Mediu m animale si fantezie

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Mediu m animale si fantezie

  1. 1. ON A FORM Brenda Hoddinott M-01 INTERMEDIATE: ANIMALS & FANTASY Drawing realistic animals requires special attention to the different directions in which their fur is growing, and to the furry texture and the various values as defined by the dominant light source. You can get a pretty good idea of the basic structural form of an animal by studying various aspects of its fur. In this lesson, you indicate the under forms of a puppy’s leg and paw, by drawing its covering of fur.This project is divided into the following five parts: SETTING UP PROPORTIONS: You begin by lightly sketching proportions. While different sizes and breeds of puppies have legs of various lengths, the overall structure and proportions are very similar. OUTLINING THE BASIC FORMS: In this section, you refine your initial sketch by outlining the forms of the leg and paw. ADDING FORM AND TEXTURE TO THE LEG: You use raggedy hatching lines to add shading to the fur, so as to accentuate the three dimensional under forms of the leg. The light source in this drawing is from the upper right, which means that the shading is darker on the left and lower left. SHADING THE PARTS OF A PUPPY PAW: After outlining the various parts of the paw with fuzzy hatching lines, you add shading to accentuate their three dimensional forms. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER: ADDING FINAL DETAILS: In this section, you add a small part of the puppy’s chest, complete the shading, add a shadow under the paw, and add darker values to enhance the forms.For this project you need good quality white drawing paper, different grades of graphite pencils(such as 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B), kneaded and vinyl erasers, and a pencil sharpener.This project is recommended for artists from age 12 to adult with basic drawing skills, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. 18 PAGES – 30 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2004 (Revised 2006)
  2. 2. -2- SETTING UP PROPORTIONS While different sizes and breeds of puppies have legs of various lengths, the overall structure and proportions are very similar. Examine the next three illustrations to see what I mean. While each leg is the same width, the lengths vary. The illustrations in this lesson will be for the puppy leg in illustration 01-01.This drawing is 3.5 by 6 inches. If you want to draw a longer leg, simply keep the width of your drawing format the same, but make it longer, such as 3.5 by 7 or 3.5 by 8 inches. ILLUSTRATION 01-01 ILLUSTRATION 01-02 ILLUSTRATION 01-03 Setting up accurate proportions is extremely important. If the proportions of your subject are off, no amount of beautiful shading can save your drawing. Draw your lines very lightly, preferably with an HB pencil. Don’t press too hard with your pencils! You may want to lighten or erase some lines later. ILLUSTRATION 01-04 1) Draw a horizontal oval shape close to the bottom of your drawing space. This shape marks the location and approximate size of the puppy’s paw. Make sure you leave plenty of space above and to the right to add the rest of the leg.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  3. 3. -3- ILLUSTRATION 01-05 2) Lightly sketch the shape that identifies the location and basic forms of the leg (as in Illustration 01-05). ILLUSTRATION 01-06 Observe how the shape of the leg is curved upward toward the upper right, and is narrower at the bottom where it attaches to the paw. 3) Add a curved line to mark the location of a small section of the puppy’s body as in Illustration 01-06. Observe how this curved line cuts through the upper section of the leg. 4) Use your kneaded eraser to pat your sketch until the lines are very faint. OUTLINING THE BASIC FORMS In this section, you refine your sketch by outlining the forms of the leg and paw. Remember to continue keeping your lines light! In reality, my sketch is so faint, it’s barely visible. However, the drawing has been made darker in a computer program, so you can see my lines. 5) Compare your sketch with mine, make sure that everything is in the correct place, and change anything you’re not happy with.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  4. 4. -4- 6) Refer to the following 6 illustrations, as you outline the leg and paw (use a freshly sharpened HB pencil). ILLUSTRATION 01-07 ILLUSTRATION 01-08 ILLUSTRATION 01-09 ILLUSTRATION 01-10 ILLUSTRATION 01-11 ILLUSTRATION 01-12Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  5. 5. -5- ADDING FORM AND TEXTURE TO THE LEG In this section, you use raggedy hatching lines to add shading to the fur so as to accentuate the three dimensional forms of the leg. The light source is from the upper right, which means that the shading is darker on the left and lower left. 7) Compare your outline with Illustration 01-13, and correct any lines you don’t like. 8) Use your kneaded eraser to lighten your outline until the lines are very faint. 9) Add shading to the upper left section of the leg with curved hatching lines. Use an HB pencil. Note that the fur curves at a downward angle along the left. ILLUSTRATION 01-13 ILLUSTRATION 01-14 10) Add the furry texture to the remainder of the body and leg. Use 2H, HB and 2B pencils. No text is provided for these steps. Rather, the close-up illustrations on the next seven pages speak for themselves to provide you with guidance.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  6. 6. -6- ILLUSTRATION 01-15 Watch closely the different directions in which the fur curves. Take your time, and keep your pencils sharpened, so the fur looks fine and soft, rather than coarse. As you progress, observe how the fur on the center part of the leg, appears to be shorter than the fur closer to the edges, and also seems to grow downward. The fur that is closest to the outer edges of the leg is lighter in value, and curves outward at a downward angle along each side. Take note that some sections of fur are slightly darker than others. Subtle graduations of different values, draw attention to the furry textures, and accentuate the three-dimensional under-forms of the dog’s leg.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  7. 7. -7- ILLUSTRATION 01-16Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  8. 8. -8- ILLUSTRATION 01-17Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  9. 9. -9- ILLUSTRATION 01-18Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  10. 10. - 10 - ILLUSTRATION 01-19Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  11. 11. - 11 - ILLUSTRATION 01-20Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  12. 12. - 12 - ILLUSTRATION 01-21 11) With short thin hatching lines, and freshly sharpened 2H and HB pencils, add shading down the center section of the leg. Watch closely the various directions in which the fur grows. Expect to sharpen your pencil often as you work – a sandpaper block works extremely well! 12) Use your 2B pencil to darken the shading in the shadow areas.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  13. 13. - 13 - SHADING THE PARTS OF A PUPPY PAW After outlining the various parts of the paw, you add shading to accentuate their three dimensional forms. Keep in mind that the light source is from the upper right! ILLUSTRATION 01-22 13) Draw five toenails on the puppy’s paw. Take your time and closely examine their locations and individual shapes. ILLUSTRATION 01-23 14) Add a fur textured outline around the paw, each toe. Observe how the underside of each toe is simply a curved line rather than a fuzzy outline, so as to identify the pads of the toes. ILLUSTRATION 01-24 15) Continue the shading of the leg down onto the upper section of the paw.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  14. 14. - 14 - ILLUSTRATION 01-25 16) Add shading between the toes on the right. 17) Add dark shading to the toe pads. ILLUSTRATION 01-26 18) Complete the shading of the toes. Note how some furry lines extend down past the bottoms of the toe pads. ILLUSTRATION 01-27 19) Add shading to the toenails. Leave a thin section of white on each toe to provide the illusion of form.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  15. 15. - 15 - ILLUSTRATION 01-28 PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER: ADDING FINAL DETAILS In this final section, you finish a small part of the puppy’s chest, complete the overall shading, add a shadow under the paw, and add darker values to enhance the various forms. 20) Add a little section of dark fur to the part of the body where the top of the leg meets the chest. 21) Use your 2B pencil to add the dark shading to the chest.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  16. 16. - 16 - ILLUSTRATION 01-29 22) Add darker shading to the paw with your 2B pencil. 23) Add the cast shadow under and to the left of the paw. Use horizontal hatching lines, and HB and 2B pencils. 24) Use a freshly sharpened 4B pencil to add some very dark hatching lines to the darkest shadow sections (as in Illustration 01-30). Keep your pencil nice and sharp! Don’t forget the section of the shadow closest to the paw, the fur on the left of the leg and paw, and the part of the chest in the upper right.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  17. 17. - 17 - ILLUSTRATION 01-30 25) Check over your drawing and make changes to sections you aren’t happy with. Remember, a strong contrast in values accentuates three dimensional forms. Sign your name, put today’s date on the back of your drawing, add a big smile to your face, and go hug a dog! There are only three ways to improve your drawing skills - practice, practice and more practice! Grab another piece of paper, choose another lesson, and draw some more!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  18. 18. - 18 - BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  19. 19. FEATHERS ON A Brenda Hoddinott M-02 INTERMEDIATE: ANIMALS & FANTASYIn this lesson you render a detailed contour drawing of a generic bird’s wing. While the drawingin this lesson is based on a generic bird wing; the basic anatomy can be implemented into anydrawing of an entity with wings, from angels, and dragons, to flying pigs!Understanding the basic construction of wings greatly enhances your ability to realisticallyrender portraits of birds. While their functions, colors, sizes, and shapes, are unique to each ofthe several thousand different species of birds currently living on our planet, all birds’ wings arecovered with feathers.This lesson is divided into the following four sections: GETTING ACQUAINTED WITH A BIRD’S WING: For most artistic applications, you can simply focus on the four basic parts of a wing identified in this section. SKETCHING THE PROPORTIONS OF A WING: Your goal is to sketch the shapes of the four basic parts of a wing in proportion to one another by observing the lengths, angles, and curves of the various lines which outline the different parts. OUTLINING FOUR GROUPS OF FEATHERS: To render believable feathers that appear to overlap one another on this wing, you draw only a curved line to represent most of the feathers, rather than completely outlining each one. ADDING DETAILS TO THE WING’S FEATHERS: In this section you indicate the basic details of each of the major groups of feathers. 19 PAGES – 37 ILLUSTRATIONS This article is recommended for artists from age twelve through adulthood with good drawing skills, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2004 (Revised 2006)
  20. 20. -2- GETTING ACQUAINTED WITH A BIRD’S WING The wings of a bird are without doubt, one of nature’s most magnificent and complex creations. While their functions, colors, sizes, and shapes, are unique to each of several thousand different species of birds currently living on our planet, all birds’ wings are covered with feathers. For most artistic applications, you can simply focus on four basic parts of a wing: Refer to the next drawing and identify each of the following groups of feathers: 1. Primaries: long outer flight feathers of the wing which provide considerable power for both lift and maneuverability. 2. Wing coverts: rows of small feathers close to the bird’s body, which cover the base of larger wing feathers, and the upper and lower surfaces of the wing. 3. Secondaries: main lifting feathers located toward the inner section of a wing. 4. Scapulars: feathers covering the shoulder section where the wing attaches to the bird’s body. ILLUSTRATION 02-01 The wings of a hummingbird are extraordinary in that they allow this tiny bird to hover in one spot for extended periods of time, fly with its body in an upright position, and navigate both forward and backward.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  21. 21. -3- ILLUSTRATION 02-02 Understanding the basic construction of wings greatly enhances your ability to realistically render portraits of birds. This caricature of an owl is more believable because all four sections of the wing are identifiable. Owls can fly very quietly in search of their prey, thanks to a soft coating on their feathers, which serves to muffle sound. SKETCHING THE PROPORTIONS OF A WING While the drawing in this lesson is based on a generic bird wing; the basic anatomy can be implemented into any drawing of an entity with wings, from angels, and dragons, to flying pigs! Keep in mind that the wings of birds are quite diverse in shape, and may differ significantly from this drawing. Before you draw a portrait of a specific species of bird, you are wise to do some research and find out more about its wings. In this section, your goal is to sketch the shapes of the four basic parts of a wing in proportion to one another. Pay close attention to the lengths, angles, and curves of the various lines which outline the different parts.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  22. 22. -4- ILLUSTRATION 02-O3 1) Lightly sketch the outline of the wing coverts. The shape is similar to a triangular with its longest side being gently curved. Leave plenty of room on your drawing paper to add the primaries and secondaries to the left and below, and the scapulars on the right. ILLUSTRATION 02-O4 2) Add a wide u-shape, below and extending toward the right of the wing coverts, to identify the location of the secondaries. The heavier the bird, the bigger its wings need to be, in order for it to be capable of flight. A fully grown Great Bustard is one of the heaviest flying birds in the world, weighing in at approximately 40 pounds. A wingspan of around 7 feet allows this huge bird to take flight!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  23. 23. -5- ILLUSTRATION 02-O5 3) Lightly sketch the proportions of the primaries. Outline a couple of the uppermost feathers and indicate the locations of the others. ILLUSTRATION 02-O6 4) Add a curved line to the upper right of the wing coverts to mark the location of the scapulars.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  24. 24. -6- ILLUSTRATION 02-O7 5) Pat your entire drawing with a kneaded eraser until the lines are so faint that you can barely see them. OUTLINING FOUR GROUPS OF FEATHERS To render believable feathers that appear to overlap one another, you draw only a curved line to represent most of the feathers, rather than completely outlining each one. ILLUSTRATION 02-O8 6) Draw an oval shape as a feather on the upper section of the scapular. ILLUSTRATION 02-O9 The wing feathers of water fowl are water repellent so as to conserve the bird’s body heat when it is swimming or diving for food in cold water.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  25. 25. -7- 7) Draw a u-shape for the feather closest to the first one (Illustration 02-10). The following three illustrations show you how to render feathers that appear to overlap one another. Observe that this second feather appears to be under the first one. 8) Use a curved line to draw the feather to the left of the other two (Illustration 02-11). 9) Add another curved line as the feather on the far left (Illustration 02-12 and 02-13). ILLUSTRATION 02-10 ILLUSTRATION 02-11 ILLUSTRATION 02-12 10) Add three larger feathers to the right of the first one (Illustration 02-14). Use the same overlapping technique of sketching curved lines to indicate each. ILLUSTRATION 02-13 ILLUSTRATION 02-14 The wings of penguins resemble and work like flippers, which allow them to dive into, and swim effortlessly through the ocean in search of a delectable diet of fish.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  26. 26. -8- 11) Continue adding feathers until this entire section is filled in. Indicate each feather with a curved line. Refer to illustrations 02-15, 02-16, and 02-17. ILLUSTRATION 02-14 ILLUSTRATION 02-15 ILLUSTRATION 02-16Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  27. 27. -9- 12) Outline the coverts with various curved lines. Sketch a raggedy line along the top to mark the upper edges of the tiniest feathers. Along the left and lower perimeter, outline individual feathers of various shapes and sizes. Take note that the lower right feathers, closest to the scapulars, appear to overlap one another. ILLUSTRATION 02-17 ILLUSTRATION 02-18 13) Outline the five secondaries that are close to the scapulars. Begin with the smallest feather which is closest to the scapulars. Take note that the sides of this u- shape are at an angle rather than horizontal or vertical. Add a curved line to represent the next feather which is larger. Observe how the first feather seems to overlap this one. Add three more curved lines to represent progressively larger feathers.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  28. 28. - 10 - ILLUSTRATION 02-19 14) Add three more large secondary feathers. Observe that the feather, closest to the center is the widest and the longest. ILLUSTRATION 02-20 15) Outline the rest of the secondaries. Observe that the feathers become progressively smaller toward to the left. ILLUSTRATION 02-21Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  29. 29. - 11 - ILLUSTRATION 02-22 16) Outline the five largest primary feathers. Begin with the lower feathers close to the secondaries as in Illustration 02-22. 17) Add the other primary feathers. Refer to Illustration 02-23. Note that the feathers become progressively smaller and the spaces between them become increasingly bigger toward the top. ILLUSTRATION 02-23Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  30. 30. - 12 - 18) Use a sharp edge of a vinyl eraser, to carefully erase any sketch lines that are still visible from the original drawing. ILLUSTRATION 02-24 ADDING DETAILS TO THE WING’S FEATHERS In this section you indicate the basic details of each of the major groups of feathers. Illustration 02-25 represents a generic feather, as is found on most adult birds. ILLUSTRATION 02-25 To become familiar with the three major sections of a feather, examine this drawing and identify each part, as defined by the following terms: 1. QUILL: the hollow, wide end of the shaft that is attached to the skin and embedded into the body of the bird. 2. VANE: the flattened structures that extend outward from either side of the shaft. The vane is made up of numerous long thin branches called barbs. 3. SHAFT: the long, hollow, rigid rod down the total length of a feather that is attached to the bird at the quill. The feathers of a wing have numerous functions beyond the action of flight; they conserve the bird’s body heat in cold environments, provide the propelling action and the supporting surface needed for flying, and protect their skin from minor injuries.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  31. 31. - 13 - ILLUSTRATION 02-26 19) Add several u-shapes as feathers along the lower and left edges of the perimeter of the coverts. ILLUSTRATION 02-27 Some birds, such as eagles, can glide and soar for hours, without flapping their wings. By resting on air that is moving upward, called thermals, they can travel for several miles. In essence the birds are gliding downward, but currents of constantly rising air continuously lift them upward.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  32. 32. - 14 - ILLUSTRATION 02-28 20) Add lines down the length of each of the primaries to indicate the shafts. Refer to Illustration 02-25, 02-28, and 02-29. Note that each shaft is not centered; hence, one side of the vane is wider. 21) Sketch several angular lines (vanes) extending from the shaft. ILLUSTRATION 02-29Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  33. 33. - 15 - 22) Add a single line down the length of each of the secondaries to mark the shafts. ILLUSTRATION 02-30 23) Sketch the vanes, which extend downward at an angle. ILLUSTRATION 02-31Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  34. 34. - 16 - 24) Sketch more layers of smaller feathers around the lower central section of the coverts. ILLUSTRATION 02-32 ILLUSTRATION 02-33 Wing feathers are uniquely designed for the specific needs of different birds. For example, the wings of waterfowl are water repellent; those of birds that fly mostly over land, are wide and slotted; and birds that do most of their soaring over bodies of water, have more elongated, slender wings.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  35. 35. - 17 - 25) Fill in the covert section with lots of different u-shapes to represent the texture of the tiny feathers. ILLUSTRATION 02-34 26) Add a thin line down the centers of the larger feather of the coverts. ILLUSTRATION 02-35Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  36. 36. - 18 - ILLUSTRATION 02-36 27) Add thin lines as the shafts of some (or all) of the feathers of the scapular. Drawing different species of birds is very rewarding and a lot of fun. You can find numerous feathered friends to serve as models with minimal effort. Take your camera with you when you visit your favorite park, the local zoo, an aviary, or a neighbor’s garden. The result will be many hours of drawing enjoyment. ILLUSTRATION 02-37Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  37. 37. - 19 - BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Fine Art Education http://www.finearteducation.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. ART PUBLICATIONS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  38. 38. DETAILED Brenda Hoddinott M-03 INTERMEDIATE: ANIMALS & FANTASYThis detailed drawing, of an eye of Shadow the Dalmatian relies completely on freehandsketching, without the help of drawing tools such as a grid. You add the values and texture to hereye, and the surrounding fur, with mostly hatching.This project is divided into the following four sections: INTRODUCTION: In order to truly understand how to draw an animal’s eye correctly, you need to be aware of its construction behind the small section you see. The eyeball is a fragile sphere nestled safely inside the frontal section of an animal’s skull. However, when you look at animals’ eyes, you actually see very little of their eyeballs. The iris and pupil (and sometimes a tiny segment of the white of the eye) take up most of the visible sections. OUTLINING CANINE EYE PROPORTIONS: In this first section, your goal is to sketch all the parts of her eye on your drawing paper proportionately correct. BRINGING THE EYE TO LIFE WITH SHADING: In addition to its basic triangular shape, a realistic dog’s eye drawn from this angle, needs to illustrate the three dimensional forms of the iris, eyeball, eyelids, and the bone structures around the eye. ADDING FUR AND FINAL DETAILS: Carefully placed shading graduations, fool the observers eye into seeing the three-dimensional under forms, such as the bone structures. In the final steps of this project, you use various pencils to draw Shadow’s furry facial forms.Suggested drawing supplies include good quality white drawing paper, graphite pencils, kneadedand vinyl erasers, and a pencil sharpener. This project is recommended for fine art educators and artists from age 12 to adult with good drawing skills. 16 PAGES – 23 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2004 (Revised 2006)
  39. 39. -2- INTRODUCTION While this project explores drawing the eyes of a dog, the basic principles are the same for many other types of animals. The next drawings illustrate a giraffe, dog, cat, and pig. Examine their eyes and note both the similarities and the differences. ILLUSTRATION 03-01 In order to truly understand how to draw an animal’s eye correctly, you need to be aware of its construction behind the small section you see. The eyeball is a fragile sphere nestled safely inside the frontal section of an animal’s skull. However, when you look at animals’ eyes, you actually see very little of their eyeballs. The iris and pupil (and sometimes a tiny segment of the white of the eye) take up most of the visible sections.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  40. 40. -3- In the next drawing you see an eyeball as it would appear if it was outside the eye socket. The different parts, specific to drawing animals, include the following: 1. White of the Eye: the primary section of the eyeball. The white of the eye is generally rendered with light to medium values. 2. Highlight: a bright spot (or spots) where light bounces off the shiny surface of the eye is usually left white. 3. Pupil: the dark circle inside the iris often has the darkest values of the entire drawing. The pupil of an eye is similar to the aperture in the lens of a camera; it opens and closes, as the levels of light become brighter or darker. 4. Iris: the large circular shape of the eye that varies in value from very light to very dark. Tiny muscles in the iris radiate outward from the pupil to help it open and close. In profile, the eyeball is not a perfect sphere. The cornea of the iris bulges slightly outward. ILLUSTRATION 03-02 As your perspective of an eyeball changes, the irises and pupils appear to be in different locations and visually change shape from a circle to an oval (an ellipse). With the changing angle of the animal’s head, an iris is rarely perfectly round. Refer to the simple line drawing in Illustration 03-03 to get an idea of what I mean. ILLUSTRATION 03-03Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  41. 41. -4- OUTLINING CANINE EYE PROPORTIONS This project, drawing the eye of a Dalmatian named Shadow, relies completely on freehand drawing without the help of drawing tools such as a grid. In this first section, your goal is to sketch all the parts of her eye on your drawing paper in a proportionately correct manner. Use an HB pencil, and keep your lines very light so they can be easily erased. Pay close attention to the lengths, angles, and curves of the various lines which outline the different parts of the eye. Also, remember to constantly double check the proportions of your sketch as you work your way through this project, and modify as needed. ILLUSTRATION 03-04 1) Use slightly curved lines to draw a triangular shape. As you examine this shape, take note that the lower line is more curved than the other two. Also, the curved line on the right is shorter than the others. ILLUSTRATION 03-05 2) Add another curved line inside the triangular shape. Take note of the points where the line intersects two sides of the triangular shape. Also, this line is more curved at the top.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  42. 42. -5- ILLUSTRATION 03-06 3) Add two more curved lines to represent the outline of the iris of the eye. While these two curved lines outline a segment of an oval-shape, the upper and lower sections appear to be under the dog’s eyelids. ILLUSTRATION 03-07 4) Use your kneaded eraser to lighten all your sketch lines until you can barely see them. With the basic proportions in place the initial sketch lines can now be replaced with thin neat lines. 5) Redraw the outline of the visible sections of the iris with a freshly sharpened HB pencil.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  43. 43. -6- ILLUSTRATION 03-08 6) Neatly outline the perimeter of the inside section of the eye with crisp lines. Take note of the rounded section of the inner corner of the eye (on the right). Add another rounded line on the left to represent the outer corner of the eye. ILLUSTRATION 03-09 7) Redraw the section of the eye on the right (the eyelid) with rounded lines. Observe that all three of the angular lines of the initial triangular shape are now rounded. 8) Erase any remaining rough sketch lines.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  44. 44. -7- Keep in mind that the eyelids are not attached to the eyeballs. The upper eyelid needs to be able to open and close to shield the eye from potential dangers such as objects, dirt, or bright lights. Depending on the perspective from which you are viewing the eye, the rims (edges) of both, or just one, of the upper and lower eyelids are visible. ILLUSTRATION 03-10 9) Outline a longish oval-shape on the upper section of the eyelid. This eye is being viewed at an angle. Consequently, the inner edge of the eyelid will be visible. This shape identifies an area of lighter shading, needed in order to create the illusion of the eyelid having depth. 10) Very lightly sketch a line below the eye to mark the lower eyelid. ILLUSTRATION 03-11 11) Outline a highlight in the upper right section of the iris. The light source is from the right. In the interest of simplicity, feel free to make your highlight an oval or circle shape rather than a curved teardrop-shape.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  45. 45. -8- ILLUSTRATION 03-12 12) Draw an oval shape inside the iris as the pupil. The pupil is quite small when compared to the iris. Take note that the highlight appears to overlap the pupil. Also, because of the angle of the eye, the pupil is drawn closer to the right of the iris than the left. BRINGING THE EYE TO LIFE WITH SHADING Gather your full set of drawing pencils and prepare to add shading to Shadow’s eye. In addition to its basic triangular shape, a realistic dog’s eye drawn from this angle, needs to illustrate the three dimensional forms of the iris, eyeball, eyelids, and the bone structures around the eye. ILLUSTRATION 03-13 13) Use your kneaded eraser to once again lighten your lines. 14) With curved hatching lines, add shading to the iris with an HB pencil, to accentuate its rounded form. The values need to be darker toward the outside edges of the iris to create the illusion that the cornea of the iris bulges slightly outward from the white of the eye.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  46. 46. -9- ILLUSTRATION 03-14 15) Add light values to the whites of the eyes with a 2H pencil and crosshatching. 16) With your HB pencil add straight hatching lines that radiate from the pupil outward to the edges of the iris. The values are darker around the edges of the iris. The iris has a graduation of values (rather than just a solid tone) which helps the surface of the eye look shiny. ILLUSTRATION 03-15 17) Use a 2B pencil to add darker shading to the pupil, and the outer and inner sections of the iris. These lines illustrate the tiny muscles in the iris that radiate outward from the pupil to help it open and close. 18) Add darker shading to the sections of the whites of the eye that are in shadow (use an HB pencil). Different values can illustrate forms, tiny blood vessels, and cast shadows from eyelids and eyelashes.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  47. 47. - 10 - ILLUSTRATION 03-16 19) Gently blend the shading of the iris, pupil and the white of the eye. Begin by blending the lighter values, and then the medium values. Be careful not to over blend, or all the values will end up looking the same. When you get to the dark values, blend sparingly so you don’t rub off too much of the graphite. ILLUSTRATION 03-17 20) Darken the pupil and the shadow sections again with your 2B pencil. In the process of blending, some of the graphite is removed. Therefore, the darker values need to be reapplied. 21) Erase some tiny slivers of white (on the upper left) to allow for the fur that grows down over the eye.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  48. 48. - 11 - ILLUSTRATION 03-18 22) Use squirkling to add values and texture to the rim of the lower section of the eye. Pay close attention to the graduations of values from dark to light. Use a combination of 2H, HB, and 2B pencils. 23) Add values and texture to the section of the eyelid on the right with more squirkles. Remember to leave the longish oval-shape at the top of the eyelid lighter than the rest. 24) Draw the fur around the perimeter of the upper sections of the eye. ILLUSTRATION 03-19 Remember to leave the tiny slivers white. Only add your furry lines to the outside sections. Take note of the various directions in which the hatching lines curve. Also note that the lines are of various lengths and thicknesses. Use HB and 2B pencils.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  49. 49. - 12 - ADDING FUR AND FINAL DETAILS Lifelike drawings of animals’ eyes need to be anchored within the facial structures. Carefully placed shading graduations, fool the observers eye into seeing the three-dimensional under forms, such as the bone structures. In the final steps of this project, you use various pencils to draw Shadow’s furry facial forms. You create different values with hatching by: Varying the density (placing lines either far apart or close together) of the individual hatching lines. Varying both the density of the hatching lines, and the pressure used in holding various pencils. Using different grades of pencils, from hard to soft, to help with the different values. 25) Use slightly curved lines to plot guidelines for drawing the various directions in which the fur grows. ILLUSTRATION 03-20Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  50. 50. - 13 - 26) Before you begin shading the fur, compare your drawing of the eye to mine, and touch up where needed. Remember, to make an area darker, you simply add more shading with a soft pencil. To make an area lighter, use your kneaded eraser, molded to a point, to slowly and gently pat off some of the graphite. 27) Use freshly sharpened 2B and HB pencils to add the middle values to the fur. Consider the following helpful hints for drawing a realistic fur texture: All hatching lines are curved, some more so than others. Some hatching lines extend beyond others for a jagged, natural-looking fur texture. The hatching lines are unevenly spaced, and of many different lengths and thicknesses. Refer to several of the lessons in I-level Beginner for more information on shading fur with hatching. ILLUSTRATION 03-21Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  51. 51. - 14 - 28) Add several tiny short lines and small spots to the fur around the lower sections of the eye (I used an HB). The fur around the rim of a dog’s eye is very short, and often thin with areas of skin showing through. To realistically render short fur, the hatching lines need to be very short. Conversely, long hatching lines are needed to represent long fur. 29) Add medium shading (HB and 2B) to the sections of long fur that are in shadow. On the upper left section of the fur, take note of a darker section that is a large spot. However, even white fur is shaded with hatching lines to indicate the fuzzy texture. ILLUSTRATION 03-22 30) Add darker values to Shadow’s spot on the upper left, the pupil and corners of the eye, and the sections of the eye and fur that are in shadow.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  52. 52. - 15 - ILLUSTRATION 03-23 If you enjoy drawing fur, try your hand at drawing Shadow’s face and neck. You can find this project, Shadow (T-02) in the advanced section of my site. Remember, learning to draw is like learning to play piano... dont expect perfection with your first few tries, plan to practice often, and expect to make lots of mistakes.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  53. 53. - 16 - BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Fine Art Education http://www.finearteducation.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. ART PUBLICATIONS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  54. 54. Brenda Hoddinott M-04 INTERMEDIATE: ANIMALS & FANTASY In this lesson, you first sketch a caricature of a cat named Kitty within a grid of twenty-five squares. You then enhance your shading skills by using mostly curved hatching lines, to add a full range of values to her fur and face. There’s a method to my madness in having you draw cartoons. First of all, your brain won’t get stuck telling you something is anatomically wrong, because cartoons are not supposed to look real! Secondly, cartoons are fun to draw! This project is divided into the following two parts: OUTLINING PROPORTIONS INSIDE A GRID: You first sketch this caricature of “Kitty” within a grid format to help you set up proportions. ADDING FORM AND TEXTURE WITH HATCHING: In this section, you use raggedy hatching lines to add shading to the fur. Hatching graduations also work well to shade the eyes and nose. The light source in this drawing is from the upper right, so the shading is darker on the left and lower left. For this project you need good quality white drawing paper, different grades of graphite pencils (such as 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B), kneaded and vinyl erasers, and a pencil sharpener. 15 PAGES – 25 ILLUSTRATIONS This project is recommended for artists from age 12 to adult, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators.Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2004 (Revised 2006)
  55. 55. -2- OUTLINING PROPORTIONS INSIDE A GRID Setting up accurate proportions is the foundation of drawing. If the proportions of your subject are off, no amount of beautiful shading or fancy pencil marks can save your drawing. This caricature of “Kitty” is drawn within a grid format to help you set up proportions. Don’t press too hard with your pencils! You will need to erase these lines later. No matter how careful you are when you draw with a grid, accidents can still happen. ILLUSTRATION 04-01 1) Draw a grid that is five squares wide by five squares long. I’ve chosen a square drawing format, 5 by 5 inches with one inch squares. Feel free to do a larger drawing by using larger squares. Draw your lines very lightly, preferably with your HB mechanical pencil. If you’re not used to drawing with a grid, you may want to use numbers along the top and letters down the side so as to easily identify each square as you work. Cats are carnivores (meat eaters), and may become malnourished on a diet of mostly grains, fruits, and/or vegetables. Their long sharp teeth, strong jaws, and claws are designed for hunting. Cats also have exceptionally good hearing and vision. Their eyes adapt so they can see well under dim lighting conditions allowing them to hunt for food at night.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  56. 56. -3- ILLUSTRATION 04-02 2) With your HB pencil, draw the circular outlines of the irises using the grid lines as references. When drawing with a grid, you may find it easier to draw only the contents of one square at a time. Don’t press too hard with your pencil! In reality, my sketch is so faint, it’s barely visible. However, the drawing has been made darker in a computer program. So you can see my lines. ILLUSTRATION 04-03 3) Draw a v-shape, with tiny curved lines at the tops, to mark the location of the nose. Despite popular belief, domestic cats are capable of becoming very social. Most pet cats enjoy the companionship of people, and respond to human speech. Also, cats don’t really think of themselves as little humans; rather they assume that we are big cats!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  57. 57. -4- ILLUSTRATION 04-04 4) Add a small rounded triangular-shape to the lower inner sections of each eye. These shapes represent the inner corners of the eyes. ILLUSTRATION 04-05 5) Add a line down the center of the nose (the v- shape). If you draw some lines in the wrong grid squares, simply erase them, redraw the grid lines, and keep on going! ILLUSTRATION 04-06 6) Add curved lines on either side of the nose to mark its outer edges. Continue to use an HB pencil, but remember to press lightly. Lightly drawn lines are easy to erase!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  58. 58. -5- ILLUSTRATION 04-07 7) Draw the long oval- shaped pupils of the eyes with a small c- shape in the upper right of each. The c-shapes look like a tiny bite has been taken from the pupils. They represent small sections of the round highlights, which will be left white to help the eyes look shiny. ILLUSTRATION 04-08 8) Before you continue, check that everything is in the correct place, and change anything you’re not happy with. 9) With your HB pencil and raggedy hatching lines, sketch the furry outline of the fur on the top of the head. 10) Add a short line to indicate the inner edge of each ear.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  59. 59. -6- 11) Add the outline of the lower section of the cat’s muzzle (below the nose). 12) Sketch the furry outline of the sides of her lower face and chin. 13) Erase the grid lines on your drawing, and redraw the sections of the sketch, which were subsequently erased. When erasing grid lines, use the edge of your vinyl eraser and then very lightly brush away the eraser crumbs with a clean soft paintbrush. Then use your kneaded eraser to gently pat the paper surface, which will pick up any remaining eraser crumbs. ILLUSTRATION 04-09Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  60. 60. -7- ADDING FORM AND TEXTURE WITH HATCHING In this section, you use raggedy hatching lines to add shading to the fur. Hatching graduations work well to shade the eyes and nose. The light source in this drawing is from the upper right, which means that the shading is darker on the left and lower left. 14) With an HB pencil, outline the outer edges of the upper and lower eyelids. 15) Outline the fur around the perimeter of the head in front of the ear (on the left). 16) Use slightly curved hatching lines for the shading on the inside of the ear. Note the direction in which the fur grows. Use an HB pencil. 17) Add light values along the perimeter of the head, so it seems to be in front of the ear. ILLUSTRATION 04-10 18) With a 2B pencil, fill in more medium values and accentuate the darker areas. Examine the close up of a tiny section of shading (below). 19) Mold your kneaded eraser to a thin wedge and pull out (erase) some thin sections of lighter fur. ILLUSTRATION 04-11 Examine the lightest sections of fur, especially around the perimeter of the head in front of the ear.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  61. 61. -8- 20) Add light and medium shading to the upper section of the head, around the eye on the left, and the area between the eyes with an HB pencil (refer to illustration 04-12). ILLUSTRATION 04-12 ILLUSTRATION 04-13 21) Use a 2B pencil to add more hatching lines to the medium and dark values. Refer to illustrations 04-13 and 04-14. ILLUSTRATION 04-14 Take note that some sections of fur are slightly darker than others. These subtle graduations draw attention to the furry textures, and accentuate the three-dimensional under- forms of the cat’s head.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  62. 62. -9- 22) Add light, medium, and dark values to the other ear, the upper section of her head and around the eyes. Watch closely the different directions in which the fur grows. Take your time, and keep your pencils sharpened, so the fur looks fine and soft, rather than coarse. 23) With an HB pencil add light and medium values to the upper and lower eyelids around the iris. The values around the inner and outer edges of the eyelids (sometimes called the rims of the eyes) are darker to help create the illusion of three-dimensional forms. ILLUSTRATION 04-15 24) Outline a tiny circle as a highlight in the inner corner of each eye. 25) Use a 2B or 4B to add shading to each inner corner. Remember to leave the highlights white. ILLUSTRATION 04-16 ILLUSTRATION 04-17Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  63. 63. - 10 - 26) With your 2B pencil draw a dark outline around the perimeter of the irises. 27) Shade in each iris with a little dark shading around the outer sections. Leave a white circular shape for the highlight and a lighter area on the side of the iris opposite the highlight. Note that the shading is darker under the upper eyelid and on the side where the highlight is drawn. 28) Add some thick and thin lines from the edges to the center of the irises to represent the tiny muscles of the eyes. ILLUSTRATION 04-18 ILLUSTRATION 04-19 29) Finish the fur on this section of the face, darkening some areas with your 2B pencil. ILLUSTRATION 04-20 30) With your 6B pencil, shade in the pupils.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  64. 64. - 11 - 31) Draw the fur under her eyes and around the upper section and sides of her nose. Observe the direction of the shading of the fur on the face. ILLUSTRATION 04-21 32) Add shading to the main section of her nose with your HB pencil. Examine the various sections of the nose very closely. ILLUSTRATION 04-22 Leave an oval-shaped highlight on the upper section of the nose, and small highlights on the lower section of the nose and the nostril on the right 33) With your 4B, shade in the inner sections of the nostrils. 34) Add dark shading to the lower lip with a 2B. 35) Use an HB to add curved hatching lines to the muzzle fur below the nose. 36) With a 4B add the cast shadow from the nose to the fur on the lower left.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  65. 65. - 12 - 37) Draw the fur on her lower muzzle and neck. Observe the shading on her neck, which is in shadow under her face on the right. Also note the direction in which the fur is growing. ILLUSTRATION 04-23 38) With your kneaded eraser shaped to a thin wedge, erase thin lines in her fur for whiskers (refer to the close-up in illustration 04-24). 39) Outline these whiskers lightly with a freshly sharpened HB pencil. 40) Use a 4B to darken the shading closest to the face. Examine this dark fur on the neck in the shadow of the muzzle, which serves to make the whiskers stand out nicely. ILLUSTRATION 04-24Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com

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