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Mediu m animale si fantezie

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  • 1. ON A FORM Brenda Hoddinott M-01 INTERMEDIATE: ANIMALS & FANTASY Drawing realistic animals requires special attention to the different directions in which their fur is growing, and to the furry texture and the various values as defined by the dominant light source. You can get a pretty good idea of the basic structural form of an animal by studying various aspects of its fur. In this lesson, you indicate the under forms of a puppy’s leg and paw, by drawing its covering of fur.This project is divided into the following five parts: SETTING UP PROPORTIONS: You begin by lightly sketching proportions. While different sizes and breeds of puppies have legs of various lengths, the overall structure and proportions are very similar. OUTLINING THE BASIC FORMS: In this section, you refine your initial sketch by outlining the forms of the leg and paw. ADDING FORM AND TEXTURE TO THE LEG: You use raggedy hatching lines to add shading to the fur, so as to accentuate the three dimensional under forms of the leg. The light source in this drawing is from the upper right, which means that the shading is darker on the left and lower left. SHADING THE PARTS OF A PUPPY PAW: After outlining the various parts of the paw with fuzzy hatching lines, you add shading to accentuate their three dimensional forms. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER: ADDING FINAL DETAILS: In this section, you add a small part of the puppy’s chest, complete the shading, add a shadow under the paw, and add darker values to enhance the forms.For this project you need good quality white drawing paper, different grades of graphite pencils(such as 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B), kneaded and vinyl erasers, and a pencil sharpener.This project is recommended for artists from age 12 to adult with basic drawing skills, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. 18 PAGES – 30 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2004 (Revised 2006)
  • 2. -2- SETTING UP PROPORTIONS While different sizes and breeds of puppies have legs of various lengths, the overall structure and proportions are very similar. Examine the next three illustrations to see what I mean. While each leg is the same width, the lengths vary. The illustrations in this lesson will be for the puppy leg in illustration 01-01.This drawing is 3.5 by 6 inches. If you want to draw a longer leg, simply keep the width of your drawing format the same, but make it longer, such as 3.5 by 7 or 3.5 by 8 inches. ILLUSTRATION 01-01 ILLUSTRATION 01-02 ILLUSTRATION 01-03 Setting up accurate proportions is extremely important. If the proportions of your subject are off, no amount of beautiful shading can save your drawing. Draw your lines very lightly, preferably with an HB pencil. Don’t press too hard with your pencils! You may want to lighten or erase some lines later. ILLUSTRATION 01-04 1) Draw a horizontal oval shape close to the bottom of your drawing space. This shape marks the location and approximate size of the puppy’s paw. Make sure you leave plenty of space above and to the right to add the rest of the leg.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 3. -3- ILLUSTRATION 01-05 2) Lightly sketch the shape that identifies the location and basic forms of the leg (as in Illustration 01-05). ILLUSTRATION 01-06 Observe how the shape of the leg is curved upward toward the upper right, and is narrower at the bottom where it attaches to the paw. 3) Add a curved line to mark the location of a small section of the puppy’s body as in Illustration 01-06. Observe how this curved line cuts through the upper section of the leg. 4) Use your kneaded eraser to pat your sketch until the lines are very faint. OUTLINING THE BASIC FORMS In this section, you refine your sketch by outlining the forms of the leg and paw. Remember to continue keeping your lines light! In reality, my sketch is so faint, it’s barely visible. However, the drawing has been made darker in a computer program, so you can see my lines. 5) Compare your sketch with mine, make sure that everything is in the correct place, and change anything you’re not happy with.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 4. -4- 6) Refer to the following 6 illustrations, as you outline the leg and paw (use a freshly sharpened HB pencil). ILLUSTRATION 01-07 ILLUSTRATION 01-08 ILLUSTRATION 01-09 ILLUSTRATION 01-10 ILLUSTRATION 01-11 ILLUSTRATION 01-12Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 5. -5- ADDING FORM AND TEXTURE TO THE LEG In this section, you use raggedy hatching lines to add shading to the fur so as to accentuate the three dimensional forms of the leg. The light source is from the upper right, which means that the shading is darker on the left and lower left. 7) Compare your outline with Illustration 01-13, and correct any lines you don’t like. 8) Use your kneaded eraser to lighten your outline until the lines are very faint. 9) Add shading to the upper left section of the leg with curved hatching lines. Use an HB pencil. Note that the fur curves at a downward angle along the left. ILLUSTRATION 01-13 ILLUSTRATION 01-14 10) Add the furry texture to the remainder of the body and leg. Use 2H, HB and 2B pencils. No text is provided for these steps. Rather, the close-up illustrations on the next seven pages speak for themselves to provide you with guidance.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 6. -6- ILLUSTRATION 01-15 Watch closely the different directions in which the fur curves. Take your time, and keep your pencils sharpened, so the fur looks fine and soft, rather than coarse. As you progress, observe how the fur on the center part of the leg, appears to be shorter than the fur closer to the edges, and also seems to grow downward. The fur that is closest to the outer edges of the leg is lighter in value, and curves outward at a downward angle along each side. Take note that some sections of fur are slightly darker than others. Subtle graduations of different values, draw attention to the furry textures, and accentuate the three-dimensional under-forms of the dog’s leg.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 7. -7- ILLUSTRATION 01-16Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 8. -8- ILLUSTRATION 01-17Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 9. -9- ILLUSTRATION 01-18Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 10. - 10 - ILLUSTRATION 01-19Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 11. - 11 - ILLUSTRATION 01-20Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 12. - 12 - ILLUSTRATION 01-21 11) With short thin hatching lines, and freshly sharpened 2H and HB pencils, add shading down the center section of the leg. Watch closely the various directions in which the fur grows. Expect to sharpen your pencil often as you work – a sandpaper block works extremely well! 12) Use your 2B pencil to darken the shading in the shadow areas.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 13. - 13 - SHADING THE PARTS OF A PUPPY PAW After outlining the various parts of the paw, you add shading to accentuate their three dimensional forms. Keep in mind that the light source is from the upper right! ILLUSTRATION 01-22 13) Draw five toenails on the puppy’s paw. Take your time and closely examine their locations and individual shapes. ILLUSTRATION 01-23 14) Add a fur textured outline around the paw, each toe. Observe how the underside of each toe is simply a curved line rather than a fuzzy outline, so as to identify the pads of the toes. ILLUSTRATION 01-24 15) Continue the shading of the leg down onto the upper section of the paw.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 14. - 14 - ILLUSTRATION 01-25 16) Add shading between the toes on the right. 17) Add dark shading to the toe pads. ILLUSTRATION 01-26 18) Complete the shading of the toes. Note how some furry lines extend down past the bottoms of the toe pads. ILLUSTRATION 01-27 19) Add shading to the toenails. Leave a thin section of white on each toe to provide the illusion of form.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 15. - 15 - ILLUSTRATION 01-28 PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER: ADDING FINAL DETAILS In this final section, you finish a small part of the puppy’s chest, complete the overall shading, add a shadow under the paw, and add darker values to enhance the various forms. 20) Add a little section of dark fur to the part of the body where the top of the leg meets the chest. 21) Use your 2B pencil to add the dark shading to the chest.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 16. - 16 - ILLUSTRATION 01-29 22) Add darker shading to the paw with your 2B pencil. 23) Add the cast shadow under and to the left of the paw. Use horizontal hatching lines, and HB and 2B pencils. 24) Use a freshly sharpened 4B pencil to add some very dark hatching lines to the darkest shadow sections (as in Illustration 01-30). Keep your pencil nice and sharp! Don’t forget the section of the shadow closest to the paw, the fur on the left of the leg and paw, and the part of the chest in the upper right.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 17. - 17 - ILLUSTRATION 01-30 25) Check over your drawing and make changes to sections you aren’t happy with. Remember, a strong contrast in values accentuates three dimensional forms. Sign your name, put today’s date on the back of your drawing, add a big smile to your face, and go hug a dog! There are only three ways to improve your drawing skills - practice, practice and more practice! Grab another piece of paper, choose another lesson, and draw some more!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 18. - 18 - BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 19. FEATHERS ON A Brenda Hoddinott M-02 INTERMEDIATE: ANIMALS & FANTASYIn this lesson you render a detailed contour drawing of a generic bird’s wing. While the drawingin this lesson is based on a generic bird wing; the basic anatomy can be implemented into anydrawing of an entity with wings, from angels, and dragons, to flying pigs!Understanding the basic construction of wings greatly enhances your ability to realisticallyrender portraits of birds. While their functions, colors, sizes, and shapes, are unique to each ofthe several thousand different species of birds currently living on our planet, all birds’ wings arecovered with feathers.This lesson is divided into the following four sections: GETTING ACQUAINTED WITH A BIRD’S WING: For most artistic applications, you can simply focus on the four basic parts of a wing identified in this section. SKETCHING THE PROPORTIONS OF A WING: Your goal is to sketch the shapes of the four basic parts of a wing in proportion to one another by observing the lengths, angles, and curves of the various lines which outline the different parts. OUTLINING FOUR GROUPS OF FEATHERS: To render believable feathers that appear to overlap one another on this wing, you draw only a curved line to represent most of the feathers, rather than completely outlining each one. ADDING DETAILS TO THE WING’S FEATHERS: In this section you indicate the basic details of each of the major groups of feathers. 19 PAGES – 37 ILLUSTRATIONS This article is recommended for artists from age twelve through adulthood with good drawing skills, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2004 (Revised 2006)
  • 20. -2- GETTING ACQUAINTED WITH A BIRD’S WING The wings of a bird are without doubt, one of nature’s most magnificent and complex creations. While their functions, colors, sizes, and shapes, are unique to each of several thousand different species of birds currently living on our planet, all birds’ wings are covered with feathers. For most artistic applications, you can simply focus on four basic parts of a wing: Refer to the next drawing and identify each of the following groups of feathers: 1. Primaries: long outer flight feathers of the wing which provide considerable power for both lift and maneuverability. 2. Wing coverts: rows of small feathers close to the bird’s body, which cover the base of larger wing feathers, and the upper and lower surfaces of the wing. 3. Secondaries: main lifting feathers located toward the inner section of a wing. 4. Scapulars: feathers covering the shoulder section where the wing attaches to the bird’s body. ILLUSTRATION 02-01 The wings of a hummingbird are extraordinary in that they allow this tiny bird to hover in one spot for extended periods of time, fly with its body in an upright position, and navigate both forward and backward.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 21. -3- ILLUSTRATION 02-02 Understanding the basic construction of wings greatly enhances your ability to realistically render portraits of birds. This caricature of an owl is more believable because all four sections of the wing are identifiable. Owls can fly very quietly in search of their prey, thanks to a soft coating on their feathers, which serves to muffle sound. SKETCHING THE PROPORTIONS OF A WING While the drawing in this lesson is based on a generic bird wing; the basic anatomy can be implemented into any drawing of an entity with wings, from angels, and dragons, to flying pigs! Keep in mind that the wings of birds are quite diverse in shape, and may differ significantly from this drawing. Before you draw a portrait of a specific species of bird, you are wise to do some research and find out more about its wings. In this section, your goal is to sketch the shapes of the four basic parts of a wing in proportion to one another. Pay close attention to the lengths, angles, and curves of the various lines which outline the different parts.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 22. -4- ILLUSTRATION 02-O3 1) Lightly sketch the outline of the wing coverts. The shape is similar to a triangular with its longest side being gently curved. Leave plenty of room on your drawing paper to add the primaries and secondaries to the left and below, and the scapulars on the right. ILLUSTRATION 02-O4 2) Add a wide u-shape, below and extending toward the right of the wing coverts, to identify the location of the secondaries. The heavier the bird, the bigger its wings need to be, in order for it to be capable of flight. A fully grown Great Bustard is one of the heaviest flying birds in the world, weighing in at approximately 40 pounds. A wingspan of around 7 feet allows this huge bird to take flight!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 23. -5- ILLUSTRATION 02-O5 3) Lightly sketch the proportions of the primaries. Outline a couple of the uppermost feathers and indicate the locations of the others. ILLUSTRATION 02-O6 4) Add a curved line to the upper right of the wing coverts to mark the location of the scapulars.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 24. -6- ILLUSTRATION 02-O7 5) Pat your entire drawing with a kneaded eraser until the lines are so faint that you can barely see them. OUTLINING FOUR GROUPS OF FEATHERS To render believable feathers that appear to overlap one another, you draw only a curved line to represent most of the feathers, rather than completely outlining each one. ILLUSTRATION 02-O8 6) Draw an oval shape as a feather on the upper section of the scapular. ILLUSTRATION 02-O9 The wing feathers of water fowl are water repellent so as to conserve the bird’s body heat when it is swimming or diving for food in cold water.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 25. -7- 7) Draw a u-shape for the feather closest to the first one (Illustration 02-10). The following three illustrations show you how to render feathers that appear to overlap one another. Observe that this second feather appears to be under the first one. 8) Use a curved line to draw the feather to the left of the other two (Illustration 02-11). 9) Add another curved line as the feather on the far left (Illustration 02-12 and 02-13). ILLUSTRATION 02-10 ILLUSTRATION 02-11 ILLUSTRATION 02-12 10) Add three larger feathers to the right of the first one (Illustration 02-14). Use the same overlapping technique of sketching curved lines to indicate each. ILLUSTRATION 02-13 ILLUSTRATION 02-14 The wings of penguins resemble and work like flippers, which allow them to dive into, and swim effortlessly through the ocean in search of a delectable diet of fish.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 26. -8- 11) Continue adding feathers until this entire section is filled in. Indicate each feather with a curved line. Refer to illustrations 02-15, 02-16, and 02-17. ILLUSTRATION 02-14 ILLUSTRATION 02-15 ILLUSTRATION 02-16Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 27. -9- 12) Outline the coverts with various curved lines. Sketch a raggedy line along the top to mark the upper edges of the tiniest feathers. Along the left and lower perimeter, outline individual feathers of various shapes and sizes. Take note that the lower right feathers, closest to the scapulars, appear to overlap one another. ILLUSTRATION 02-17 ILLUSTRATION 02-18 13) Outline the five secondaries that are close to the scapulars. Begin with the smallest feather which is closest to the scapulars. Take note that the sides of this u- shape are at an angle rather than horizontal or vertical. Add a curved line to represent the next feather which is larger. Observe how the first feather seems to overlap this one. Add three more curved lines to represent progressively larger feathers.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 28. - 10 - ILLUSTRATION 02-19 14) Add three more large secondary feathers. Observe that the feather, closest to the center is the widest and the longest. ILLUSTRATION 02-20 15) Outline the rest of the secondaries. Observe that the feathers become progressively smaller toward to the left. ILLUSTRATION 02-21Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 29. - 11 - ILLUSTRATION 02-22 16) Outline the five largest primary feathers. Begin with the lower feathers close to the secondaries as in Illustration 02-22. 17) Add the other primary feathers. Refer to Illustration 02-23. Note that the feathers become progressively smaller and the spaces between them become increasingly bigger toward the top. ILLUSTRATION 02-23Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 30. - 12 - 18) Use a sharp edge of a vinyl eraser, to carefully erase any sketch lines that are still visible from the original drawing. ILLUSTRATION 02-24 ADDING DETAILS TO THE WING’S FEATHERS In this section you indicate the basic details of each of the major groups of feathers. Illustration 02-25 represents a generic feather, as is found on most adult birds. ILLUSTRATION 02-25 To become familiar with the three major sections of a feather, examine this drawing and identify each part, as defined by the following terms: 1. QUILL: the hollow, wide end of the shaft that is attached to the skin and embedded into the body of the bird. 2. VANE: the flattened structures that extend outward from either side of the shaft. The vane is made up of numerous long thin branches called barbs. 3. SHAFT: the long, hollow, rigid rod down the total length of a feather that is attached to the bird at the quill. The feathers of a wing have numerous functions beyond the action of flight; they conserve the bird’s body heat in cold environments, provide the propelling action and the supporting surface needed for flying, and protect their skin from minor injuries.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 31. - 13 - ILLUSTRATION 02-26 19) Add several u-shapes as feathers along the lower and left edges of the perimeter of the coverts. ILLUSTRATION 02-27 Some birds, such as eagles, can glide and soar for hours, without flapping their wings. By resting on air that is moving upward, called thermals, they can travel for several miles. In essence the birds are gliding downward, but currents of constantly rising air continuously lift them upward.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 32. - 14 - ILLUSTRATION 02-28 20) Add lines down the length of each of the primaries to indicate the shafts. Refer to Illustration 02-25, 02-28, and 02-29. Note that each shaft is not centered; hence, one side of the vane is wider. 21) Sketch several angular lines (vanes) extending from the shaft. ILLUSTRATION 02-29Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 33. - 15 - 22) Add a single line down the length of each of the secondaries to mark the shafts. ILLUSTRATION 02-30 23) Sketch the vanes, which extend downward at an angle. ILLUSTRATION 02-31Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 34. - 16 - 24) Sketch more layers of smaller feathers around the lower central section of the coverts. ILLUSTRATION 02-32 ILLUSTRATION 02-33 Wing feathers are uniquely designed for the specific needs of different birds. For example, the wings of waterfowl are water repellent; those of birds that fly mostly over land, are wide and slotted; and birds that do most of their soaring over bodies of water, have more elongated, slender wings.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 35. - 17 - 25) Fill in the covert section with lots of different u-shapes to represent the texture of the tiny feathers. ILLUSTRATION 02-34 26) Add a thin line down the centers of the larger feather of the coverts. ILLUSTRATION 02-35Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 36. - 18 - ILLUSTRATION 02-36 27) Add thin lines as the shafts of some (or all) of the feathers of the scapular. Drawing different species of birds is very rewarding and a lot of fun. You can find numerous feathered friends to serve as models with minimal effort. Take your camera with you when you visit your favorite park, the local zoo, an aviary, or a neighbor’s garden. The result will be many hours of drawing enjoyment. ILLUSTRATION 02-37Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 37. - 19 - BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Fine Art Education http://www.finearteducation.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. ART PUBLICATIONS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 38. DETAILED Brenda Hoddinott M-03 INTERMEDIATE: ANIMALS & FANTASYThis detailed drawing, of an eye of Shadow the Dalmatian relies completely on freehandsketching, without the help of drawing tools such as a grid. You add the values and texture to hereye, and the surrounding fur, with mostly hatching.This project is divided into the following four sections: INTRODUCTION: In order to truly understand how to draw an animal’s eye correctly, you need to be aware of its construction behind the small section you see. The eyeball is a fragile sphere nestled safely inside the frontal section of an animal’s skull. However, when you look at animals’ eyes, you actually see very little of their eyeballs. The iris and pupil (and sometimes a tiny segment of the white of the eye) take up most of the visible sections. OUTLINING CANINE EYE PROPORTIONS: In this first section, your goal is to sketch all the parts of her eye on your drawing paper proportionately correct. BRINGING THE EYE TO LIFE WITH SHADING: In addition to its basic triangular shape, a realistic dog’s eye drawn from this angle, needs to illustrate the three dimensional forms of the iris, eyeball, eyelids, and the bone structures around the eye. ADDING FUR AND FINAL DETAILS: Carefully placed shading graduations, fool the observers eye into seeing the three-dimensional under forms, such as the bone structures. In the final steps of this project, you use various pencils to draw Shadow’s furry facial forms.Suggested drawing supplies include good quality white drawing paper, graphite pencils, kneadedand vinyl erasers, and a pencil sharpener. This project is recommended for fine art educators and artists from age 12 to adult with good drawing skills. 16 PAGES – 23 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2004 (Revised 2006)
  • 39. -2- INTRODUCTION While this project explores drawing the eyes of a dog, the basic principles are the same for many other types of animals. The next drawings illustrate a giraffe, dog, cat, and pig. Examine their eyes and note both the similarities and the differences. ILLUSTRATION 03-01 In order to truly understand how to draw an animal’s eye correctly, you need to be aware of its construction behind the small section you see. The eyeball is a fragile sphere nestled safely inside the frontal section of an animal’s skull. However, when you look at animals’ eyes, you actually see very little of their eyeballs. The iris and pupil (and sometimes a tiny segment of the white of the eye) take up most of the visible sections.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 40. -3- In the next drawing you see an eyeball as it would appear if it was outside the eye socket. The different parts, specific to drawing animals, include the following: 1. White of the Eye: the primary section of the eyeball. The white of the eye is generally rendered with light to medium values. 2. Highlight: a bright spot (or spots) where light bounces off the shiny surface of the eye is usually left white. 3. Pupil: the dark circle inside the iris often has the darkest values of the entire drawing. The pupil of an eye is similar to the aperture in the lens of a camera; it opens and closes, as the levels of light become brighter or darker. 4. Iris: the large circular shape of the eye that varies in value from very light to very dark. Tiny muscles in the iris radiate outward from the pupil to help it open and close. In profile, the eyeball is not a perfect sphere. The cornea of the iris bulges slightly outward. ILLUSTRATION 03-02 As your perspective of an eyeball changes, the irises and pupils appear to be in different locations and visually change shape from a circle to an oval (an ellipse). With the changing angle of the animal’s head, an iris is rarely perfectly round. Refer to the simple line drawing in Illustration 03-03 to get an idea of what I mean. ILLUSTRATION 03-03Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 41. -4- OUTLINING CANINE EYE PROPORTIONS This project, drawing the eye of a Dalmatian named Shadow, relies completely on freehand drawing without the help of drawing tools such as a grid. In this first section, your goal is to sketch all the parts of her eye on your drawing paper in a proportionately correct manner. Use an HB pencil, and keep your lines very light so they can be easily erased. Pay close attention to the lengths, angles, and curves of the various lines which outline the different parts of the eye. Also, remember to constantly double check the proportions of your sketch as you work your way through this project, and modify as needed. ILLUSTRATION 03-04 1) Use slightly curved lines to draw a triangular shape. As you examine this shape, take note that the lower line is more curved than the other two. Also, the curved line on the right is shorter than the others. ILLUSTRATION 03-05 2) Add another curved line inside the triangular shape. Take note of the points where the line intersects two sides of the triangular shape. Also, this line is more curved at the top.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 42. -5- ILLUSTRATION 03-06 3) Add two more curved lines to represent the outline of the iris of the eye. While these two curved lines outline a segment of an oval-shape, the upper and lower sections appear to be under the dog’s eyelids. ILLUSTRATION 03-07 4) Use your kneaded eraser to lighten all your sketch lines until you can barely see them. With the basic proportions in place the initial sketch lines can now be replaced with thin neat lines. 5) Redraw the outline of the visible sections of the iris with a freshly sharpened HB pencil.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 43. -6- ILLUSTRATION 03-08 6) Neatly outline the perimeter of the inside section of the eye with crisp lines. Take note of the rounded section of the inner corner of the eye (on the right). Add another rounded line on the left to represent the outer corner of the eye. ILLUSTRATION 03-09 7) Redraw the section of the eye on the right (the eyelid) with rounded lines. Observe that all three of the angular lines of the initial triangular shape are now rounded. 8) Erase any remaining rough sketch lines.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 44. -7- Keep in mind that the eyelids are not attached to the eyeballs. The upper eyelid needs to be able to open and close to shield the eye from potential dangers such as objects, dirt, or bright lights. Depending on the perspective from which you are viewing the eye, the rims (edges) of both, or just one, of the upper and lower eyelids are visible. ILLUSTRATION 03-10 9) Outline a longish oval-shape on the upper section of the eyelid. This eye is being viewed at an angle. Consequently, the inner edge of the eyelid will be visible. This shape identifies an area of lighter shading, needed in order to create the illusion of the eyelid having depth. 10) Very lightly sketch a line below the eye to mark the lower eyelid. ILLUSTRATION 03-11 11) Outline a highlight in the upper right section of the iris. The light source is from the right. In the interest of simplicity, feel free to make your highlight an oval or circle shape rather than a curved teardrop-shape.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 45. -8- ILLUSTRATION 03-12 12) Draw an oval shape inside the iris as the pupil. The pupil is quite small when compared to the iris. Take note that the highlight appears to overlap the pupil. Also, because of the angle of the eye, the pupil is drawn closer to the right of the iris than the left. BRINGING THE EYE TO LIFE WITH SHADING Gather your full set of drawing pencils and prepare to add shading to Shadow’s eye. In addition to its basic triangular shape, a realistic dog’s eye drawn from this angle, needs to illustrate the three dimensional forms of the iris, eyeball, eyelids, and the bone structures around the eye. ILLUSTRATION 03-13 13) Use your kneaded eraser to once again lighten your lines. 14) With curved hatching lines, add shading to the iris with an HB pencil, to accentuate its rounded form. The values need to be darker toward the outside edges of the iris to create the illusion that the cornea of the iris bulges slightly outward from the white of the eye.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 46. -9- ILLUSTRATION 03-14 15) Add light values to the whites of the eyes with a 2H pencil and crosshatching. 16) With your HB pencil add straight hatching lines that radiate from the pupil outward to the edges of the iris. The values are darker around the edges of the iris. The iris has a graduation of values (rather than just a solid tone) which helps the surface of the eye look shiny. ILLUSTRATION 03-15 17) Use a 2B pencil to add darker shading to the pupil, and the outer and inner sections of the iris. These lines illustrate the tiny muscles in the iris that radiate outward from the pupil to help it open and close. 18) Add darker shading to the sections of the whites of the eye that are in shadow (use an HB pencil). Different values can illustrate forms, tiny blood vessels, and cast shadows from eyelids and eyelashes.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 47. - 10 - ILLUSTRATION 03-16 19) Gently blend the shading of the iris, pupil and the white of the eye. Begin by blending the lighter values, and then the medium values. Be careful not to over blend, or all the values will end up looking the same. When you get to the dark values, blend sparingly so you don’t rub off too much of the graphite. ILLUSTRATION 03-17 20) Darken the pupil and the shadow sections again with your 2B pencil. In the process of blending, some of the graphite is removed. Therefore, the darker values need to be reapplied. 21) Erase some tiny slivers of white (on the upper left) to allow for the fur that grows down over the eye.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 48. - 11 - ILLUSTRATION 03-18 22) Use squirkling to add values and texture to the rim of the lower section of the eye. Pay close attention to the graduations of values from dark to light. Use a combination of 2H, HB, and 2B pencils. 23) Add values and texture to the section of the eyelid on the right with more squirkles. Remember to leave the longish oval-shape at the top of the eyelid lighter than the rest. 24) Draw the fur around the perimeter of the upper sections of the eye. ILLUSTRATION 03-19 Remember to leave the tiny slivers white. Only add your furry lines to the outside sections. Take note of the various directions in which the hatching lines curve. Also note that the lines are of various lengths and thicknesses. Use HB and 2B pencils.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 49. - 12 - ADDING FUR AND FINAL DETAILS Lifelike drawings of animals’ eyes need to be anchored within the facial structures. Carefully placed shading graduations, fool the observers eye into seeing the three-dimensional under forms, such as the bone structures. In the final steps of this project, you use various pencils to draw Shadow’s furry facial forms. You create different values with hatching by: Varying the density (placing lines either far apart or close together) of the individual hatching lines. Varying both the density of the hatching lines, and the pressure used in holding various pencils. Using different grades of pencils, from hard to soft, to help with the different values. 25) Use slightly curved lines to plot guidelines for drawing the various directions in which the fur grows. ILLUSTRATION 03-20Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 50. - 13 - 26) Before you begin shading the fur, compare your drawing of the eye to mine, and touch up where needed. Remember, to make an area darker, you simply add more shading with a soft pencil. To make an area lighter, use your kneaded eraser, molded to a point, to slowly and gently pat off some of the graphite. 27) Use freshly sharpened 2B and HB pencils to add the middle values to the fur. Consider the following helpful hints for drawing a realistic fur texture: All hatching lines are curved, some more so than others. Some hatching lines extend beyond others for a jagged, natural-looking fur texture. The hatching lines are unevenly spaced, and of many different lengths and thicknesses. Refer to several of the lessons in I-level Beginner for more information on shading fur with hatching. ILLUSTRATION 03-21Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 51. - 14 - 28) Add several tiny short lines and small spots to the fur around the lower sections of the eye (I used an HB). The fur around the rim of a dog’s eye is very short, and often thin with areas of skin showing through. To realistically render short fur, the hatching lines need to be very short. Conversely, long hatching lines are needed to represent long fur. 29) Add medium shading (HB and 2B) to the sections of long fur that are in shadow. On the upper left section of the fur, take note of a darker section that is a large spot. However, even white fur is shaded with hatching lines to indicate the fuzzy texture. ILLUSTRATION 03-22 30) Add darker values to Shadow’s spot on the upper left, the pupil and corners of the eye, and the sections of the eye and fur that are in shadow.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 52. - 15 - ILLUSTRATION 03-23 If you enjoy drawing fur, try your hand at drawing Shadow’s face and neck. You can find this project, Shadow (T-02) in the advanced section of my site. Remember, learning to draw is like learning to play piano... dont expect perfection with your first few tries, plan to practice often, and expect to make lots of mistakes.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 53. - 16 - BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Fine Art Education http://www.finearteducation.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. ART PUBLICATIONS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 54. Brenda Hoddinott M-04 INTERMEDIATE: ANIMALS & FANTASY In this lesson, you first sketch a caricature of a cat named Kitty within a grid of twenty-five squares. You then enhance your shading skills by using mostly curved hatching lines, to add a full range of values to her fur and face. There’s a method to my madness in having you draw cartoons. First of all, your brain won’t get stuck telling you something is anatomically wrong, because cartoons are not supposed to look real! Secondly, cartoons are fun to draw! This project is divided into the following two parts: OUTLINING PROPORTIONS INSIDE A GRID: You first sketch this caricature of “Kitty” within a grid format to help you set up proportions. ADDING FORM AND TEXTURE WITH HATCHING: In this section, you use raggedy hatching lines to add shading to the fur. Hatching graduations also work well to shade the eyes and nose. The light source in this drawing is from the upper right, so the shading is darker on the left and lower left. For this project you need good quality white drawing paper, different grades of graphite pencils (such as 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B), kneaded and vinyl erasers, and a pencil sharpener. 15 PAGES – 25 ILLUSTRATIONS This project is recommended for artists from age 12 to adult, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators.Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2004 (Revised 2006)
  • 55. -2- OUTLINING PROPORTIONS INSIDE A GRID Setting up accurate proportions is the foundation of drawing. If the proportions of your subject are off, no amount of beautiful shading or fancy pencil marks can save your drawing. This caricature of “Kitty” is drawn within a grid format to help you set up proportions. Don’t press too hard with your pencils! You will need to erase these lines later. No matter how careful you are when you draw with a grid, accidents can still happen. ILLUSTRATION 04-01 1) Draw a grid that is five squares wide by five squares long. I’ve chosen a square drawing format, 5 by 5 inches with one inch squares. Feel free to do a larger drawing by using larger squares. Draw your lines very lightly, preferably with your HB mechanical pencil. If you’re not used to drawing with a grid, you may want to use numbers along the top and letters down the side so as to easily identify each square as you work. Cats are carnivores (meat eaters), and may become malnourished on a diet of mostly grains, fruits, and/or vegetables. Their long sharp teeth, strong jaws, and claws are designed for hunting. Cats also have exceptionally good hearing and vision. Their eyes adapt so they can see well under dim lighting conditions allowing them to hunt for food at night.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 56. -3- ILLUSTRATION 04-02 2) With your HB pencil, draw the circular outlines of the irises using the grid lines as references. When drawing with a grid, you may find it easier to draw only the contents of one square at a time. Don’t press too hard with your pencil! In reality, my sketch is so faint, it’s barely visible. However, the drawing has been made darker in a computer program. So you can see my lines. ILLUSTRATION 04-03 3) Draw a v-shape, with tiny curved lines at the tops, to mark the location of the nose. Despite popular belief, domestic cats are capable of becoming very social. Most pet cats enjoy the companionship of people, and respond to human speech. Also, cats don’t really think of themselves as little humans; rather they assume that we are big cats!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 57. -4- ILLUSTRATION 04-04 4) Add a small rounded triangular-shape to the lower inner sections of each eye. These shapes represent the inner corners of the eyes. ILLUSTRATION 04-05 5) Add a line down the center of the nose (the v- shape). If you draw some lines in the wrong grid squares, simply erase them, redraw the grid lines, and keep on going! ILLUSTRATION 04-06 6) Add curved lines on either side of the nose to mark its outer edges. Continue to use an HB pencil, but remember to press lightly. Lightly drawn lines are easy to erase!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 58. -5- ILLUSTRATION 04-07 7) Draw the long oval- shaped pupils of the eyes with a small c- shape in the upper right of each. The c-shapes look like a tiny bite has been taken from the pupils. They represent small sections of the round highlights, which will be left white to help the eyes look shiny. ILLUSTRATION 04-08 8) Before you continue, check that everything is in the correct place, and change anything you’re not happy with. 9) With your HB pencil and raggedy hatching lines, sketch the furry outline of the fur on the top of the head. 10) Add a short line to indicate the inner edge of each ear.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 59. -6- 11) Add the outline of the lower section of the cat’s muzzle (below the nose). 12) Sketch the furry outline of the sides of her lower face and chin. 13) Erase the grid lines on your drawing, and redraw the sections of the sketch, which were subsequently erased. When erasing grid lines, use the edge of your vinyl eraser and then very lightly brush away the eraser crumbs with a clean soft paintbrush. Then use your kneaded eraser to gently pat the paper surface, which will pick up any remaining eraser crumbs. ILLUSTRATION 04-09Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 60. -7- ADDING FORM AND TEXTURE WITH HATCHING In this section, you use raggedy hatching lines to add shading to the fur. Hatching graduations work well to shade the eyes and nose. The light source in this drawing is from the upper right, which means that the shading is darker on the left and lower left. 14) With an HB pencil, outline the outer edges of the upper and lower eyelids. 15) Outline the fur around the perimeter of the head in front of the ear (on the left). 16) Use slightly curved hatching lines for the shading on the inside of the ear. Note the direction in which the fur grows. Use an HB pencil. 17) Add light values along the perimeter of the head, so it seems to be in front of the ear. ILLUSTRATION 04-10 18) With a 2B pencil, fill in more medium values and accentuate the darker areas. Examine the close up of a tiny section of shading (below). 19) Mold your kneaded eraser to a thin wedge and pull out (erase) some thin sections of lighter fur. ILLUSTRATION 04-11 Examine the lightest sections of fur, especially around the perimeter of the head in front of the ear.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 61. -8- 20) Add light and medium shading to the upper section of the head, around the eye on the left, and the area between the eyes with an HB pencil (refer to illustration 04-12). ILLUSTRATION 04-12 ILLUSTRATION 04-13 21) Use a 2B pencil to add more hatching lines to the medium and dark values. Refer to illustrations 04-13 and 04-14. ILLUSTRATION 04-14 Take note that some sections of fur are slightly darker than others. These subtle graduations draw attention to the furry textures, and accentuate the three-dimensional under- forms of the cat’s head.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 62. -9- 22) Add light, medium, and dark values to the other ear, the upper section of her head and around the eyes. Watch closely the different directions in which the fur grows. Take your time, and keep your pencils sharpened, so the fur looks fine and soft, rather than coarse. 23) With an HB pencil add light and medium values to the upper and lower eyelids around the iris. The values around the inner and outer edges of the eyelids (sometimes called the rims of the eyes) are darker to help create the illusion of three-dimensional forms. ILLUSTRATION 04-15 24) Outline a tiny circle as a highlight in the inner corner of each eye. 25) Use a 2B or 4B to add shading to each inner corner. Remember to leave the highlights white. ILLUSTRATION 04-16 ILLUSTRATION 04-17Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 63. - 10 - 26) With your 2B pencil draw a dark outline around the perimeter of the irises. 27) Shade in each iris with a little dark shading around the outer sections. Leave a white circular shape for the highlight and a lighter area on the side of the iris opposite the highlight. Note that the shading is darker under the upper eyelid and on the side where the highlight is drawn. 28) Add some thick and thin lines from the edges to the center of the irises to represent the tiny muscles of the eyes. ILLUSTRATION 04-18 ILLUSTRATION 04-19 29) Finish the fur on this section of the face, darkening some areas with your 2B pencil. ILLUSTRATION 04-20 30) With your 6B pencil, shade in the pupils.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 64. - 11 - 31) Draw the fur under her eyes and around the upper section and sides of her nose. Observe the direction of the shading of the fur on the face. ILLUSTRATION 04-21 32) Add shading to the main section of her nose with your HB pencil. Examine the various sections of the nose very closely. ILLUSTRATION 04-22 Leave an oval-shaped highlight on the upper section of the nose, and small highlights on the lower section of the nose and the nostril on the right 33) With your 4B, shade in the inner sections of the nostrils. 34) Add dark shading to the lower lip with a 2B. 35) Use an HB to add curved hatching lines to the muzzle fur below the nose. 36) With a 4B add the cast shadow from the nose to the fur on the lower left.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 65. - 12 - 37) Draw the fur on her lower muzzle and neck. Observe the shading on her neck, which is in shadow under her face on the right. Also note the direction in which the fur is growing. ILLUSTRATION 04-23 38) With your kneaded eraser shaped to a thin wedge, erase thin lines in her fur for whiskers (refer to the close-up in illustration 04-24). 39) Outline these whiskers lightly with a freshly sharpened HB pencil. 40) Use a 4B to darken the shading closest to the face. Examine this dark fur on the neck in the shadow of the muzzle, which serves to make the whiskers stand out nicely. ILLUSTRATION 04-24Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 66. - 13 - 41) Draw the fur and whiskers on the other side of her face and neck. 42) Take a few minutes to compare your drawing to mine and fix any areas that you are not completely happy with. ILLUSTRATION 04-25 Grab another piece of paper, choose another lesson and draw some more! There are only three ways to improve your drawing skills…practice, practice and more practice!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 67. - 14 - BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Fine Art Education http://www.finearteducation.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. ART PUBLICATIONS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 68. Brenda Hoddinott M-05 INTERMEDIATE: ANIMALS & FANTASYA realistic rendering of a Black Widowspider provides artists with an opportunity toenhance various drawing skills. Text instructionsare limited; rather, you rely on fine tuning your visualskills to outline the fine intricacies of the spider, byclosely examining large step-by-step illustrations.This drawing can be considered finished with: unblendedshading methods; or further enhanced by blending theshading, adding bright highlights with erasers, and outliningthe entire drawing with thin neat linesThis project is divided into the following three sections: INTRODUCTION TO THE BLACK WIDOW SPIDER: An introduction to the anatomical structure of a spider, and a basic knowledge of the names of the various parts of a Black Widow’s body, help you better understand the directions as you draw. SKETCHING THE PROPORTIONS OF SPIDER PARTS: This project relies on freehand drawing without the help of drawing tools such as a grid. In this section, you lightly sketch the proportions of the major sections of a Black Widow’s body and legs. SHADING SPIDER FORMS AND TEXTURES: In this section, you add shading to the various parts of the spider. A full range of values and carefully placed shading graduations, fool the observers eye into seeing the three-dimensional under forms of the cephalothorax, abdomen, and legs.Suggested drawing supplies include good quality white drawing paper, graphite pencils, kneadedand vinyl erasers, and a pencil sharpener. This article is recommended for artists from age 12 to adult with good drawing skills, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. 14 PAGES – 14 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2005 (Revised 2006)
  • 69. -2- INTRODUCTION TO THE BLACK WIDOW SPIDER Knowing the names of the parts of a Black Widow’s body, helps you better understand the directions as you draw. Refer to Illustration 05-01 as you read the following: ILLUSTRATION 05-01 Black Widow Spiders have claws (1) on the tip of each of their eight legs (2). Their jaws and poisonous fangs (3) can inflict a nasty bite. While the bodies of insects are divided into three sections, a spider’s body has only two. The cephalothorax (4) includes the brain, eyes, jaws, mandible, stomach, and leg attachments. A distinctive red, yellow, or orange hour glass pattern (5) is highly visible on the abdomen (6), which holds the guts, reproductive organs, heart and silk glands (7). SKETCHING THE PROPORTIONS OF SPIDER PARTS This project relies on freehand drawing without the help of drawing tools such as a grid. In this section, you lightly sketch the proportions of the major sections of a Black Widow’s body. ILLUSTRATION 05-02 1) Lightly sketch the cephalothorax. Leave lots of room on your drawing paper for the rest of the body and eight very long legs. Use an HB pencil, and keep your lines light so they can be easily erased. Pay close attention to the lengths and curves of the various lines which outline the different parts. Constantly double check the proportions of your sketch as you work your way through this project, and modify as needed.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 70. -3- ILLUSTRATION 05-03 2) Lightly sketch the shapes of the upper sections of the four legs on the left. live mostly in warm climates, and make their webs close to the ground, in such places as under rocks, plants, and ledges. If the weather turns cold, they may take up residence in homes and buildings. ILLUSTRATION 05-04 3) Lightly sketch the spider’s four upper leg sections on the right. Examine the length and position of each leg in relation to the cephalothorax. Text instructions are very limited in the following steps; rather, you rely on fine tuning your visual skills to outline the fine intricacies of the spider, by closely examining large step-by-step illustrations.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 71. -4- venom is many times more toxic than that of a rattlesnake, making them the most poisonous spider in North America. Black Widow spiders can only inject a small amount of venom; hence, their bites are rarely fatal for healthy adults, who receive medical treatment. 4) Add a series of circular shapes to indicate where sections of the upper legs connect to the cephalothorax. ILLUSTRATION 05-05 are generally shy and not aggressive, preferring to stay hidden in their webs and only coming out at night. However, if the web is disturbed or if she feels threatened, such as when a human foot enters her newfound hiding place in a shoe, she may rush out and bite as a means of self-defense.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 72. -5- are among the slobs of the arachnid communities with their untidy-looking webs that appear irregular in shape. Yet, the silk they spin is much stronger than that of almost all other spiders. 5) Lightly sketch the lower sections of each of the eight legs. ILLUSTRATION 05-06 inject poison when they bite; hence it’s very important to seek medical assistance as soon as possible. Healthy adults usually recover completely a few days after treatment. However, children and older persons, especially those with serious health problems such as heart disease, are most vulnerable to a severe reaction, and may need hospitalization.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 73. -6- are infamous for eating their mates; however, while this does occasionally happen, it’s uncommon. Adult males are not poisonous and are only about half the size of a female. 6) Add the tips of each of the eight legs. ILLUSTRATION 05-07 bites can be fatal! Even if your symptoms seem minor, you should call a poison control center for advice. If your symptoms appear serious, seek immediate medial assistance.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 74. -7- 7) Sketch the large rounded shape of the abdomen and add the hourglass shape. ILLUSTRATION 05-08 SHADING SPIDER FORMS AND TEXTURES In this section, you add shading to the various parts of the spider. A full range of values and carefully placed shading graduations, fool the observers eye into seeing the three-dimensional under forms of the cephalothorax, abdomen, and legs.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 75. -8- 8) Use various pencils to add shading to the lower sections of the legs. ILLUSTRATION 05-09 As you continue shading, keep in mind that the light source in this drawing is from the upper left. Remember, you can create different values by: Varying the density (placing lines either far apart or close together) of the individual hatching lines. Varying the pressure used in holding various pencils. Using different grades of pencils, from hard to soft, to help with the different values.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 76. -9- 9) Refer to the next two illustrations as you add additional shading to the spider. ILLUSTRATION 05-10 Light and medium values are best rendered with 2H, HB, and/or 2B pencils. Most artists prefer to work from light to dark. By drawing your light values first, you can then layer your medium shading on top of your light shading. This layering technique creates a nice smooth transition between different values. The darkest values are then built in layers on top of the medium values.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 77. - 10 - Don’t forget to always place a piece of clean paper under your hand as you draw. Each time you work on a new section, remember to move your paper so it’s always under your hand. This prevents you from smudging your drawing, and protects the paper from the oils in your skin. ILLUSTRATION 05-11Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 78. - 11 - SHADING OPTION ONE This drawing can be considered finished with the shading discussed in this section, or further enhanced by blending the values as in Shading Option Two. 10) Add shading to the abdomen of the spider while paying special attention to accentuating the distinctive hourglass pattern by using lighter values. ILLUSTRATION 05-12 11) Add darker values to the sections of the body and legs that are in shadow on the right. 12) Make the highlights brighter by patting them with the tip of a kneaded eraser. If you happen to be a fan of blended shading continue on to the next section for a more detailed version of this drawing.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 79. - 12 - SHADING OPTION TWO In this section you expand on Option One by blending the shading, adding bright highlights with erasers, and outlining the entire drawing with thin neat lines. 13) Use your favorite blending tool to blend the shading of all the sections of the spider. ILLUSTRATION 05-13 Do not touch your drawing paper where you plan to blend, or use your fingers to blend. Be careful not to wear away tissues or paper towels so your fingers are doing the blending. Wrap several layers around your finger and check often that the tissue isn’t wearing away. Your skin can transfer oil to the paper, which becomes noticeable after blending (especially in light values). Creating a smooth tone then becomes darn near impossible.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 80. - 13 - 14) Use erasers to clean up the smudge marks around the edges of the drawing. 15) Pull out highlights from the blended shading with the sharp point of a vinyl eraser, and/or a kneaded eraser that has been molded to a point. ILLUSTRATION 05-14 16) With a freshly sharpened pencil, outline the various parts of the spider’s body. 17) With a 4B pencil, darken some of the shadow sections that were inadvertently lightened throughout the blending process. When blending removes too much graphite, the values may have become too light. 18) Use a 2H pencil to add a few lines in the background to represent the spider’s web.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 81. - 14 - To find out more about blending tools and techniques check out Lesson J-02: To Blend or Not to Blend. BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Fine Art Education http://www.finearteducation.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. ART PUBLICATIONS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 82. THE CAT Brenda Hoddinott M-06 INTERMEDIATE: ANIMALS & FANTASYMeet Bill – the proud owner of my friend Lynn! In this project, you sketch proportions and thenadd texture to the various parts of his head and upper body. This project is divided into thefollowing six sections: PROJECT GOALS AND STRATEGIES: discusses the process of modifying the photo on which this project is based in order to better accentuate the cat’s eyes, face, and forms. SKETCHING PROPER PROPORTIONS: shows you how to sketch each part of Bill’s head and face the correct size in relationship to others. OUTLINING A FELINE FACE, HEAD, AND EARS: focuses on outlining the various facets of Bills face, head, and ears, with additional details. SETTING UP A SHADING MAP: takes you through the process of mapping values in preparation for shading. HATCHING FUZZY FUR AND FELINE FEATURES: shows you how to use the shading map as a guideline for adding shading. ADDING FINAL DETAILS AND FINISHING TOUCHES: shows you how final touches, such as adding whiskers and shading his body, bring Bill to life.Suggested drawing supplies include good quality white drawing paper, graphite pencils, kneadedand vinyl erasers, and a pencil sharpener. 15 PAGES – 24 ILLUSTRATIONS This project is recommended for artists with good drawing skills, from age 12 to adult, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2005 (Revised 2006)
  • 83. -2- PROJECT GOALS AND STRATEGIES The photo on which this project is based (Illustration 06-01) was taken with a flash; hence, the cat’s face appears flat and two dimensional and the eyes appear dull. The final drawing (Illustration 06-02) has been modified as follows: Light source has been modified to come from the upper left; hence, the values are darker on the right in the drawing. Overall contrast of the striped fur has been softened by making the darkest darks and the lightest lights less extreme. Pupils of the eyes have been made larger and darker, and the entire eyes are rendered with blended high contrast shading to enhance their spherical forms and make them stand out as the focal points of the composition. Distracting background is completely eliminated. ILLUSTRATION 06-01 ILLUSTRATION 06-02 If you enjoy this project, you may want to try your hand at a more challenging project, W-02: Bill View 2, which includes more of his body, paws, and a background within an unusual fun composition. SKETCHING PROPER PROPORTIONS Setting up accurate proportions before you begin shading, is a great way to make sure your drawing is off to a great start! In this section, you sketch each part of Bill’s head and face the correct size in relationship to others.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 84. -3- ILLUSTRATION 06-03 1. Lightly sketch a circular shape that is wide at the top (the skull) and very narrow at the bottom (the chin). Keep your lines very light by pressing very gently with your pencil (I used an HB). Don’t forget to leave space above the head to add Bill’s big ears. The lines in this sketch seem dark; however, in reality the lines are so light that I can barely see them. I have made them darker in a computer program so you can see them. ILLUSTRATION 06-04 2. Sketch Bill’s two large ears. Observe that the ear on the right is tilted outward more than the other. As you sketch, constantly check the relationships of lines and spaces to one another. Note whether the sizes and proportions are accurate, and adjust as needed. Remember; don’t press too hard with your pencils. Not only do these areas become impossible to erase or touch up, but they also leave dents in your paper.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 85. -4- ILLUSTRATION 06-05 3. Very lightly sketch parallel guidelines in the center of Bill’s head. 4. Sketch two circles to mark the locations of his eyes. Always place a piece of clean paper under your hand as you draw. Each time you work on a new section, remember to move your paper so it’s always under your hand. This prevents you from smudging your drawing, and protects the paper from the oils in your skin. ILLUSTRATION 06-06 5. Mark the location of the nose by sketching a parallel line approximately halfway between the lower line that marks the eye and the bottom of the chin. 6. Sketch another parallel line, around halfway between the line that marks the nose and the bottom of the chin, to mark the location of the mouth. 7. Lightly sketch the nose and mouth.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 86. -5- OUTLINING A FELINE FACE, HEAD, AND EARS This section focuses on outlining the various facets of Bills face, head, and ears. ILLUSTRATION 06-07 8. Very lightly outline his ears and face with more defined lines. Use a freshly sharpened HB pencil and draw your outlines slowly and carefully! 9. Outline his eyes and nose. 10. Sketch his mouth with curved lines. 11. Add a curved line below his face to mark the edge of his neck. ILLUSTRATION 06-08 12. Outline the edges of the outer rims of the eyes.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 87. -6- SETTING UP A SHADING MAP Several illustrations take you through the process of mapping values in preparation for shading. 13. Add a tiny circle in the upper left section of each iris as the highlight. 14. Sketch the outlines of the pupils of the eyes inside the irises. The curved lines outlining the pupils cut into the edges of the outlines of the highlights. ILLUSTRATION 06-09 15. Use curved lines of various lengths to indicate the fur inside the ears. Watch closely the different directions in which the lines curve. Be careful that the lines are not similar in shape or size, or the fur may not appear realistic. ILLUSTRATION 06-10Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 88. -7- ILLUSTRATION 06-11 16. If you want a neater drawing, you can erase or lighten the initial rough sketch lines, as I did (see Illustration 06-11). 17. Check over your drawing carefully. If you’re not happy with some parts of your drawing, simply erase those sections, and redraw the lines. 18. Refer to the next five illustrations and map out the various values that will be added to Bill’s face. Mapping values makes shading much easier, by providing you with a blueprint for adding values. ILLUSTRATION 06-12 As you can tell by the highlights in his eyes, the light source is now from the upper left, rather than a frontal camera flash. Yet, I outlined the patterns of Bill’s striped fur by looking closely at his photo. Hence, both the direction of the light source, and the different values in the striped pattern, will ultimately affect the shading.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 89. -8- ILLUSTRATION 06-13 ILLUSTRATION 06-14 ILLUSTRATION 06-15 ILLUSTRATION 06-16Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 90. -9- ILLUSTRATION 06-17 HATCHING FUZZY FUR AND FELINE FEATURES With Bill’s face completely outlined and the values mapped, it’s now time to add the fur texture and shading. As you draw, constantly compare your drawing to mine and double check your proportions. Pay close attention to the lengths, angles, and curves of the hatching lines. Use only freshly sharpened pencils for realistic looking fur! Keep in mind that the directions in which the hatching lines curve are important because they help give the illusion of depth to the various forms of the face under the fur.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 91. - 10 - ILLUSTRATION 06-18 19. Refer to the next five step-by-step illustrations, while adding shading to Bill’s head and face. Before you begin, lighten your mapping lines with your kneaded eraser. As you add shading, remember that the values need to be lighter on the left than on the right. ILLUSTRATION 06-19 Note that the edges of the fur around the perimeter of Bill’s head are ragged-looking and the lines are of various lengths and thicknesses. I added hatching lines to the light and medium sections of fur with 2H and HB pencils. In the lightest sections, some values are almost white and the hatching lines are faint and far apart. In darker sections, the hatching lines are very dark and close together.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 92. - 11 - ILLUSTRATION 06-20 When adding shading to a drawing, I personally prefer to work from light to dark. A 2B works well for the dark values and a 4B is great for the darkest sections, especially the dark stripes on the right. Remember, you achieve a broad range of values by using different grades of pencils and by varying the density of the lines. When drawing fur, the transitions between values can be short and abrupt, or gradual over a long distance. ILLUSTRATION 06-21 My favorite part of drawing animals is bringing their eyes to life. I first added light values to the iris with an HB, and dark values around the rims of the eyes with a 2B and 4B. I used a Q-tip to gently blend the shading in the irises. With my kneaded eraser, I pulled out a small section of lighter shading in the lower right of the iris, opposite the highlight. A 2B pencil created the dark cast shadows on the uppermost sections of the irises and a 6B was great for shading the pupil.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 93. - 12 - As you add shading to his ears and lower face, keep in mind that the shading needs to be lighter on the left because these sections are closer to the light source. 2H and HB pencils work well for the light values and HB and 4B are great for the darker values. Note the slightly darker shading along the insides of the edges of the ears, which helps give the illusion of depth to their forms. Take your time and pay attention to the different directions in which the hatching lines curve. ILLUSTRATION 06-22Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 94. - 13 - ADDING FINAL DETAILS AND FINISHING TOUCHES In this section, you complete the shading, and check over the various sections of his ears, eyes, face, nose, and mouth. When you are happy with your drawing to this point, you then add final touches and bring Bill to life. 20. Use a freshly sharpened pencil to add his whiskers. Look closely at the whiskers on the left. Observe that in some places only the negative space is shaded on either side of the perceived whiskers. 21. Add more shading to the lower section of his face, neck, and shoulders. Take note of the dark shading under his chin, which is darker on the right because of the cast shadow of his head. Also observe that the overall shading of his lower face becomes progressively darker toward the lower right. As you render each section of fur, watch very closely the different directions in which the lines curve. Take your time. ILLUSTRATION 06-23 22. Beginning at the top of his ears, compare your drawing to mine and make any changes you feel are important. To make a section darker simply add more hatching lines. To lighten a section, pat it very gently and carefully with a kneaded eraser that is molded to a wedge shape. The day that you are totally happy with your drawings is the day you pack up your supplies and quit. Learning to draw is an infinite quest.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 95. - 14 - ILLUSTRATION 06-24Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 96. - 15 - BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Fine Art Education http://www.finearteducation.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. ART PUBLICATIONS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites: http://www.drawspace.com http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 97. Brenda HoddinottM07 INTERMEDIATE: ANIMALS & FANTASYFeathers define the structural form of a swan, in muchthe same way as clothing defines the understructureof a person.In this project, you outline the various shapes of the swan, refine the contour drawing, addshading to define both form and texture, and use horizontal hatching lines to indicate the swan’sreflection in water.This project is divided into the following five sections: INTRODUCTION: Shading the feathers on a bird requires special attention to light and shadows as well as texture. My reference photo indicates a soft diffused light source from the upper right. SKETCHING BASIC PROPORTIONS: Which came first, the chicken or the egg? Well, even though this is a swan, not a chicken, you start this project by drawing an egg shape. DRAWING A MORE PRECISE OUTLINE: You add additional details to the swan as you outline him (or her) with thin neat lines in preparation for shading. SHADING THE SWAN: You add shading to the swan with lines of various lengths; some are straight, but most are curved. DRAWING WATER: Calm water looks more realistic when the shading lines are horizontal and parallel. An exception to this is when an object or living being (such as a swan) creates ripples in the water.Supplies include 2H, HB, and 2B pencils, erasers, good quality drawing paper, and a ruler. 10 PAGES – 20 ILLUSTRATIONS This lesson is recommended for artists with good drawing skills, as well as advanced students of home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. Published by Hoddinott Publishing for Drawspace.com, Halifax, NS, Canada - 2008
  • 98. 2INTRODUCTION Figure 701Feathers define the structural form of a swan, inmuch the same way as clothing defines theunderstructure of a person.Shading the feathers on a bird requires specialattention to light and shadows as well as texture.My reference photo (Figure 701) indicates a softdiffused light source from the upper right. Notethe dark cast shadows on her neck under herhead, and in the water under her body.A swan is relatively easy to draw; its head,neck, and body are made up of only three shapes(Figure 702), and a fourth shape captures theessence of the bill (Figure 703).As you draw the swan, keep in mind that youneed to indicate the form of the folded wings aswell as the texture of the feathers. Figure 703Wings come in a vast range of shapes and sizes,from the tiny delicate wings of a Humming Birdto the magnificent strong wings of a Bald Eagle.Figure 704 shows the basic structure of a Figure 702nonspecific wing that is similar to those of aswan. Figure 704 Figure 705Figure 705 shows a generic featherthat I drew from my mind. The wideend of the shaft (the long skinnything in the center) of a feather iscalled a quill. A quill has a hollowcenter, and many years ago, peopledipped them into ink and used themas pens to write with.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 99. 3 ART SPEAK Form, as applied to drawing, is the illusion of the three-dimensional structure of a shape, created in a drawing with shading and/or perspective. Shading (noun) refers to the various values that help make drawings look three-dimensional; (verb) refers to the process of adding shading to a drawing. Light source refers to the direction from which a dominant light originates. The placement of this light source affects every aspect of a drawing. The light source tells you where to draw all the light values and shadows. Texture is the surface detail of an object, as defined in a drawing with various shading techniques. The senses of touch and sight help identify the surface texture of drawing subject. Cast shadow is a dark area on a surface, adjacent to where the light is blocked by an object. Shape refers to the outward outline of a form.SKETCHING BASIC PROPORTIONS Figure 706Which came first, the chicken or the egg? Well,even though this is a swan, not a chicken, you startthis project by drawing an egg shape. Grab yoursketchbook, follow along with me, and draw aswan.1) Use a ruler to very lightly draw a square the size you’d like for your final drawing.2) Draw an egg shape close to the bottom of your drawing space. See Figure 706 and refer back to Figures 701 to 703 to remind yourself of the shapes and their positioning within the drawing space. Allow plenty of room to later add her long Figure 707 neck and head. Note that the smaller end of the egg shape is tipped downwards slightly towards the left lower corner of your drawing space. Keep your lines light for now, because they need to be erased later.3) Draw her neck. Notice that the end of her neck that is closer to the water is wider than the top where the neck joins her head.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 100. 4 ART SPEAK Proportion is the relationship in size of one component of a drawing to another or others. Drawing space refers to the area of a drawing surface within a specific perimeter, outlined by a shape of any size, such as a square, rectangle or circle. Outline drawings (also called contour drawings or line drawings) are comprised of lines which follow the contours of the various components of a drawing subject and define the outlines of its forms. Figure 7084) Add a small circle at the top of her neck. This will be her head (Refer to Figure 708). Figure 709 5) Draw in her bill (you may call it a beak). Refer to Figure 709. Figure 7106) Pat your sketch with a kneaded DRAWING A eraser until MORE the lines are PRECISE so faint that you can OUTLINE barely see In this section, you them. add additional Refer to details to the swan as Figure 710. you outline him (or her) with thin neat lines in preparation for shading.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 101. 57) Draw the swan in Figure 711 detail with fuzzy lines; use your sketch as a guide. Do not draw directly over your sketch lines. Rather, refer to my drawing in Figure 711 and the photo in Figure 701 to adjust the lines to better represent more precise proportions. Note that the outline is drawn with fuzzy lines rather than smooth ones. This helps to indicate the texture of feathers. Figure 712 Outline her bill, eye, wings, those big beautiful tail feathers, and the reflection in the water. 8) Use the corner of a vinyl eraser to erase (or lighten) the initial sketch lines. 9) Redraw any lines that were accidentally erased. 10) Make changes to anything you aren’t happy with before you continue.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 102. 6 Figure 713SHADING THE SWAN ART SPEAKIn this section, you add shading to theswan with lines of various lengths; Hatching is a series of lines (called a set) drawnsome are straight, but most are curved. closely together to give the illusion of values.11) Lightly shade in the forms of her body and head with hatching lines of different lengths. Use 2H and HB pencils to add light values with mostly curved hatching lines. This light shading indicates the texture of feathers all over her body, her wings and her tail. Remember, the light source is from the right and above.12) Add more detailed shading to the feathers on the swan’s head. Refer to Figure 714. Use whatever pencils you prefer. Observe the light areas (highlights) on the front of her head, and her cheeks. Notice how the shading on her head defines Figure 714 the form of her head.13) Shade in her bill, using high contrast shading with crosshatching.14) Draw the shading of her eye. The highlight stays white. Also, the shading is darker in the upper section of her eye.15) Add darker values to her neck in the sections that are in shadow. Use HB and 2B pencils. Refer to Figures 714 and 715. The shading is darker directly under the cheek and on the right side of the neck.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 103. 7Also, take note that the feathers at the bottom of her neck Figure 715appear larger than those close to the top of her neck. Thehatching lines are longer, farther apart, and more curved.16) Add darker values to the remainder of her body, tail feathers, and wings. Refer to Figures 715 and 716. Figure 716 Figure 717DRAWING WATERCalm water looks more realistic whenthe shading lines are horizontal andparallel. An exception to this is whenan object or living being (such as aswan) creates ripples in the water.17) Draw lots of very light, straight lines all through the background, parallel to the top and bottom of your drawing space. Refer to Figure 717 on the right. Use a ruler.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 104. 8 Figure 718 18) Shade in the reflection of the swan in the water. Figure 718 shows the water around the lower body of the swan. Focus on the various values used to show the light and shadows. 19) Use parallel hatching lines to add shading to the rest of the water. Refer to Figure 719 on the next page. Look closely at the water in Figure 719 and take note of the following: The water is shaded with hatching lines that are parallel to the top and bottom of the drawing space. The hatching lines extend beyond the drawing space on both sides. Hatching lines also extend into the shading of the reflection, but not the swan. The shading is lighter in value closer to the top of the drawing space, but is a little darker closer to each side. The ripples close to the swan are shaded to show that she is moving through the water. The shading style is still parallel hatching lines, but different values define the circular ripples in the surface of the water.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 105. 9 Figure 719 Congratulations! You’ve just completed another project. Sign your name and put today’s date on the back of your drawing. Figure 720Now, patyourself onthe head andgiveyourself agreat bighug!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 106. 10BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHYAs a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, BrendaHoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalkpastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott<Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. Shedeveloped strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning,and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as aself-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments haveemployed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal policedepartments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal CanadianMounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “ForensicArtists International”.Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing andpainting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired andtrained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brendachose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing,drawing, painting, and developing her websites.Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach tocurriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes forstudents of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels andabilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as aresource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughoutthe world.LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 107. THE SHIH TZU Brenda Hoddinott M08 INTERMEDIATE: ANIMALS & FANTASY With a focus on improving observation skills, you first sketch Panda’s proportions within a grid, then outline her facial features with neat lines, and finally add shading to the face and head with squirkles and curved hatching lines.The following five sections guide you step-by-step through this project: INTRODUCTION: Before I begin sketching, I examine my photograph and decide to rotate it slightly toward the right (so her face isn’t as tilted). SKETCHING BASIC PROPORTIONS: You draw a grid on your drawing paper, and then sketch the various parts of Panda on your drawing paper proportionately correct. OUTLINING TWO EYES, A NOSE, AND A MOUTH: You erase grid lines, and then use a freshly sharpened HB pencil to replace the initial sketch lines with neat, thin outlines. ADDING SHADING TO PANDA’S FEATURES: You add shading to Panda’s eyes, nose and mouth with a combination of hatching and squirkles. HATCHING A FURRY HEAD AND FACE: You use HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B pencils to finish the fur by adding curved hatching lines to the rest of Panda’s face and head.You need basic drawing supplies including good quality white paper, graphite pencils (HB,2B, 4B, and 6B), kneaded and vinyl erasers, and a pencil sharpener. This lesson is recommended for artists with experience in shading with curved hatching lines and squirkles, as well as students of home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. 13 PAGES – 34 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Publishing for Drawspace.com, Halifax, NS, Canada - 2009
  • 108. -2-INTRODUCTIONPanda is the owner of several humans, including my mom (Pamela Hoddinott), sister(Karen), niece (Amy), and two nephews (Adam and Colin). If Panda was a human, she’dprobably have braces; however, as a Shih Tzu, those funny teeth actually enhance her“cute” factor (Figure 801).Before I begin sketching, I examine my photograph and decide to rotate it slightly towardthe right (so her face isn’t as tilted). In addition, I used Photoshop to change the colors tograyscale; the various values are now easier to distinguish (Figure 802). Figure 801 Figure 802 ART SPEAK Sketch is a quickly rendered drawing that illustrates the important elements of your drawing subject with very few details. Sketching refers to the method used for creating a quick, rough representation or outline of a planned drawing subject. A sketch can also be a completed work of art. Proportion is the relationship in size of one component of a drawing to another or others. Drawing is the application of an art medium to a surface so as to produce a visual image that visually defines an artist’s choice of drawing subjects from his or her own unique perspective. Grid is a precise arrangement of a specific number of squares, of exact sizes, proportionately drawn on both a photo and drawing surface. Shading refers to the various shades of gray in a drawing that create the illusion that subjects are three- dimensional. Values are the different shades of gray created when you draw by varying both the density of the shading lines, and the pressure used in holding various pencils. A full range of values from light to dark gives contrast between the light and the shadow areas. Contrast refers to the comparison of different values when put beside one another. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: brenda@drawspace.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com
  • 109. -3-Grids help artists with numerous challenges, such as rendering precise proportions. A gridis already drawn on the reference photo for you to follow (Figure 803). You may prefer toprint the photo on this page and keep it beside you on your drawing desk as you work. Ifyou aren’t used to working with a grid, refer to Lesson J07 - The Process of Working with aGrid by Cindy Wider. Figure 803SKETCHING BASIC PROPORTIONSIn this section, you draw a grid on your drawing paper, and then sketch the various parts ofPanda on your drawing paper proportionately correct. If the proportions of your subjectare off, no amount of beautiful shading or fancy pencil marks can save your drawing. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: brenda@drawspace.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com
  • 110. -4- 1) Use an HB pencil and a ruler to ART SPEAK draw a square on your drawing Refer to Figure 804. I added a row of paper as your drawing space.Curved lines are created when a straight line partial squares at the bottom so I havecurves (or bends). the option of extending her beard.Drawing space (sometimes called a drawingformat) refers to the area of a drawing surfacewithin a specific perimeter, outlined by a shape ofany size, such as a square, rectangle or circle. BE CAREFUL! Don’t press too hard with yourLight source: is the direction from which a pencils! Lightly drawn lines are easier to erase! Nodominant light originates. The placement of this matter how careful you are, when drawing with alight source shows you where to draw all the grid, accidents do happen! If you draw in the wrongvalues and shadows. squares, simply erase that section, redraw the gridShape refers to the outward outline of a form. lines, and keep on going! The illustrations areForm as applied to drawing, is the illusion of the shown much darker than they really are so you canthree-dimensional structure of a shape, such as a see the faint lines.circle, square or triangle, created in a drawingwith shading and/or perspective. 2) Divide your square into 36 smaller The grid is designed to help you squares to create a simple grid. draw Panda’s eyes, nose, and mouth in their proper places and Figure 804 identify the directions in which her fur grows. 3) Draw what you see in each square beginning with those in Use the photo (Figure 803) as your the upper left. primary reference. The numbers and letters help you from getting the squares mixed up. You can also refer to Figures 805 and 806, especially if you become confused. Most grid squares are filled with simple curved lines that show the directions in which the fur grows. Short curved lines mark short sections of fur and Figure 805 longer lines identify sections of longer fur. Also, take note of how many curved lines extend into adjacent grid squares. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: brenda@drawspace.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com
  • 111. -5-This section is designed to enhance your observation skills and refine your abilities totranslate what you see into a drawing. Figure 8064) Check over the proportions of your sketch and adjust any areas with which you aren’t completely happy.5) Pat your sketch with your kneaded eraser until the lines are so faint that you can barely see them.OUTLINING TWO EYES, A NOSE, AND A MOUTHYou begin by erasing the grid lines, and then use a freshly sharpened HB pencil to replacethe initial sketch lines with neat, thin outlines. Refer to the photo in Figure 803. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: brenda@drawspace.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com
  • 112. -6- I prefer to erase only the grid lines in the sections in which I plan to immediately6) Use a sharp edge of your vinyl eraser to erase the grid lines. work. However, before I erase anything, I double check to make sure all my lines are sketched in the right places. If you prefer, you can erase all your grid lines at once. 7) Carefully Figure 808 examine Figure 807 Figures 807 to 811 in sequence. Figure 809 8) Redraw Panda’s facial features with thin neat lines that provide more detailed information. Figure 811Figure 810 Watch closely the curves and sizes of each line in relation to the other lines and spaces.Keep your pencil sharpener and/or sandpaper block handy and constantly sharpen thepoint of your pencil as you work. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: brenda@drawspace.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com
  • 113. -7-HELPFUL HINT! When working from a photo, you may come across sections that are not detailedenough to draw accurately. This is where you do some research! For example, maybe the eyes of the dogin your reference photo are partially covered with fur. Search through photos on the Internet or in books tofind an image of a similar dog in which the eyes are detailed and in sharp focus.9) Add a few circular shapes to identify the highlights Refer to Figure 812. Highlights in the eyes stay light; in the eyes and light values on the nose. ARTSPEAK hence, by outlining them, you remember not to shade these sections with dark values. Each eye has two Highlight: a bright spot(s) highlights (one big and one small). The circular shapes or section(s) where light on the nose serve as guides for adding light values. bounces off the shiny surfaces of an eye or nose. Iris: the large circular shape of a dog’s eye that Figure 812 varies in value from very light (probably blue or light brown) to very dark (dark brown). White: the primary section of the eyeball. Pupil: the dark circle inside the iris often has the darkest values of the entire drawing. Highlights are usually touching or inside the pupil.ADDING SHADING TO PANDA’S FEATURESIn this section, you add shading to Panda’s eyes, nose and mouth with a combination ofhatching and squirkles.The light source is from thefront and slightly to the right. Figure 81310) Use hatching and an HB pencil to add light values to the irises, Refer to Figure 813. nose and mouth. Remember to leave the highlights white!11) Fill in the pupils and nostrils with hatching lines that are closer together (Figure 814). Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: brenda@drawspace.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com
  • 114. -8- Figure 814 12) Outline the fur around the lower inside sections of the eye with very thin lines. 13) Use a freshly sharpened 2B pencil to fill in Figure 815 the sections of the iris behind Refer to the fur. Figures 815 and 816. Figure 81614) Follow along with Figures 817 to 825 to complete the shading of Panda’s facial features. Figure 817 Use HB and 2B pencils for the light and medium values. A 4B or 6B works best for the pupil. My sketch lines are all still here; however, they are too faint for the scanner to detect them. Use hatching for the eyes and mouth and squirkles Figure 818 for the nose. In the final stages of shading the nose, I add lots of dots to the nose with a 4B pencil. A little of the fur of her beard is outlined before I add shading to her mouth. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: brenda@drawspace.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com
  • 115. -9- Fur also Figure 819 Figure 820 grows from the lower edge of her lip (Figure 820). Figure 821 As you can see in Figure 821, shading is added all around the lower teeth, but the teeth are still mostly white. Teeth are best rendered with very little shading (Figure 822). Figure 822By shading the fur around each feature first,shading the rest of her head becomes simple! Figure 824 Figure 823 Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: brenda@drawspace.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com
  • 116. - 10 - Figure 825 HATCHING A FURRY HEAD AND FACE In this section, you use HB, 2B, and 4B pencils to finish the fur by adding curved hatching lines to the rest of Panda’s face and head. Figure 82615) Use curved hatching lines of various lengths to add fur to Panda’s Refer to Figures 826 to 834. head and face. In places where the fur is not white, use an HB pencil to fill most of the leftover white sections after you draw all the hatching lines. You need to move your Figure 827 wrist and whole arm to render long, smoothly flowing strands of fur (or hair). Make sure your wrist and arm are nice and loose. Try standing and shaking your arm for a couple of minutes before you sit to draw. Take your time! Don’t rush! Also, the point of your pencil needs to be kept very sharp. Many a dull pencil has completely ruined a drawing of fur or hair! Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: brenda@drawspace.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com
  • 117. - 11 - As you can see in Figures 827 to 829, my shading lines extend outside the Figure 828 perimeter of my drawing space. When I finish, the drawing will be cropped all around. Figure 829For example,compare Figure Figure 830829 to Figure 830.The drawing inFigure 830 iscropped along theupper and leftsides. Figure 831 The beard is mostly light values, but not as light as the shading above her nose and between her eyes. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: brenda@drawspace.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com
  • 118. - 12 -Before I add detailed fur to the lower right,I lay down some values (Figure 832) using Figure 832the photo (Figure 803) as a reference. Overall, my final drawing is Figure 833 considerably lighter than the reference photo. The photo was taken with a flash and somehow ended up darker than Panda, whose face is mostly white and gray. Figure 834Before you consider thisdrawing finished, put itaway for a day. Then goback and examine it withfresh eyes.You no doubt will find afew sections in need oftouchups.Put the date on theback, sign your name,pat yourself on thehead, and scratchbehind your ears! Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: brenda@drawspace.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com
  • 119. - 13 -As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, BrendaBRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHYHoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalkpastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott<Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. Shedeveloped strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directedlearning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five yearcareer as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigationdepartments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police andmunicipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation fromthe Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate ofMembership from “Forensic Artists International”.Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing andpainting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brendahired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devotemore time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites.Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovativeapproach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawingclasses for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages,levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site isrespected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educationalfacilities throughout the world.LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: brenda@drawspace.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com

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