Incepatori h focus pe oameni

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Incepatori h focus pe oameni

  1. 1. OF ADULTS Brenda Hoddinott H-01 BEGINNER - FOCUS ON PEOPLE: Before you attempt to draw adult faces, it helps to know how to plan a place for everything, sort of like a blueprint. Even though the heads and faces of adults come in many shapes and sizes, the same basic guidelines for proportions apply to almost everyone. In this lesson, you set up simple, easy to remember guidelines for drawing horizontal adult facial proportions, and then draw proportionally correct ears, eyes, and a nose and mouth within your outline.Suggested drawing supplies include white drawing paper, a ruler, graphite pencils, and erasers.You also need basic math skills (or a calculator) for measuring and dividing various distances.This project introduces you to very simple guidelines for remembering the facial proportions ofadults, and is divided into three parts: EXAMINING ADULT HEADS AND FACES: Beginners to drawing portraits tend to draw eyes too high on the head. In this section, you examine drawings that illustrate the shapes of skulls and faces, and the correct placements of various facial features, including eyes. DRAW THE OUTLINE OF THE HEAD: You draw a circular shape to represent an adult human head, with the top half wider than the bottom. ADD HORIZONTAL LINES TO THE OUTLINE: You divide the length of the head into two halves, and the lower half into three equal distances. DRAWING EARS AND FACIAL FEATURES: With the blueprint complete, you now add ears, eyes, and a nose and mouth to your head shape using the three distances in the lower half of your drawing. It’s not important that you draw the ears and features well. The goal is to simply draw everything in its proper place. 15 PAGES – 19 ILLUSTRATIONS Recommended for artists of any skill level, as well as home schooling, academic, and recreational fine art educators Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada, Revised 2005
  2. 2. -2- EXAMINING ADULT HEADS AND FACES The most common mistake, made by beginners to drawing portraits, is to draw the eyes too high on the head. However, if you look closely at an adult head, in fact you can see two halves, with the eyes positioned on the halfway point where the two halves meet. Below are four simple variations of the top and bottom halves of a human head. Either skull shape can be matched with any one of the facial shapes, thereby providing many possibilities for the shapes of human heads. ILLUSTRATION 01-01 – SKULL SHAPES ILLUSTRATION 01-02 – FACIAL SHAPES ILLUSTRATION 01-03 ILLUSTRATION 01-04 The shapes of human heads, and the sizes and placements of people’s facial features are very different. Yet, the basic guidelines, for rendering accurate proportions, apply to almost everyone. Proportion is the relationship in size of one component of a drawing to another or others. Compare the shapes of these two adult heads to Illustrations 01-01 and 01-02. Which skull shape is closest to each of these two people? Which of the basic facial shapes is closest to each? I find the forth skull shape and the second (and first) facial shape to be close to the female head. For the male, I think the skull shape is close to the third, and the facial shape is similar to the forth. However, a couple of the other shapes are also close.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  3. 3. -3- 1) Examine each face in Illustration 01-05, and find the locations of the horizontal halfway sections. The eyes are halfway between the top of the skull and the bottom edge of the chin. The half of the head above the eyes has the eyebrows, forehead and skull. Most of the face, including the nose, mouth and chin is below the eyes. 2) Re-examine Illustrations 01-01 and 01-02, and choose a skull shape and a facial shape. 3) Sketch them joined together to make an outline of a complete head. It’s perfectly okay to draw your skull shape (or facial shape) slightly different than in the illustrations, such as wider, narrower, shorter or even longer. However, don’t wander too far away from the basic shape, or your drawing may be too far outside the parameters of what is considered normal human anatomy. 4) Turn your outline of a head-shape into an original person, by adding some facial features and hair. ILLUSTRATION 01-05 Keep in mind that the basic fundamentals of facial proportions are the same for everyone, despite the diversity of human faces. Various factors determine the physical appearances of adult faces, such as the size, shape, and placement of features, physical development and age, differences in skeletal structures, diversity of ethnic origin, environmental factors, diet, gender, and lifestyle. When examined closely, even identical twins often have subtle differences in their faces. 5) Have fun creating different people by mixing and matching other skulls and faces, and then adding facial features. DRAW THE OUTLINE OF THE HEAD Take the phone off the hook, find your drawing paper, let the dog in, sharpen your pencil and find your ruler! Use good quality white drawing paper in case you need to erase. An HB pencil worked well for me, but you can use whatever pencil you prefer.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  4. 4. -4- Remember; the suggestions for the proper placement of adult facial features in this lesson are not “rules”. Most human heads and the placements of features will follow these guidelines, but, always keep in mind that there may be exceptions. 6) Use a ruler to draw a rectangular drawing format on your drawing paper. Drawing format (sometimes called a drawing space) refers to the area of a drawing surface within a specific perimeter, outlined by a shape of any size, such as a square, rectangle or circle. Suggested sizes include 5 by 7 inches, 6 by 8 inches, or 7 by 9 inches. 7) Draw a very light line of symmetry down the center of the rectangle. Measure and mark a small dot at the halfway point of the top and bottom sides of your rectangle. Use a ruler to connect the two dots. This line helps keep your head shape symmetrical and is a guide for measuring the placement of facial features. Symmetry in drawing is a balanced arrangement of lines and shapes, on opposite sides of an often-imaginary centerline. In the scans of my drawing throughout this project, the line of symmetry is too light to see. ILLUSTRATION 01-06 8) Draw a circular shape to represent an adult human head, with the top half wider than the bottom. The basic outline of an adult head is similar in shape to an egg. The line of symmetry you drew down the center of your rectangle, is helpful for measuring distances on either side, to make sure the head in your drawing is symmetrical. To find out more about drawing with a line of symmetry, refer to B-03 Simple Symmetry in B-level Beginner: Learn to See.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  5. 5. -5- ADD HORIZONTAL LINES TO THE OUTLINE In this section, you divide the length of the head into two halves. Then the lower half will be divided into three equal distances. ILLUSTRATION 01-07 In time you will be able to judge all proportions visually, but for now please use a ruler. 9) Draw a horizontal line that touches the edge of the very top of the head. This line is parallel to the top and bottom of the rectangular drawing surface (and vertical to its sides). 10) Mark this line IJ. 11) Draw a second horizontal line touching the lower edge of the chin. 12) Mark this line GH. ILLUSTRATION 01-08 13) Measure the total vertical distance along the center vertical line (too light to see in my drawing), from the top of the head to the bottom of the chin. 14) Divide this total measurement in half and mark it with a small dot. Feel free to use a calculator! 15) Draw a horizontal line (AB) through this dot, dividing the head into two halves (as in Illustration 01-08). Most people’s eyes and the top sections of their ears are somewhere along this line, halfway between the top of the skull (not the top of the hair) and the bottom edge of the chin.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  6. 6. -6- ILLUSTRATION 01-09 16) Measure the vertical distance between lines AB and GH. 17) Divide this distance by three and lightly mark the two points with dots on the center vertical line (too light to see in my drawing). 18) Add a fourth horizontal line through the upper point (closer to AB). This line is parallel to each of the other three lines, IJ, AB, and GH. 19) Mark this line CD. The lower part of the nose and the lower sections of the ears touch this line. ILLUSTRATION 01-10 20) Add a fifth horizontal line through the lower point (closer to GH). This line is parallel to each of the other four lines. 21) Mark this line EF. The lower edge of the bottom lip will be close to or touch this line. Now the vertical distance between lines AB and GH is divided into three equal sections. Artists use several methods for establishing adult facial proportions. I have found this method to be accurate and very easy to remember.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  7. 7. -7- Following is a review of the basic adult proportional guidelines. In the next section you add features to your facial outline. Refer to Illustration 01-11 to help you understand the following: Line AB divides the length of the head in half:  The top of the ears and the eyebrows are usually on or above AB.  The whites of the eyes and the irises are often touching AB.  The lower eyelids are generally below AB ILLUSTRATION 01-11 Line CD is one-third of the way from line AB toward the bottom of the chin.  The base of the cheekbone is often on or above line CD.  The bottom section of the nose is usually touching CD.  The lower edges of the ears are generally below CD. Line EF is halfway between lines CD and GH.  The mouth (usually the lower lip) touches EF.  The chin takes up most of the space between lines EF and GH. DRAWING EARS AND FACIAL FEATURES Your blueprint is complete and it’s time to add a face. In this section you draw ears, eyes, and a nose and mouth on your head shape using the three distances in the lower half of your drawing. It is not important that you draw the ears and features well. The goal is to simply place everything in its proper place. You may even choose to draw completely different features.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  8. 8. -8- ILLUSTRATION 01-12 Remember, it’s more important to draw the ears and facial features in their correct places, rather than fuss about the intricate details. 22) Draw the outlines of the ears with the tops above AB and the bottoms below CD. ILLUSTRATION 01-13 23) Erase the vertical lines (indicating the outline of the head) between lines AB and CD (on both sides of your drawing). 24) Re-draw the outline on each side (between lines AB and CD) leaving an opening for the tops of the ears to extend inward. 25) Extend the outlines of the tops of the ears inward, toward the center of the face. 26) Draw short curved lines on the upper section of each ear (touching AB) to indicate the outer rims of the ears.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  9. 9. -9- 27) Add more detailed lines to each ear to represent its various parts. Even though fine details are not important in this lesson, try your best and you may be pleasantly surprised! ILLUSTRATION 01-14 Each individual face is physically unique, due to inherent variations in the sizes and shapes of heads, faces, and features. You can complete the facial features on your drawing however you wish. The only important factor, to achieve a realistic human face, is to put everything in its correct place according to the facial guidelines.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  10. 10. - 10 - 28) Draw the eyes along AB. To help you decide how wide to draw each eye, refer to Illustration 01-15 and observe the following:  The widest section of the head is “five-eyes wide”.  The width of an eye is equal to one of these distances.  The distance between the eyes is equal to the width of one eye. ILLUSTRATION 01-15Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  11. 11. - 11 - 29) Draw some eyebrows above AB. You can draw eyebrows:  Light or dark  Thick or thin  Very curved, slightly curved, or fairly straight  Very close to the eyes or a little higher on the forehead. ILLUSTRATION 01-16Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  12. 12. - 12 - 30) Draw the nose. The following guidelines apply to most adult faces:  The lower section of the nose touches the horizontal line CD.  The very bottom edges of the nostrils are often below CD.  The nose is approximately the width of the distance between the eyes.  The base of each cheekbone usually aligns with the bottom section of the nose.  The lower parts of the ears horizontally align with the bottom section of the nose. ILLUSTRATION 01-17Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  13. 13. - 13 - 31) Draw the mouth. The following guidelines generally apply to adult faces:  The lower lip is usually touching or slightly above line EF.  The mouth is generally wider than the nose.  The lower lip is approximately halfway between the lower section of the nose and the bottom of the chin.  The outer corners of the mouth are usually directly under the irises of the eyes. ILLUSTRATION 01-18Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  14. 14. - 14 - 32) Use your kneaded eraser to lighten the outline of the top of the head until it’s almost invisible, and then add some hair. 33) Sign your name, add today’s date on the back of your drawing, and then pat yourself on the back! ILLUSTRATION 01-19Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  15. 15. - 15 - BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  16. 16. PROPORTIONS OF A Brenda Hoddinott H-02 BEGINNER: FOCUS ON PEOPLE This project offers simple step-by-step illustrated instructions, to guide aspiring artists through the process of outlining a proportionately correct adult human hand. Human hands are without doubt very anatomically intricate, but not nearly as difficult to draw as many artists assume. The process of drawing a hand becomes less intimidating when you understand how to render the proportions properly, and can draw the fundamental shapes of the various parts in their correct places.Drawing supplies needed include good quality white paper, different grades of graphite pencils(such as HB and 2B), kneaded and vinyl erasers, a pencil sharpener and a sandpaper block.This lesson is comprised of the following three sections: INTRODUCTION: Hands come in various shapes and sizes depending on different factors, such as the persons’ size, age, and gender; yet the overall proportions are very similar. PUTTING PROPORTIONS ON PAPER: Setting up accurate proportions is the foundation of drawing hands. Fingers make up approximately half the total length of a hand. OUTLINING THE FORMS OF A HAND: In this section, you outline the hand with thin neat lines by constantly referring to the illustrations and your own hand. This project is recommended for artists from age 12 to adult, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. 12 PAGES – 19 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – Revised 2006
  17. 17. -2- INTRODUCTION Human hands are without doubt very anatomically intricate, but not nearly as difficult to draw as many artists assume. The process of drawing a hand becomes less intimidating when you understand how to render the overall proportions properly, and can draw the basic shapes of the various parts in their correct places. Proportion is the relationship in size of one component of a drawing to another or others. Shape refers to the outward outline of a form. Basic shapes include circles, squares and triangles. The most common inaccuracy when drawing hands is making the main section of the hand too short in relation to the length of the fingers. Have a close look at one of your own hands. Measure the distance between the tip of the longest finger down to its base connects to the main section of the hand (Mine is 3.2 inches). Then, measure the hand from where the fingers attach to the hand to the section of the wrist where the base of the thumb ends (Mine is 3.4 inches). The two distances are very similar; hence, fingers make up approximately half the total length of a hand. Examine the three drawings of hands in the next illustration. Imagine each hand open to a point where you can compare the length of the fingers to the length of the main section of the hand. Again the distances are approximately the same. Therefore, when drawing a hand keep in mind that the length of the longest finger is similar to the length of the main section of the hand. ILLUSTRATION 02-01Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  18. 18. -3- The illustrations and instructions in this lesson will be based on an average sized hand. However, hands come in various shapes and sizes depending on lots of different factors, including the person’s size, age, and gender; yet the overall proportions are very similar. In the next drawings examine three variations of hands and compare each to the rectangular sketch beside it. Which of the three hands in Illustrations 02-02 to 02-04 most closely resembles the overall shape of your hand? ILLUSTRATION 02-02 To draw a hand that is short, your sketch will be based on a rectangle divided into two squares of the same size (Illustration 02-02). ILLUSTRATION 02-03 A drawing of an average hand begins with a longer rectangle divided into two same sized short rectangles (Illustration 02-03). ILLUSTRATION 02-04 A slender hand with long fingers is based on a slightly longer rectangle divided into two equal rectangles (Illustration 02-04). Consider using your own hand as the model for this lesson. If you are left handed, it’s easier to draw your right hand, and if you are right handed try drawing your left.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  19. 19. -4- PUTTING PROPORTIONS ON PAPER Setting up accurate proportions is the foundation of drawing hands. If the length of the longest finger when compared to the length of the hand is drastically different, your proportions may be incorrect; hence, no amount of beautiful shading can then save your drawing. If you are drawing your own hand, constantly examine it as you work; use my illustrations as guidelines only. Also, my drawing is of my left hand; if you are drawing your right hand, the whole hand, including the fingers and thumb, will be in reverse. 1) Use an HB pencil and very lightly sketch a vertical rectangle to represent the overall shape of a hand (refer to Illustration 02-05). 2) Divide the rectangle in half to mark the point where the base of the fingers meets the main section of the hand. 3) Sketch the three largest fingers as in Illustration 02-06. ILLUSTRATION 02-05 ILLUSTRATION 02-06 I often use straight (rather than curved) lines to establish the proportions of hands. Pay attention to the lengths of the fingers and the position of each in relation to the others. If you are drawing from my sketch, use the sides of the upper rectangle, as well as positive and negative spaces to help you measure proportions. The thumb will be added later.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  20. 20. -5- Place a piece of clean paper under your hand as you draw (better the drawer than the drawee!). Each time you work on a new section, remember to move your paper so it’s always under your hand. This prevents you from smudging your drawing, and protects the paper from the oils in your skin. 4) Lightly sketch the little finger (refer to Illustration 02-07). 5) Outline the edge of the hand that is on the same side as the little finger. 6) Sketch two lines to represent the outside edges of the wrist as in Illustration 02-08. ILLUSTRATION 02-07 ILLUSTRATION 02-08Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  21. 21. -6- ILLUSTRATION 02-09 7) Sketch the outline of the thumb as in Illustration 02-09. Pay special attention to tiny line where the thumb is attached to the main section of the hand. Also, note the angle and the length of the line where the base of the thumb attaches to the wrist. ILLUSTRATION 02-10 8) Add circular shapes to represent the joints of the four fingers as in Illustration 02-10. Examine your own fingers and take note of the locations of each of the joints. 9) Outline the locations of the four knuckles with circular shapes.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  22. 22. -7- ILLUSTRATION 02-11 10) Sketch the outlines of the joints of the thumb and the partial segments of the bones of the wrist as in Illustration 02-11. Before you begin, take a moment and examine your own knuckles, thumb, and wrist. ILLUSTRATION 02-12 11) Use your kneaded eraser to pat all your sketch lines until they are so faint that you can barely see them (as in Illustration 02-12). OUTLINING THE FORMS OF A HAND In this section, you outline the hand with thin neat lines. Each of the circular shapes you sketched in the last section represents an independent form. As you draw, constantly refer to my drawings and your own hand to gain insights into why the lines need to curve around these forms. Keep your pencils sharpened so your lines stay neat and thin.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  23. 23. -8- ILLUSTRATION 02-13 12) Use a 2B pencil to neatly outline the fingers, thumb, and wrist with curved lines. In this section, you are challenged to heavily rely on your visual skills; hence, text instructions are kept to a bare minimum. Constantly examine your own hand and refer to the 7 step-by-step drawings (Illustrations 02-13 to 02-19). ILLUSTRATION 02-14 As an artist, you need to focus on improving your ability to identify the exterior three-dimensional forms of a hand, as defined by bones, fat, and muscles, which ultimately is more important than memorizing the anatomical names of the different parts of a hand.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  24. 24. -9- ILLUSTRATION 02-15 Try using a piece of fine sandpaper or a sandpaper block to keep your pencil points nice and sharp. Pencil sharpeners tend to wear down pencils very quickly. ILLUSTRATION 02-16 When drawing a hand from life, visually break down the overall shape into smaller shapes as defined by the individual forms of the main section of the hand and the fingers, thumb, and wrist. Take note of the areas where the various parts, such as the fingers and thumb, bend or are extended or outstretched.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  25. 25. - 10 - ILLUSTRATION 02-17 Draw slowly. Accuracy is more important than speed. Your speed will automatically improve the more you practice drawing hands. ILLUSTRATION 02-18 Confirm that the proportions are drawn correctly by examining the positive spaces inside the perimeter of each part of the hand. Also check out the shapes and sizes of the negative spaces behind the hand and in between each digit.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  26. 26. - 11 - ILLUSTRATION 02-19 When your drawing is finished, compare it to Illustration 02-19. If you’re not happy with a section, simply erase it and draw it again. Erase any fingerprints, smudges, and/or sketch lines that you don’t like with your kneaded eraser molded to a point (or a sharp edge of your vinyl eraser). Sign your name. Put today’s date on the back of your drawing, and then draw another 100 hands! Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  27. 27. - 12 - BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. These sites are respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  28. 28. Brenda Hoddinott H-04 BEGINNER: FOCUS ON PEOPLEEyelashes are fine hairs that grow from the outer edges of the upper and lower eyelids. Manyartists have difficulty drawing natural looking eyelashes. Even if every other aspect of yourdrawing of a face is perfect, incorrectly drawn eyelashes can ruin it.In this project, you are challenged by the adversary of portrait artists –natural looking eyelashes.This lesson offers an understanding into the qualities of correctly drawn eyelashes, and showsyou how to set up and draw the outline of an eye and add eyelashes. With lots of practice, youcan draw natural eyelashes that are thick and bold close to the base, and thin and light at the tip 6 PAGES - 8 ILLUSTRATIONS This lesson is recommended for artists of all ages with basic drawing skills, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada, Revised 2006
  29. 29. 2 DRAWING EYELASHES Eyelashes are fine hairs that grow from the outer edges of the upper and lower eyelids. The upper eyelid is the larger, movable fold of skin above the eyeball that opens and closes to protect the upper and center sections of the eye. The lower eyelid is a smaller, less movable, fold of skin protecting the lower eyeball. Many artists have difficulty drawing natural looking eyelashes. Even if every other aspect of your drawing of a face is perfect, incorrectly drawn eyelashes can ruin it. Eyelashes, though tiny, are the most challenging parts of human anatomy to draw realistically! In Illustration 04-01, you see unnatural looking individual eyelashes that are the same value and thickness from root to tip. Eyelashes drawn with this type of line can’t possibly look correct. Illustration 04-02 shows the correct way to draw individual eyelashes. Each eyelash is thick at the bottom, and gradually becomes lighter and thinner closer to the tip. ILLUSTRATION 04-01 ILLUSTRATION 04-02 In this illustration of three ILLUSTRATION 04-03 eyes, have a peek at some common mistakes made when drawing eyelashes, such as making them too thick, too straight or too long.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  30. 30. 3 Don’t expect to master drawing eyelashes right away. Take lots of time to practice before you try adding them to your drawings of people. With lots of practice, you can draw natural eyelashes that are thick and bold close to the base, and thin and light at the tip. Examine the eyelashes in the next two illustrations. ILLUSTRATION 04-04 ILLUSTRATION 04-05 The following criteria provide insights into various aspects of drawing realistic eyelashes. Refer to the previous two illustrations, and the next. Take note that correctly drawn eyelashes:Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  31. 31. 4 Grow in many different directions, mostly outward from the eyelids. Are rendered with thin lines of different lengths. Are curved and unevenly spaced. Appear thicker closer to the eyelids. Grow from the outer edges of the upper and lower eyelids and not the white of the eye. Are drawn in groups rather than single lines. Gradually become longer and thicker toward the outer corners of the eye. ILLUSTRATION 04-06 Correctly drawn eyelashes look natural and lifelike. A simple little drawing technique provides a realistic looking eyelash every time - in simple terms, never draw eyelashes from the tip down toward the eyelid. Always draw them in the direction in which they grow, from the eyelid (or root) outward. Grab some paper and a 2B pencil. Refer to the next close up drawing, and try your hand at drawing realistic looking individual lashes. 1. Begin at the base of the eyelash and press firmly with your pencil. Remember; always draw eyelashes in the direction they grow, from the eyelid outward. ILLUSTRATION 04-07 2. Slowly release the pressure you apply as your curved line extends toward the tip. Realistic eyelashes look like inverted commas – thick at the bottom and thin at the top. 3. Gently lift your pencil from the paper when the tip of the line is very thin and light in value.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  32. 32. 5 Warm up your drawing hand and draw an eyeful of eyelashes. ILLUSTRATION 04-08 1) Lightly sketch the almond shape of an eye, with a double line at the top and bottom, to represent the thickness of the flesh of the eyelids. 2) Use 2H and HB pencils, to draw an average quantity of eyelashes, on the outer edges of the upper and lower eyelids. ILLUSTRATION 04-09Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  33. 33. 6 Sign your name, add today’s date on the back of your drawing, and then pat yourself on the back! BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  34. 34. Brenda HoddinottH-05 BEGINNER: FOCUS ON PEOPLE The most common mistake that artists make when drawing faces, is to draw the eyes too high on the head.In this fun cartoon of a young girl, I show you how to render super simple facialproportions, and the shiny texture of dark straight hair.This project is divided into the following three sections: INTRODUCTION: I discuss the process of using hatching to create the form and texture of dark, straight, shiny hair. DRAWING KIM’S FACE AND FEATURES: You follow along with me to outline the lower section of Kim’s head, and her eyes, nose, mouth, and eyebrows. ADDING SHINY HAIR: You use curved hatching lines to draw Kim’s hair.Suggested drawing supplies include good quality drawing paper, HB and 4B graphite pencils,and a kneaded and vinyl eraser. Skills presented in this lesson include: drawing basic facialproportions; shading dark hair with hatching, and rendering the texture of straight hair. Recommended for artists from age 10 to adult, as well as fine art educators in home school, academic, and recreational environments. 5 PAGES – 10 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2003 (Revised 2006)
  35. 35. 2 INTRODUCTION In this fun cartoon of a young girl, I show you how to accurately render super simple facial proportions, and the shiny texture of dark straight hair. Proportion is the relationship in size of one component of a drawing to another or others. Texture is the surface detail of an object, as defined in a drawing with various shading techniques. The senses of touch and sight help identify the surface texture of an object. The texture of the hair is rendered with hatching. Hatching is a series of lines (called a set) drawn closely together to give the illusion of values. Values are the different shades of gray created by varying the density (whether the lines are close together or far apart) of the hatching lines. Straight hair looks much more realistic when you use curved lines instead of straight lines. Curved lines are created when a straight line curves (or bends), and can be drawn thick or thin. In the close-up drawing of a shiny section of hair (on the left), the hatching lines are slightly curved, and are several different lengths. Also, the lines are not abrupt stops, but rather feathered (or ragged) to give a more realistic appearance. The illusion of form on the upper section of Kim’s head (the drawing on the right) is created with: Curved hatching lines that follow the shape of her skull The contrast between the light and dark values. Contrast measures the degree of difference between the light and dark values within the shading of a drawing. Form is the illusion of the three-dimensional structure of a shape, such as a circle, square or triangle, created in a drawing with shading and/or perspective. Shape refers to the outward outline of a form. Basic shapes include circles, squares and triangles. DRAWING KIM’S FACE AND FEATURES Grab your drawing supplies and follow along with me to outline the lower section of Kim’s head and her eyes, nose, mouth, and eyebrows. ILLUSTRATION 5-01 1. Use your HB pencil to draw a U-shape to represent the lower half of the head. Make sure that you leave lots of room on your paper for the top half of her head. This whole U-shape (face) is in the lower half of your drawing space.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  36. 36. 3 ILLUSTRATION 5-02 2. Draw the ears. The tops of ears will approximately line up horizontally with the eyebrows. The bottoms of the ears will line up with the bottom of the nose. ILLUSTRATION 5-03 3. Draw Kim’s eyes and eyebrows. Her almond shaped eyes are slightly lower than the tops of the ears. Use your 4B pencil to shade in each eye, leaving a tiny white spot (the highlight) in each, to help make them look shiny. A highlight is a tiny bright spot where the light bounces off the shiny surface of the eye. A slightly curved short line above each eye represents the eyebrows. ILLUSTRATION 5-04 4. Add her nose and mouth. Draw an oval shape, below the eyes as her nose. Note that the bottom of the nose lines up horizontally with the bottom of the ears. Draw a curved line as the mouth. Add a tiny downward curve on each end of the mouth. ADDING SHINY HAIR In this section, you use curved hatching lines to draw Kim’s hair. ILLUSTRATION 5-05 5. Use your 4B pencil to draw the curved hatching lines that indicate the hair. The curved hatching lines are several different lengths and values. The hairline around the forehead and the edges of the center part in the hair are not solid lines; rather they are jagged edges.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  37. 37. 4 ILLUSTRATION 5-06 ILLUSTRATION 5-07 6. Draw the buns (or whatever you wish to call them) on either side of her head. First of all, outline two oval shapes on either side of her head with a HB pencil. Make sure you leave the ears in front of the buns. Then, use your 4B pencil to draw the hatching lines that indicate the shiny texture of the buns. Sign your name, put the date on the back of your drawing paper, pat yourself on the head, give yourself a big hug and choose another drawing project!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  38. 38. 5 BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. Drawing for Dummies is now available in Dutch, Bulgarian, Spanish, French, and German. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  39. 39. FROM ABrenda HoddinottH06 BEGINNER: FOCUS ON PEOPLEIn this heavily illustrated lesson, Ishow you how to sketch a humanfigure from a wooden manikin.Manikins are wonderful models; theydon’t move, require no bathroombreaks, and don’t talk your ears off!This lesson is divided into three parts: SKETCHING PROPORTIONS: You sketch the shapes of the manikin’s pose as proportionately correct as possible. ADDING SHAPES: You outline the locations of additional body parts, such as the shoulders, knees, elbows, and wrists. REFINING THE SKETCH: You enhance your visual skills as you sketch the proportions more accurately. FROM MANIKIN TO HUMAN: A manikin serves as a reference for establishing accurate proportions. The goal of this section is to sketch a figure that looks human, based on the proportions of the manikin.Suggested supplies include good quality white drawing paper, various grades ofgraphite pencils, kneaded and vinyl erasers, and a pencil sharpener. 9 PAGES – 32 ILLUSTRATIONS This article is recommended for beginners of all ages. The curriculum is easily implemented into instructional programs for home schooling, academic and recreational learning environments. Published by Hoddinott Publishing, Halifax, NS, Canada, 2008
  40. 40. 2 SKETCHING Sketch: (noun) is a simple drawing that PROPORTIONS captures the integral aspects of a subject quickly and efficiently; (verb) refers to the The first step is to sketch process of rendering a sketch. the shapes of the Shape: refers to the outward outline of a manikin’s pose as form. Basic shapes include circles, proportionately correct squares and triangles. as possible. Form: in a drawing, is the illusion of the 1) Very lightly sketch three-dimensional structure of a shape, the proportions of such as a circle becoming a sphere by adding shading. the manikin. Proportion: is the relationship in size of A photo of the one component of a drawing or an object manikin is on each to another or others. page to help guide you. Use a 2H or HB pencil, and follow along with Figures 601 to 609. Don’t press too hard with your pencil! In reality, the lines of my sketch are so faint that they are barely visible. I have darkened them in an imaging program so you can see them. I have added a border around each illustration to give you an idea of where to draw each part on your paper. Nothing is more frustrating than drawing the upper half of a body, and then realizing that you don’t have enough space below to add the legs! Figure 601 Figure 602 Figure 603Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  41. 41. 3 Figure 604 Figure 605 Figure 606 Figure 607 Figure 608 Figure 609 TIP! Before continuing, pat your drawing with a kneaded eraser to make the sketch lines lighter (as in Figure 609).Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  42. 42. 4 ADDING SHAPES Figure 610 Figure 611 In this section you add more details, such as the locations of the shoulders, knees, elbows, and wrists. 2) Sketch the shapes of the various parts of the manikin. Use an HB pencil and refer to Figures 610 to 617. TIP! Do not draw directly over your sketch lines. Rather, refer to the photo of the manikin and my sketches to look for ways to make your drawing more accurate. Figure 612 Figure 613 Figure 614Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  43. 43. 5 Take note Figure 615 Figure 616 Figure 617 that I’ve made the legs a little longer. REFINING THE SKETCH Figure 618 Figure 619 By refining the outlines of the various parts of the manikin you are enhancing your visual skills, and have a final chance to sketch the proportions more accurately. With lots of practice drawing from a manikin, you can combine the steps in this section with those in the first two sections of this lesson. 3) Use your kneaded eraser to lighten your sketch lines again. 4) Neatly outline the various shapes of the manikin, adjusting the outlines for increased accuracy as you go. Refer to figures 618 to 626. You may need to sharpen your pencil again if the tip begins to get dull.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  44. 44. 6 Figure 620 Figure 621 Figure 622 Figure 623 Figure 624 Figure 625Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  45. 45. 7 Before you continue, compare the drawing in Figure 626 Figure 626 to yours, and adjust anything you aren’t happy with. FROM MANIKIN TO HUMAN Manikins merely serve as references for establishing relatively accurate proportions. Unlike humans, manikins’ shoulders, elbows, wrists, hips, knees, and ankles are simple circular forms. If you have an illustrated book on human anatomy, you may find it very helpful. However, don’t get caught up in trying to add too much detail; the goal of this sketch is to simply draw a figure that looks human. 5) Take a kneaded eraser and lighten your sketch one last time. 6) Replace the manikin figure with the outline of a human male. Figure 627 Figure 628 As an aside, this manikin is male; female manikins are also available.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  46. 46. 8 Figure 629 Figure 630 Figure 631 Figure 632 With a few minor adjustments to the shapes of the manikin, a human figure emerges. CHALLENGE Sketch two more human figures from a manikin using the techniques and the processes discussed in this lesson. To keep the task challenging, use poses that are completely different. If you do not have a manikin, use the photo of two manikins in Figure 632.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  47. 47. 9 BRENDA HODDINOTT As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist (retired), and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including her favorites: graphite and paint. Brenda is the author of Drawing for Dummies (2003, Wiley Publishing, Inc., New York, NY) and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN). She is currently writing two books on classical drawing. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong drawing and painting skills through self-directed learning. During her twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, various criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. In 2003, Brenda retired from her careers as a forensic artist and teacher to work full time writing books and developing her website (Drawspace.com). This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  48. 48. WITH A LINE OF SYMMETRYBrenda HoddinottH-11 BEGINNER: FOCUS ON PEOPLEWith a focus on improving your observation skills, this project offers simple step-by-stepillustrated instructions, to guide aspiring artists through the process of drawing human lips with aline of symmetry. Shading is rendered with contour hatching graduations.To provide your right brain with a little workout, you also have the option of drawing the initialoutline upside down. You can stand on your head if you really want to; however, you’ll probablybe more comfortable simply turning your drawing paper upside-down.This lesson is divided into the following sections: SKETCH THE FIRST HALF: You outline a drawing space, and then draw simple shapes and lines on the left of a line of symmetry. For this part of the lesson, you need a ruler and pencils, as well as an eraser so you can fix any lines you aren’t happy with. ADD A MIRROR IMAGE: Your goal in this section is to draw a mirror image of the design on the left. You should read through all the instructions and examine each drawing in this section before you begin. DRAW CURVED HATCHING LINES TO CREATE FORM: You use various pencils from HB to 6B and contour hatching to add a full range of values to the mouth.Suggested supplies include 2H, HB, 2B, 4B and 6B pencils, a ruler, vinyl and kneaded erasers, apencil sharpener, a sandpaper block, and good quality drawing paper. 9 PAGES - 24 ILLUSTRATIONS This lesson is recommended for artists with basic drawing skills, including rendering graduations with contour hatching. The curriculum of this lesson can be easily implemented into instructional programs for home schooling, academic and recreational learning environments. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada - 2007

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