• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
Mediu l liniile transversale
 

Mediu l liniile transversale

on

  • 1,290 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,290
Views on SlideShare
1,290
Embed Views
0

Actions

Likes
1
Downloads
39
Comments
0

0 Embeds 0

No embeds

Accessibility

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Adobe PDF

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment

    Mediu l liniile transversale Mediu l liniile transversale Document Transcript

    • VALUE SCALES Brenda Hoddinott L-01 INTERMEDIATE: CROSSHATCHINGLearning how to render value scales, a broad range of different values, isan integral aspect of shading. Crosshatching is a highly effective techniquefor drawing various realistic and creative textures.This lesson is divided into three sections: DRAWING CROSSHATCHING SETS: You make three different values by drawing crosshatching lines either far apart or close together. Crosshatching is a classical shading technique, comprised of sets of lines drawn closely together, in which one set crosses over (overlaps) another set, to give the illusion of various values. CREATING VALUE SCALES: By letting your pencils do some of the work, you have more control over the values to wish to achieve. You render a full range of ten values by varying the density of the lines, the pressure used in holding pencils, and by using different grades of pencils. EXPERIMENTING WITH CROSSHATCHING: Styles of crosshatching are only limited by your imagination. In this section, you have fun creating less traditional crosshatching styles.Suggested supplies include 2H, HB, 2B, 4B and 6B pencils, vinyl andkneaded erasers, and drawing paper. 7 PAGES – 12 ILLUSTRATIONS This lesson is recommended for artists and aspiring artists, of all levelsand abilities, with an interest in learning the classical shading technique ofcrosshatching. Curriculum is recommended for home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – Revised 2006
    • 2 DRAWING CROSSHATCHING SETS You become more comfortable with using shading in your drawings when you know how to draw value scales. Shading refers to the various shades of gray (values) in a drawing that make drawings look three-dimensional. Values are the different shades of gray created when you draw by varying the density of the shading lines, and the pressure used in holding various pencils. Value scale refers to the range of different values from light to dark or from dark to light. Crosshatching, a classical shading technique, is comprised of sets of lines drawn closely together, in which one set of lines crosses over (overlaps) another set to give the illusion of various values. When you can render sets of crosshatching lines well, you discover a highly effective tool for achieving diverse realistic shading styles. ILLUSTRATION 01-01 Examine these three crosshatching sets. The first set (on the left) has very few lines drawn far apart, creating the illusion of a light value. The second is darker, and the third is the darkest. ILLUSTRATION 01-02 In the following simple exercise, you use a 2B pencil to draw three different values, by drawing lines either far apart or close together. 1) Draw a set of diagonal hatching lines that are far apart and few in number. 2) Draw a second set of lines, overlapping the first set. The hatching set now becomes a crosshatching set. ILLUSTRATION 01-03 3) Draw a second set of crosshatching lines a little closer together than your first set. The second set is made up of lots more lines. Hence, the overall value looks darker than the first.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
    • 3 ILLUSTRATION 01-04 4) Draw a third set of crosshatching lines that are very close together. Many more lines make up this set. Also, not much of the white paper is still showing through. Everyone has a natural hand motion, which provides the ability to make smooth shading lines. Experiment with drawing parallel lines and note how you make these lines. Try different ways of moving your pencil, rotating your paper, or changing the angle of your lines, until you find the hand motions that are the most natural for you. CREATING VALUE SCALES In this section you render a full range of ten values by varying the density of the lines, the pressure used in holding pencils, and by using different grades of pencils. By letting your pencils do some of the work, you have more control over the values to wish to achieve. Before you begin, practice crosshatching with each of your pencils and notice their differences. The 2H is the lightest (hardest) and the 6B is the darkest (softest). The 6B is very good for darker values, 2B is great for middle values, and 2H works well for light values. 1) Using your 2H pencil, draw the first three values beginning with the lightest. Vary the pressure used in holding your pencil; press lightly for the really light values and a little harder for somewhat darker values. 2) With your HB pencil, draw the last two values in this set of five. Have a look at your value scale. How many different values did you make? Keep practicing this value scale in your sketchbook until you can draw five different light values. ILLUSTRATION 01-05Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
    • 4 3) With your 2B pencil, draw the first two values in this set of five dark values. Use the same techniques as used to draw five light values. 4) Use your 4B for the third and fourth value. 5) Use your 6B for the darkest value. ILLUSTRATION 01-06 Put you light and dark value scales beside one another and examine the full range of values. Keep practicing until you can draw ten different values. ILLUSTRATION 01-07 ILLUSTRATION 01-08 Examine these two sets of crosshatching lines. In the crosshatching example in the upper left, you can clearly see my lines. I draw my lines very closely together in the lower right set, to create the illusion of a smooth, solid tone (without blending). Beginners can generally make do nicely with only three or four different graphite pencils. The pencils I use most frequently are a 2H, HB, 2B, and 6B. The 2H is the lightest (hardest) and the 6B is the darkest (softest). You can expect to use the HB and 2B the most often. However, with a full set of pencils from 6H to 8B, the potential range of values you can render is infinite.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
    • 5 ILLUSTRATION 01-09 1) Use crosshatching to draw a full value scale, from light to dark, of ten values. Try to make each value look like a solid tone. 2) Draw another full value scale from dark to light. This is a little more challenging for some people. EXPERIMENTING WITH CROSSHATCHING Styles of crosshatching are only limited by your imagination. In this section, have fun creating crosshatching values (and value scales) from less traditional crosshatching methods. 1) Draw each of the crosshatching styles in illustrations 01-10 to 01-12. ILLUSTRATION 01-10Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
    • 6 ILLUSTRATION 01-11 ILLUSTRATION 01-12 Imagine how you could apply each of these sets of crosshatching lines to something in a drawing. 2) Create some crosshatching styles of your very own. 3) Render value scales with a few creative styles of crosshatching.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
    • 7 BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT  Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.  The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
    • WITH CROSSHATCHING Brenda HoddinottL-01 INTERMEDIATE: CROSSHATCHINGWhether you are trying crosshatching graduations for the very first time, or simplywishing to improve your current skills, this lesson has something for you. The processof drawing a smooth crosshatching graduation is discussed and illustrated.This lesson is divided into four sections: EXPLORING SHADING TECHNIQUES: I show three different graduated shading techniques and demonstrate how all three can be used in a single drawing. EXAMINING DRAWINGS SHADED WITH CROSSHATCHING GRADUATIONS: Classical crosshatching graduations are highly effective for achieving the illusion of multidimensional forms and diverse textures in various styles of drawing including high realism. Six drawings demonstrate a few practical applications for crosshatching graduations. GRADUATING WITH DIFFERENT PENCILS: You use various grades of pencils to practice drawing crosshatching graduations. Each grade of pencil produces a graduation with a different range of values. CROSSHATCHING A GRADUATION: You render a crosshatching graduation in which the different values flow smoothly into one another. In addition to using different pencils, you also vary the density of lines, and vary the pressure used in holding the pencils.Suggested supplies include 4H, 2H, HB, 2B, 3B, 4B, 6B, and 8B pencils and drawingpaper. A full set of pencils from 8H to 8B would be even better. 8 PAGES – 17 ILLUSTRATIONSThis lesson is recommended for artists and aspiring artists, of all levels and abilities, with an interest in learning the classical shading technique of graduated crosshatching. Curriculum is recommended for home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2004 (Revised 2007)
    • 2EXPLORING SHADING TECHNIQUES ART SPEAKBefore you can draw realistic subjects, you need to learn how Shading (noun)to render shading with graduations of values. Figures 201 to refers to the various203 show three different techniques for creating graduated values that helpshading: squirkling, hatching, and crosshatching. make drawings look three-dimensional; (verb) refers to the process of adding shading to a drawing. Values are the different shades of gray created when you draw by varying both the density of the shading lines, and the pressure Figures 201, 202, used in holding and 203: Three various pencils. shading Graduation (also techniques; from called graduated left to right: shading or squirkling, graduated values) hatching, and is a continuous crosshatching progression of values, from dark toEach graduated shading technique can be implemented into a light or light to dark.drawing by itself or combined with others. For example, in Squirkling is aFigure 204, the clothing is rendered with squirkling, the hair method of shadingwith hatching, and her face with crosshatching. that incorporates randomly drawn curved lines to create values. Hatching is a series of lines (called a Figure 204: set) drawn closely Three together to give the different illusion of values. types of Crosshatching, a graduations classical shading are used to technique, is accurately comprised of sets of depict the lines drawn closely various forms together, in which and textures one set of lines in a portrait crosses over of a young (overlaps) another lady named set. Manisha.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
    • 3EXAMINING DRAWINGS SHADED ART SPEAKWITH CROSSHATCHING Texture is theGRADUATIONS surface detail of an object, as definedClassical crosshatching graduations are highly effective for in a drawing withachieving the illusion of multidimensional forms and diverse various shadingtextures in various styles of drawing, including realism. techniques. TheLeonardo Da Vinci excelled at using this shading technique senses of touchfor anatomical studies, portraits, and figurative drawings. and sight helpWhen you can render individual values (Figure 205) with identify the surfaceprecision, you are well on your way to learning how to texture of drawinggraduate different values into one another (Figure 206). The subject.goal of graduated shading is to keep the transitions between Form, as appliedthe different values flowing smoothly into one another. to drawing, is the illusion of the three-dimensional structure of a shape, created in a drawing with shading and/or perspective. Figures 205 and 206: A crosshatching graduation is created by graduating different values into one another. Examine the crosshatching graduations in the drawings in Figures 207 to 212. Figure 207: TIP Crosshatching graduations Lesson L01: create the Crosshatching complex forms Values shows of facial you how to anatomy, and render a value the smooth scale as in textures of skin Figure 205. and an eye.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
    • 4 Figure 208: This zany cartoon of an apple uses crosshatching graduations to define its spherical form and the fun patterns of its leaves. By shading the shadow with parallel hatching lines, the apple appears to be sitting firmly on a flat surface. Figure 209: The soft petals of a mature rose are completely rendered with crosshatching graduations. Figure 210: Crosshatching graduations create a powerful depiction of metal and wood in this drawing of a medieval dagger. If you’re a fan of blending, you simply can’t beat crosshatching graduations for the under-drawing.Figure 211: A grape looks shiny andrealistic after blending an under-drawing ofcrosshatching graduations. Figure 212: The same grape before blending.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
    • 5GRADUATING WITH DIFFERENT PENCILSIn this section, you use various pencils to practice drawing crosshatching graduations.Ideally, you should try out a full set of pencils from 8H to 8B (however, use whateverpencils you have). Each grade of pencil produces a graduation with a different range ofvalues; hence, with a full set, you can create an infinite range of values.Use each of your grades of pencils torender a crosshatching graduation.I used a 4H, 2H, HB, 2B, 3B, 4B, 6B, and8B (Figure 213).Use any drawing process that works foryou. I prefer to begin by drawing agraduation of parallel hatching lines fromlight to dark.I make this set of lines a little lighteroverall than I think it should be; when Ibegin adding the second set of lines thevalues become darker very quickly. I wantto end up with a graduation, not a bigblob of one value!Then I turn my paper upside-down anddraw a second set of hatching lines thatoverlaps the first set at an angle. Voila!Crosshatching!Use the following two techniques:  Vary the density of the lines. Draw the sets of lines far apart for light values. To make darker values draw the lines progressively closer together.  Vary the pressure used in holding the pencil. Press very gently to make light values. Apply more pressure to make the values darker.Begin on the left if you are right handed.If you are left handed, you may prefer towork from right to left.Make your shading progressively darkeras you work toward the right (or left forlefties). Figure 215: Eight crosshatching graduations created with eight different pencils.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
    • 6CROSSHATCHING AGRADUATIONGraduations are the primary ingredient in realisticshading. In this section, you render a crosshatchinggraduation in which the different values flowsmoothly into one another.1. Draw a long rectangular drawing format. You can turn your drawing format vertical (Figure 213), or horizontal (Figure 214), as you work. Figure 213: Vertical drawing format Figure 214: Horizontal drawing format2. Crosshatch light values from the top downward in a vertical format, or from the left toward the right in a horizontal format (right to left for lefties). Use whichever pencils work best for you. I used a 4H, 2H, HB, 2B, 3B, 4B, 6B, and 8B. In addition to using different pencils to create different values, you also need to vary the density of lines, and vary the pressure used in holding the pencils. a) Begin with a graduation of hatching. Press lightly with light pencils to draw the lightest sections. b) Add a second set of lines overlapping the first. Don’t forget, you can turn your drawing paper around for drawing the second set; I usually turn my paper upside down. Take your time; the values get darker very quickly when you add the second set of lines. c) Make your shading progressively darker as you move downward (or toward the right or left). As you get closer to the end, make your lines closer together, press a little harder with the pencils, and change to darker pencils. Use your darkest pencil at the end. Figure 215: Light and middle valuesCopyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
    • 7 TIP If you find crosshatching graduations to be beyond your current skill level, try the following lessons first: F03: Playing With Pencils discusses and demonstrates various grades of pencils. F04: Graduated Values shows you how to draw a simple hatching graduation.3. Continue making your shading darker and darker, until you get almost to the end of your drawing space (Figure 216).4. With your darkest pencils draw the darkest values (Figure 217). Continue until the end of your graduation is as dark as possible. Touch up any sections you aren’t happy with by adding a few more short lines in between others. Figure 216: Middle values Figure 217: Dark valuesCopyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
    • 8BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHYAs a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator,Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, coloredpencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott<Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook.She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to selfdirected learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’stwenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminalinvestigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal CanadianMounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with acommendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awardeda Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”.Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawingand painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department,Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s artprograms. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator inorder to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites.Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovativeapproach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printabledrawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Studentsof all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructionalapproach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schoolingprograms, and educational facilities throughout the world.LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
    • CROSSHATCHING A Brenda HoddinottBefore attempting this lesson please completeL03 INTERMEDIATE: CROSSHATCHINGL01 Crosshatching Values and L02 GraduationsIn this project, you first create a value map by lightly outlining random shapes andwith Crosshatching.identifying each as a specific value. You then use crosshatching graduations and variousgrades of pencils to add shading.This lesson is divided into the following three sections:  INTRODUCTION: A value map works by first identifying highlights (highlights usually stay the white of your paper), and then adding shading to light, medium and dark values.  OUTLINING A MAP: You outline shapes within a drawing space. The drawing in this project is of nothing in particular. However, it presents several shading challenges you may encounter when adding shading to a drawing.  CROSSHATCHING VALUES: You add shading to the various shapes with crosshatching graduations. You begin with the lightest values and graduate them toward the middle values. Middle values are added and graduated into dark. Finally, you add medium values to a tiny section of reflected light.Supplies include 2H, HB, 2B, and 4B graphite pencils, erasers, good quality drawing paper,pencil sharpener, and sandpaper block. 7 PAGES – 7 ILLUSTRATIONS This lesson is recommended for artists with strong crosshatching skills, as well as students of home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. Published by Hoddinott Publishing for Drawspace.com, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2008
    • -2- A shading map (often called a INTRODUCTION value map) takes the guesswork out of where you have to put Shading map (also called a value map) is a plan (or different values in a drawing. blueprint) for adding shading to a drawing. The locations and Light and shadows assume various sizes of the shapes of various values are identified and lightly shapes. For example, a highlight outlined. can be a circle and a shadow can Shading (noun) refers to the various values in a drawing that be a crescent shape. make images appear three-dimensional; (verb) the process of adding values to a drawing so as to create the illusion of A value map works by first texture, form and/or three-dimensional space. identifying, each of the following: Values are the different shades of gray created when you  Highlights tend to be easy to draw by varying both the density of the shading lines, and the find because they are the pressure used in holding various pencils. lightest and brightest sections. Shape refers to the outward outline of a form. Basic shapes  Light values are closest to the include circles, squares and triangles. light source, often adjacent to Graduation (also called graduated shading or graduated or surrounding highlights. values) is a continuous progression of values, from dark to light or light to dark.  Dark values are in the shadow sections of the subject and/or Hatching is a series of lines (called a set) drawn closely in various cast shadows. together to give the illusion of values. Crosshatching, a classical shading technique, is comprised  Medium values tend to fall in of sets of lines drawn closely together, in which one set of between the light and dark lines crosses over (overlaps) another set. values. Shadows are the sections of objects or living beings that You then outline the various receive little or no light. shapes of each, and add shading to Forms are the three-dimensional structures of shapes. In the various values. drawings, shading and perspective are used to transform a shape into a three-dimensional structure, such as a circle becoming a sphere or a square becoming a cube. Perspective is a visual illusion in a drawing in which objects The drawing in this exercise is of OUTLINING A MAP appear to become smaller, and recede into distant space, the nothing in particular. However, it farther away they are from the viewer. presents several shading Cast shadow is a dark section on an adjacent surface of an challenges you may encounter object that receives little or no light. The values of a cast when adding shading to a drawing. shadow are darkest next to the object and become gradually lighter farther away. Reflected light is a faint light reflected or bounced back on 1) Set up a vertical drawing an object from those surfaces that are close to and around it. space approximately 4 by 5 Highlight identifies the brightest area of a form where light inches (Figure 301). bounces off its surface; usually the section closest to the light source. 2) Use a curved line to outline Light source is the direction from which a dominant light a highlight in the upper originates. Some subjects have two or more light sources. A right, and mark it H. light source identifies the light and shadow areas of a drawing subject.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
    • -3- FIGURE 301 When developing a shading map from either life or a photo, remember to keep the shapes very basic. The more shapes you draw, the more complicated the shading becomes. 3) Outline two shapes as light values and mark them L (Figure 302). FIGURE 302 4) Outline the dark values and mark them The unmarked areas that are left over are D (Figure 303). middle values. You can mark them M if you wish. FIGURE 303 I don’t bother marking medium values; their shapes and locations automatically become obvious when all others are identified and marked. In this section, you add shading to various CROSSHATCHING VALUES shapes with crosshatching graduations. You begin with the lightest values and graduate them toward the middle values. Middle values are added and graduated into dark. Finally, you add medium values to a tiny section of reflected light. Most of the highlight stays the white of your paper.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
    • -4- Before you begin shading each section of the map, remember to FIGURE 304 erase the letters and lighten the outlines until you can barely see them. If you wish, you can begin your shading with hatching lines. Then, draw a second set of hatching lines that cross over the first (crosshatching), to create darker values. 5) Use a 2H pencil and crosshatching to add light graduations from the Refer to Figure 304. Make the highlight into the L shapes. shading lines different lengths, and extend them unevenly into the adjourning spaces. FIGURE 305 6) Add graduations to the sections in your map Use an HB pencil and follow needing medium values. the contours of the surrounding shapes. Continuously adjust your lines so the graduations flow smoothly into one another. Make your values gradually darker as you approach the dark areas (D). You can easily fix areas of shading you dont like. Pat the shading with your kneaded eraser to make lighter values. Add more shading lines in between others to make sections darker.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
    • -5- Refer to Figure 306, which is shown larger than my actual drawing so you can clearly 7) Shade the dark values with HB and 2B pencils. see the crosshatching lines. Lighten the dark values as you approach medium or light values. Darken your shading as you move toward the darkest shadow sections. Take note of where the darkest shading ends abruptly, at the edge of the left side of 8) Shade the darkest value with a freshly sharpened 4B pencil. the boomerang shape, marked D. FIGURE 306 9) Add medium shading to the small crescent shape left of the abrupt Refer to the stop. illustration in Figure 307. This light shading represents a tiny section of reflected light. At this point, you can see a three- dimensional form begin to emerge from the shading map.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
    • -6- FIGURE 307 Experiment with different approaches to shading, especially if mapping values doesnt appeal to you. Eventually youll discover the method that is perfect for your unique needs.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
    • -7- As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the >Brenda Hoddinott< quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT  Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.  The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com