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Incepatori h focus pe oameni
Incepatori h focus pe oameni
Incepatori h focus pe oameni
Incepatori h focus pe oameni
Incepatori h focus pe oameni
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Incepatori h focus pe oameni

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  • 1. OF ADULTS Brenda Hoddinott H-01 BEGINNER - FOCUS ON PEOPLE: Before you attempt to draw adult faces, it helps to know how to plan a place for everything, sort of like a blueprint. Even though the heads and faces of adults come in many shapes and sizes, the same basic guidelines for proportions apply to almost everyone. In this lesson, you set up simple, easy to remember guidelines for drawing horizontal adult facial proportions, and then draw proportionally correct ears, eyes, and a nose and mouth within your outline.Suggested drawing supplies include white drawing paper, a ruler, graphite pencils, and erasers.You also need basic math skills (or a calculator) for measuring and dividing various distances.This project introduces you to very simple guidelines for remembering the facial proportions ofadults, and is divided into three parts: EXAMINING ADULT HEADS AND FACES: Beginners to drawing portraits tend to draw eyes too high on the head. In this section, you examine drawings that illustrate the shapes of skulls and faces, and the correct placements of various facial features, including eyes. DRAW THE OUTLINE OF THE HEAD: You draw a circular shape to represent an adult human head, with the top half wider than the bottom. ADD HORIZONTAL LINES TO THE OUTLINE: You divide the length of the head into two halves, and the lower half into three equal distances. DRAWING EARS AND FACIAL FEATURES: With the blueprint complete, you now add ears, eyes, and a nose and mouth to your head shape using the three distances in the lower half of your drawing. It’s not important that you draw the ears and features well. The goal is to simply draw everything in its proper place. 15 PAGES – 19 ILLUSTRATIONS Recommended for artists of any skill level, as well as home schooling, academic, and recreational fine art educators Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada, Revised 2005
  • 2. -2- EXAMINING ADULT HEADS AND FACES The most common mistake, made by beginners to drawing portraits, is to draw the eyes too high on the head. However, if you look closely at an adult head, in fact you can see two halves, with the eyes positioned on the halfway point where the two halves meet. Below are four simple variations of the top and bottom halves of a human head. Either skull shape can be matched with any one of the facial shapes, thereby providing many possibilities for the shapes of human heads. ILLUSTRATION 01-01 – SKULL SHAPES ILLUSTRATION 01-02 – FACIAL SHAPES ILLUSTRATION 01-03 ILLUSTRATION 01-04 The shapes of human heads, and the sizes and placements of people’s facial features are very different. Yet, the basic guidelines, for rendering accurate proportions, apply to almost everyone. Proportion is the relationship in size of one component of a drawing to another or others. Compare the shapes of these two adult heads to Illustrations 01-01 and 01-02. Which skull shape is closest to each of these two people? Which of the basic facial shapes is closest to each? I find the forth skull shape and the second (and first) facial shape to be close to the female head. For the male, I think the skull shape is close to the third, and the facial shape is similar to the forth. However, a couple of the other shapes are also close.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 3. -3- 1) Examine each face in Illustration 01-05, and find the locations of the horizontal halfway sections. The eyes are halfway between the top of the skull and the bottom edge of the chin. The half of the head above the eyes has the eyebrows, forehead and skull. Most of the face, including the nose, mouth and chin is below the eyes. 2) Re-examine Illustrations 01-01 and 01-02, and choose a skull shape and a facial shape. 3) Sketch them joined together to make an outline of a complete head. It’s perfectly okay to draw your skull shape (or facial shape) slightly different than in the illustrations, such as wider, narrower, shorter or even longer. However, don’t wander too far away from the basic shape, or your drawing may be too far outside the parameters of what is considered normal human anatomy. 4) Turn your outline of a head-shape into an original person, by adding some facial features and hair. ILLUSTRATION 01-05 Keep in mind that the basic fundamentals of facial proportions are the same for everyone, despite the diversity of human faces. Various factors determine the physical appearances of adult faces, such as the size, shape, and placement of features, physical development and age, differences in skeletal structures, diversity of ethnic origin, environmental factors, diet, gender, and lifestyle. When examined closely, even identical twins often have subtle differences in their faces. 5) Have fun creating different people by mixing and matching other skulls and faces, and then adding facial features. DRAW THE OUTLINE OF THE HEAD Take the phone off the hook, find your drawing paper, let the dog in, sharpen your pencil and find your ruler! Use good quality white drawing paper in case you need to erase. An HB pencil worked well for me, but you can use whatever pencil you prefer.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 4. -4- Remember; the suggestions for the proper placement of adult facial features in this lesson are not “rules”. Most human heads and the placements of features will follow these guidelines, but, always keep in mind that there may be exceptions. 6) Use a ruler to draw a rectangular drawing format on your drawing paper. Drawing format (sometimes called a drawing space) refers to the area of a drawing surface within a specific perimeter, outlined by a shape of any size, such as a square, rectangle or circle. Suggested sizes include 5 by 7 inches, 6 by 8 inches, or 7 by 9 inches. 7) Draw a very light line of symmetry down the center of the rectangle. Measure and mark a small dot at the halfway point of the top and bottom sides of your rectangle. Use a ruler to connect the two dots. This line helps keep your head shape symmetrical and is a guide for measuring the placement of facial features. Symmetry in drawing is a balanced arrangement of lines and shapes, on opposite sides of an often-imaginary centerline. In the scans of my drawing throughout this project, the line of symmetry is too light to see. ILLUSTRATION 01-06 8) Draw a circular shape to represent an adult human head, with the top half wider than the bottom. The basic outline of an adult head is similar in shape to an egg. The line of symmetry you drew down the center of your rectangle, is helpful for measuring distances on either side, to make sure the head in your drawing is symmetrical. To find out more about drawing with a line of symmetry, refer to B-03 Simple Symmetry in B-level Beginner: Learn to See.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 5. -5- ADD HORIZONTAL LINES TO THE OUTLINE In this section, you divide the length of the head into two halves. Then the lower half will be divided into three equal distances. ILLUSTRATION 01-07 In time you will be able to judge all proportions visually, but for now please use a ruler. 9) Draw a horizontal line that touches the edge of the very top of the head. This line is parallel to the top and bottom of the rectangular drawing surface (and vertical to its sides). 10) Mark this line IJ. 11) Draw a second horizontal line touching the lower edge of the chin. 12) Mark this line GH. ILLUSTRATION 01-08 13) Measure the total vertical distance along the center vertical line (too light to see in my drawing), from the top of the head to the bottom of the chin. 14) Divide this total measurement in half and mark it with a small dot. Feel free to use a calculator! 15) Draw a horizontal line (AB) through this dot, dividing the head into two halves (as in Illustration 01-08). Most people’s eyes and the top sections of their ears are somewhere along this line, halfway between the top of the skull (not the top of the hair) and the bottom edge of the chin.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 6. -6- ILLUSTRATION 01-09 16) Measure the vertical distance between lines AB and GH. 17) Divide this distance by three and lightly mark the two points with dots on the center vertical line (too light to see in my drawing). 18) Add a fourth horizontal line through the upper point (closer to AB). This line is parallel to each of the other three lines, IJ, AB, and GH. 19) Mark this line CD. The lower part of the nose and the lower sections of the ears touch this line. ILLUSTRATION 01-10 20) Add a fifth horizontal line through the lower point (closer to GH). This line is parallel to each of the other four lines. 21) Mark this line EF. The lower edge of the bottom lip will be close to or touch this line. Now the vertical distance between lines AB and GH is divided into three equal sections. Artists use several methods for establishing adult facial proportions. I have found this method to be accurate and very easy to remember.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 7. -7- Following is a review of the basic adult proportional guidelines. In the next section you add features to your facial outline. Refer to Illustration 01-11 to help you understand the following: Line AB divides the length of the head in half:  The top of the ears and the eyebrows are usually on or above AB.  The whites of the eyes and the irises are often touching AB.  The lower eyelids are generally below AB ILLUSTRATION 01-11 Line CD is one-third of the way from line AB toward the bottom of the chin.  The base of the cheekbone is often on or above line CD.  The bottom section of the nose is usually touching CD.  The lower edges of the ears are generally below CD. Line EF is halfway between lines CD and GH.  The mouth (usually the lower lip) touches EF.  The chin takes up most of the space between lines EF and GH. DRAWING EARS AND FACIAL FEATURES Your blueprint is complete and it’s time to add a face. In this section you draw ears, eyes, and a nose and mouth on your head shape using the three distances in the lower half of your drawing. It is not important that you draw the ears and features well. The goal is to simply place everything in its proper place. You may even choose to draw completely different features.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 8. -8- ILLUSTRATION 01-12 Remember, it’s more important to draw the ears and facial features in their correct places, rather than fuss about the intricate details. 22) Draw the outlines of the ears with the tops above AB and the bottoms below CD. ILLUSTRATION 01-13 23) Erase the vertical lines (indicating the outline of the head) between lines AB and CD (on both sides of your drawing). 24) Re-draw the outline on each side (between lines AB and CD) leaving an opening for the tops of the ears to extend inward. 25) Extend the outlines of the tops of the ears inward, toward the center of the face. 26) Draw short curved lines on the upper section of each ear (touching AB) to indicate the outer rims of the ears.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 9. -9- 27) Add more detailed lines to each ear to represent its various parts. Even though fine details are not important in this lesson, try your best and you may be pleasantly surprised! ILLUSTRATION 01-14 Each individual face is physically unique, due to inherent variations in the sizes and shapes of heads, faces, and features. You can complete the facial features on your drawing however you wish. The only important factor, to achieve a realistic human face, is to put everything in its correct place according to the facial guidelines.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 10. - 10 - 28) Draw the eyes along AB. To help you decide how wide to draw each eye, refer to Illustration 01-15 and observe the following:  The widest section of the head is “five-eyes wide”.  The width of an eye is equal to one of these distances.  The distance between the eyes is equal to the width of one eye. ILLUSTRATION 01-15Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 11. - 11 - 29) Draw some eyebrows above AB. You can draw eyebrows:  Light or dark  Thick or thin  Very curved, slightly curved, or fairly straight  Very close to the eyes or a little higher on the forehead. ILLUSTRATION 01-16Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 12. - 12 - 30) Draw the nose. The following guidelines apply to most adult faces:  The lower section of the nose touches the horizontal line CD.  The very bottom edges of the nostrils are often below CD.  The nose is approximately the width of the distance between the eyes.  The base of each cheekbone usually aligns with the bottom section of the nose.  The lower parts of the ears horizontally align with the bottom section of the nose. ILLUSTRATION 01-17Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 13. - 13 - 31) Draw the mouth. The following guidelines generally apply to adult faces:  The lower lip is usually touching or slightly above line EF.  The mouth is generally wider than the nose.  The lower lip is approximately halfway between the lower section of the nose and the bottom of the chin.  The outer corners of the mouth are usually directly under the irises of the eyes. ILLUSTRATION 01-18Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 14. - 14 - 32) Use your kneaded eraser to lighten the outline of the top of the head until it’s almost invisible, and then add some hair. 33) Sign your name, add today’s date on the back of your drawing, and then pat yourself on the back! ILLUSTRATION 01-19Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 15. - 15 - BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 16. PROPORTIONS OF A Brenda Hoddinott H-02 BEGINNER: FOCUS ON PEOPLE This project offers simple step-by-step illustrated instructions, to guide aspiring artists through the process of outlining a proportionately correct adult human hand. Human hands are without doubt very anatomically intricate, but not nearly as difficult to draw as many artists assume. The process of drawing a hand becomes less intimidating when you understand how to render the proportions properly, and can draw the fundamental shapes of the various parts in their correct places.Drawing supplies needed include good quality white paper, different grades of graphite pencils(such as HB and 2B), kneaded and vinyl erasers, a pencil sharpener and a sandpaper block.This lesson is comprised of the following three sections: INTRODUCTION: Hands come in various shapes and sizes depending on different factors, such as the persons’ size, age, and gender; yet the overall proportions are very similar. PUTTING PROPORTIONS ON PAPER: Setting up accurate proportions is the foundation of drawing hands. Fingers make up approximately half the total length of a hand. OUTLINING THE FORMS OF A HAND: In this section, you outline the hand with thin neat lines by constantly referring to the illustrations and your own hand. This project is recommended for artists from age 12 to adult, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. 12 PAGES – 19 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – Revised 2006
  • 17. -2- INTRODUCTION Human hands are without doubt very anatomically intricate, but not nearly as difficult to draw as many artists assume. The process of drawing a hand becomes less intimidating when you understand how to render the overall proportions properly, and can draw the basic shapes of the various parts in their correct places. Proportion is the relationship in size of one component of a drawing to another or others. Shape refers to the outward outline of a form. Basic shapes include circles, squares and triangles. The most common inaccuracy when drawing hands is making the main section of the hand too short in relation to the length of the fingers. Have a close look at one of your own hands. Measure the distance between the tip of the longest finger down to its base connects to the main section of the hand (Mine is 3.2 inches). Then, measure the hand from where the fingers attach to the hand to the section of the wrist where the base of the thumb ends (Mine is 3.4 inches). The two distances are very similar; hence, fingers make up approximately half the total length of a hand. Examine the three drawings of hands in the next illustration. Imagine each hand open to a point where you can compare the length of the fingers to the length of the main section of the hand. Again the distances are approximately the same. Therefore, when drawing a hand keep in mind that the length of the longest finger is similar to the length of the main section of the hand. ILLUSTRATION 02-01Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 18. -3- The illustrations and instructions in this lesson will be based on an average sized hand. However, hands come in various shapes and sizes depending on lots of different factors, including the person’s size, age, and gender; yet the overall proportions are very similar. In the next drawings examine three variations of hands and compare each to the rectangular sketch beside it. Which of the three hands in Illustrations 02-02 to 02-04 most closely resembles the overall shape of your hand? ILLUSTRATION 02-02 To draw a hand that is short, your sketch will be based on a rectangle divided into two squares of the same size (Illustration 02-02). ILLUSTRATION 02-03 A drawing of an average hand begins with a longer rectangle divided into two same sized short rectangles (Illustration 02-03). ILLUSTRATION 02-04 A slender hand with long fingers is based on a slightly longer rectangle divided into two equal rectangles (Illustration 02-04). Consider using your own hand as the model for this lesson. If you are left handed, it’s easier to draw your right hand, and if you are right handed try drawing your left.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 19. -4- PUTTING PROPORTIONS ON PAPER Setting up accurate proportions is the foundation of drawing hands. If the length of the longest finger when compared to the length of the hand is drastically different, your proportions may be incorrect; hence, no amount of beautiful shading can then save your drawing. If you are drawing your own hand, constantly examine it as you work; use my illustrations as guidelines only. Also, my drawing is of my left hand; if you are drawing your right hand, the whole hand, including the fingers and thumb, will be in reverse. 1) Use an HB pencil and very lightly sketch a vertical rectangle to represent the overall shape of a hand (refer to Illustration 02-05). 2) Divide the rectangle in half to mark the point where the base of the fingers meets the main section of the hand. 3) Sketch the three largest fingers as in Illustration 02-06. ILLUSTRATION 02-05 ILLUSTRATION 02-06 I often use straight (rather than curved) lines to establish the proportions of hands. Pay attention to the lengths of the fingers and the position of each in relation to the others. If you are drawing from my sketch, use the sides of the upper rectangle, as well as positive and negative spaces to help you measure proportions. The thumb will be added later.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 20. -5- Place a piece of clean paper under your hand as you draw (better the drawer than the drawee!). Each time you work on a new section, remember to move your paper so it’s always under your hand. This prevents you from smudging your drawing, and protects the paper from the oils in your skin. 4) Lightly sketch the little finger (refer to Illustration 02-07). 5) Outline the edge of the hand that is on the same side as the little finger. 6) Sketch two lines to represent the outside edges of the wrist as in Illustration 02-08. ILLUSTRATION 02-07 ILLUSTRATION 02-08Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 21. -6- ILLUSTRATION 02-09 7) Sketch the outline of the thumb as in Illustration 02-09. Pay special attention to tiny line where the thumb is attached to the main section of the hand. Also, note the angle and the length of the line where the base of the thumb attaches to the wrist. ILLUSTRATION 02-10 8) Add circular shapes to represent the joints of the four fingers as in Illustration 02-10. Examine your own fingers and take note of the locations of each of the joints. 9) Outline the locations of the four knuckles with circular shapes.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 22. -7- ILLUSTRATION 02-11 10) Sketch the outlines of the joints of the thumb and the partial segments of the bones of the wrist as in Illustration 02-11. Before you begin, take a moment and examine your own knuckles, thumb, and wrist. ILLUSTRATION 02-12 11) Use your kneaded eraser to pat all your sketch lines until they are so faint that you can barely see them (as in Illustration 02-12). OUTLINING THE FORMS OF A HAND In this section, you outline the hand with thin neat lines. Each of the circular shapes you sketched in the last section represents an independent form. As you draw, constantly refer to my drawings and your own hand to gain insights into why the lines need to curve around these forms. Keep your pencils sharpened so your lines stay neat and thin.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 23. -8- ILLUSTRATION 02-13 12) Use a 2B pencil to neatly outline the fingers, thumb, and wrist with curved lines. In this section, you are challenged to heavily rely on your visual skills; hence, text instructions are kept to a bare minimum. Constantly examine your own hand and refer to the 7 step-by-step drawings (Illustrations 02-13 to 02-19). ILLUSTRATION 02-14 As an artist, you need to focus on improving your ability to identify the exterior three-dimensional forms of a hand, as defined by bones, fat, and muscles, which ultimately is more important than memorizing the anatomical names of the different parts of a hand.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 24. -9- ILLUSTRATION 02-15 Try using a piece of fine sandpaper or a sandpaper block to keep your pencil points nice and sharp. Pencil sharpeners tend to wear down pencils very quickly. ILLUSTRATION 02-16 When drawing a hand from life, visually break down the overall shape into smaller shapes as defined by the individual forms of the main section of the hand and the fingers, thumb, and wrist. Take note of the areas where the various parts, such as the fingers and thumb, bend or are extended or outstretched.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 25. - 10 - ILLUSTRATION 02-17 Draw slowly. Accuracy is more important than speed. Your speed will automatically improve the more you practice drawing hands. ILLUSTRATION 02-18 Confirm that the proportions are drawn correctly by examining the positive spaces inside the perimeter of each part of the hand. Also check out the shapes and sizes of the negative spaces behind the hand and in between each digit.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 26. - 11 - ILLUSTRATION 02-19 When your drawing is finished, compare it to Illustration 02-19. If you’re not happy with a section, simply erase it and draw it again. Erase any fingerprints, smudges, and/or sketch lines that you don’t like with your kneaded eraser molded to a point (or a sharp edge of your vinyl eraser). Sign your name. Put today’s date on the back of your drawing, and then draw another 100 hands! Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 27. - 12 - BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. These sites are respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 28. Brenda Hoddinott H-04 BEGINNER: FOCUS ON PEOPLEEyelashes are fine hairs that grow from the outer edges of the upper and lower eyelids. Manyartists have difficulty drawing natural looking eyelashes. Even if every other aspect of yourdrawing of a face is perfect, incorrectly drawn eyelashes can ruin it.In this project, you are challenged by the adversary of portrait artists –natural looking eyelashes.This lesson offers an understanding into the qualities of correctly drawn eyelashes, and showsyou how to set up and draw the outline of an eye and add eyelashes. With lots of practice, youcan draw natural eyelashes that are thick and bold close to the base, and thin and light at the tip 6 PAGES - 8 ILLUSTRATIONS This lesson is recommended for artists of all ages with basic drawing skills, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada, Revised 2006
  • 29. 2 DRAWING EYELASHES Eyelashes are fine hairs that grow from the outer edges of the upper and lower eyelids. The upper eyelid is the larger, movable fold of skin above the eyeball that opens and closes to protect the upper and center sections of the eye. The lower eyelid is a smaller, less movable, fold of skin protecting the lower eyeball. Many artists have difficulty drawing natural looking eyelashes. Even if every other aspect of your drawing of a face is perfect, incorrectly drawn eyelashes can ruin it. Eyelashes, though tiny, are the most challenging parts of human anatomy to draw realistically! In Illustration 04-01, you see unnatural looking individual eyelashes that are the same value and thickness from root to tip. Eyelashes drawn with this type of line can’t possibly look correct. Illustration 04-02 shows the correct way to draw individual eyelashes. Each eyelash is thick at the bottom, and gradually becomes lighter and thinner closer to the tip. ILLUSTRATION 04-01 ILLUSTRATION 04-02 In this illustration of three ILLUSTRATION 04-03 eyes, have a peek at some common mistakes made when drawing eyelashes, such as making them too thick, too straight or too long.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 30. 3 Don’t expect to master drawing eyelashes right away. Take lots of time to practice before you try adding them to your drawings of people. With lots of practice, you can draw natural eyelashes that are thick and bold close to the base, and thin and light at the tip. Examine the eyelashes in the next two illustrations. ILLUSTRATION 04-04 ILLUSTRATION 04-05 The following criteria provide insights into various aspects of drawing realistic eyelashes. Refer to the previous two illustrations, and the next. Take note that correctly drawn eyelashes:Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 31. 4 Grow in many different directions, mostly outward from the eyelids. Are rendered with thin lines of different lengths. Are curved and unevenly spaced. Appear thicker closer to the eyelids. Grow from the outer edges of the upper and lower eyelids and not the white of the eye. Are drawn in groups rather than single lines. Gradually become longer and thicker toward the outer corners of the eye. ILLUSTRATION 04-06 Correctly drawn eyelashes look natural and lifelike. A simple little drawing technique provides a realistic looking eyelash every time - in simple terms, never draw eyelashes from the tip down toward the eyelid. Always draw them in the direction in which they grow, from the eyelid (or root) outward. Grab some paper and a 2B pencil. Refer to the next close up drawing, and try your hand at drawing realistic looking individual lashes. 1. Begin at the base of the eyelash and press firmly with your pencil. Remember; always draw eyelashes in the direction they grow, from the eyelid outward. ILLUSTRATION 04-07 2. Slowly release the pressure you apply as your curved line extends toward the tip. Realistic eyelashes look like inverted commas – thick at the bottom and thin at the top. 3. Gently lift your pencil from the paper when the tip of the line is very thin and light in value.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 32. 5 Warm up your drawing hand and draw an eyeful of eyelashes. ILLUSTRATION 04-08 1) Lightly sketch the almond shape of an eye, with a double line at the top and bottom, to represent the thickness of the flesh of the eyelids. 2) Use 2H and HB pencils, to draw an average quantity of eyelashes, on the outer edges of the upper and lower eyelids. ILLUSTRATION 04-09Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 33. 6 Sign your name, add today’s date on the back of your drawing, and then pat yourself on the back! BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 34. Brenda HoddinottH-05 BEGINNER: FOCUS ON PEOPLE The most common mistake that artists make when drawing faces, is to draw the eyes too high on the head.In this fun cartoon of a young girl, I show you how to render super simple facialproportions, and the shiny texture of dark straight hair.This project is divided into the following three sections: INTRODUCTION: I discuss the process of using hatching to create the form and texture of dark, straight, shiny hair. DRAWING KIM’S FACE AND FEATURES: You follow along with me to outline the lower section of Kim’s head, and her eyes, nose, mouth, and eyebrows. ADDING SHINY HAIR: You use curved hatching lines to draw Kim’s hair.Suggested drawing supplies include good quality drawing paper, HB and 4B graphite pencils,and a kneaded and vinyl eraser. Skills presented in this lesson include: drawing basic facialproportions; shading dark hair with hatching, and rendering the texture of straight hair. Recommended for artists from age 10 to adult, as well as fine art educators in home school, academic, and recreational environments. 5 PAGES – 10 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2003 (Revised 2006)
  • 35. 2 INTRODUCTION In this fun cartoon of a young girl, I show you how to accurately render super simple facial proportions, and the shiny texture of dark straight hair. Proportion is the relationship in size of one component of a drawing to another or others. Texture is the surface detail of an object, as defined in a drawing with various shading techniques. The senses of touch and sight help identify the surface texture of an object. The texture of the hair is rendered with hatching. Hatching is a series of lines (called a set) drawn closely together to give the illusion of values. Values are the different shades of gray created by varying the density (whether the lines are close together or far apart) of the hatching lines. Straight hair looks much more realistic when you use curved lines instead of straight lines. Curved lines are created when a straight line curves (or bends), and can be drawn thick or thin. In the close-up drawing of a shiny section of hair (on the left), the hatching lines are slightly curved, and are several different lengths. Also, the lines are not abrupt stops, but rather feathered (or ragged) to give a more realistic appearance. The illusion of form on the upper section of Kim’s head (the drawing on the right) is created with: Curved hatching lines that follow the shape of her skull The contrast between the light and dark values. Contrast measures the degree of difference between the light and dark values within the shading of a drawing. Form is the illusion of the three-dimensional structure of a shape, such as a circle, square or triangle, created in a drawing with shading and/or perspective. Shape refers to the outward outline of a form. Basic shapes include circles, squares and triangles. DRAWING KIM’S FACE AND FEATURES Grab your drawing supplies and follow along with me to outline the lower section of Kim’s head and her eyes, nose, mouth, and eyebrows. ILLUSTRATION 5-01 1. Use your HB pencil to draw a U-shape to represent the lower half of the head. Make sure that you leave lots of room on your paper for the top half of her head. This whole U-shape (face) is in the lower half of your drawing space.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 36. 3 ILLUSTRATION 5-02 2. Draw the ears. The tops of ears will approximately line up horizontally with the eyebrows. The bottoms of the ears will line up with the bottom of the nose. ILLUSTRATION 5-03 3. Draw Kim’s eyes and eyebrows. Her almond shaped eyes are slightly lower than the tops of the ears. Use your 4B pencil to shade in each eye, leaving a tiny white spot (the highlight) in each, to help make them look shiny. A highlight is a tiny bright spot where the light bounces off the shiny surface of the eye. A slightly curved short line above each eye represents the eyebrows. ILLUSTRATION 5-04 4. Add her nose and mouth. Draw an oval shape, below the eyes as her nose. Note that the bottom of the nose lines up horizontally with the bottom of the ears. Draw a curved line as the mouth. Add a tiny downward curve on each end of the mouth. ADDING SHINY HAIR In this section, you use curved hatching lines to draw Kim’s hair. ILLUSTRATION 5-05 5. Use your 4B pencil to draw the curved hatching lines that indicate the hair. The curved hatching lines are several different lengths and values. The hairline around the forehead and the edges of the center part in the hair are not solid lines; rather they are jagged edges.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 37. 4 ILLUSTRATION 5-06 ILLUSTRATION 5-07 6. Draw the buns (or whatever you wish to call them) on either side of her head. First of all, outline two oval shapes on either side of her head with a HB pencil. Make sure you leave the ears in front of the buns. Then, use your 4B pencil to draw the hatching lines that indicate the shiny texture of the buns. Sign your name, put the date on the back of your drawing paper, pat yourself on the head, give yourself a big hug and choose another drawing project!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 38. 5 BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. Drawing for Dummies is now available in Dutch, Bulgarian, Spanish, French, and German. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 39. FROM ABrenda HoddinottH06 BEGINNER: FOCUS ON PEOPLEIn this heavily illustrated lesson, Ishow you how to sketch a humanfigure from a wooden manikin.Manikins are wonderful models; theydon’t move, require no bathroombreaks, and don’t talk your ears off!This lesson is divided into three parts: SKETCHING PROPORTIONS: You sketch the shapes of the manikin’s pose as proportionately correct as possible. ADDING SHAPES: You outline the locations of additional body parts, such as the shoulders, knees, elbows, and wrists. REFINING THE SKETCH: You enhance your visual skills as you sketch the proportions more accurately. FROM MANIKIN TO HUMAN: A manikin serves as a reference for establishing accurate proportions. The goal of this section is to sketch a figure that looks human, based on the proportions of the manikin.Suggested supplies include good quality white drawing paper, various grades ofgraphite pencils, kneaded and vinyl erasers, and a pencil sharpener. 9 PAGES – 32 ILLUSTRATIONS This article is recommended for beginners of all ages. The curriculum is easily implemented into instructional programs for home schooling, academic and recreational learning environments. Published by Hoddinott Publishing, Halifax, NS, Canada, 2008
  • 40. 2 SKETCHING Sketch: (noun) is a simple drawing that PROPORTIONS captures the integral aspects of a subject quickly and efficiently; (verb) refers to the The first step is to sketch process of rendering a sketch. the shapes of the Shape: refers to the outward outline of a manikin’s pose as form. Basic shapes include circles, proportionately correct squares and triangles. as possible. Form: in a drawing, is the illusion of the 1) Very lightly sketch three-dimensional structure of a shape, the proportions of such as a circle becoming a sphere by adding shading. the manikin. Proportion: is the relationship in size of A photo of the one component of a drawing or an object manikin is on each to another or others. page to help guide you. Use a 2H or HB pencil, and follow along with Figures 601 to 609. Don’t press too hard with your pencil! In reality, the lines of my sketch are so faint that they are barely visible. I have darkened them in an imaging program so you can see them. I have added a border around each illustration to give you an idea of where to draw each part on your paper. Nothing is more frustrating than drawing the upper half of a body, and then realizing that you don’t have enough space below to add the legs! Figure 601 Figure 602 Figure 603Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 41. 3 Figure 604 Figure 605 Figure 606 Figure 607 Figure 608 Figure 609 TIP! Before continuing, pat your drawing with a kneaded eraser to make the sketch lines lighter (as in Figure 609).Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 42. 4 ADDING SHAPES Figure 610 Figure 611 In this section you add more details, such as the locations of the shoulders, knees, elbows, and wrists. 2) Sketch the shapes of the various parts of the manikin. Use an HB pencil and refer to Figures 610 to 617. TIP! Do not draw directly over your sketch lines. Rather, refer to the photo of the manikin and my sketches to look for ways to make your drawing more accurate. Figure 612 Figure 613 Figure 614Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 43. 5 Take note Figure 615 Figure 616 Figure 617 that I’ve made the legs a little longer. REFINING THE SKETCH Figure 618 Figure 619 By refining the outlines of the various parts of the manikin you are enhancing your visual skills, and have a final chance to sketch the proportions more accurately. With lots of practice drawing from a manikin, you can combine the steps in this section with those in the first two sections of this lesson. 3) Use your kneaded eraser to lighten your sketch lines again. 4) Neatly outline the various shapes of the manikin, adjusting the outlines for increased accuracy as you go. Refer to figures 618 to 626. You may need to sharpen your pencil again if the tip begins to get dull.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 44. 6 Figure 620 Figure 621 Figure 622 Figure 623 Figure 624 Figure 625Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 45. 7 Before you continue, compare the drawing in Figure 626 Figure 626 to yours, and adjust anything you aren’t happy with. FROM MANIKIN TO HUMAN Manikins merely serve as references for establishing relatively accurate proportions. Unlike humans, manikins’ shoulders, elbows, wrists, hips, knees, and ankles are simple circular forms. If you have an illustrated book on human anatomy, you may find it very helpful. However, don’t get caught up in trying to add too much detail; the goal of this sketch is to simply draw a figure that looks human. 5) Take a kneaded eraser and lighten your sketch one last time. 6) Replace the manikin figure with the outline of a human male. Figure 627 Figure 628 As an aside, this manikin is male; female manikins are also available.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 46. 8 Figure 629 Figure 630 Figure 631 Figure 632 With a few minor adjustments to the shapes of the manikin, a human figure emerges. CHALLENGE Sketch two more human figures from a manikin using the techniques and the processes discussed in this lesson. To keep the task challenging, use poses that are completely different. If you do not have a manikin, use the photo of two manikins in Figure 632.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 47. 9 BRENDA HODDINOTT As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist (retired), and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including her favorites: graphite and paint. Brenda is the author of Drawing for Dummies (2003, Wiley Publishing, Inc., New York, NY) and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN). She is currently writing two books on classical drawing. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong drawing and painting skills through self-directed learning. During her twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, various criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. In 2003, Brenda retired from her careers as a forensic artist and teacher to work full time writing books and developing her website (Drawspace.com). This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 48. WITH A LINE OF SYMMETRYBrenda HoddinottH-11 BEGINNER: FOCUS ON PEOPLEWith a focus on improving your observation skills, this project offers simple step-by-stepillustrated instructions, to guide aspiring artists through the process of drawing human lips with aline of symmetry. Shading is rendered with contour hatching graduations.To provide your right brain with a little workout, you also have the option of drawing the initialoutline upside down. You can stand on your head if you really want to; however, you’ll probablybe more comfortable simply turning your drawing paper upside-down.This lesson is divided into the following sections: SKETCH THE FIRST HALF: You outline a drawing space, and then draw simple shapes and lines on the left of a line of symmetry. For this part of the lesson, you need a ruler and pencils, as well as an eraser so you can fix any lines you aren’t happy with. ADD A MIRROR IMAGE: Your goal in this section is to draw a mirror image of the design on the left. You should read through all the instructions and examine each drawing in this section before you begin. DRAW CURVED HATCHING LINES TO CREATE FORM: You use various pencils from HB to 6B and contour hatching to add a full range of values to the mouth.Suggested supplies include 2H, HB, 2B, 4B and 6B pencils, a ruler, vinyl and kneaded erasers, apencil sharpener, a sandpaper block, and good quality drawing paper. 9 PAGES - 24 ILLUSTRATIONS This lesson is recommended for artists with basic drawing skills, including rendering graduations with contour hatching. The curriculum of this lesson can be easily implemented into instructional programs for home schooling, academic and recreational learning environments. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada - 2007
  • 49. 2SKETCH THE FIRST HALFIn this section, you outline a drawing space, and then draw simple shapes and lines on the left ofa line of symmetry. You need a ruler and pencils, as well as an eraser so you can fix any linesyou aren’t happy with.Drawing space (also called a drawing surface or a drawing format) is the area in which yourender a drawing within a specific perimeter. It can be the shape of the paper or outlined by anyshape you draw, such as a square, rectangle, or circle. Shape refers to the outward outline of aform. Basic shapes include circles, squares and triangles. Lines are basically comprised of threefamilies, straight, angle, and curved, which can be combined to make line drawings. Symmetry indrawing is a balanced arrangement of lines and shapes, on opposite sides of an often-imaginarycenterline.1. Draw a rectangular drawing space that is approximately twice as wide as it is high. FIGURE 11-01 For example, you can draw a rectangle 2 by 4 inches or 3 by 6 inches (mine is 1.8 by 4 inches). This particular subject comes in numerous shapes and sizes; hence, your drawing does not need to be exactly the same as mine.2. Draw a line of symmetry down the center of the rectangle. This line of symmetry serves as a reference to help keep both sides of your drawing symmetrical. Draw the line lightly because you need to erase it later. FIGURE 11-02 Use your ruler to locate the horizontal midpoint of the rectangle on the upper and lower sides. Mark each with a tiny dot. Connect the dots with a very faint line that divides the rectangle into two equal sections. >TIP< Always place a piece of clean paper under your hand as you draw. Each time you work on a new section, remember to move your paper so it’s always under your hand. This prevents you from smudging your drawing, and protects the paper from the oils in your skin.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 50. 3 FIGURE 11-033. Sketch the following lines and shapes on the left of the line of symmetry. Refer to Figures 11-03 to 11-06. FIGURE 11-04 Closely observe the directions in which the lines curve. FIGURE 11-05Also examine the sizes and shapes of thespaces in between the various lines. FIGURE 11-06 Next, you draw a mirror image of your drawing, in the rectangle on the right.ADD A MIRROR IMAGEIn this section, your goal is to draw a mirror image of the lines inside the left rectangle, in therectangle on the right.Rendering lines and shading becomes easier when you use your natural hand movements. Todiscover which are ideal for you, simply draw several sets of slightly curved lines on a piece ofscrap paper. As you draw, take note of how you make these lines, how smooth the lines look, andhow comfortable you feel while drawing them. Try many different ways of moving your pencil,rotating your paper, or changing the directions of your lines, until you find the motions that arethe most natural for you.Figure 11-07 shows four different views of the drawing thus far. Rotate your paper until you findthe one(s) that best utilizes your natural hand movements. You may even want to rotate thedrawing in a different direction for each line.Refer to your drawing only – not mine. However, you should read through this section andexamine each drawing (Figures 11-08 to 11-12) before you begin. Then, put this lesson away asyou draw, so you aren’t tempted to refer to my drawing instead of yours.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 51. 4 FIGURE 11-07 4. Draw a mirror image of your drawing in the second rectangle. Constantly refer to your first drawing on the opposite side of your paper. Imagine that you are drawing its reflection in a mirror. Begin the upper line of the mirror image, by placing your pencil on the line of symmetry, where the existing line ends. FIGURE 11-08 FIGURE 11-09 FIGURE 11-10 FIGURE 11-11 FIGURE 11-125. Carefully erase the line of symmetry, and redraw any sections that were inadvertently erased. Turn your drawing around until it looks like Figure 11-12.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 52. 5DRAW CURVED HATCHING LINES TO CREATE FORMIn this section, you use various pencils and contour hatching graduations to add a full range ofvalues to the mouth. Hatching is a series of lines drawn closely together to give the illusion ofvalues. Contour hatching is a shading technique in which curved hatching lines follow theoutlines, contours, and/or forms of the drawing subject, so as to accentuate the illusion of three-dimensional reality.In reality, lips do not have dark lines around them. Hence, mouths don’t look very realistic whenrendered with dark outlines. This being said, my drawing bends that rule slightly; I have outlinedthe lips with faint lines to provide you with boundaries for the hatching lines. If your outlineslook too dark, lighten the lines with your kneaded eraser, before add shading.The following five strategies may prove very helpful for improving your contour hatching: USE DIFFERENT PENCILS TO DO SOME OF THE WORK: Your pencils play a major role in the smooth progression of your graduations. Graduated shading is a continuous progression of graduated values from dark to light or from light to dark. Beginners can generally make do nicely with only three or four different graphite pencils. The pencils I use most frequently are a 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B. The 2H is the lightest (hardest) and the 6B is the darkest (softest). 2H works well for light values, HB and 2B are great for middle values, and 4B and 6B are very good for darker values. VARY THE DENSITY OF THE HATCHING LINES: Draw the curved hatching lines far apart and few in number for light values. For darker values, you draw more lines closer together; subsequently less of the white paper is still showing between the lines. DRAW THE INDIVIDUAL HATCHING LINES DIFFERENT LENGTHS: The transition from one value to the next is barely noticeable when the lines vary in length. Try adding a few more short hatching lines in between others if the transition between your values isn’t as smooth as you like. VARY THE PRESSURE USED IN HOLDING YOUR PENCILS: Press lightly for the really light values and a little harder for darker values. USE YOUR NATURAL HAND MOVEMENT: A critical aspect of achieving smooth graduations with contour hatching is utilizing your natural hand movements.6. Add curved hatching lines FIGURE 11-13 to the upper and lower lips. Use an HB pencil and press gently. Refer to Figures 11-13 and 11-14. These lines curve in various directions to enhance the forms of lips, and serve as guidelines for shading.I have chosen a light source from the upper left. Hence, the shading on the left will be slightlylighter than the right. Light source is the direction from which a dominant light originates.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 53. 6 FIGURE 11-14 >TIP< To gain a better understanding of the process of contour hatching, refer to lessons F08 Basic Contour Hatching and F09 Graduations with Contour Hatching. You can find both in F-Level Beginner: Hatching. FIGURE 11-15 7. Add a full range of values to the lips with contour hatching graduations. Refer to Figures 11-15 to 11- 22, as well as the five strategies for successful contour hatching graduations on the previous page. Graduations are the primary FIGURE 11-16 ingredient in realistic shading. Keep the transitions between the different values flowing into one another as smoothly as possible. Remember to leave the highlight sections (mostly on the left sides of the lips) the white of the paper. Highlight refers to the brightest area of a form FIGURE 11-17 where light bounces off its surface and is usually the section closest to the light source (from the upper left in this drawing). The shading begins very light around the edges of the highlights and becomes gradually darker farther away from the light.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 54. 7Continue adding shading that becomes FIGURE 11-18progressively darker farther away fromthe light. These values need to be darkbecause very little light reaches theshadow areas on a form. FIGURE 11-19 The darkest shading of all is on the left, close to the opening of the mouth, which is mostly in shadow. A strong contrast in values enhances the forms of the lips. Contrast is the comparison of different values when put beside one another, and is an invaluable tool for heightening the effects of form and composition. FIGURE 11-20 >TIP< You can easily touch up sections you aren’t happy with. To make lines lighter, pat them with a kneaded eraser molded to a wedge. You can make sections darker by adding more curved FIGURE 11-21 hatching lines in between others. The curved hatching lines in the darkest shadow sections are barely noticeable because they are really close together with hardly any of the white paper showing through.Figure 11- 22 (on the next page) has been enlarged to twice the size of my original drawing, soyou can more clearly see the hatching lines.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 55. 8Give yourself a big FIGURE 11-22hug, sign yourname, and writetoday’s date on theback of yourdrawing!CHALLENGEDraw another mouth using the shading skills presented in this lesson, but without adding outlinesaround the lips. You can draw your own lips by looking in a mirror, or you can dig out a photo ofa friend or family member in which the lips are in sharp focus.Figure 11-23 is a tiny illustration of the mouth in this lesson with FIGURE 11-23outlines around the lips. Figure 11-24 demonstrates drawings of adiverse selection of human mouths without outlines. FIGURE 11-24Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 56. 9Brenda HoddinottAs a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda utilizesdiverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, contécrayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducingthe technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. Brenda HoddinottBiographyBorn in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. Shedeveloped strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning,and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as aself-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments haveemployed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal policedepartments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal CanadianMounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “ForensicArtists International”.Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing andpainting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired andtrained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brendachose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing,drawing, painting, and developing her websites.Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach tocurriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes forstudents of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels andabilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as aresource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughoutthe world.Learn-to-draw booksDrawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is availableon various websites and in major bookstores internationally.The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of theYear Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page bookis available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 57. Brenda HoddinottH-12 BEGINNER: FOCUS ON PEOPLEYou use slightly curved hatching lines of various lengths andvalues to draw realistic long straight hair. Skills include:identifying different approaches to drawing hair, drawing thecontours of straight hair with curved hatching lines, andtransforming a circle into a sphere.This lesson is divided into the following four parts: COMPARING HAIRY DRAWINGS: You observe a couple of basic approaches to drawing hair and examine various drawings in which the hair is drawn realistically. Drawing realistic hair involves creating the illusions of form and depth. SETTING UP TO DRAW HAIR: You outline the contours of hair as they assume the shape of a head. HATCHING LONG HAIR: You use curved hatching lines and various pencils to shade the texture and three-dimensional forms of realistic long straight hair. Curved hatching lines are perfect for creating the texture of both hair and long fur. ADDING A SIMPLE FACE: You shade in a face and transform a circular shape into a spherical nose. This face will be EASY to draw! The eyes are hidden under the hair and the mouth is a tiny oval.Suggested drawing supplies include good quality white drawing paper, kneaded and vinylerasers, and various graphite pencils such as 2H, 2B, HB, 4B, and 6B. 13 PAGES – 22 ILLUSTRATIONS This project is recommended for artists, aged ten to ninety-nine, who have basic drawing skills, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada, Revised 2006
  • 58. -2- COMPARING HAIRY DRAWINGS Many beginners try to draw realistic hair with long continuous lines and very little contrast. Subsequently, the hair looks flat, rather than three-dimensional. Drawing realistic hair involves creating the illusions of form and depth. Contrast measures the degree of difference between the light and dark values within shading, and helps create the illusion of three-dimensional reality. Shading refers to the various shades of gray (values) in a drawing that make the drawing subjects look three-dimensional. Values are the different shades of gray created when you draw by varying both the density of the shading lines, and the pressure used in holding various pencils. Form, as applied to drawing, is the illusion of the three-dimensional structure of a shape. ILLUSTRATION 12-01 ILLUSTRATION 12-02 These two illustrations demonstrate a couple of different methods for drawing long straight hair. Examine each to discover their differences. Hair drawn with straight lines and little contrast looks flat. Flat hair is rendered with long continuous straight lines and a very limited range of values. Realistic hair is rendered with curved lines of various lengths, and a full range of hatching values from very light to almost black. Some cartoon artists use straight lines to illustrate hair. This works perfectly when flat two-dimensional hair is the goal. Check out the first cartoon drawing below. ILLUSTRATION 12-03 ILLUSTRATION 12-04 Drawing with only straight lines doesn’t work well for drawing realistic hair. Realistic hair is drawn with curved lines of various lengths, which follow the contours of the forms of the hair and/or skull (as shown in the second cartoon).Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 59. -3- ILLUSTRATION 12-05 Take note of the point on the top of this little girl’s head, from which all her hair seems to grow. The hatching lines follow the contours of her skull, creating the perceived reality of her head being three-dimensional. Hatching is a series of lines (called a set) drawn closely together to give the illusion of values. ILLUSTRATION 12-06 Tiny individual lines can be sketched around the top and sides of realistic hair to create a soft wispy illusion. Hair of all colors (including black, brown, blond, red, and purple), should be drawn with a broad range of values, from light to dark. Keep in mind that all colors of hair tend to look darker further away from the dominant light source, and even more so in the darkest shadow areas. Light source refers to the direction from which a dominant light originates. The placement of this light source affects every aspect of a drawing. More dark values than light, are used to create the illusion that the hair is dark (such as black or dark brown), rather than light. Conversely, light hair (such as gray or blond) is shaded with fewer dark values.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 60. -4- ILLUSTRATION 12-07 Long hair often curves in many directions, creating wavy rather than completely straight hair. Illustrations 12-06, 12-07, and 12-08, demonstrate how light and dark sections of hair are each rendered with a full range of values. ILLUSTRATION 12-08 As you can no doubt tell, long wavy hair generally takes much longer to draw than straight hair. Examine these drawings closely, and take note of the following:  The dominant light source is from the right.  Strands of hair are much lighter closer to the light source.  The hair is darker in the shadowed areas further from the light source.  The hatching lines are of various lengths, rather than long continuous lines.  Almost all of the hatching lines are curved rather than straight.  The values range from almost white in the shiny areas to very dark, such as close to her neck.  Some sections of hair overlap others, helping enhance the illusion of depth and three-dimensional reality.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 61. -5- SETTING UP TO DRAW HAIR Put the cat out, let the dog in, and plan on having some productive fun learning how to draw realistic long hair. Speaking of dogs and cats, these techniques also work well for drawing long fur on animals! Find your drawing supplies, and draw along with me as I take you step-by-step through this project. ILLUSTRATION 12-09 1. Use an HB pencil to draw an egg-shape in the upper section of your drawing paper. ILLUSTRATION 12-10 This egg-shape is similar to the shape of a human head, and will be the foundation on which the hair “grows”. The goal is to draw the hair in such a way, as to make the head look three- dimensional. 2. Lightly sketch the outline of the outer shape of the hair. Visually choose a point in the center of (and slightly above) your egg shape, and place a small dot here. This is the point from which the hair will originate. Draw two long curved lines from this point (outside the egg-shape) downward toward the bottom of your drawing space. The lines begin by curving upward from the point, then out, and finally downward. They follow the contour of the head as they continue downward. Continue drawing the long curved lines downward, to about three-quarters of the distance from the top of your drawing space. Close to the bottom of the drawing space, both lines curve slightly inward, and then curve outward again.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 62. -6- 3. With an HB pencil, lightly sketch several short (mostly curved) lines from the center point at the top of the head downward. The goal is to establish a blueprint or “guidelines” for drawing the hair. Take note that the line in the center is almost straight. Each line you draw closer to the outside edge of the hair is progressively more curved. 4. Draw a circle as the nose. Take note that the nose is located on the lower half of the egg-shape. 5. Lighten the outline of the head with a kneaded eraser, until it becomes very faint. ILLUSTRATION 12-11 ILLUSTRATION 12-12 To help you draw a circle, rotate your paper and look at your drawing from different perspectives. This little trick often allows you insight into any problem areas. Looking at the reflection of your circle in a mirror will also help you to see areas in need of fixing.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 63. -7- 6. Add (or extend) two more slightly curved lines that extend downward from the point, to the inside edges of the nose, and then begin again lower on the nose, until they almost meet at a point below the nose. These lines do not touch the very outside edge of the nose. The goal here is to create the illusion that small sections of the hair are behind the nose on each side. 7. Re-draw a tiny section of the chin (the lower section of the egg-shape) inside the triangular section formed by the two lines below the nose. 8. Add (or extend) two more lines to the outside of the previous two. These lines also begin at the point on the top of the head, and extend downward. 9. Erase the original drawing of the egg-shape (except for the chin). ILLUSTRATION 12-13 ILLUSTRATION 12-14 10. Extend the curved lines from the upper section of the head, almost all the way down to the bottom of your drawing space. Observe, how the lines that are closer to the outer edges of the hair, curve in the same directions as your first outline of the hair. The closer the lines are to the center, the less they curve. The line in the very center is almost completely straight, except for a tiny curve at the bottom.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 64. -8- ILLUSTRATION 12-15 HATCHING LONG HAIR Curved hatching lines are perfect for creating the texture of hair (and fur). This very simple method of shading can produce a complete range of different values. The light source in this drawing is coming from the left. Light affects the placement and value of every section of shading. Hence, the values need to be slightly darker on the right. Different values are created by: • Varying the density of the lines you draw. Density refers to whether the individual hatching lines are close together or far apart. • Varying the pressure used in holding your pencils. For light lines you press very lightly with your pencil. Press harder with your pencil to make darker lines. • Using various pencils. A 2H pencil gives you lighter lines than 2B or 4B. 11. Use your 2H and HB pencils to draw the light values. All the lines are slightly curved. Remember, straight hair often follows the form of a person’s head and looks more realistic when you use curved lines instead of straight. The hatching lines are several different lengths and values. The edges are not abrupt stops, but rather feathered (or ragged) to give a more realistic appearance. The graduated shading lines vary from very light to medium values. Graduated shading is a continuous progression of graduated values from dark to light or from light to dark.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 65. -9- 12. Use your 2B pencil to draw the hatching lines for the darker sections of hair at the top (Illustration 12-16) and middle (Illustration 12-17) of your drawing. ILLUSTRATION 12-16 ILLUSTRATION 12-17 The darker values in the hair are also of various lengths and values with raggedy endings.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 66. - 10 - 13. Continue using your 2B pencil for the lower sections of hair close to the bottom. 14. Use your 4B pencil to add a few darker hatching lines at the very top and in a small section of the center sections. ILLUSTRATION 12-18 ILLUSTRATION 12-19Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 67. - 11 - ILLUSTRATION 12-20 ADDING A SIMPLE FACE This face will be EASY to draw! The eyes are hidden under the hair and the mouth is a tiny oval. 15. Use a 4B pencil to shade in the tiny triangular shape under the chin. 16. Add shading to the small areas of the face that are showing. Use a 4B pencil for the darker section above the nose. The shading is dark below the nose, but gets lighter closer to the chin. Use your 4B for the dark area and your HB for the lighter section. ILLUSTRATION 12-21 17. Use a 4B for the mouth. 18. Add a full range of values to the nose to transform a circle into a three- dimensional sphere. Leave a small circular section white. This is a highlight. The lighter values (created with an HB pencil), closer to the highlight are close to the top and left of the nose. The tiny glow on the lower right edge of the circle is the reflected light. Leave this section lighter than the shadow section. Use your 4B pencil to add the darker shading. The shading in the shadowed area of the nose looks like a backwards “C”.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 68. - 12 - ILLUSTRATION 12-22 19. Step back from your drawing and have a look at the overall values. 20. Add final touches to the shading on the hair, face and nose, if needed. You can make some areas of the face and nose lighter by patting with your kneaded eraser and others darker by adding more shading. You make sections of the hair darker by simply drawing more hatching lines where you need them. You just drew a three dimensional hairy form on a two dimensional surface! If you enjoyed using this technique to draw hair, you may wish to choose other subjects and do more drawings. Sign your name, write today’s date on the back of your drawing, and put a smile on your face!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 69. - 13 - BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 70. With lines Brenda Hoddinott H-03 BEGINNER: FOCUS ON PEOPLERough, gesture, or action sketches are usually rendered very quickly, sometimes in lessthan a minute. The benefits of making rough sketches are in the process, rather than thecreation of a magnificent work of art. Hence, you only goal is to capture a mood,expression or gesture on your drawing paper.This lesson provides basic information and helpful hints for rendering rough, gesture, oraction sketches with simple lines and is divided into the following sections: EXAMINING SKETCHES: A few simple sketches demonstrate how lines can quickly and efficiently illustrate the important shapes and forms of a human body. CHOOSING MODELS: Models for sketching are easy to find when you know where to look. Consider sketching friends, family, yourself or non-living models, such as photos or sketches of people or manikins. THE BASIC SKETCHING PROCESS: In five simple steps, I take you through the process of sketching from life (or a good quality photo). I suggest sketching supplies beyond the basics, and share some techniques and helpful hints.Suggested supplies include 2H, HB, 2B, 4B and 6B pencils, vinyl and kneaded erasers,a pencil sharpener, a sandpaper block, and good quality drawing paper. 9 PAGES - 11 ILLUSTRATIONS This lesson is recommended for all artists. The curriculum is easily implemented into instructional programs for home schooling, academic and recreational learning environments.Both nude and clothed figures are illustrated; hence, the curriculum is recommended for mature artists. Artists under the age of 18 need permission from an adult before viewing. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada - 2007
  • 71. 2 Figure 13-01 EXAMINING SKETCHES A few simple lines can quickly and efficiently illustrate the important shapes and forms of a human body. Sketching refers to the method used for creating a quick, rough representation or outline of a planned drawing subject. In some cases, a sketch is considered a completed work of art. A contour sketch is comprised of several quickly rendered contour lines that define the edges of the shapes of the various components of a drawing subject. Shape refers to the outward outline of a form. Contour lines are created when the shared edges of spaces and/or objects meet. Contour lines can define complete objects or small sections or details within drawing subjects. Contour sketches fall into one of the following categories: Rough sketch: is quickly rendered to capture a basic pose. Gesture sketch: captures the past, present, or potential movements of living beings. Action sketch: is rapidly rendered to define actions or movements. Needless to say, seeing is every bit as important Figure 13-02 as sketching. At least half of my total sketching time was used for examining the various contours of the models’ bodies.Each of the sketches inFigures 13-01, 13-02and 13-03 was renderedin less than 5 minutes.They have no intricatedetails, such as a face,fingers, or toes.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 72. 3A fast sketch does not need fine details, accurate proportions, or anatomically correctforms. Proportion is the relationship in size of one component of a drawing to anotheror others. Forms are created in drawings by adding shading to transform a shape intothree-dimensional structures, such as a circle becoming a sphere. A contour sketch cansuggest form by outlining the shapes of the various anatomical structures.Closely examine the faint lines and shapes underneath the darker ones in my sketches.These lines and shapes were used to establish proportions before making the boldercontour lines. The final sketch lines are not drawn directly over the initial sketch lines.Rather, by constantly examining the model as Iworked, I continuously made adjustments. Sketching is an action word, and you can only learn this skill by sketching. Frequently sketching people will improve your overall drawing skills and allow you to become more familiar with the shapes, contours, and forms of a human figure. To give you a feel for the sketching process, I strongly encourage you to copy each of the sketches in this section. It’s much easier to learn how to sketch from another sketch, than from a photo or live model. As you sketch the various parts of the body, your goal is Figure 13-03 to simply capture enough details to be able to identify the subject as human, not to draw a highly realistic figure.CHOOSING MODELSConsider sketching non-living models, such as photos or sketches of people, ormanikins, until your skills become strong and your speed increases. Then, you can feelrelaxed and enjoy the benefits of both speed and accuracy when you draw from life.When you sketch relaxed persons you tend to feel more calm and comfortable in yoursketching approaches. Family and friends tend to be quite honored when you ask todraw them. Sketches can make powerful visual memories. Consider sketching people asthey watch TV, peacefully sit in front of the fireplace, or go about their daily routines.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 73. 4 Sometimes, you may want to spend an extra few minutes adding details to a sketch. The sketch of the young man seated in a meditative pose (Figure 13-04) shows a little more detail than the sketches in the previous section. While the hands are not rendered in detail, I found the facial expression especially compelling. This sketch took approximately 15 minutes. Examine the various contour sketches of my grandson Brandon in Figures 13-05 to 13-11. Each took somewhere between 15 to 30 minutes; I included basic facial Figure 13-04 features, fingers, toes, and the simple details of his clothing.Sketching children is a lot of fun. Theirposes and gestures are very natural andtheir bodies are surprisingly flexible. Somebody parts easily bend in variousdirections, and others can bend, rotate,and/or curve. You may have a young childin your family or can borrow one from afriend to model for some sketches.Most children don’t like to stay still forvery long, have a rather short attentionspan, and tend to be easily distracted;hence, they are challenging to sketch fromlife. Try following a young child aroundwith a camera for a few minutes andyou’ll have enough reference photos fortons of wonderful sketches. Be patient,and be prepared to click that camerabutton often and quickly!Also, try taking photos of any potentialadult models you find appealing. Adults Figure 13-05tend to become comfortable in front of acamera when they are focusing on posingrather than the fact that someone isfollowing them with a camera.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 74. 5 Most people are left-brain dominant and not used to working under the control of their creative right brains. The process of sketching quickly isn’t conducive to allowing your analytical left brain to kick in and begin analyzing what you are doing. Your imaginative right brain likes to exercise its creative Figure 13-06 license and exaggerate certain areas of your subject. Hence, don’t expect to like all your sketches. Thankfully, the more you practice - the faster your skills improve!Do sketches of lots of different people. When you have nomodels, sketch yourself in a mirror. If you run out of peopleto draw, try sketching objects around you such as dolls,stuffed toys, birds, squirrels, and even the family pet! Witheach sketch you do, your drawing skills improve!THE BASIC SKETCHING PROCESSThroughout the following five steps, I take you through Figure 13-07the process of sketching from life (or a good qualityphoto). I suggest sketching supplies beyond the basics,and share some techniques and helpful hints.1. Have your favorite Sketching Supplies handyWhile the essential needs of sketching are drawing paperand pencils, you have many other options. A hardcoversketchbook is an ideal surface for figure drawing.Sketchbooks come in many sizes, colors and types. If youwork from a model, you may want to try using a size atleast 16 by 20 inches. A sketchbook can be set up on aneasel, but you have to make sure it stays securely in place,so the easel doesn’t tip over and dump your sketch on thefloor.If you prefer to use sheets of paper rather than asketchbook, a drawing board is a great alternative. You canbuy one in an art supply store or if you (or someone youknow) are handy with tools, you can make your own. Justcut a piece of thin plywood any size you prefer and sand ituntil its smooth.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 75. 6Most art supply stores carryspecial tapes, or clips specificallydesigned for securing the paper toyour drawing board. I prefer clipsbecause tape can damage thepaper.Sketching on large sheets of paperenhances your sketching skills byallowing you the freedom of drawingfrom your shoulder rather than your wrist.Soft pencils or sticks work best forfigure sketching. Consider any B pencilsfrom 2B to 8B.2. Set up your drawingsupplies and getcomfortableYou need lots of paper, severalfreshly sharpened pencils, andany non-living object, or living Figure 13-08being to serve as a model!Practice rough sketches while using a timer to increases your speed, improve thefluidity of your lines, and strengthen your observation skills. Start with several one-minute (or less) sketches, and slowly work your way up to five minutes. Find a quiet place with minimal distractions. Arrange your drawing supplies so you can easily reach them. Put your sketching subject in front of you and get comfortable.3. Examine the proportions of your subjectWith lots of practice and patience, sketches become quick and easy. Seeing your subjectwell is integral to sketching. Set your timer. Close your eyes, relax, and take a deep breath for a few seconds before you start. Look closely at your model and observe the basic pose and the overall proportions. Identify specific shapes and visually measure the proportions. Take note of the areas where parts of the body bend, twist, or are extended or outstretched. Observe parts of the body that are at an angle, such as when one shoulder is higher than the other.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 76. 7 4. Use simple lines to outline the shapes you see. Begin your sketch with very light lines to simply establish the Figure 13-09 figure on the drawing paper. Make your final lines a little darker so they stand out more. Don’t erase the initial sketch lines. They give character to the sketch. Practice sketching with a pen so you won’t be tempted to erase any lines. Remember to look at your model often. Spend more time looking at the model than your paper. Try to capture the overall pose as quickly as possible without fussing about drawing fine details. Press lightly with your pencil at first, until you feel that the proportions are reasonably accurate. By drawing even the slightest bend in the spine, you’ll end up with a more expressive sketch. Keep your lines as loose as possible by sketching from your arm or shoulder, rather than just your hand and wrist. Sketch long flowing marks in one continuous movement rather than teasing the lines with a series of short broken lines. Keep in mind that almost all lines used to draw a human figure, such as the curve of a back, need to be rendered with curved lines. You can sketch several loose lines for sections that are moving, or show potential movement, to give life to gestures and actions.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 77. 8 Pay attention to proportions, but don’t fuss about getting everything perfect. Continuously adjust your lines by drawing darker lines over Figure 13-10 the lighter ones. Resist the urge to erase. Simply draw corrected lines right over or beside the initial sketch lines. 5. Re-examine your subject and make final adjustments The darkest lines indicate where I made corrections to my initial sketch. Check your proportions and adjust your drawing until the timer goes off. Grab another sheet of paper (or turn to a new page in your sketchbook) and do another sketch of your model at a different angle.CHALLENGEDraw each of the seven sketchesof Brandon in your sketchbook oron large sheets of paper.Sketch 5 sketches a day for a Figure 13-11month. If you run out of models,find some photos of figures in action, such as dancers or athletes. However, try tosketch from life for at least half of the sketches. You may even enjoy sitting in a publicplace, such as a park, and sketching a few of the people around you.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 78. 9Brenda HoddinottAs a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator,Brenda utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil,chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. Brenda HoddinottBiographyBorn in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook.She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to selfdirected learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’stwenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminalinvestigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal CanadianMounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with acommendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awardeda Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”.Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawingand painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department,Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s artprograms. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator inorder to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites.Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovativeapproach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printabledrawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Studentsof all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructionalapproach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schoolingprograms, and educational facilities throughout the world.Learn-to-draw booksDrawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book isavailable on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Bookof the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 79. Brenda HoddinottH-14 BEGINNER: FOCUS ON PEOPLEWith a focus on improving your observation skills bydrawing upside-down, this project guides you throughthe process of combining lines with simple shading todraw a realistically proportioned face of a young child.Skills presented include• Sketching upside-down to render accurate proportions• Combining lines to make shapes• Shading basic values of the face and features with hatching• Shading the texture of straight hair with feathered, curved hatching linesThe following four sections guide you step-by-step through this project: SKETCHING PROPORTIONS UPSIDE-DOWN: You sketch the outline of Jamie’s head, and mark the placement of his facial features proportionately correct – while drawing upside- down! ADDING MORE DETAILS TO THE FACIAL FEATURES: A few simple lines and shapes enhance Jamie’s facial features in preparation for shading. USING CURVED HATCHING LINES TO DRAW HAIR: Curved hatching lines make the hair look three-dimensional. ADDING SHADING TO THE EYES AND FACE: Three different pencils, and simple hatching lines, give depth and form to the various parts of Jamie’s face.Suggested supplies include white paper, HB, 2B, and 4B graphite pencils, kneaded and vinylerasers, and a pencil sharpener. This project is recommended for artists from age 12 to adult, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. 19 PAGES – 31 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – Revised 2006
  • 80. -2- SKETCHING PROPORTIONS UPSIDE-DOWN In this section, your goal is to sketch the outline of Jamie’s head, and then mark the placement of his facial features proportionately correct – while drawing upside-down! No, you don’t have to stand on your head! The sketch is upside-down - not you!  Sketching refers to the method used for creating a quick, rough representation or outline of a planned drawing subject. Proportion is the relationship in size of one component of a drawing to another or others. ILLUSTRATION 14-01 1. Use an HB pencil to sketch an egg-shape with the wider section at the bottom. To help you draw a more symmetrical egg-shape, rotate your paper and look at the shape from different perspectives as you draw. Symmetry is a balanced arrangement of lines and shapes on opposite sides of an often-imaginary centerline. Another option, to help guide you through the process of making both sides symmetrical is to lightly draw a line of symmetry down the center of your page ILLUSTRATION 14-02 2. Lightly sketch a gently curved line dividing the egg-shape into two sections. Curved lines are created when a straight line curves (or bends). Imagine a dot in the center of this curved horizontal line! If you drew vertical lines from this dot to the top and bottom of the egg, both distances should be approximately the same. As for the symmetry, examine the reflection of your drawing in a mirror to help locate problem areas. Remember to keep your lines very light!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 81. -3- ILLUSTRATION 14-03 3. Sketch two vertical lines inside each side of the upper section of the egg-shape. Take note of the small triangular shapes created on either side. Try and make these shapes the same size. Don’t think of what the lines represent! Just focus on the lines themselves! ILLUSTRATION 14-04 4. Add two curved lines above the line that divides the egg-shape into two sections. Resist the temptation to turn your paper around and sneak a peek! No cheating now! Familiar objects often look very unfamiliar when viewed upside down. Visual information that is automatically verbally labeled by your left-brain is no longer available. When your left-brain cannot name and identify the various parts of your drawing subject, it eventually gives up trying. This is where the right brain jumps in and takes over.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 82. -4- ILLUSTRATION 14-05 5. Sketch two upside-down U-shapes (semicircles) above the two curved lines. Even though you are no doubt fully aware of what you are drawing, try to send your left brain on a short vacation. Rather than naming the parts of this drawing, allow your right brain to see only the lines and shapes. Focus on the lengths of the lines, and the way they curve to create various shapes and spaces. ILLUSTRATION 14-06 6. Add a three part curved line close to the top of the egg-shape and a slightly curved line below it. Refer to the close up in Illustration 14-07 to see these lines more clearly. ILLUSTRATION 14-07Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 83. -5- ADDING MORE DETAILS TO THE FACIAL FEATURES In this section, a few strategically placed lines and shapes, enhance Jamie’s facial features in preparation for shading. Before you draw Jamie’s eyes, refresh your memory on the names of the parts of an eye. ILLUSTRATION 14-08 1. Eyebrows: a cluster of hairs above the eye 2. Upper Eyelid Crease: a fold in the skin above the upper eyelid 3. Upper Eyelid: the larger movable fold of skin above the eyeball that opens and closes 4. Inside Corner: the small section of the eye in the inner corner 5. White of the Eye: the visible section of the eyeball, that is light in value, but not white. 6. Lower Eyelid: the smaller movable fold of skin below the eyeball 7. Eyelashes: fine hairs that grow on the edges of the upper and lower eyelids 8. Irises: the big circular shape of the eye that varies in value from very light to very dark 9. Highlights: a tiny bright spot where the light bounces off the shiny surface of the eye 10. Pupils: the dark circle inside the iris 7. Turn your drawing right side up. 8. Sketch another curved line above each eye as the upper eyelid creases. In the interest of simplicity, this sketch of Jamie’s eye will include only the most important parts of the eyes, and the eyebrows will be partially hidden under his hair. ILLUSTRATION 14-09Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 84. -6- 9. Add a shorter curved line below each eye as the edge of the lower eyelid. ILLUSTRATION 14-10 ILLUSTRATION 14-11 10. Sketch a round shape (the ball of the nose) above the curved line that indicates the location of the nose (as in illustration 14-11). 11. Add a smaller round shape on each side of the ball of the nose (as in illustration 14-12). ILLUSTRATION 14-12 12. Add the outline of the upper lip with a curved line in the center and an angular line on either side (as in illustration 14-13). ILLUSTRATION 14-13 13. Sketch the lower lip with a horizontal line in the middle and a line on each side that angles outward and upward toward the corners of the mouth.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 85. -7- 14. Check over your sketch carefully and change anything you’re not happy with. Look at the reflection of your sketch in a mirror to find any problem sections. If your lines are drawn lightly, making changes is a piece of cake! ILLUSTRATION 14-14Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 86. -8- USING CURVED HATCHING LINES TO DRAW HAIR Many beginners try to draw realistic straight hair with long continuous straight lines and very little contrast. Subsequently, the hair looks flat rather than three-dimensional. Contrast refers to the comparison of different values when put beside one another, and an invaluable tool for heightening the effects of composition. ILLUSTRATION 14-15 ILLUSTRATION 14-16 Cartoon artists often use straight lines to illustrate straight hair. This works well when flat, two- dimensional hair is the goal. However, if the goal is to draw lifelike straight hair, using straight lines makes your drawing look flat and unrealistic, and simply doesn’t work. Drawing realistic straight hair involves creating the illusion of form. ILLUSTRATION 14-17 ILLUSTRATION 14-18 Form, as applied to drawing, is the illusion of the three-dimensional structure of a shape, such as a circle, square or triangle, created in a drawing with shading and/or perspective. Compare Illustrations 14- 17 and 14-18 to the above two drawings. This realistic straight hair is rendered with curved lines of various lengths and a full range of hatching values. The hatching lines curve around the perceived forms of the skull.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 87. -9- Hatching is a series of lines (called a set) drawn closely together to give the illusion of values. Depending on the shading effects you want, you can make the individual lines in hatching sets far apart or close together. Shading refers to the various shades of gray (values) in a drawing that make drawings look three-dimensional. Shading is also the process of adding values to a drawing so as to create the illusion of form and/or three-dimensional space. Values are the different shades of gray created when you draw by varying both the density of the shading lines, and the pressure used in holding various pencils. 15. Visually choose a point on the top of the skull, close to the middle, and place a small dot here. This is the point from which the hair will seem to originate. Identifying this point makes drawing Jamie’s hair easier and helps create the illusion of three-dimensional form. 16. With an HB pencil, lightly sketch several short (mostly curved) lines from the center point at the top of the head downward, to serve as guidelines for adding shading. ILLUSTRATION 14-19 The goal is to draw the hair in such a way as to make the head appear three-dimensional. Take note that the line in the center is almost straight. Each line you draw closer to the outside edge of the hair is more and more curved. These lines follow the contour of the perceived shape of the head. Check out Lesson H-12: Long Straight Hair for a fun project on drawing straight hair with curved lines.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 88. - 10 - 17. Erase the horizontal curved line that served to identify the lower edge of the bangs of Jamie’s hair. 18. Erase the upper sections of the lines that mark the sides of the face. 19. Outline the lower edges of Jamie’s ears. ILLUSTRATION 14-20Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 89. - 11 - 20. Gently pat the sketch lines on the face and the lower section of the hair with a kneaded eraser until they are very faint. 21. Use an HB pencil to add hatching lines that are light in value, to the lower section of Jamie’s hair, to indicate the texture. ILLUSTRATION 14-21 Observe how the hatching lines are several different lengths and most are slightly curved. The edges are not abrupt stops, but rather feathered (or ragged) to give a more realistic appearance. Remember, straight hair often follows the form of a person’s head and looks more realistic when you use curved lines instead of straight.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 90. - 12 - 22. Use your kneaded eraser to lighten the sketch lines on the upper section of hair and add shading with hatching lines. Keep your hatching lines various lengths, rather than long and continuous. 23. Make the shading of the hair slightly darker in value on the right. The dominant light source is from the left in this drawing. This means that the hair and face is lighter closer to the light source, and darker in the shadowed areas further away. ILLUSTRATION 14-22 Different values are created by: Varying the density of the lines. Density refers to whether the individual hatching lines are close together or far apart. Varying the pressure used in holding your pencils. For light lines you press very gently with your pencil. Press harder with your pencil to make darker lines.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 91. - 13 - 24. With a 4B pencil, add a few darker sections of hair. Fine tune your observation skills as you examine the drawing below. Take note of the dark values in various sections, such as on the top of the head and on the right. The overall values range from white in the shiny areas to almost black in the dark shadow sections. ILLUSTRATION 14-14Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 92. - 14 - ADDING SHADING TO THE EYES AND FACE In this section, you use three different pencils and simple hatching lines, to add more details to Jamie’s face so as to create the illusion of depth and form. ILLUSTRATION 14-24 25. Lightly sketch the pupils and highlights of the eyes with an HB pencil. ILLUSTRATION 14-25 Throughout this section the written directions are kept at a minimum so as to challenge you to rely more on your visual skills. Various pencils, including HB, 2B, and 4B help you create different values. For example, an HB makes lighter lines than 2B or 4B. You will discover several illustrations, including numerous close-ups, throughout the following pages. 26. Use your HB pencil to add light shading. Don’t apply very much pressure to your pencil at this stage – just the weight of the pencil itself will provide very light hatching lines. Refer to illustrations 14-25 and 14-26 (on the next page). Trust your observation skills as you examine each stage of the shading process.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 93. - 15 - If you tend to be a little “heavy-handed” with your pencil, you may want to use a 2H for the light shading instead of an HB. ILLUSTRATION 14-26 27. Use a 2B to add middle values to the darker sections of the eyes and facial features. Refer to illustrations 14-27, 14-28, and 14-29. ILLUSTRATION 14-27Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 94. - 16 - ILLUSTRATION 14-28 Always place a piece of clean paper under your hand as you draw. Each time you work on a new section, remember to move your paper so it’s always under your hand. This prevents you from smudging your drawing, and protects the paper from the oils in your skin. ILLUSTRATION 14-29 Don’t press too hard with your pencils. Not only do these areas become impossible to touch up, but they also leave dents in your paper.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 95. - 17 - 28. With a 2B pencil to add a few darker sections of shading. Refer to illustrations 14-30 and 14-31. 29. Use your 4B pencil to shade the pupil of the eye. ILLUSTRATION 14-30 30. Press a little harder with your HB pencil to add middle values to the facial features. Refer to illustrations 14-27, 14-28, and 14-29. ILLUSTRATION 14-27 31. Complete your drawing by fixing any sections you are not happy with. Turn your drawing upside-down to look for sections that may be problematic. Take note of how individual lines around the top and sides of his head create the illusion of soft wispy hair that looks very realistic. To make a section of shading darker, simply add more hatching lines in between others. Use your kneaded eraser molded to a wedge to lighten areas that are too dark.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 96. - 18 - 32. Erase any fingerprints, or smudges with your kneaded or vinyl eraser, sign your name, put today’s date on the back of your drawing, and put a big smile on your face! ILLUSTRATION 14-31Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 97. - 19 - BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 98. Brenda HoddinottH-15 BEGINNER: FOCUS ON PEOPLEA profile of an infant’s tiny face, shaded withhatching lines, provides insights into his or her facialproportions in relation to the head size.Skills presented include: understanding the ratio of facial mass to cranial mass of a baby;drawing the facial profile of a baby’s head and face proportionately correct; and using hatchinglines for shading the textures and forms of an infant’s facial profile.This lesson is divided into three parts: UNDERSTANDING INFANTS’ FACIAL PROPORTIONS: The facial proportions of babies follow different guidelines than adults. By using the correct guidelines, portraits of babies look like babies, rather than mini adults. The most common mistake of beginners, when attempting to draw a baby’s portrait, is to make the face too big in proportion to the size of the skull. PLANNING AND SKETCHING: Take the phone off the hook, find your drawing paper, let the dog in, sharpen your pencil and find your ruler! The goal is to draw the profile of a baby’s face in proper proportion to the size of his or her head. SHADING THE FACE AND HAIR: The face and features are shaded with hatching and the soft texture of the hair is rendered with short curved hatching lines. In portraits of babies, you need to keep the overall shading soft and without too much contrast, so as to retain the gentle appearance of the face.Suggested drawing supplies include good quality white drawing paper, various grades ofgraphite pencils, kneaded and vinyl erasers, and a ruler. Recommended for artists from age 12 to adult with basic drawing skills, as well as fine art educators in home school, academic and recreational environments. 13 PAGES – 17 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2003 (Revised 2006)
  • 99. 2 UNDERSTANDING INFANTS’ FACIAL PROPORTIONS The facial proportions of babies follow different guidelines than adults. Proportion is the relationship in size of one component of a drawing to another or others. By using the correct guidelines, portraits of babies look like babies, rather than mini adults. For this discussion, you need to be familiar with two terms. The facial mass refers to the lower section of a human head, also called the face or facial area. The cranial mass is the upper section of the head, often referred to as the cranium or skull. In the first drawing below, you can clearly see how tiny a baby’s facial mass is in proportion to the cranial mass. Note the lines that visually separate the head into sections (like pieces of a pie). Excluding the neck, the head is divided into four and a half segments. The itty bitty face takes up only one section and the cranial mass takes up all the rest of the shape (Shape refers to the outward outline of a form). Hence, a baby’s head is more than three times bigger than the face. The most common mistake of beginners, attempting to draw a baby’s portrait, is to make the face too big, in proportion to the size of the skull. To further emphasize how proportionately tiny a baby’s face is, compare the ratio of cranial mass to facial mass in an adult head. The adult head is divided into three pieces (excluding the neck). The face is one piece, and the cranial mass is two pieces. The adult’s cranial mass is twice the size of his facial mass. ILLUSTRATION 15-01 ILLUSTRATION 15-02 Babies’ faces come in various shapes and sizes, but most follow the same basic guidelines. The first step, towards understanding how to draw portraits of babies, is to get a realistic sense of how tiny their faces actually are. Drawing the size of the face, proportionate to the mass of the head, is the key to correctly rendering portraits of babies. In the first drawing in Illustration 15-03, the entire baby’s head, including his ears, fits inside the circle. The shape of the head is similar to that of an egg, but considerably shorter. Observe that the tiny face fits into the small space below the horizontal half of the total shape. In the profile (the side view), only the chin and a tiny section of the upper lip are outside the circle.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 100. 3 ILLUSTRATION 15-03 The next time you see a baby, take time to closely examine the head and the proportions of the features. First of all, take note of how tiny his or her facial mass is compared to the size of the cranial mass. Check out the locations of the eyes, nose, mouth and ears. Also note how tiny an infant’s neck is compared to the size of the head. No need to wonder why young infants can’t hold their heads up by themselves! With a realistic sense of how tiny babies’ faces actually are, you are well on your way toward drawing their portraits. Look closely at the profile drawing of a baby in Illustration 15-04. Note the five horizontal lines:  AB is halfway between the top of the head and the bottom of the chin  CD is halfway between AB and EF  EF is halfway between AB and IJ  GH is halfway between EF and IJ  IJ identifies the bottom of the bone in the chin (lower jaw), not the bottom of the soft tissue under the chin. Infants often have what is commonly called a “double chin”. ILLUSTRATION 15-04 Note the location of the baby’s features in relation to the five lines:  Eyebrows: are on line AB.  Eyes: are in between lines AB and CD.  Nose: is in between lines CD and EF.  Mouth: is in between lines EF and GH.  Chin: touches line IJ.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 101. 4 PLANNING AND SKETCHING Draw along with me in a fun exercise where you draw an infant’s face proportionate to the size of the head. Take the phone off the hook, find your drawing paper, let the dog in, sharpen your pencil and find your ruler! ILLUSTRATION 15-05 1) Draw a square and divide it into four equal smaller squares. The size of your square determines the size of the infant’s head. Mine is very tiny, 5 by 5 inches, but feel free to make your square larger. The four smaller squares will help you set up accurate proportions for drawing the baby’s facial profile and head. 2) Lightly sketch a small circle in the lower left square to represent the size of a baby’s face. Sketching refers to a quick, rough representation or outline of a planned drawing subject. ILLUSTRATION 15-06 The bad news is that no lesson can teach how you to draw a circle. The good news is that practice is a great teacher. In other words, you teach yourself. Drawing a circle freehand becomes simple with lots of practice. A couple of helpful hints include:  Rotate your paper and look at your drawing from different perspectives. This little trick often allows you see the problem areas.  Look at the reflection of your circle in a mirror to help you to see areas in need of fixing.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 102. 5 ILLUSTRATION 15-07 3) Lightly sketch a big circle in the big square to represent the size of a baby’s head. The goal is to draw the profile of a baby’s face in proper proportion to the size of his or her head. When you see the size of the face represented as a small circle, and the head as the large circle, you may be quite surprised by how tiny an infant’s face actually is! ILLUSTRATION 15-08 4) Sketch the shapes of the face within the small circle. The tiny facial profile fits entirely into the small circle. 5) Add a curved line to represent the back of the neck. Curved lines are created when a straight line curves (or bends). Curved lines can be drawn thick or thin. 6) Sketch the outline of the ear in the lower right square.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 103. 6 ILLUSTRATION 15-09 7) Sketch the eyes, nose, and mouth, and add details to the ear. 8) Pat your entire drawing with your kneaded eraser until the sketch lines are barely visible. 9) Erase the outlines of the squares and circles. ILLUSTRATION 15-10 10) Lightly sketch the hair and refine the outline of the face and neck. Be patient! Tackle only one small section at a time so you don’t become overwhelmed! Also refer to the drawing on the next page, to see how I further refined the features. As I work, I tend to constantly go back over my drawing and touch up little details and adjust the proportions.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 104. 7 SHADING THE FACE AND HAIR In portraits of babies you need to keep the overall shading soft and without too much contrast. This helps the face retain its gentle appearance. Shading refers to the various shades of gray (values) in a drawing that make drawings look three-dimensional. Contrast measures the degree of difference between the light and dark values within shading, and creates the illusion of three- dimensions in a drawing. Values are the different shades of gray created when you draw by varying both the density of the shading lines, and the pressure used in holding various pencils. 11) Use a HB pencil to add light hatching graduations to accentuate the three dimensional forms of the head and face. ILLUSTRATION 15-11 Hatching is a series of lines (called a set) drawn closely together to give the illusion of values. Graduated shading (also called graduations) is a continuous progression of graduated values from dark to light or from light to dark. Form is the illusion of the three- dimensional structure of a shape, such as a circle, square or triangle, created in a drawing with shading and/or perspective.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 105. 8 ILLUSTRATION 15-12 12) Add the shading for the eyes, nose and mouth. The darkest value is in the pupil of the eye. The pupil of an eye is the dark circle inside the iris. The iris is the big circular shape of the eye that varies in value from very light to very dark. Don’t forget to leave a white spot (the highlight) in the eye to help make it look shiny. A highlight is a tiny bright spot where the light bounces off the shiny surface of the eyeCopyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 106. 9 13) Darken the shadow areas of the face and neck with a 2B pencil. Keep your pencil point nice and sharp so the hatching doesn’t become overly messy- looking. The forms of the baby’s face are tiny compared to the size of the head. Shadows are the areas on an object that receive little or no light. ILLUSTRATION 15-13Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 107. 10 ILLUSTRATION 15-14 14) Use hatching and HB and 2B pencils to add shading to the ear. 15) Add shading to the hair with HB and 2B pencils. Refer to Illustrations 15-15 and 14-16. The soft texture of the hair is rendered with short curved hatching lines. Texture is the surface detail of an object, as defined in a drawing with various shading techniques. The senses of touch and sight help identify the surface texture of a drawing subject. ILLUSTRATION 15-15Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 108. 11 ILLUSTRATION 15-16 Refer to the completed drawing of a baby’s facial profile in the next illustration and make any changes you wish. As you can clearly see, the baby’s head really is three times larger than the adorable little face.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 109. 12 ILLUSTRATION 15-17 Sign your name, put today’s date on the back, put a smile on your face, and go find another exciting drawing project!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 110. 13 BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. Drawing for Dummies is now available in Dutch, Bulgarian, Spanish, French, and German. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 111. Brenda HoddinottH-16 BEGINNER: FOCUS ON PEOPLEThis heavily illustrated project invites you to use asimple grid to outline a realistically proportioned faceof an adorable baby named Brandon (who justhappens to be my grandson). Hatching is used to addshading to the face, clothing, and hair.A grid is a precise arrangement of a specific numberof squares, of exact sizes, proportionately drawn onboth a photo and drawing surface. Grids help artistswith numerous challenges, such as rendering preciseproportions and correct perspective.The following three sections guide you step-by-step through this project: OUTLINING BASIC PROPORTIONS WITHIN A GRID: Setting up accurate proportions is a great way to make sure a drawing is off to a great start! You use a simple grid to help sketch the perimeter of Brandon’s head and clothing. ADDING FACIAL FEATURES WITHIN A GRID: You outline Brandon’s eyes, ears, nose and mouth proportionately correct. SHADING THE EYES, FACE, HAIR, AND CLOTHING: You create the illusion of depth and form on Brandon’s face and clothing with hatching, and use curved hatching lines to make his hair look three-dimensional.Suggested drawing supplies include white paper; 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B graphite pencils;kneaded and vinyl erasers; a ruler; and a pencil sharpener. This project is recommended for artists from age 12 to adult, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. 23 PAGES – 34 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2005 (Revised 2006)
  • 112. -2- OUTLINING BASIC PROPORTIONS WITHIN A GRID Setting up accurate proportions is a great way to make sure a drawing is off to a great start! Proportion is the relationship in size of one component of a drawing to another or others. In this section, you use a simple grid to help sketch the perimeter of Brandon’s head and clothing. A grid is a precise arrangement of a specific number of squares, of exact sizes, proportionately drawn on both a photo and drawing surface. Grids help artists with numerous challenges, such as rendering precise proportions and correct perspective. 1. With an HB pencil and a ruler, draw a rectangle as your drawing format. Drawing format refers to the area of a drawing surface within a specific perimeter, outlined by a shape of any size, such as a square, rectangle or circle. To make sure your proportions are the same as mine draw the rectangle 4 by 6 inches, 6 by 9 inches, or 8 by 12 inches. 2. Use your ruler to measure and mark off the squares along each side with dots. If your rectangle is 4 by 6 inches, use 1 inch squares. For a drawing format that is 6 by 9 inches, draw 1.5 inch squares. Use 2 inch squares if your rectangle is 8 by 12 inches. 3. Use a ruler to divide the rectangle into 24 squares by connecting opposite dots. Press very gently with your pencil to keep your lines very light. As I drew my grid (with an HB pencil), only the weight of the pencil itself created the very faint lines. ILLUSTRATION 16-01 ILLUSTRATION 16-02Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 113. -3- ILLUSTRATION 16-03 4. Starting from the left, number the vertical rows with numbers 1 through 4, along the top and bottom (the short sides of the rectangle). 5. Starting from the top, letter the horizontal rows with letters A through F, down both long sides. You can now easily identify each square as you work. Hopefully, you’ll avoid making the mistake of drawing the wrong image in a grid square! ILLUSTRATION 16-04 6. Lightly sketch the perimeter of Brandon’s face and head with an HB pencil. Work in only one square at a time. Visually measure the proportions, and observe the relationships between the lines, shapes, and spaces in that square, while constantly referring to my drawing. Keep your lines very faint! The lines in my illustrations seem dark; however, in reality they are so light that I can barely see them. I have made them darker in a computer program so you can see them.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 114. -4- 7. Add Brandon’s ear, checking that your proportions are as close as possible to mine. ILLUSTRATION 16-05 HB pencils are great for drawing within a grid. I prefer using mechanical pencils so I don’t have to be constantly sharpening my wooden pencils. On the other hand, when I do draw with regular pencils, I keep the points very sharp with a sandpaper block.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 115. -5- 8. Outline the perimeter of his neck and clothing (on the lower right) with neat lines. ILLUSTRATION 16-06 Don’t press too hard with your pencils! No matter how careful you are, when you draw with a grid, accidents often happen. If you draw some lines in the wrong grid squares, simply erase that section, redraw the grid lines, and keep on going! Lightly drawn lines are easy to erase!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 116. -6- ADDING FACIAL FEATURES WITHIN A GRID In this section, you outline Brandon’s eyes, ears, nose and mouth proportionately correct. Even though many of the illustrations in this section have been cropped, continue using the numbers and letters around your drawing format, to keep you working in the correct grid squares. Draw slowly. Accuracy is more important than speed. Your speed will automatically improve the more you practice drawing. 9. With your HB pencil draw the perimeter of the eyes. Note the shape of the eyes as being almost almond, and that the width of the space between the eyes is slightly wider than the width of an eye. The eyes are located approximately at the midway point on the face between the top of the head and the bottom of the chin. ILLUSTRATION 16-07 To prevent your eyes from becoming too tired, always make sure you have adequate lighting. Natural light through a window is best in the daytime. On overcast days and in the evenings, a flexible-neck study lamp can focus light directly on your drawing surface.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 117. -7- ILLUSTRATION 16-08 10. Draw two curved lines to represent the outer edges of the nose. Observe how high the nose appears on the face of an infant. 11. Sketch a curved line slightly above the bottom edge of the face. Many babies have what is commonly referred to as a double chin. 12. Add the lower edge of the upper lip in its correct place. Observe that an infant’s nose and mouth are approximately the same width as an eye. ILLUSTRATION 16-09Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 118. -8- Before you continue outlining Brandon’s face, refer to the following illustration and become familiar with the names of the parts of an eye. ILLUSTRATION 16-10 1) Eyebrows: a cluster of hairs above the eye 2) Upper Eyelid Crease: a fold in the skin above the upper eyelid 3) Upper Eyelid: the larger movable fold of skin above the eyeball that opens and closes 4) Inside Corner: the small section of the eye in the inner corner 5) White of the Eye: the visible section of the eyeball, that is light in value. 6) Lower Eyelid: the smaller fold of skin below the eyeball 7) Eyelashes: fine hairs that grow on the edges of the upper and lower eyelids 8) Irises: the big circular shape of the eye that varies in value from very light to very dark 9) Highlights: a tiny bright spot where the light bounces off the shiny surface of the eye 10) Pupils: the dark circle inside the iris ILLUSTRATION 16-11 13. Sketch a curved line above each eye as the upper eyelid creases. Always place a piece of clean paper under your hand as you draw, to prevent you from smudging your drawing, and to protect the paper from the oils in your skin.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 119. -9- When drawing an oval or a circle, rotate your paper and look at it from different perspectives, such as upside down. 14. Outline the circular shapes of the irises of the eyes. 15. Add the small section of the ear showing on the left. 16. Sketch the nostrils of the nose. The nostrils look like the numbers 6 or 9 - curved lines turn into small circular shapes. 17. Draw a short curved line as the ball of the nose. This c-shaped line cuts through the horizontal line between rows C and D. 18. Add the outline of the upper lip. Observe that a slightly curved line extends downward from each side of the curved line in the center. ILLUSTRATION 16-12Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 120. - 10 - ILLUSTRATION 16-13 19. Sketch Brandon’s lower lip. Pay attention to the shapes of the sections that are above and below the line that divides rows D and E. ILLUSTRATION 16-14 20. Sketch an upside down U-shape to define the form of the outer rim of the ear. 21. Outline the inner forms of the ear, including the inner rim, and the opening to the ear canal (see Illustration 16-15). 22. Check over your sketch carefully and change anything you’re not happy with. Compare your drawing to mine (Illustration 16-15). Confirm that the outlines of the head, ears, eyes, nose, and mouth are drawn correctly. Also, examine the reflection of your sketch in a mirror to find any problem sections. If your lines are drawn lightly, erasing and making changes is a piece of cake!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 121. - 11 - ILLUSTRATION 16-15Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 122. - 12 - ILLUSTRATION 16-16 23. Lightly sketch the highlights and pupils of the eyes with an HB pencil. ILLUSTRATION 16-17 ILLUSTRATION 16-18 24. Draw light lines to indicate the hairline. 25. Outline the clothing (as in Illustration 16- 19 on the next page). 26. Pat your entire drawing with your kneaded eraser to lighten all your sketch lines. 27. Carefully erase your grid lines.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 123. - 13 - ILLUSTRATION 16-19Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 124. - 14 - SHADING THE EYES, FACE, HAIR, AND CLOTHING In this section you add more details to Brandon’s hair, clothing, ears, and face (including the eyes, nose, and mouth) with simple hatching to create the illusion of depth. Hatching is a series of lines (called a set) drawn closely together to give the illusion of values. 28. Use an HB pencil to add shading to his face, head, and ear on the left. The dominant light source is from the upper right. The shading on the left side of the drawing, varies in both value and thickness, and follows the contour of the side of the head. Also, the shading does not extend all the way to the edge of the outline of the face. ILLUSTRATION 16-20 Don’t apply pressure to your pencil at this stage – just the weight of the pencil itself will provide very light hatching lines. If you tend to be a little heavy-handed, you may want to use a 2H instead of an HB. Generally speaking, different values are created by: Varying the density of the lines. Density refers to whether the individual hatching lines are close together or far apart. Varying the pressure used in holding your pencils. For light lines you press very gently with your pencil. Press harder with your pencil to make darker lines. Using various pencils, such as HB, 2B, and 4B. For example, an HB makes lighter lines than 2B or 4B.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 125. - 15 - 29. Draw the shading around the eye and forehead with your HB pencil. Observe closely the shading on the forehead and the eye. Note that I have chosen to indicate the eyebrow of this infant with shading rather than draw it in detail. Many infants have very little visible hair on their eyebrows. ILLUSTRATION 16-21 30. Add shading to the section of the face to the right of the inner corner of the eye on the left. 31. Continue shading downward along the side of the nose and mouth. This shading will add depth to this part of the face. 32. Shade in the side of the chin and the neck. The shading of the neck is darker because it is in the shadow of the chin.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 126. - 16 - ILLUSTRATION 16-22 ILLUSTRATION 16-23 The shape of a baby’s nose can be simplified as a large ball for the centre section and two small balls for the sections surrounding the nostrils. ILLUSTRATION 16-24 33. Add shading to the nose. This shading provides a three- dimensional reality to the various forms of the nose. 34. Use a 2B pencil to add dark values inside the nostrils of the nose 35. Shade in the sections of the face around the nose, between the eyes. 36. Use light values to shade the section of the face between the lower edges of the nose and the top of the upper lip.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 127. - 17 - 37. Beginning at the forehead and slowly progressing down the face to the chin and neck, draw all the shading on the other side of the face ILLUSTRATION 16-25 Observe that the shading of the face on the right is lighter in value than the shading on the left because it is closer to the light source. Also note that this eyebrow (on the right) is also lightly indicated by shading and not drawn in detail. Don’t miss the tiny area of shading under the eye. Observe the shading around the eyelids and the upper eyelid creases. As you begin adding values to the lower face, don’t forget the chin and the neck.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 128. - 18 - ILLUSTRATION 16-26 38. Add a thin line to identify the edge of the upper eyelid. 39. Use light values to add the shading to the white of the eye. Note the darker values used to shade the shadow on the white of the eye, under the upper eyelids. Also, the overall shading is darker on the eye that is further away from the light source. 40. Add the light and middle values to the iris. An HB pencil works well for the light values and a 2B is great for the middle values. Each iris is darker on the side with the highlight. The cast shadows directly under the upper eyelids are very dark. The iris on the left is darker than the other, especially the section that is in the shadow beside the inner corner of the eye. ILLUSTRATION 16-27Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 129. - 19 - 41. Use 2B and 4B pencils to add the darker sections of the eyes and nose, such as those in shadow. To keep a baby’s face looking gentle and soft, use dark values very sparingly. If you accidentally make a section too dark, pat the individual hatching lines very gently and carefully with a kneaded eraser molded to a wedge shape. 42. Use your 6B pencil to shade the pupil (remember to leave the highlight white). 43. Add a few very thin, light eyelashes on the upper edge of the eyelid with a 2H pencil. ILLUSTRATION 16-28 ILLUSTRATION 16-29 ILLUSTRATION 16-30 Note that a baby’s upper lip can be simplified as three small balls and that the lower lip appears to be divided into two balls.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 130. - 20 - ILLUSTRATION 16-31 44. Shade in the lips with HB and 2B pencils. Note the many different values used to complete this very detailed area of shading. Some areas are dark, such as the corners of the mouth), and others are completely white. 45. Shade the shadow area of the inside of the opening of the mouth with a 4B pencil. ILLUSTRATION 16-32 Using lines to outline the shapes of lips, noses, ears, and eyes is somewhat acceptable for a beginner, but is not technically correct for more accomplished artists. In more advanced lessons, I show you how to draw facial features without strongly defined lines that outline their shapes. 46. With a great deal of patience and HB and 2B pencils, complete the shading of the ear. 47. In preparation for shading the hair, use your kneaded eraser to lighten the outline of the skull.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 131. - 21 - 48. Draw in the values of the hair with curved hatching lines. In that the light source is from the right, the hair is darker on the left. Remember to keep white areas throughout the hair as highlights. Observe how the curved hatching lines are several different lengths. The edges are not abrupt stops, but rather feathered (or ragged) to give a more realistic appearance. Take note of how individual lines around the top and sides of his head create the illusion of soft wispy hair that looks very realistic. ILLUSTRATION 16-33 49. Add shading to the ribbing of the neck of the sweater, and the sweater (refer to Illustration 16-34). 50. Have a final look at your drawing and touch up any areas you are not happy with. Refer to my final drawing on the next page. To make a section darker, simply add more hatching lines in between others. Use your kneaded eraser molded to a wedge or point to lighten areas that are too dark. Turn your drawing upside-down to look for sections that may be problematic. 51. Erase any fingerprints, or smudges with your kneaded or vinyl eraser, sign your name, put today’s date on the back of your drawing, and put a big smile on your face!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 132. - 22 - ILLUSTRATION 16-34Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 133. - 23 - Whether you are totally happy with your drawing isn’t really important. What is important is that you keep on drawing… the more you draw the better you become! So grab another piece of paper, choose another lesson, and draw some more! BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Fine Art Education http://www.finearteducation.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. ART PUBLICATIONS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 134. Brenda Hoddinott H-17 BEGINNER: FOCUS ON PEOPLEHow many times have you tried to draw a person, and finally given up in frustrationsaying “I can’t get this right”? Be patient with yourself and don’t give up! Masteringfigure drawing may take several years; however, with practice, your skills graduallyimprove and your drawings of people begin to look better and better.This article walks you through the very basics of figure drawing, and is divided into thefollowing parts: RESPECTING HUMAN BODIES: You examine simple line drawings of male and female bodies, with an emphasis on respect for diversity. EXPLORING SKETCHES: You explore various sketches of people with the goal of developing a basic understanding of the process of sketching. TRYING OUT SOME SKETCHING TECHNIQUES: You are introduced to a few different ways to sketch with simple step by step instructions. EXAMINING DRAWINGS OF FIGURES: Artists often use a sketch as a preliminary study for a more detailed drawing. In this section, I discuss a few drawings that were inspired by or began as a sketch. ARMS AND HANDS: Artists, who want to include people in their drawings, need to become skilled at sketching the various parts of people. PERSPECTIVES ON FIGURES: Accurately rendering perspective is an integral aspect of correctly representing a human figure in a sketch. TIPS FOR SKETCHING FROM A LIVE MODEL: With the cooperation of an actual person, you can draw standing, sitting, and laying down poses from several different perspectives.Suggested supplies include 2H, HB, 2B, 4B and 6B pencils, vinyl and kneaded erasers,a pencil sharpener, a sandpaper block, and good quality drawing paper. 17 PAGES - 40 ILLUSTRATIONS Both nude and clothed figures are illustrated in this lesson; hence, the content is recommended for mature artists. Artists under the age of 18 need permission from an adult before viewing. The curriculum is easily implemented into instructional programs for home schooling, academic and recreational learning environments. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2004 (Revised 2007)
  • 135. 2RESPECTING HUMAN BODIESFor centuries, diverse cultures and societies have defined the various attributes ofphysical beauty in terms of their own concepts of ideal. For example, during the 1500’s,full-bodied women were sought by artists as wonderful examples of how a female bodyshould look. Throughout most of the 20 th century, robust and voluptuous womencontinued to be artists’ favorite models, and were considered the most beautiful asactresses and models; for instance, Marilyn Monroe was considered full-bodied. Duringthe past four decades mostly thin women have become celebrated as ideal models.Leading a physically active and healthy lifestyle with a well-balanced diet is a greatdeal more important than what an individual body looks like. Today, medicalprofessionals advocate heath concerns as the primary reason for maintaining a body thatis neither too thin nor too heavy. However, this does not mean that thin and heavyindividuals are unattractive. In fact, in the eyes of mature, accomplished artists, allhuman bodies are considered beautiful.Women and men come in various sizes, primarily determined by their genetics and lifestyles. Even persons of the same age and gender can have extremely different bodyshapes, heights and weights. To believe that one specific adult body type or size is idealwould be to under-appreciate the vast natural beauty of all human bodies.Figure 1701 shows several different adult bodies. Explore their outlines in terms ofshape and form, as you would a collection of priceless sculptures or vases.Figure 1701: Eleven adults of approximately the same age, with equally beautiful bodiesMale figures come in many shapes and sizes,from the tiny body of a male infant, to a bigtall adult man. Adult males are generallyinclined to have a larger bone structure, andbe bigger overall than women.In addition, men have a tendency to be Figuremore muscular and often don’t have as 1702:much body fat as women; hence, the Fiveforms of the various components of their very differentbodies, such as bones and muscles, are malesometimes more noticeable. bodiesCopyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 136. 3Overall, female bodies are generally smaller thanthose of men. Women tend to have more body fat,giving a rounder, softer appearance to their bodies.Extra body fat often obscures the surface forms ofsmaller bones and muscles, and creates moreobvious independent forms. Muscles in femalesgenerally tend to be less developed than in males. Figure 1703: Five equally beautiful female bodiesThe shapes of children’s bodies are very different from one another. Infants, children,and adolescents have different rates of growth, and their body proportions change atvarious stages of development. Observe any group of children of approximately thesame age, and take note of their completely different body structures and shapes.As athletes proudly wear their medals to showtheir achievements, so too, should older peoplerespect their bodies as beautiful trophies of noblelives long lived. Every wrinkle, sag, and scarproudly identifies their victories of overcomingpersonal adversities and successfully navigating along journey through several decades. Figure 1704: Four mature bodies demonstrate the physical beauty of a long life Art-Speak EXPLORING SKETCHES Drawing (also called sketching ): The goal of sketching (sometimes called (verb) is the application of an art drawing) is to quickly and efficiently capture medium to a surface so as to information about your subject, such as the produce a visual image, which gesture, proportions, forms, shapes, textures, visually defines an artist’s choice of and/or values. With comprehensive visual drawing subjects from his or her examinations of your subjects and tons of own unique perspective. practice, sketches become quick and easy. Form : as applied to drawing, is the Sketching figures from life (clothed or illusion of the three-dimensional unclothed) usually requires willing and structure of a shape, such as a cooperative subjects to pose for you. You may circle, square or triangle, created in discover human models for sketching while you a drawing with shading and/or are at home, strolling in your neighborhood, perspective. enjoying a noisy pool party with many people, or Gesture sketch : uses simple sitting in a friend’s home on a quiet, peaceful sketching methods to capture the afternoon. When asked to be the focus of an past, present, or potential artist’s sketch, most individuals, especially your movements of living beings. family and friends, usually feel quite honored.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 137. 4 The rough sketch in Figure 1705 captured Art-Speak the essence of the model’s pose in only a Proportion : is the relationship in size of one few minutes. component of a drawing to another or others. Rough sketch: is quickly rendered and illustrates important elements of a subject with very few details. Shape : refers to the outward outline of a Figure 1705: form. Basic shapes include circles, squares Rough sketch of a and triangles. female figure Sketch : (noun) is a simple drawing that captures the integral aspects of a subject quickly and efficiently; (verb) refers to the process of rendering a sketch (or drawing). Texture : is the surface detail of an object, as defined in a drawing with various shading techniques. The senses of touch and sight help identify the surface texture of drawing subject. Values : are the different shades of gray A lot more information can be illustrated created when you draw by varying both the by adding a few contour lines on top of a density of the shading lines, and the rough sketch. In Figure 1706, Simple pressure used in holding your pencils. contour drawings capture my grandson, Brandon, in motion and/or about to move. Figure 1706: Gesture sketches can capture the energy of motionCopyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 138. 5 A detailed sketch (or drawing) is generally more comprehensive and takes longer to render than rough or gesture sketches. A sketch can be a completed work of art or simply a study for a more detailed drawing (or painting). Figure 1707 shows a sketch rendered with both lines and shading. As you can tell by the locations of the shadows, the light source is from the upper left. Look closely and you can even see the lines from the initial rough sketch. The process for doing this sketch was to: lightly sketch proportions, then outline shapes and forms (also see Figure 1710), and finally add shading. Figure 1707: Detailed sketch of a young man sitting on a rocky cliff, with the ocean and sky behind him Figure 1708: Contour drawing of a clothed female figure, with the Art-Speak sketch lines erased Contour drawings ( also called line drawings): are Some artists prefer to comprised of lines which erase rough sketch lines, follow the contours of the after completing a various components of a detailed contour drawing drawing subject and define the outlines of its forms. (Figure 1708). Contour lines : are created The process of when the shared edges of rendering this drawing spaces and/or objects meet. entailed: doing a rough Contour lines can define sketch of the complete objects or small proportions, adding sections or details within neat and more drawing subjects. detailed contour Light source: The direction lines, erasing from which a dominant light the initial originates. The placement of sketch lines, this light source affects touching up the every aspect of a drawing. sections of lines that were The light source tells you inadvertently erased, and finally lightly where to draw all the light sketching the shapes of forms that I want to values and shadows. later accentuate with shading.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 139. 6TRYING OUT SOME SKETCHINGTECHNIQUESArtists are unique individuals and develop different waysof sketching based on their personal preferences. Themethod you choose for sketching is completely a matterof individual choice. Some artists prefer lines, moreprefer only shading, and others (like me) prefer acombination of values and lines.Before you begin drawing people from life, you need toimprove your speed and accuracy! Keep in mind thatsome poses become uncomfortable for the model afteronly a couple of minutes. Practice lots of sketches fromphotos or non-living models until your observation anddrawing skills become strong and your speed increases. Figure 1709: Sketch rendered with contour lines and shading Sketch with contour lines To sketch a figure with lines, find a model and gather your drawing materials. 1. Look closely at your subject. Observe which parts of the subject are in front of others. Visually break the subject down into shapes and measure proportions. 2. Draw what you see. Draw slowly. Accuracy is more important than speed. Speed automatically improves with time and practice. Remember, capturing the overall essence of your subject is more important than trying to draw intricate details.Figure 1710: Rough sketch of seated man rendered with contour linesSketch with spiral linesGesture sketching with spiral lines, lends itself perfectly to drawing the human figure.Find a drawing subject, preferably one with arms and legs. Examine the spiral drawingin Figure 1711 to get an idea of what a spiral drawing looks like.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 140. 7Take a few minutes and practice drawing spirals beforeyou start sketching.1. Use a spiral (or circular) motion with your pencil to capture the three-dimensional forms of your subject. Choose a section at the top or one end of your subject to begin your spiral sketching. Pretend you are simply wrapping a very long, thin ribbon around and around each section of your subject. Use smaller spirals for the small areas, such as hands, and larger ones for the bigger sections, such as the torso.2. Add a few more spiral or C-shaped lines, to darken the values in areas that are in shadow. Figure 1711: Spiral lines are great for creating the illusion of three dimensions in this sketch of a figure Sketch with shading Some artists, who like to sketch with only values, find that sticks of charcoal or conté are much more efficient, and faster to work with than pencils. The wide ends and sides of sticks can define a great deal of information with a single stroke. Find a subject with a strong light source, so you see lots of light and dark values. Use a stick of charcoal (or conté) to try your hand at sketching with shading. Squint your eyes to help see the different values. Figure 1712: A softly rendered sketch of a figure is defined by a strong contrast between the light sections and shadows, rather than lines 1. Lightly block in the shape of your subject with the side of a stick of charcoal (or conté). This shading represents your middle values, and defines the overall shape and size of your subject, as well as its position within your drawing space.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 141. 82. Use an end of a charcoal stick to add dark shading. Look for the dark values in the shadow areas. Remember, to focus on only the shapes created by the different values. Stay away from lines as much as possible.3. Use a tissue (or paper towel) and a kneaded eraser to bring out medium and light values. Use a tissue or piece of paper towel to gently smudge (or blend) the dark values, towards the areas you want to be lighter. Then, carefully observe your subject again to find the lightest values. Use your kneaded eraser molded to a wedge or point to gently pull out the light values from the medium.EXAMINING Figure 1713: LooselyDRAWINGS OF rendered sketch with lines and shadingFIGURESSketches are sometimesconsidered completed worksof art. However, artists oftenuse a sketch (or sketches) as apreliminary study for a moredetailed drawing. In thissection, I discuss a fewdrawings that were inspiredby or began as a sketch.The sketch (Figure 1713) of ayoung man pretending todance provides valuableinformation, such as themodel’s facial expression, theforms of his body andclothing, and the light andshadow areas.The detailed drawing (Figure1714) is the same pose, buttook much longer to draw. Itreveals more information thanthe sketch, such as thetextures of his sweater, hair,and denim jeans.A sketch (especially if it turnsout well) can inspire the artistto continue working on it andadding additional information, Figure 1714: Detaileduntil it becomes a detailed drawing of a male figure thatdrawing. was inspired by a sketchCopyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 142. 9 A combination of lines and shading can provide the viewer with intricate facial details, the texture of hair and clothing, and the light and shadows as defined by the dominant light source. Figure 1715 shows a realistic representation of a female figure that began as a quickly rendered rough sketch. The sketch was then transformed into a detailed contour drawing (see Figure 1708) before adding shading. Figure 1715: Detailed drawing of clothed female figure, demonstrates how a sketch can be turned into a detailed drawing, in which shading creates the illusion of a three-dimensional reality ARMS AND HANDS Artists, who want to include people in their drawings, need to become skilled at sketching faces, hands, feet, legs, arms, and other parts of people. After all, your creativity becomes very limited if you feel a need to draw all figures with their hands behind their backs, and no face or feet! In addition, when you can draw all parts of a person well, your creative options become more diverse because you can focus on the creative, without stressing and struggling with the technical. Drawings are only as strong as their weakest parts. For example, poorly drawn arms (or hands) can spoil the overall appearance of a portrait, even if you draw the face and clothing well. Check out the drawing in Figure 1716 and the close up view of his arms in Figure 1717. Observe the tension in the muscles and the indents in their forms where the arms press against one another.Figure 1716: A young man’s gentle facial expression contrasts sharply against the tough guy facadecreated by the folded position of his armsCopyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 143. 10 Examine the section of his left arm where the fingers of his right hand indent the muscles. The defiant pose with the muscular folded arms and the tattered shirt were integral to achieving my artistic goal of creating an image of a very confident and tough- looking young man (he’s really a sweetie!). Also note the forms where his neck attaches to his body. Figure 1717: A young man’s neck and arms are clearly defined with shadingSketching the various part of the bodyfrom life is the best possible way todevelop an understanding of theiranatomy.Don’t worry if your drawings of handsand feet look all wrong at first.Just do your best andin time, you will getbetter! Once you know how to draw hands well by doing sketches from life, you can easily transfer this skill into drawing from photos or instructional drawings. Figures 1718, 1719, and 1720: Three detailed drawings of a hand holding a pencil are the result of many years of doing sketches of hands from lifeCopyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 144. 11Practice drawing individual parts ofhuman anatomy from live models everychance you can.If your friends and family begin runningaway when you approach them withyour drawing supplies, you can alwaysdraw your own body parts! You needonly one hand to draw, so the other oneis just begging to be a model. Take offyour shoes and you find two wonderfulfoot models. If your roommates don’tobject, put on your bathing suit (orbirthday suit), set up your drawingmaterials in front of a large mirror, anddraw your own legs, chest and arms.Examine the forms created by bones andmuscles in the two different views of aman’s left arm (Figures 1721 and 1722). Figures 1721 and 1722: Examine the sections where the hands are attached to arms and where the upper arms connect to the shouldersMeet Christopher Church, (Figure 1723)who just happens to be the best violinplayer in the whole world. Of course,being that Chris is a long-timefriend of mine, there’sa very remotepossibility that I may Figure 1723: A drawing of abe a little biased. young man playing a violinFigures 1724 and could be very boring, if his1725 are close-up hands weren’t included!views of Chris’sexpressive hands.His hands are asessential to theoverall spirit of thisdrawing as hismischievous facialexpression.I used a highcontrast betweenthe light and darkvalues to help makethe hands stand out.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 145. 12By emphasizing the complex parts ofhis hands that characterize movement,such as his knuckles and the tips of hisfingers, the hands become importantpoints of interest in this drawing. Figures 1724 and 1725: Close-up views of the forms of Chris’s hands playing his violin, as defined by bones and musclesPERSPECTIVES ON FIGURESArtists use perspective tocreate the illusion of Art-Speakindividual figures (or parts Perspective: (sometimes called geometric perspective orof figures) receding into linear perspective ): is a method of representing threedistant space. dimensional beings, objects, or spaces within a twoAccurately rendering dimensional drawing space, so they seem to recede intoperspective is an integral distant space, and appear smaller the farther they are away.aspect of representing a Overlapping: refers to the position of an object when ithuman figure in a sketch. visually appears to be in front of another object.With the proper use of Horizon line : is an imaginary horizontal line, sometimesperspective, your figures referred to as eye level, which divides your line of visionbecome visually correct and when you look straight ahead. Objects below this line aremore realistic. below your eye level, and objects above this line are aboveObjects seem to disappear your eye level. Wherever you move, from the top of thewhen they get close to the highest mountain, to the lowest valley, your eye level alwaysvanishing point, but not like stays with you.disappearing into the Vanishing Point (VP): The point on the horizon line whereBermuda triangle! Because the straight lines of an object converge and the objectan object is too far away to seems to disappear. Lines of objects, that are parallel orstill be in your line of vision perpendicular (at a right angle) to the horizon line, don’tdoesn’t mean it has actually appear to go back in space and therefore don’t meet thedisappeared. vanishing point.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 146. 13Most beginners to drawing tend to draw figures as they perceive them to be, rather thanas they actually are. To draw figures accurately and believably you need to teachyourself to draw what you are actually seeing. For many artists, this means unlearningsome of what your brain currently knows about what it sees, and readjusting itsperceptions to the rules of perspective.Figure 1726 illustrates how people appear to become smaller the closer they are to thevanishing point (and finally seem to disappear). Find examples of each of the followingelements of perspective in this drawing: Size differences: Figures and individual parts of bodies appear to become smaller the farther they are away from you. Overlapping: You create the illusion of three-dimensional reality when you draw some parts of a body in front of others. Arrangement: Depending on your line of vision, objects that are closer to you are usually near the bottom of your visual space. Figure 1726: Outlines of identical figuresbecome smaller the closer they are to the vanishing point (VP) The illusion of depth in a drawing of a figure can be created by accurately drawing the background and foreground elements with geometric perspective (Figure 1727). The horizontal lines on the edge of the railing and the wooden planks in the deck are drawn with geometric perspective, creating the illusion that they are receding into distant space. Figure 1727: A young man leans against a railing as the railing and the planks of the deck recede into distant spaceCopyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 147. 14Foreshortening is the process in which perspectivecreates the illusion that a figure is shorter when Art-Speakviewed from an extreme angle. The foreshortened Foreshortening : refers to thequalities of parts of bodies, such as legs and arms, visual distortion of a person orbecome more noticeable when viewed from an end. object, when viewed atCheck out the fun drawing of my friend, Rob in extreme angles. As the angleFigure 1728. Are you tempted to turn this page upside of viewing becomes more extreme the level of distortiondown or turn your head to look at it the other way becomes more pronounced.around?This fun gesture shows a realistic perspective on foreshortening. Foreshortening createsvisual distortions to his body, even though he is actually a well proportioned young manof average height. I couldn’t render this pose realistically without drawing thedistortions I actually see. Only his left arm and head appear to be their actual lengths.Take note of the following visualillusions created by overlappingand foreshortening: His right foot looks very tiny when compared to his right hand. His right leg appears shorter than the width of his face. His lower left leg, right arm, torso, and right hand look very short. Figure 1728: Don’t worry – Rob didn’t hold this pose for several hours – this drawing is done from a photoPerspective is complex. Don’texpect to master all componentsright away. Be patient withyourself. Careful observation ofobjects around you expandsyour understanding ofperspective. Your skills atrendering perspective, improvewith practice.TIPS FOR SKETCHING FROM A LIVE MODELYou can draw a human figure in oodles of different ways, such as drawing just the lightand shadow areas, simply accentuating the various forms, using only lines, or focusingon only one specific area of interest. With the cooperation of an actual person, you candraw standing, sitting, and laying down poses from several different perspectives.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 148. 15Modeling is very difficult, so please keep the following in mind: If your model is unclothed or partially clothed, make sure the room is warm, private, and comfortable. Have snacks and beverages handy and assure your model that she or he can take a break anytime. Choose poses that are expressive, artistically pleasing, and comfortable for your model. Use tape or chalk to mark the placement of his or her body on the surface on which he or she is sitting, standing, or lying. For example, by marking the outline of the model’s feet in a standing pose, he or she can easily find the correct pose again after a break. Experiment with different drawing media such as conté, charcoal, or graphite sticks and use large sheets of paper.In closing, I’d like to stress that there’s nothing wrong with occasionally working fromphotographs. However, you can’t accurately draw the three-dimensional forms of ahuman body without having carefully observed and done drawings from real people.CHALLENGESketch three figures or parts of figures every day for the next month from life(unfortunately actual models aren’t included with my lessons). To help you with ideasexamine the 12 sketches on this page and the next.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 149. 16Use different ways of sketchingincluding those discussed in this lesson.In addition, you can also come upwith some sketching styles ofyour own, or researchsketching and tryto duplicate thestyles of otherartists, includingthe mastersof theRenaissance.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 150. 17Brenda HoddinottAs a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator,Brenda utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil,chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints.My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects whilegently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for thesubject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable.BiographyBorn in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook.She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to selfdirected learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’stwenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminalinvestigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal CanadianMounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with acommendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awardeda Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”.Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawingand painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department,Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s artprograms. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator inorder to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites.Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovativeapproach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printabledrawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Studentsof all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructionalapproach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schoolingprograms, and educational facilities throughout the world.Learn-to-draw booksDrawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book isavailable on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book ofthe Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com

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