8-33 highlight is left on the nose. Add the shadow section on the left and below his nose. Dark values are added between his eyes and on his upper eyelids. Shading is added to the right side of his FIGURE 8-34 forehead, and the lower sections of his face. FIGURE 8-35 FIGURE 8-36 FIGURE 8-37 As an aside, most of the illustrations in this project are considerably larger than my drawing. My completed drawing is only 2.5 inches wide (shown actual size in figures 36 and 37), and was done with 0.3mm mechanical pencils.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 107. 9 FIGURE 8-38 Complete the shading on the lower section of the face. 13) Compare your drawing to mine and fix any sections you aren’t completely happy with. Figure 8-38 has been enlarged to twice the size of the original drawing, so you can more clearly see the crosshatching lines. To make a section of shading lighter, pat the lines very gently with a kneaded eraser that has been molded to a thin wedge-shape. To make a section darker, add more thin lines in between others.CHALLENGEDraw oneor both ofthesefunnycartoonfaces. Usethe samedrawingprocess asin thislesson.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 108. 10Brenda HoddinottAs a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda utilizesdiverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, contécrayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. Brenda HoddinottBiographyBorn in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. Shedeveloped strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning,and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as aself-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments haveemployed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal policedepartments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal CanadianMounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “ForensicArtists International”.Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing andpainting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired andtrained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brendachose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing,drawing, painting, and developing her websites.Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach tocurriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes forstudents of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels andabilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as aresource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughoutthe world.Learn-to-draw booksDrawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is availableon various websites and in major bookstores internationally.The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of theYear Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page bookis available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com

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