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# Incepatori h focus pe oameni

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• 5. -5- ADD HORIZONTAL LINES TO THE OUTLINE In this section, you divide the length of the head into two halves. Then the lower half will be divided into three equal distances. ILLUSTRATION 01-07 In time you will be able to judge all proportions visually, but for now please use a ruler. 9) Draw a horizontal line that touches the edge of the very top of the head. This line is parallel to the top and bottom of the rectangular drawing surface (and vertical to its sides). 10) Mark this line IJ. 11) Draw a second horizontal line touching the lower edge of the chin. 12) Mark this line GH. ILLUSTRATION 01-08 13) Measure the total vertical distance along the center vertical line (too light to see in my drawing), from the top of the head to the bottom of the chin. 14) Divide this total measurement in half and mark it with a small dot. Feel free to use a calculator! 15) Draw a horizontal line (AB) through this dot, dividing the head into two halves (as in Illustration 01-08). Most people’s eyes and the top sections of their ears are somewhere along this line, halfway between the top of the skull (not the top of the hair) and the bottom edge of the chin.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 6. -6- ILLUSTRATION 01-09 16) Measure the vertical distance between lines AB and GH. 17) Divide this distance by three and lightly mark the two points with dots on the center vertical line (too light to see in my drawing). 18) Add a fourth horizontal line through the upper point (closer to AB). This line is parallel to each of the other three lines, IJ, AB, and GH. 19) Mark this line CD. The lower part of the nose and the lower sections of the ears touch this line. ILLUSTRATION 01-10 20) Add a fifth horizontal line through the lower point (closer to GH). This line is parallel to each of the other four lines. 21) Mark this line EF. The lower edge of the bottom lip will be close to or touch this line. Now the vertical distance between lines AB and GH is divided into three equal sections. Artists use several methods for establishing adult facial proportions. I have found this method to be accurate and very easy to remember.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 8. -8- ILLUSTRATION 01-12 Remember, it’s more important to draw the ears and facial features in their correct places, rather than fuss about the intricate details. 22) Draw the outlines of the ears with the tops above AB and the bottoms below CD. ILLUSTRATION 01-13 23) Erase the vertical lines (indicating the outline of the head) between lines AB and CD (on both sides of your drawing). 24) Re-draw the outline on each side (between lines AB and CD) leaving an opening for the tops of the ears to extend inward. 25) Extend the outlines of the tops of the ears inward, toward the center of the face. 26) Draw short curved lines on the upper section of each ear (touching AB) to indicate the outer rims of the ears.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 9. -9- 27) Add more detailed lines to each ear to represent its various parts. Even though fine details are not important in this lesson, try your best and you may be pleasantly surprised! ILLUSTRATION 01-14 Each individual face is physically unique, due to inherent variations in the sizes and shapes of heads, faces, and features. You can complete the facial features on your drawing however you wish. The only important factor, to achieve a realistic human face, is to put everything in its correct place according to the facial guidelines.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 10. - 10 - 28) Draw the eyes along AB. To help you decide how wide to draw each eye, refer to Illustration 01-15 and observe the following:  The widest section of the head is “five-eyes wide”.  The width of an eye is equal to one of these distances.  The distance between the eyes is equal to the width of one eye. ILLUSTRATION 01-15Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 11. - 11 - 29) Draw some eyebrows above AB. You can draw eyebrows:  Light or dark  Thick or thin  Very curved, slightly curved, or fairly straight  Very close to the eyes or a little higher on the forehead. ILLUSTRATION 01-16Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 12. - 12 - 30) Draw the nose. The following guidelines apply to most adult faces:  The lower section of the nose touches the horizontal line CD.  The very bottom edges of the nostrils are often below CD.  The nose is approximately the width of the distance between the eyes.  The base of each cheekbone usually aligns with the bottom section of the nose.  The lower parts of the ears horizontally align with the bottom section of the nose. ILLUSTRATION 01-17Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 13. - 13 - 31) Draw the mouth. The following guidelines generally apply to adult faces:  The lower lip is usually touching or slightly above line EF.  The mouth is generally wider than the nose.  The lower lip is approximately halfway between the lower section of the nose and the bottom of the chin.  The outer corners of the mouth are usually directly under the irises of the eyes. ILLUSTRATION 01-18Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 14. - 14 - 32) Use your kneaded eraser to lighten the outline of the top of the head until it’s almost invisible, and then add some hair. 33) Sign your name, add today’s date on the back of your drawing, and then pat yourself on the back! ILLUSTRATION 01-19Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 15. - 15 - BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 16. PROPORTIONS OF A Brenda Hoddinott H-02 BEGINNER: FOCUS ON PEOPLE This project offers simple step-by-step illustrated instructions, to guide aspiring artists through the process of outlining a proportionately correct adult human hand. Human hands are without doubt very anatomically intricate, but not nearly as difficult to draw as many artists assume. The process of drawing a hand becomes less intimidating when you understand how to render the proportions properly, and can draw the fundamental shapes of the various parts in their correct places.Drawing supplies needed include good quality white paper, different grades of graphite pencils(such as HB and 2B), kneaded and vinyl erasers, a pencil sharpener and a sandpaper block.This lesson is comprised of the following three sections: INTRODUCTION: Hands come in various shapes and sizes depending on different factors, such as the persons’ size, age, and gender; yet the overall proportions are very similar. PUTTING PROPORTIONS ON PAPER: Setting up accurate proportions is the foundation of drawing hands. Fingers make up approximately half the total length of a hand. OUTLINING THE FORMS OF A HAND: In this section, you outline the hand with thin neat lines by constantly referring to the illustrations and your own hand. This project is recommended for artists from age 12 to adult, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. 12 PAGES – 19 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – Revised 2006
• 17. -2- INTRODUCTION Human hands are without doubt very anatomically intricate, but not nearly as difficult to draw as many artists assume. The process of drawing a hand becomes less intimidating when you understand how to render the overall proportions properly, and can draw the basic shapes of the various parts in their correct places. Proportion is the relationship in size of one component of a drawing to another or others. Shape refers to the outward outline of a form. Basic shapes include circles, squares and triangles. The most common inaccuracy when drawing hands is making the main section of the hand too short in relation to the length of the fingers. Have a close look at one of your own hands. Measure the distance between the tip of the longest finger down to its base connects to the main section of the hand (Mine is 3.2 inches). Then, measure the hand from where the fingers attach to the hand to the section of the wrist where the base of the thumb ends (Mine is 3.4 inches). The two distances are very similar; hence, fingers make up approximately half the total length of a hand. Examine the three drawings of hands in the next illustration. Imagine each hand open to a point where you can compare the length of the fingers to the length of the main section of the hand. Again the distances are approximately the same. Therefore, when drawing a hand keep in mind that the length of the longest finger is similar to the length of the main section of the hand. ILLUSTRATION 02-01Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 18. -3- The illustrations and instructions in this lesson will be based on an average sized hand. However, hands come in various shapes and sizes depending on lots of different factors, including the person’s size, age, and gender; yet the overall proportions are very similar. In the next drawings examine three variations of hands and compare each to the rectangular sketch beside it. Which of the three hands in Illustrations 02-02 to 02-04 most closely resembles the overall shape of your hand? ILLUSTRATION 02-02 To draw a hand that is short, your sketch will be based on a rectangle divided into two squares of the same size (Illustration 02-02). ILLUSTRATION 02-03 A drawing of an average hand begins with a longer rectangle divided into two same sized short rectangles (Illustration 02-03). ILLUSTRATION 02-04 A slender hand with long fingers is based on a slightly longer rectangle divided into two equal rectangles (Illustration 02-04). Consider using your own hand as the model for this lesson. If you are left handed, it’s easier to draw your right hand, and if you are right handed try drawing your left.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 19. -4- PUTTING PROPORTIONS ON PAPER Setting up accurate proportions is the foundation of drawing hands. If the length of the longest finger when compared to the length of the hand is drastically different, your proportions may be incorrect; hence, no amount of beautiful shading can then save your drawing. If you are drawing your own hand, constantly examine it as you work; use my illustrations as guidelines only. Also, my drawing is of my left hand; if you are drawing your right hand, the whole hand, including the fingers and thumb, will be in reverse. 1) Use an HB pencil and very lightly sketch a vertical rectangle to represent the overall shape of a hand (refer to Illustration 02-05). 2) Divide the rectangle in half to mark the point where the base of the fingers meets the main section of the hand. 3) Sketch the three largest fingers as in Illustration 02-06. ILLUSTRATION 02-05 ILLUSTRATION 02-06 I often use straight (rather than curved) lines to establish the proportions of hands. Pay attention to the lengths of the fingers and the position of each in relation to the others. If you are drawing from my sketch, use the sides of the upper rectangle, as well as positive and negative spaces to help you measure proportions. The thumb will be added later.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 20. -5- Place a piece of clean paper under your hand as you draw (better the drawer than the drawee!). Each time you work on a new section, remember to move your paper so it’s always under your hand. This prevents you from smudging your drawing, and protects the paper from the oils in your skin. 4) Lightly sketch the little finger (refer to Illustration 02-07). 5) Outline the edge of the hand that is on the same side as the little finger. 6) Sketch two lines to represent the outside edges of the wrist as in Illustration 02-08. ILLUSTRATION 02-07 ILLUSTRATION 02-08Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 21. -6- ILLUSTRATION 02-09 7) Sketch the outline of the thumb as in Illustration 02-09. Pay special attention to tiny line where the thumb is attached to the main section of the hand. Also, note the angle and the length of the line where the base of the thumb attaches to the wrist. ILLUSTRATION 02-10 8) Add circular shapes to represent the joints of the four fingers as in Illustration 02-10. Examine your own fingers and take note of the locations of each of the joints. 9) Outline the locations of the four knuckles with circular shapes.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 22. -7- ILLUSTRATION 02-11 10) Sketch the outlines of the joints of the thumb and the partial segments of the bones of the wrist as in Illustration 02-11. Before you begin, take a moment and examine your own knuckles, thumb, and wrist. ILLUSTRATION 02-12 11) Use your kneaded eraser to pat all your sketch lines until they are so faint that you can barely see them (as in Illustration 02-12). OUTLINING THE FORMS OF A HAND In this section, you outline the hand with thin neat lines. Each of the circular shapes you sketched in the last section represents an independent form. As you draw, constantly refer to my drawings and your own hand to gain insights into why the lines need to curve around these forms. Keep your pencils sharpened so your lines stay neat and thin.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 23. -8- ILLUSTRATION 02-13 12) Use a 2B pencil to neatly outline the fingers, thumb, and wrist with curved lines. In this section, you are challenged to heavily rely on your visual skills; hence, text instructions are kept to a bare minimum. Constantly examine your own hand and refer to the 7 step-by-step drawings (Illustrations 02-13 to 02-19). ILLUSTRATION 02-14 As an artist, you need to focus on improving your ability to identify the exterior three-dimensional forms of a hand, as defined by bones, fat, and muscles, which ultimately is more important than memorizing the anatomical names of the different parts of a hand.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 24. -9- ILLUSTRATION 02-15 Try using a piece of fine sandpaper or a sandpaper block to keep your pencil points nice and sharp. Pencil sharpeners tend to wear down pencils very quickly. ILLUSTRATION 02-16 When drawing a hand from life, visually break down the overall shape into smaller shapes as defined by the individual forms of the main section of the hand and the fingers, thumb, and wrist. Take note of the areas where the various parts, such as the fingers and thumb, bend or are extended or outstretched.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 25. - 10 - ILLUSTRATION 02-17 Draw slowly. Accuracy is more important than speed. Your speed will automatically improve the more you practice drawing hands. ILLUSTRATION 02-18 Confirm that the proportions are drawn correctly by examining the positive spaces inside the perimeter of each part of the hand. Also check out the shapes and sizes of the negative spaces behind the hand and in between each digit.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 26. - 11 - ILLUSTRATION 02-19 When your drawing is finished, compare it to Illustration 02-19. If you’re not happy with a section, simply erase it and draw it again. Erase any fingerprints, smudges, and/or sketch lines that you don’t like with your kneaded eraser molded to a point (or a sharp edge of your vinyl eraser). Sign your name. Put today’s date on the back of your drawing, and then draw another 100 hands! Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 27. - 12 - BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. These sites are respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 28. Brenda Hoddinott H-04 BEGINNER: FOCUS ON PEOPLEEyelashes are fine hairs that grow from the outer edges of the upper and lower eyelids. Manyartists have difficulty drawing natural looking eyelashes. Even if every other aspect of yourdrawing of a face is perfect, incorrectly drawn eyelashes can ruin it.In this project, you are challenged by the adversary of portrait artists –natural looking eyelashes.This lesson offers an understanding into the qualities of correctly drawn eyelashes, and showsyou how to set up and draw the outline of an eye and add eyelashes. With lots of practice, youcan draw natural eyelashes that are thick and bold close to the base, and thin and light at the tip 6 PAGES - 8 ILLUSTRATIONS This lesson is recommended for artists of all ages with basic drawing skills, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada, Revised 2006
• 29. 2 DRAWING EYELASHES Eyelashes are fine hairs that grow from the outer edges of the upper and lower eyelids. The upper eyelid is the larger, movable fold of skin above the eyeball that opens and closes to protect the upper and center sections of the eye. The lower eyelid is a smaller, less movable, fold of skin protecting the lower eyeball. Many artists have difficulty drawing natural looking eyelashes. Even if every other aspect of your drawing of a face is perfect, incorrectly drawn eyelashes can ruin it. Eyelashes, though tiny, are the most challenging parts of human anatomy to draw realistically! In Illustration 04-01, you see unnatural looking individual eyelashes that are the same value and thickness from root to tip. Eyelashes drawn with this type of line can’t possibly look correct. Illustration 04-02 shows the correct way to draw individual eyelashes. Each eyelash is thick at the bottom, and gradually becomes lighter and thinner closer to the tip. ILLUSTRATION 04-01 ILLUSTRATION 04-02 In this illustration of three ILLUSTRATION 04-03 eyes, have a peek at some common mistakes made when drawing eyelashes, such as making them too thick, too straight or too long.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 30. 3 Don’t expect to master drawing eyelashes right away. Take lots of time to practice before you try adding them to your drawings of people. With lots of practice, you can draw natural eyelashes that are thick and bold close to the base, and thin and light at the tip. Examine the eyelashes in the next two illustrations. ILLUSTRATION 04-04 ILLUSTRATION 04-05 The following criteria provide insights into various aspects of drawing realistic eyelashes. Refer to the previous two illustrations, and the next. Take note that correctly drawn eyelashes:Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 31. 4 Grow in many different directions, mostly outward from the eyelids. Are rendered with thin lines of different lengths. Are curved and unevenly spaced. Appear thicker closer to the eyelids. Grow from the outer edges of the upper and lower eyelids and not the white of the eye. Are drawn in groups rather than single lines. Gradually become longer and thicker toward the outer corners of the eye. ILLUSTRATION 04-06 Correctly drawn eyelashes look natural and lifelike. A simple little drawing technique provides a realistic looking eyelash every time - in simple terms, never draw eyelashes from the tip down toward the eyelid. Always draw them in the direction in which they grow, from the eyelid (or root) outward. Grab some paper and a 2B pencil. Refer to the next close up drawing, and try your hand at drawing realistic looking individual lashes. 1. Begin at the base of the eyelash and press firmly with your pencil. Remember; always draw eyelashes in the direction they grow, from the eyelid outward. ILLUSTRATION 04-07 2. Slowly release the pressure you apply as your curved line extends toward the tip. Realistic eyelashes look like inverted commas – thick at the bottom and thin at the top. 3. Gently lift your pencil from the paper when the tip of the line is very thin and light in value.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 32. 5 Warm up your drawing hand and draw an eyeful of eyelashes. ILLUSTRATION 04-08 1) Lightly sketch the almond shape of an eye, with a double line at the top and bottom, to represent the thickness of the flesh of the eyelids. 2) Use 2H and HB pencils, to draw an average quantity of eyelashes, on the outer edges of the upper and lower eyelids. ILLUSTRATION 04-09Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 33. 6 Sign your name, add today’s date on the back of your drawing, and then pat yourself on the back! BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 36. 3 ILLUSTRATION 5-02 2. Draw the ears. The tops of ears will approximately line up horizontally with the eyebrows. The bottoms of the ears will line up with the bottom of the nose. ILLUSTRATION 5-03 3. Draw Kim’s eyes and eyebrows. Her almond shaped eyes are slightly lower than the tops of the ears. Use your 4B pencil to shade in each eye, leaving a tiny white spot (the highlight) in each, to help make them look shiny. A highlight is a tiny bright spot where the light bounces off the shiny surface of the eye. A slightly curved short line above each eye represents the eyebrows. ILLUSTRATION 5-04 4. Add her nose and mouth. Draw an oval shape, below the eyes as her nose. Note that the bottom of the nose lines up horizontally with the bottom of the ears. Draw a curved line as the mouth. Add a tiny downward curve on each end of the mouth. ADDING SHINY HAIR In this section, you use curved hatching lines to draw Kim’s hair. ILLUSTRATION 5-05 5. Use your 4B pencil to draw the curved hatching lines that indicate the hair. The curved hatching lines are several different lengths and values. The hairline around the forehead and the edges of the center part in the hair are not solid lines; rather they are jagged edges.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
• 37. 4 ILLUSTRATION 5-06 ILLUSTRATION 5-07 6. Draw the buns (or whatever you wish to call them) on either side of her head. First of all, outline two oval shapes on either side of her head with a HB pencil. Make sure you leave the ears in front of the buns. Then, use your 4B pencil to draw the hatching lines that indicate the shiny texture of the buns. Sign your name, put the date on the back of your drawing paper, pat yourself on the head, give yourself a big hug and choose another drawing project!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
• 38. 5 BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. Drawing for Dummies is now available in Dutch, Bulgarian, Spanish, French, and German. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
• 40. 2 SKETCHING Sketch: (noun) is a simple drawing that PROPORTIONS captures the integral aspects of a subject quickly and efficiently; (verb) refers to the The first step is to sketch process of rendering a sketch. the shapes of the Shape: refers to the outward outline of a manikin’s pose as form. Basic shapes include circles, proportionately correct squares and triangles. as possible. Form: in a drawing, is the illusion of the 1) Very lightly sketch three-dimensional structure of a shape, the proportions of such as a circle becoming a sphere by adding shading. the manikin. Proportion: is the relationship in size of A photo of the one component of a drawing or an object manikin is on each to another or others. page to help guide you. Use a 2H or HB pencil, and follow along with Figures 601 to 609. Don’t press too hard with your pencil! In reality, the lines of my sketch are so faint that they are barely visible. I have darkened them in an imaging program so you can see them. I have added a border around each illustration to give you an idea of where to draw each part on your paper. Nothing is more frustrating than drawing the upper half of a body, and then realizing that you don’t have enough space below to add the legs! Figure 601 Figure 602 Figure 603Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 41. 3 Figure 604 Figure 605 Figure 606 Figure 607 Figure 608 Figure 609 TIP! Before continuing, pat your drawing with a kneaded eraser to make the sketch lines lighter (as in Figure 609).Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 42. 4 ADDING SHAPES Figure 610 Figure 611 In this section you add more details, such as the locations of the shoulders, knees, elbows, and wrists. 2) Sketch the shapes of the various parts of the manikin. Use an HB pencil and refer to Figures 610 to 617. TIP! Do not draw directly over your sketch lines. Rather, refer to the photo of the manikin and my sketches to look for ways to make your drawing more accurate. Figure 612 Figure 613 Figure 614Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 43. 5 Take note Figure 615 Figure 616 Figure 617 that I’ve made the legs a little longer. REFINING THE SKETCH Figure 618 Figure 619 By refining the outlines of the various parts of the manikin you are enhancing your visual skills, and have a final chance to sketch the proportions more accurately. With lots of practice drawing from a manikin, you can combine the steps in this section with those in the first two sections of this lesson. 3) Use your kneaded eraser to lighten your sketch lines again. 4) Neatly outline the various shapes of the manikin, adjusting the outlines for increased accuracy as you go. Refer to figures 618 to 626. You may need to sharpen your pencil again if the tip begins to get dull.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 44. 6 Figure 620 Figure 621 Figure 622 Figure 623 Figure 624 Figure 625Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 45. 7 Before you continue, compare the drawing in Figure 626 Figure 626 to yours, and adjust anything you aren’t happy with. FROM MANIKIN TO HUMAN Manikins merely serve as references for establishing relatively accurate proportions. Unlike humans, manikins’ shoulders, elbows, wrists, hips, knees, and ankles are simple circular forms. If you have an illustrated book on human anatomy, you may find it very helpful. However, don’t get caught up in trying to add too much detail; the goal of this sketch is to simply draw a figure that looks human. 5) Take a kneaded eraser and lighten your sketch one last time. 6) Replace the manikin figure with the outline of a human male. Figure 627 Figure 628 As an aside, this manikin is male; female manikins are also available.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 46. 8 Figure 629 Figure 630 Figure 631 Figure 632 With a few minor adjustments to the shapes of the manikin, a human figure emerges. CHALLENGE Sketch two more human figures from a manikin using the techniques and the processes discussed in this lesson. To keep the task challenging, use poses that are completely different. If you do not have a manikin, use the photo of two manikins in Figure 632.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 47. 9 BRENDA HODDINOTT As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist (retired), and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including her favorites: graphite and paint. Brenda is the author of Drawing for Dummies (2003, Wiley Publishing, Inc., New York, NY) and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN). She is currently writing two books on classical drawing. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong drawing and painting skills through self-directed learning. During her twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, various criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. In 2003, Brenda retired from her careers as a forensic artist and teacher to work full time writing books and developing her website (Drawspace.com). This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 49. 2SKETCH THE FIRST HALFIn this section, you outline a drawing space, and then draw simple shapes and lines on the left ofa line of symmetry. You need a ruler and pencils, as well as an eraser so you can fix any linesyou aren’t happy with.Drawing space (also called a drawing surface or a drawing format) is the area in which yourender a drawing within a specific perimeter. It can be the shape of the paper or outlined by anyshape you draw, such as a square, rectangle, or circle. Shape refers to the outward outline of aform. Basic shapes include circles, squares and triangles. Lines are basically comprised of threefamilies, straight, angle, and curved, which can be combined to make line drawings. Symmetry indrawing is a balanced arrangement of lines and shapes, on opposite sides of an often-imaginarycenterline.1. Draw a rectangular drawing space that is approximately twice as wide as it is high. FIGURE 11-01 For example, you can draw a rectangle 2 by 4 inches or 3 by 6 inches (mine is 1.8 by 4 inches). This particular subject comes in numerous shapes and sizes; hence, your drawing does not need to be exactly the same as mine.2. Draw a line of symmetry down the center of the rectangle. This line of symmetry serves as a reference to help keep both sides of your drawing symmetrical. Draw the line lightly because you need to erase it later. FIGURE 11-02 Use your ruler to locate the horizontal midpoint of the rectangle on the upper and lower sides. Mark each with a tiny dot. Connect the dots with a very faint line that divides the rectangle into two equal sections. >TIP< Always place a piece of clean paper under your hand as you draw. Each time you work on a new section, remember to move your paper so it’s always under your hand. This prevents you from smudging your drawing, and protects the paper from the oils in your skin.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 51. 4 FIGURE 11-07 4. Draw a mirror image of your drawing in the second rectangle. Constantly refer to your first drawing on the opposite side of your paper. Imagine that you are drawing its reflection in a mirror. Begin the upper line of the mirror image, by placing your pencil on the line of symmetry, where the existing line ends. FIGURE 11-08 FIGURE 11-09 FIGURE 11-10 FIGURE 11-11 FIGURE 11-125. Carefully erase the line of symmetry, and redraw any sections that were inadvertently erased. Turn your drawing around until it looks like Figure 11-12.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 53. 6 FIGURE 11-14 >TIP< To gain a better understanding of the process of contour hatching, refer to lessons F08 Basic Contour Hatching and F09 Graduations with Contour Hatching. You can find both in F-Level Beginner: Hatching. FIGURE 11-15 7. Add a full range of values to the lips with contour hatching graduations. Refer to Figures 11-15 to 11- 22, as well as the five strategies for successful contour hatching graduations on the previous page. Graduations are the primary FIGURE 11-16 ingredient in realistic shading. Keep the transitions between the different values flowing into one another as smoothly as possible. Remember to leave the highlight sections (mostly on the left sides of the lips) the white of the paper. Highlight refers to the brightest area of a form FIGURE 11-17 where light bounces off its surface and is usually the section closest to the light source (from the upper left in this drawing). The shading begins very light around the edges of the highlights and becomes gradually darker farther away from the light.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 54. 7Continue adding shading that becomes FIGURE 11-18progressively darker farther away fromthe light. These values need to be darkbecause very little light reaches theshadow areas on a form. FIGURE 11-19 The darkest shading of all is on the left, close to the opening of the mouth, which is mostly in shadow. A strong contrast in values enhances the forms of the lips. Contrast is the comparison of different values when put beside one another, and is an invaluable tool for heightening the effects of form and composition. FIGURE 11-20 >TIP< You can easily touch up sections you aren’t happy with. To make lines lighter, pat them with a kneaded eraser molded to a wedge. You can make sections darker by adding more curved FIGURE 11-21 hatching lines in between others. The curved hatching lines in the darkest shadow sections are barely noticeable because they are really close together with hardly any of the white paper showing through.Figure 11- 22 (on the next page) has been enlarged to twice the size of my original drawing, soyou can more clearly see the hatching lines.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 55. 8Give yourself a big FIGURE 11-22hug, sign yourname, and writetoday’s date on theback of yourdrawing!CHALLENGEDraw another mouth using the shading skills presented in this lesson, but without adding outlinesaround the lips. You can draw your own lips by looking in a mirror, or you can dig out a photo ofa friend or family member in which the lips are in sharp focus.Figure 11-23 is a tiny illustration of the mouth in this lesson with FIGURE 11-23outlines around the lips. Figure 11-24 demonstrates drawings of adiverse selection of human mouths without outlines. FIGURE 11-24Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 56. 9Brenda HoddinottAs a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda utilizesdiverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, contécrayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducingthe technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. Brenda HoddinottBiographyBorn in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. Shedeveloped strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning,and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as aself-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments haveemployed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal policedepartments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal CanadianMounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “ForensicArtists International”.Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing andpainting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired andtrained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brendachose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing,drawing, painting, and developing her websites.Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach tocurriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes forstudents of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels andabilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as aresource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughoutthe world.Learn-to-draw booksDrawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is availableon various websites and in major bookstores internationally.The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of theYear Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page bookis available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 57. Brenda HoddinottH-12 BEGINNER: FOCUS ON PEOPLEYou use slightly curved hatching lines of various lengths andvalues to draw realistic long straight hair. Skills include:identifying different approaches to drawing hair, drawing thecontours of straight hair with curved hatching lines, andtransforming a circle into a sphere.This lesson is divided into the following four parts: COMPARING HAIRY DRAWINGS: You observe a couple of basic approaches to drawing hair and examine various drawings in which the hair is drawn realistically. Drawing realistic hair involves creating the illusions of form and depth. SETTING UP TO DRAW HAIR: You outline the contours of hair as they assume the shape of a head. HATCHING LONG HAIR: You use curved hatching lines and various pencils to shade the texture and three-dimensional forms of realistic long straight hair. Curved hatching lines are perfect for creating the texture of both hair and long fur. ADDING A SIMPLE FACE: You shade in a face and transform a circular shape into a spherical nose. This face will be EASY to draw! The eyes are hidden under the hair and the mouth is a tiny oval.Suggested drawing supplies include good quality white drawing paper, kneaded and vinylerasers, and various graphite pencils such as 2H, 2B, HB, 4B, and 6B. 13 PAGES – 22 ILLUSTRATIONS This project is recommended for artists, aged ten to ninety-nine, who have basic drawing skills, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada, Revised 2006
• 58. -2- COMPARING HAIRY DRAWINGS Many beginners try to draw realistic hair with long continuous lines and very little contrast. Subsequently, the hair looks flat, rather than three-dimensional. Drawing realistic hair involves creating the illusions of form and depth. Contrast measures the degree of difference between the light and dark values within shading, and helps create the illusion of three-dimensional reality. Shading refers to the various shades of gray (values) in a drawing that make the drawing subjects look three-dimensional. Values are the different shades of gray created when you draw by varying both the density of the shading lines, and the pressure used in holding various pencils. Form, as applied to drawing, is the illusion of the three-dimensional structure of a shape. ILLUSTRATION 12-01 ILLUSTRATION 12-02 These two illustrations demonstrate a couple of different methods for drawing long straight hair. Examine each to discover their differences. Hair drawn with straight lines and little contrast looks flat. Flat hair is rendered with long continuous straight lines and a very limited range of values. Realistic hair is rendered with curved lines of various lengths, and a full range of hatching values from very light to almost black. Some cartoon artists use straight lines to illustrate hair. This works perfectly when flat two-dimensional hair is the goal. Check out the first cartoon drawing below. ILLUSTRATION 12-03 ILLUSTRATION 12-04 Drawing with only straight lines doesn’t work well for drawing realistic hair. Realistic hair is drawn with curved lines of various lengths, which follow the contours of the forms of the hair and/or skull (as shown in the second cartoon).Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 59. -3- ILLUSTRATION 12-05 Take note of the point on the top of this little girl’s head, from which all her hair seems to grow. The hatching lines follow the contours of her skull, creating the perceived reality of her head being three-dimensional. Hatching is a series of lines (called a set) drawn closely together to give the illusion of values. ILLUSTRATION 12-06 Tiny individual lines can be sketched around the top and sides of realistic hair to create a soft wispy illusion. Hair of all colors (including black, brown, blond, red, and purple), should be drawn with a broad range of values, from light to dark. Keep in mind that all colors of hair tend to look darker further away from the dominant light source, and even more so in the darkest shadow areas. Light source refers to the direction from which a dominant light originates. The placement of this light source affects every aspect of a drawing. More dark values than light, are used to create the illusion that the hair is dark (such as black or dark brown), rather than light. Conversely, light hair (such as gray or blond) is shaded with fewer dark values.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 60. -4- ILLUSTRATION 12-07 Long hair often curves in many directions, creating wavy rather than completely straight hair. Illustrations 12-06, 12-07, and 12-08, demonstrate how light and dark sections of hair are each rendered with a full range of values. ILLUSTRATION 12-08 As you can no doubt tell, long wavy hair generally takes much longer to draw than straight hair. Examine these drawings closely, and take note of the following:  The dominant light source is from the right.  Strands of hair are much lighter closer to the light source.  The hair is darker in the shadowed areas further from the light source.  The hatching lines are of various lengths, rather than long continuous lines.  Almost all of the hatching lines are curved rather than straight.  The values range from almost white in the shiny areas to very dark, such as close to her neck.  Some sections of hair overlap others, helping enhance the illusion of depth and three-dimensional reality.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 63. -7- 6. Add (or extend) two more slightly curved lines that extend downward from the point, to the inside edges of the nose, and then begin again lower on the nose, until they almost meet at a point below the nose. These lines do not touch the very outside edge of the nose. The goal here is to create the illusion that small sections of the hair are behind the nose on each side. 7. Re-draw a tiny section of the chin (the lower section of the egg-shape) inside the triangular section formed by the two lines below the nose. 8. Add (or extend) two more lines to the outside of the previous two. These lines also begin at the point on the top of the head, and extend downward. 9. Erase the original drawing of the egg-shape (except for the chin). ILLUSTRATION 12-13 ILLUSTRATION 12-14 10. Extend the curved lines from the upper section of the head, almost all the way down to the bottom of your drawing space. Observe, how the lines that are closer to the outer edges of the hair, curve in the same directions as your first outline of the hair. The closer the lines are to the center, the less they curve. The line in the very center is almost completely straight, except for a tiny curve at the bottom.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 65. -9- 12. Use your 2B pencil to draw the hatching lines for the darker sections of hair at the top (Illustration 12-16) and middle (Illustration 12-17) of your drawing. ILLUSTRATION 12-16 ILLUSTRATION 12-17 The darker values in the hair are also of various lengths and values with raggedy endings.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 66. - 10 - 13. Continue using your 2B pencil for the lower sections of hair close to the bottom. 14. Use your 4B pencil to add a few darker hatching lines at the very top and in a small section of the center sections. ILLUSTRATION 12-18 ILLUSTRATION 12-19Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 69. - 13 - BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 70. With lines Brenda Hoddinott H-03 BEGINNER: FOCUS ON PEOPLERough, gesture, or action sketches are usually rendered very quickly, sometimes in lessthan a minute. The benefits of making rough sketches are in the process, rather than thecreation of a magnificent work of art. Hence, you only goal is to capture a mood,expression or gesture on your drawing paper.This lesson provides basic information and helpful hints for rendering rough, gesture, oraction sketches with simple lines and is divided into the following sections: EXAMINING SKETCHES: A few simple sketches demonstrate how lines can quickly and efficiently illustrate the important shapes and forms of a human body. CHOOSING MODELS: Models for sketching are easy to find when you know where to look. Consider sketching friends, family, yourself or non-living models, such as photos or sketches of people or manikins. THE BASIC SKETCHING PROCESS: In five simple steps, I take you through the process of sketching from life (or a good quality photo). I suggest sketching supplies beyond the basics, and share some techniques and helpful hints.Suggested supplies include 2H, HB, 2B, 4B and 6B pencils, vinyl and kneaded erasers,a pencil sharpener, a sandpaper block, and good quality drawing paper. 9 PAGES - 11 ILLUSTRATIONS This lesson is recommended for all artists. The curriculum is easily implemented into instructional programs for home schooling, academic and recreational learning environments.Both nude and clothed figures are illustrated; hence, the curriculum is recommended for mature artists. Artists under the age of 18 need permission from an adult before viewing. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada - 2007
• 71. 2 Figure 13-01 EXAMINING SKETCHES A few simple lines can quickly and efficiently illustrate the important shapes and forms of a human body. Sketching refers to the method used for creating a quick, rough representation or outline of a planned drawing subject. In some cases, a sketch is considered a completed work of art. A contour sketch is comprised of several quickly rendered contour lines that define the edges of the shapes of the various components of a drawing subject. Shape refers to the outward outline of a form. Contour lines are created when the shared edges of spaces and/or objects meet. Contour lines can define complete objects or small sections or details within drawing subjects. Contour sketches fall into one of the following categories: Rough sketch: is quickly rendered to capture a basic pose. Gesture sketch: captures the past, present, or potential movements of living beings. Action sketch: is rapidly rendered to define actions or movements. Needless to say, seeing is every bit as important Figure 13-02 as sketching. At least half of my total sketching time was used for examining the various contours of the models’ bodies.Each of the sketches inFigures 13-01, 13-02and 13-03 was renderedin less than 5 minutes.They have no intricatedetails, such as a face,fingers, or toes.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 73. 4 Sometimes, you may want to spend an extra few minutes adding details to a sketch. The sketch of the young man seated in a meditative pose (Figure 13-04) shows a little more detail than the sketches in the previous section. While the hands are not rendered in detail, I found the facial expression especially compelling. This sketch took approximately 15 minutes. Examine the various contour sketches of my grandson Brandon in Figures 13-05 to 13-11. Each took somewhere between 15 to 30 minutes; I included basic facial Figure 13-04 features, fingers, toes, and the simple details of his clothing.Sketching children is a lot of fun. Theirposes and gestures are very natural andtheir bodies are surprisingly flexible. Somebody parts easily bend in variousdirections, and others can bend, rotate,and/or curve. You may have a young childin your family or can borrow one from afriend to model for some sketches.Most children don’t like to stay still forvery long, have a rather short attentionspan, and tend to be easily distracted;hence, they are challenging to sketch fromlife. Try following a young child aroundwith a camera for a few minutes andyou’ll have enough reference photos fortons of wonderful sketches. Be patient,and be prepared to click that camerabutton often and quickly!Also, try taking photos of any potentialadult models you find appealing. Adults Figure 13-05tend to become comfortable in front of acamera when they are focusing on posingrather than the fact that someone isfollowing them with a camera.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 76. 7 4. Use simple lines to outline the shapes you see. Begin your sketch with very light lines to simply establish the Figure 13-09 figure on the drawing paper. Make your final lines a little darker so they stand out more. Don’t erase the initial sketch lines. They give character to the sketch. Practice sketching with a pen so you won’t be tempted to erase any lines. Remember to look at your model often. Spend more time looking at the model than your paper. Try to capture the overall pose as quickly as possible without fussing about drawing fine details. Press lightly with your pencil at first, until you feel that the proportions are reasonably accurate. By drawing even the slightest bend in the spine, you’ll end up with a more expressive sketch. Keep your lines as loose as possible by sketching from your arm or shoulder, rather than just your hand and wrist. Sketch long flowing marks in one continuous movement rather than teasing the lines with a series of short broken lines. Keep in mind that almost all lines used to draw a human figure, such as the curve of a back, need to be rendered with curved lines. You can sketch several loose lines for sections that are moving, or show potential movement, to give life to gestures and actions.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 78. 9Brenda HoddinottAs a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator,Brenda utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil,chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. Brenda HoddinottBiographyBorn in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook.She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to selfdirected learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’stwenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminalinvestigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal CanadianMounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with acommendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awardeda Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”.Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawingand painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department,Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s artprograms. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator inorder to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites.Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovativeapproach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printabledrawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Studentsof all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructionalapproach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schoolingprograms, and educational facilities throughout the world.Learn-to-draw booksDrawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book isavailable on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Bookof the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 81. -3- ILLUSTRATION 14-03 3. Sketch two vertical lines inside each side of the upper section of the egg-shape. Take note of the small triangular shapes created on either side. Try and make these shapes the same size. Don’t think of what the lines represent! Just focus on the lines themselves! ILLUSTRATION 14-04 4. Add two curved lines above the line that divides the egg-shape into two sections. Resist the temptation to turn your paper around and sneak a peek! No cheating now! Familiar objects often look very unfamiliar when viewed upside down. Visual information that is automatically verbally labeled by your left-brain is no longer available. When your left-brain cannot name and identify the various parts of your drawing subject, it eventually gives up trying. This is where the right brain jumps in and takes over.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 82. -4- ILLUSTRATION 14-05 5. Sketch two upside-down U-shapes (semicircles) above the two curved lines. Even though you are no doubt fully aware of what you are drawing, try to send your left brain on a short vacation. Rather than naming the parts of this drawing, allow your right brain to see only the lines and shapes. Focus on the lengths of the lines, and the way they curve to create various shapes and spaces. ILLUSTRATION 14-06 6. Add a three part curved line close to the top of the egg-shape and a slightly curved line below it. Refer to the close up in Illustration 14-07 to see these lines more clearly. ILLUSTRATION 14-07Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 83. -5- ADDING MORE DETAILS TO THE FACIAL FEATURES In this section, a few strategically placed lines and shapes, enhance Jamie’s facial features in preparation for shading. Before you draw Jamie’s eyes, refresh your memory on the names of the parts of an eye. ILLUSTRATION 14-08 1. Eyebrows: a cluster of hairs above the eye 2. Upper Eyelid Crease: a fold in the skin above the upper eyelid 3. Upper Eyelid: the larger movable fold of skin above the eyeball that opens and closes 4. Inside Corner: the small section of the eye in the inner corner 5. White of the Eye: the visible section of the eyeball, that is light in value, but not white. 6. Lower Eyelid: the smaller movable fold of skin below the eyeball 7. Eyelashes: fine hairs that grow on the edges of the upper and lower eyelids 8. Irises: the big circular shape of the eye that varies in value from very light to very dark 9. Highlights: a tiny bright spot where the light bounces off the shiny surface of the eye 10. Pupils: the dark circle inside the iris 7. Turn your drawing right side up. 8. Sketch another curved line above each eye as the upper eyelid creases. In the interest of simplicity, this sketch of Jamie’s eye will include only the most important parts of the eyes, and the eyebrows will be partially hidden under his hair. ILLUSTRATION 14-09Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 84. -6- 9. Add a shorter curved line below each eye as the edge of the lower eyelid. ILLUSTRATION 14-10 ILLUSTRATION 14-11 10. Sketch a round shape (the ball of the nose) above the curved line that indicates the location of the nose (as in illustration 14-11). 11. Add a smaller round shape on each side of the ball of the nose (as in illustration 14-12). ILLUSTRATION 14-12 12. Add the outline of the upper lip with a curved line in the center and an angular line on either side (as in illustration 14-13). ILLUSTRATION 14-13 13. Sketch the lower lip with a horizontal line in the middle and a line on each side that angles outward and upward toward the corners of the mouth.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 85. -7- 14. Check over your sketch carefully and change anything you’re not happy with. Look at the reflection of your sketch in a mirror to find any problem sections. If your lines are drawn lightly, making changes is a piece of cake! ILLUSTRATION 14-14Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 86. -8- USING CURVED HATCHING LINES TO DRAW HAIR Many beginners try to draw realistic straight hair with long continuous straight lines and very little contrast. Subsequently, the hair looks flat rather than three-dimensional. Contrast refers to the comparison of different values when put beside one another, and an invaluable tool for heightening the effects of composition. ILLUSTRATION 14-15 ILLUSTRATION 14-16 Cartoon artists often use straight lines to illustrate straight hair. This works well when flat, two- dimensional hair is the goal. However, if the goal is to draw lifelike straight hair, using straight lines makes your drawing look flat and unrealistic, and simply doesn’t work. Drawing realistic straight hair involves creating the illusion of form. ILLUSTRATION 14-17 ILLUSTRATION 14-18 Form, as applied to drawing, is the illusion of the three-dimensional structure of a shape, such as a circle, square or triangle, created in a drawing with shading and/or perspective. Compare Illustrations 14- 17 and 14-18 to the above two drawings. This realistic straight hair is rendered with curved lines of various lengths and a full range of hatching values. The hatching lines curve around the perceived forms of the skull.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 88. - 10 - 17. Erase the horizontal curved line that served to identify the lower edge of the bangs of Jamie’s hair. 18. Erase the upper sections of the lines that mark the sides of the face. 19. Outline the lower edges of Jamie’s ears. ILLUSTRATION 14-20Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 89. - 11 - 20. Gently pat the sketch lines on the face and the lower section of the hair with a kneaded eraser until they are very faint. 21. Use an HB pencil to add hatching lines that are light in value, to the lower section of Jamie’s hair, to indicate the texture. ILLUSTRATION 14-21 Observe how the hatching lines are several different lengths and most are slightly curved. The edges are not abrupt stops, but rather feathered (or ragged) to give a more realistic appearance. Remember, straight hair often follows the form of a person’s head and looks more realistic when you use curved lines instead of straight.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 91. - 13 - 24. With a 4B pencil, add a few darker sections of hair. Fine tune your observation skills as you examine the drawing below. Take note of the dark values in various sections, such as on the top of the head and on the right. The overall values range from white in the shiny areas to almost black in the dark shadow sections. ILLUSTRATION 14-14Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 93. - 15 - If you tend to be a little “heavy-handed” with your pencil, you may want to use a 2H for the light shading instead of an HB. ILLUSTRATION 14-26 27. Use a 2B to add middle values to the darker sections of the eyes and facial features. Refer to illustrations 14-27, 14-28, and 14-29. ILLUSTRATION 14-27Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 94. - 16 - ILLUSTRATION 14-28 Always place a piece of clean paper under your hand as you draw. Each time you work on a new section, remember to move your paper so it’s always under your hand. This prevents you from smudging your drawing, and protects the paper from the oils in your skin. ILLUSTRATION 14-29 Don’t press too hard with your pencils. Not only do these areas become impossible to touch up, but they also leave dents in your paper.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 96. - 18 - 32. Erase any fingerprints, or smudges with your kneaded or vinyl eraser, sign your name, put today’s date on the back of your drawing, and put a big smile on your face! ILLUSTRATION 14-31Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 97. - 19 - BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 100. 3 ILLUSTRATION 15-03 The next time you see a baby, take time to closely examine the head and the proportions of the features. First of all, take note of how tiny his or her facial mass is compared to the size of the cranial mass. Check out the locations of the eyes, nose, mouth and ears. Also note how tiny an infant’s neck is compared to the size of the head. No need to wonder why young infants can’t hold their heads up by themselves! With a realistic sense of how tiny babies’ faces actually are, you are well on your way toward drawing their portraits. Look closely at the profile drawing of a baby in Illustration 15-04. Note the five horizontal lines:  AB is halfway between the top of the head and the bottom of the chin  CD is halfway between AB and EF  EF is halfway between AB and IJ  GH is halfway between EF and IJ  IJ identifies the bottom of the bone in the chin (lower jaw), not the bottom of the soft tissue under the chin. Infants often have what is commonly called a “double chin”. ILLUSTRATION 15-04 Note the location of the baby’s features in relation to the five lines:  Eyebrows: are on line AB.  Eyes: are in between lines AB and CD.  Nose: is in between lines CD and EF.  Mouth: is in between lines EF and GH.  Chin: touches line IJ.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
• 102. 5 ILLUSTRATION 15-07 3) Lightly sketch a big circle in the big square to represent the size of a baby’s head. The goal is to draw the profile of a baby’s face in proper proportion to the size of his or her head. When you see the size of the face represented as a small circle, and the head as the large circle, you may be quite surprised by how tiny an infant’s face actually is! ILLUSTRATION 15-08 4) Sketch the shapes of the face within the small circle. The tiny facial profile fits entirely into the small circle. 5) Add a curved line to represent the back of the neck. Curved lines are created when a straight line curves (or bends). Curved lines can be drawn thick or thin. 6) Sketch the outline of the ear in the lower right square.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
• 103. 6 ILLUSTRATION 15-09 7) Sketch the eyes, nose, and mouth, and add details to the ear. 8) Pat your entire drawing with your kneaded eraser until the sketch lines are barely visible. 9) Erase the outlines of the squares and circles. ILLUSTRATION 15-10 10) Lightly sketch the hair and refine the outline of the face and neck. Be patient! Tackle only one small section at a time so you don’t become overwhelmed! Also refer to the drawing on the next page, to see how I further refined the features. As I work, I tend to constantly go back over my drawing and touch up little details and adjust the proportions.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
• 105. 8 ILLUSTRATION 15-12 12) Add the shading for the eyes, nose and mouth. The darkest value is in the pupil of the eye. The pupil of an eye is the dark circle inside the iris. The iris is the big circular shape of the eye that varies in value from very light to very dark. Don’t forget to leave a white spot (the highlight) in the eye to help make it look shiny. A highlight is a tiny bright spot where the light bounces off the shiny surface of the eyeCopyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
• 106. 9 13) Darken the shadow areas of the face and neck with a 2B pencil. Keep your pencil point nice and sharp so the hatching doesn’t become overly messy- looking. The forms of the baby’s face are tiny compared to the size of the head. Shadows are the areas on an object that receive little or no light. ILLUSTRATION 15-13Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
• 107. 10 ILLUSTRATION 15-14 14) Use hatching and HB and 2B pencils to add shading to the ear. 15) Add shading to the hair with HB and 2B pencils. Refer to Illustrations 15-15 and 14-16. The soft texture of the hair is rendered with short curved hatching lines. Texture is the surface detail of an object, as defined in a drawing with various shading techniques. The senses of touch and sight help identify the surface texture of a drawing subject. ILLUSTRATION 15-15Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
• 108. 11 ILLUSTRATION 15-16 Refer to the completed drawing of a baby’s facial profile in the next illustration and make any changes you wish. As you can clearly see, the baby’s head really is three times larger than the adorable little face.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
• 109. 12 ILLUSTRATION 15-17 Sign your name, put today’s date on the back, put a smile on your face, and go find another exciting drawing project!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
• 110. 13 BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. Drawing for Dummies is now available in Dutch, Bulgarian, Spanish, French, and German. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
• 112. -2- OUTLINING BASIC PROPORTIONS WITHIN A GRID Setting up accurate proportions is a great way to make sure a drawing is off to a great start! Proportion is the relationship in size of one component of a drawing to another or others. In this section, you use a simple grid to help sketch the perimeter of Brandon’s head and clothing. A grid is a precise arrangement of a specific number of squares, of exact sizes, proportionately drawn on both a photo and drawing surface. Grids help artists with numerous challenges, such as rendering precise proportions and correct perspective. 1. With an HB pencil and a ruler, draw a rectangle as your drawing format. Drawing format refers to the area of a drawing surface within a specific perimeter, outlined by a shape of any size, such as a square, rectangle or circle. To make sure your proportions are the same as mine draw the rectangle 4 by 6 inches, 6 by 9 inches, or 8 by 12 inches. 2. Use your ruler to measure and mark off the squares along each side with dots. If your rectangle is 4 by 6 inches, use 1 inch squares. For a drawing format that is 6 by 9 inches, draw 1.5 inch squares. Use 2 inch squares if your rectangle is 8 by 12 inches. 3. Use a ruler to divide the rectangle into 24 squares by connecting opposite dots. Press very gently with your pencil to keep your lines very light. As I drew my grid (with an HB pencil), only the weight of the pencil itself created the very faint lines. ILLUSTRATION 16-01 ILLUSTRATION 16-02Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
• 113. -3- ILLUSTRATION 16-03 4. Starting from the left, number the vertical rows with numbers 1 through 4, along the top and bottom (the short sides of the rectangle). 5. Starting from the top, letter the horizontal rows with letters A through F, down both long sides. You can now easily identify each square as you work. Hopefully, you’ll avoid making the mistake of drawing the wrong image in a grid square! ILLUSTRATION 16-04 6. Lightly sketch the perimeter of Brandon’s face and head with an HB pencil. Work in only one square at a time. Visually measure the proportions, and observe the relationships between the lines, shapes, and spaces in that square, while constantly referring to my drawing. Keep your lines very faint! The lines in my illustrations seem dark; however, in reality they are so light that I can barely see them. I have made them darker in a computer program so you can see them.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
• 114. -4- 7. Add Brandon’s ear, checking that your proportions are as close as possible to mine. ILLUSTRATION 16-05 HB pencils are great for drawing within a grid. I prefer using mechanical pencils so I don’t have to be constantly sharpening my wooden pencils. On the other hand, when I do draw with regular pencils, I keep the points very sharp with a sandpaper block.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
• 115. -5- 8. Outline the perimeter of his neck and clothing (on the lower right) with neat lines. ILLUSTRATION 16-06 Don’t press too hard with your pencils! No matter how careful you are, when you draw with a grid, accidents often happen. If you draw some lines in the wrong grid squares, simply erase that section, redraw the grid lines, and keep on going! Lightly drawn lines are easy to erase!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
• 116. -6- ADDING FACIAL FEATURES WITHIN A GRID In this section, you outline Brandon’s eyes, ears, nose and mouth proportionately correct. Even though many of the illustrations in this section have been cropped, continue using the numbers and letters around your drawing format, to keep you working in the correct grid squares. Draw slowly. Accuracy is more important than speed. Your speed will automatically improve the more you practice drawing. 9. With your HB pencil draw the perimeter of the eyes. Note the shape of the eyes as being almost almond, and that the width of the space between the eyes is slightly wider than the width of an eye. The eyes are located approximately at the midway point on the face between the top of the head and the bottom of the chin. ILLUSTRATION 16-07 To prevent your eyes from becoming too tired, always make sure you have adequate lighting. Natural light through a window is best in the daytime. On overcast days and in the evenings, a flexible-neck study lamp can focus light directly on your drawing surface.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
• 117. -7- ILLUSTRATION 16-08 10. Draw two curved lines to represent the outer edges of the nose. Observe how high the nose appears on the face of an infant. 11. Sketch a curved line slightly above the bottom edge of the face. Many babies have what is commonly referred to as a double chin. 12. Add the lower edge of the upper lip in its correct place. Observe that an infant’s nose and mouth are approximately the same width as an eye. ILLUSTRATION 16-09Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
• 118. -8- Before you continue outlining Brandon’s face, refer to the following illustration and become familiar with the names of the parts of an eye. ILLUSTRATION 16-10 1) Eyebrows: a cluster of hairs above the eye 2) Upper Eyelid Crease: a fold in the skin above the upper eyelid 3) Upper Eyelid: the larger movable fold of skin above the eyeball that opens and closes 4) Inside Corner: the small section of the eye in the inner corner 5) White of the Eye: the visible section of the eyeball, that is light in value. 6) Lower Eyelid: the smaller fold of skin below the eyeball 7) Eyelashes: fine hairs that grow on the edges of the upper and lower eyelids 8) Irises: the big circular shape of the eye that varies in value from very light to very dark 9) Highlights: a tiny bright spot where the light bounces off the shiny surface of the eye 10) Pupils: the dark circle inside the iris ILLUSTRATION 16-11 13. Sketch a curved line above each eye as the upper eyelid creases. Always place a piece of clean paper under your hand as you draw, to prevent you from smudging your drawing, and to protect the paper from the oils in your skin.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
• 119. -9- When drawing an oval or a circle, rotate your paper and look at it from different perspectives, such as upside down. 14. Outline the circular shapes of the irises of the eyes. 15. Add the small section of the ear showing on the left. 16. Sketch the nostrils of the nose. The nostrils look like the numbers 6 or 9 - curved lines turn into small circular shapes. 17. Draw a short curved line as the ball of the nose. This c-shaped line cuts through the horizontal line between rows C and D. 18. Add the outline of the upper lip. Observe that a slightly curved line extends downward from each side of the curved line in the center. ILLUSTRATION 16-12Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
• 120. - 10 - ILLUSTRATION 16-13 19. Sketch Brandon’s lower lip. Pay attention to the shapes of the sections that are above and below the line that divides rows D and E. ILLUSTRATION 16-14 20. Sketch an upside down U-shape to define the form of the outer rim of the ear. 21. Outline the inner forms of the ear, including the inner rim, and the opening to the ear canal (see Illustration 16-15). 22. Check over your sketch carefully and change anything you’re not happy with. Compare your drawing to mine (Illustration 16-15). Confirm that the outlines of the head, ears, eyes, nose, and mouth are drawn correctly. Also, examine the reflection of your sketch in a mirror to find any problem sections. If your lines are drawn lightly, erasing and making changes is a piece of cake!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
• 121. - 11 - ILLUSTRATION 16-15Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
• 122. - 12 - ILLUSTRATION 16-16 23. Lightly sketch the highlights and pupils of the eyes with an HB pencil. ILLUSTRATION 16-17 ILLUSTRATION 16-18 24. Draw light lines to indicate the hairline. 25. Outline the clothing (as in Illustration 16- 19 on the next page). 26. Pat your entire drawing with your kneaded eraser to lighten all your sketch lines. 27. Carefully erase your grid lines.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
• 123. - 13 - ILLUSTRATION 16-19Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
• 126. - 16 - ILLUSTRATION 16-22 ILLUSTRATION 16-23 The shape of a baby’s nose can be simplified as a large ball for the centre section and two small balls for the sections surrounding the nostrils. ILLUSTRATION 16-24 33. Add shading to the nose. This shading provides a three- dimensional reality to the various forms of the nose. 34. Use a 2B pencil to add dark values inside the nostrils of the nose 35. Shade in the sections of the face around the nose, between the eyes. 36. Use light values to shade the section of the face between the lower edges of the nose and the top of the upper lip.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
• 127. - 17 - 37. Beginning at the forehead and slowly progressing down the face to the chin and neck, draw all the shading on the other side of the face ILLUSTRATION 16-25 Observe that the shading of the face on the right is lighter in value than the shading on the left because it is closer to the light source. Also note that this eyebrow (on the right) is also lightly indicated by shading and not drawn in detail. Don’t miss the tiny area of shading under the eye. Observe the shading around the eyelids and the upper eyelid creases. As you begin adding values to the lower face, don’t forget the chin and the neck.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
• 128. - 18 - ILLUSTRATION 16-26 38. Add a thin line to identify the edge of the upper eyelid. 39. Use light values to add the shading to the white of the eye. Note the darker values used to shade the shadow on the white of the eye, under the upper eyelids. Also, the overall shading is darker on the eye that is further away from the light source. 40. Add the light and middle values to the iris. An HB pencil works well for the light values and a 2B is great for the middle values. Each iris is darker on the side with the highlight. The cast shadows directly under the upper eyelids are very dark. The iris on the left is darker than the other, especially the section that is in the shadow beside the inner corner of the eye. ILLUSTRATION 16-27Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
• 129. - 19 - 41. Use 2B and 4B pencils to add the darker sections of the eyes and nose, such as those in shadow. To keep a baby’s face looking gentle and soft, use dark values very sparingly. If you accidentally make a section too dark, pat the individual hatching lines very gently and carefully with a kneaded eraser molded to a wedge shape. 42. Use your 6B pencil to shade the pupil (remember to leave the highlight white). 43. Add a few very thin, light eyelashes on the upper edge of the eyelid with a 2H pencil. ILLUSTRATION 16-28 ILLUSTRATION 16-29 ILLUSTRATION 16-30 Note that a baby’s upper lip can be simplified as three small balls and that the lower lip appears to be divided into two balls.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
• 130. - 20 - ILLUSTRATION 16-31 44. Shade in the lips with HB and 2B pencils. Note the many different values used to complete this very detailed area of shading. Some areas are dark, such as the corners of the mouth), and others are completely white. 45. Shade the shadow area of the inside of the opening of the mouth with a 4B pencil. ILLUSTRATION 16-32 Using lines to outline the shapes of lips, noses, ears, and eyes is somewhat acceptable for a beginner, but is not technically correct for more accomplished artists. In more advanced lessons, I show you how to draw facial features without strongly defined lines that outline their shapes. 46. With a great deal of patience and HB and 2B pencils, complete the shading of the ear. 47. In preparation for shading the hair, use your kneaded eraser to lighten the outline of the skull.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
• 132. - 22 - ILLUSTRATION 16-34Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
• 133. - 23 - Whether you are totally happy with your drawing isn’t really important. What is important is that you keep on drawing… the more you draw the better you become! So grab another piece of paper, choose another lesson, and draw some more! BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Fine Art Education http://www.finearteducation.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. ART PUBLICATIONS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
• 135. 2RESPECTING HUMAN BODIESFor centuries, diverse cultures and societies have defined the various attributes ofphysical beauty in terms of their own concepts of ideal. For example, during the 1500’s,full-bodied women were sought by artists as wonderful examples of how a female bodyshould look. Throughout most of the 20 th century, robust and voluptuous womencontinued to be artists’ favorite models, and were considered the most beautiful asactresses and models; for instance, Marilyn Monroe was considered full-bodied. Duringthe past four decades mostly thin women have become celebrated as ideal models.Leading a physically active and healthy lifestyle with a well-balanced diet is a greatdeal more important than what an individual body looks like. Today, medicalprofessionals advocate heath concerns as the primary reason for maintaining a body thatis neither too thin nor too heavy. However, this does not mean that thin and heavyindividuals are unattractive. In fact, in the eyes of mature, accomplished artists, allhuman bodies are considered beautiful.Women and men come in various sizes, primarily determined by their genetics and lifestyles. Even persons of the same age and gender can have extremely different bodyshapes, heights and weights. To believe that one specific adult body type or size is idealwould be to under-appreciate the vast natural beauty of all human bodies.Figure 1701 shows several different adult bodies. Explore their outlines in terms ofshape and form, as you would a collection of priceless sculptures or vases.Figure 1701: Eleven adults of approximately the same age, with equally beautiful bodiesMale figures come in many shapes and sizes,from the tiny body of a male infant, to a bigtall adult man. Adult males are generallyinclined to have a larger bone structure, andbe bigger overall than women.In addition, men have a tendency to be Figuremore muscular and often don’t have as 1702:much body fat as women; hence, the Fiveforms of the various components of their very differentbodies, such as bones and muscles, are malesometimes more noticeable. bodiesCopyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 137. 4 The rough sketch in Figure 1705 captured Art-Speak the essence of the model’s pose in only a Proportion : is the relationship in size of one few minutes. component of a drawing to another or others. Rough sketch: is quickly rendered and illustrates important elements of a subject with very few details. Shape : refers to the outward outline of a Figure 1705: form. Basic shapes include circles, squares Rough sketch of a and triangles. female figure Sketch : (noun) is a simple drawing that captures the integral aspects of a subject quickly and efficiently; (verb) refers to the process of rendering a sketch (or drawing). Texture : is the surface detail of an object, as defined in a drawing with various shading techniques. The senses of touch and sight help identify the surface texture of drawing subject. Values : are the different shades of gray A lot more information can be illustrated created when you draw by varying both the by adding a few contour lines on top of a density of the shading lines, and the rough sketch. In Figure 1706, Simple pressure used in holding your pencils. contour drawings capture my grandson, Brandon, in motion and/or about to move. Figure 1706: Gesture sketches can capture the energy of motionCopyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 138. 5 A detailed sketch (or drawing) is generally more comprehensive and takes longer to render than rough or gesture sketches. A sketch can be a completed work of art or simply a study for a more detailed drawing (or painting). Figure 1707 shows a sketch rendered with both lines and shading. As you can tell by the locations of the shadows, the light source is from the upper left. Look closely and you can even see the lines from the initial rough sketch. The process for doing this sketch was to: lightly sketch proportions, then outline shapes and forms (also see Figure 1710), and finally add shading. Figure 1707: Detailed sketch of a young man sitting on a rocky cliff, with the ocean and sky behind him Figure 1708: Contour drawing of a clothed female figure, with the Art-Speak sketch lines erased Contour drawings ( also called line drawings): are Some artists prefer to comprised of lines which erase rough sketch lines, follow the contours of the after completing a various components of a detailed contour drawing drawing subject and define the outlines of its forms. (Figure 1708). Contour lines : are created The process of when the shared edges of rendering this drawing spaces and/or objects meet. entailed: doing a rough Contour lines can define sketch of the complete objects or small proportions, adding sections or details within neat and more drawing subjects. detailed contour Light source: The direction lines, erasing from which a dominant light the initial originates. The placement of sketch lines, this light source affects touching up the every aspect of a drawing. sections of lines that were The light source tells you inadvertently erased, and finally lightly where to draw all the light sketching the shapes of forms that I want to values and shadows. later accentuate with shading.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
• 139. 6TRYING OUT SOME SKETCHINGTECHNIQUESArtists are unique individuals and develop different waysof sketching based on their personal preferences. Themethod you choose for sketching is completely a matterof individual choice. Some artists prefer lines, moreprefer only shading, and others (like me) prefer acombination of values and lines.Before you begin drawing people from life, you need toimprove your speed and accuracy! Keep in mind thatsome poses become uncomfortable for the model afteronly a couple of minutes. Practice lots of sketches fromphotos or non-living models until your observation anddrawing skills become strong and your speed increases. Figure 1709: Sketch rendered with contour lines and shading Sketch with contour lines To sketch a figure with lines, find a model and gather your drawing materials. 1. Look closely at your subject. Observe which parts of the subject are in front of others. Visually break the subject down into shapes and measure proportions. 2. Draw what you see. Draw slowly. Accuracy is more important than speed. Speed automatically improves with time and practice. Remember, capturing the overall essence of your subject is more important than trying to draw intricate details.Figure 1710: Rough sketch of seated man rendered with contour linesSketch with spiral linesGesture sketching with spiral lines, lends itself perfectly to drawing the human figure.Find a drawing subject, preferably one with arms and legs. Examine the spiral drawingin Figure 1711 to get an idea of what a spiral drawing looks like.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com