VALUE SCALES                       Brenda HoddinottF-01 BEGINNER: HATCHINGWhen you can render sets of hatching lines well,...
2 EXAMINING HATCHED VALUES You become more comfortable with using shading in your drawings when you know how to draw value...
3                                                                                                ILLUSTRATION 01-04 5)    ...
4 9)     Draw a value scale of seven different values.        Using your 2H pencil, draw the first three values beginning ...
5                  Practice drawing value scales every single day, until you can                             clearly disti...
HATCHING                                     Brenda Hoddinott                             F-02 BEGINNER: HATCHINGIn this l...
2   SKETCHING THREE MOUNTAINS   In this section, you sketch three overlapping mountains beginning with the one that is clo...
3   4. Add a third mountain that appears to be behind the other two.                                                      ...
4   5. Press very lightly with your 2B pencil to draw the lightest hatching lines of the sky.        The lines are far apa...
5   7. Add shading to the second mountain with a 2B pencil.        Press a little harder with your pencil, and add lots of...
6   BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY   As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrato...
Brenda Hoddinott                        F-03 BEGINNER: HATCHINGMany artists struggle unnecessarily for years to create a f...
2   INTRODUCTION   Many artists labor unnecessarily for years to create a full range of values with only one or two   penc...
3   SKETCHING ELEVEN MOUNTAINS   In this section, you sketch eleven overlapping mountains beginning with the one that is c...
4                                                                        ILLUSTRATION 03-05   4. Sketch the      remaining...
5                                                                          ILLUSTRATION 03-08        ILLUSTRATION 03-09   ...
6                                                                         ILLUSTRATION 03-11       ILLUSTRATION 03-12     ...
7                                                                         ILLUSTRATION 03-14   5. Neatly outline each     ...
8   7.      Continue shading each mountain in sequence from the foreground to distant space.           Use the pencils ind...
9   Each mountain needs to be shaded a little lighter than the last. Hence, you may need to   occasionally go back over so...
10                                                      ILLUSTRATION 03-20                                               U...
11                                                      ILLUSTRATION 03-22                                               U...
12                                                      ILLUSTRATION 03-24                                               U...
13                                                      ILLUSTRATION 03-26                                          Use a ...
14   BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY   As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrat...
HATCHING                                                                            Brenda Hoddinott                      ...
2      BASIC HATCHING GRADUATION      In this section, you use a 2B pencil to draw a very simple graduation in which diffe...
3      4.     Draw more hatching lines even closer together, until the end of your graduation is             very dark.   ...
4      5.     With your 2B and/or 4B pencils, draw progressively darker values as you get almost             to the end of...
5      7.     Use curved hatching lines to draw a graduated value scale of ten different values,             from light to...
6      Note that the spots are not simply light and dark values, but rather, highly contrasting, graduated      values whi...
7      BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY      As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illu...
Brenda HoddinottF-05 BEGINNER: HATCHINGThis project guides you through the process of settingup proportional guidelines, a...
-2-    INTRODUCTION    The term Manga encompasses a vast array of individual styles of drawing, which allows artists to   ...
-3-    1.     Use a ruler to draw a straight line down the center of your page (Line AB).           Use an HB pencil, and ...
-4-                          ILLUSTRATION 05-03                                                                           ...
-5-                          ILLUSTRATION 05-05                                                                           ...
-6-                           ILLUSTRATION 05-07                                                                          ...
-7-                     ILLUSTRATION 05-09                                                                    16.     Draw...
-8-    18.    Draw a long thin triangular shape (the pupil) inside each iris.    19.    Add two comma-shapes as the nostri...
-9-    OUTLINING AND SHADING WITH HATCHING    In this section you discover all the fun parts of this project. You first ad...
- 10 -                                                      ILLUSTRATION 05-14Copyright to all articles, images, text, pro...
- 11 -    24.    Add three strands of hair growing down onto Kobrah’s forehead.           Note that one of the three stran...
- 12 -    26.    Outline Kobrah with dark, neat pencil lines or a fine tip black marker.           Take note of the small ...
- 13 -    27.    Use a 2H pencil to very lightly map the hatching lines on the hair, ears, face, and eyes.           The l...
- 14 -    28.    Draw the hatching lines with your dark pencil or fine tip marker.           Take note of the top sections...
- 15 -    29.    Fill in the upper tips of his hair, his eyebrows, and the pupils of his eyes very darkly.    30.    Add h...
- 16 -                                                                       ILLUSTRATION 05-20    If you wish, you    can...
- 17 -    BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY    As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and ill...
OUTDOORS                Brenda Hoddinott        F-06 BEGINNER: HATCHING    Sketching is an action word, and you can only  ...
-2- INTRODUCTION Outdoor enthusiasts often enjoy making art while enjoying their surroundings A quick sketch done on locat...
-3- PORTABLE EASEL: While many artists are comfortable in simply propping up their drawing surface; others like to use an ...
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Incepatori f hasura
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Incepatori f hasura

1,925

Published on

Published in: Design, Education, Art & Photos
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
1,925
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
87
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Incepatori f hasura

  1. 1. VALUE SCALES Brenda HoddinottF-01 BEGINNER: HATCHINGWhen you can render sets of hatching lines well, you discover a veryfast and simple way to achieve realistic shading in your drawings.Many different styles of hatching sets can be rendered, from linesthat are very noticeable, to lines drawn so closely together that theylook like a solid tone.This lesson is divided into the following three sections: EXAMINING HATCHED VALUES: Related terms and words are defined, and four different values demonstrate the simplicity of hatching. DRAWING BASIC HATCHING SETS: You make different values by placing the hatching lines either far apart or close together (varying the density). CREATING VALUE SCALES: A full range of values is rendered by: varying the density of the hatching lines, and the pressure used in holding pencils; and by using different grades of pencils.Have your drawing supplies close by so you can follow along withthe simple exercises! Suggested supplies include 2H, HB, 2B, 4Band 6B pencils, vinyl and kneaded erasers, and drawing paper. 5 PAGES – 10 ILLUSTRATIONS This article is recommended for artists of all ages and abilities, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – Revised 2006
  2. 2. 2 EXAMINING HATCHED VALUES You become more comfortable with using shading in your drawings when you know how to draw value scales. Shading refers to the various shades of gray (values) in a drawing that make drawings look three-dimensional. Values are the different shades of gray created when you draw by varying the density of the shading lines, and the pressure used in holding various pencils. Value scale refers to the range of different values from light to dark or from dark to light. Drawing value scales with hatching, requires lots of practice before you can experience success. Hatching is a series of lines (called a set) drawn closely together to give the illusion of values. 1) Squint your eyes and/or move back a little, and look at the four different sets of hatching lines in Illustration 01-01. ILLUSTRATION 01-01 The first set (on the far left) has very few lines drawn far apart, creating the illusion of a light value. Each of the other sets appears to become progressively darker, until you get to the last one which is the darkest. 2) Try your hand at drawing random sets of parallel lines in your sketchbook. Take note of how you make these lines. You should try many different ways of moving your pencil, rotating your paper, or changing the angle of your lines, until you find the motions that are the most natural for you. DRAWING BASIC HATCHING SETS In this exercise, you use a 2B pencil to practice drawing sets of parallel hatching lines far apart and closer together, to create four different values. ILLUSTRATION 01-02 3) Draw the first set of hatching lines with very few lines. The old expression “few and far between” works well here. The lines are far apart and few in number. ILLUSTRATION 01-03 4) Draw a second set of lines a little closer together than your first set. More lines are drawn in the second value than in the first. Hence, the overall value should look a little darker.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  3. 3. 3 ILLUSTRATION 01-04 5) Draw a third set of parallel lines, closer together than in your first two sets. Note that there are many more lines than in the second set and the lines are much closer together. ILLUSTRATION 01-05 6) Draw the fourth set of hatching lines very closely together. More lines make up the fourth hatching set and they are much closer together than in the first three. Also, not as much of the white paper is still showing through. ILLUSTRATION 01-06 In Illustration 01-06, I show you a small sampling of hatching styles. Note the different types of hatching lines, such as curved and straight, and long and short. Try to imagine how you could apply each of these sets to something in a drawing. 7) Try drawing some sets of different styles of hatching lines in your sketchbook. CREATING VALUE SCALES In this section, you discover how you can achieve a full range of values by varying both the density of the hatching lines and the pressure applied, while using pencils of different grades. 8) Practice hatching with each of your pencils and notice their differences. The 2H is very light (hardest) and the 2B is quite dark (softest). By letting your pencils do some of the work, you don’t need to press as hard with your pencil to achieve dark values, and you have more control doing light values. In the next exercise, you use three different pencils to help create various values. 2B works best for creating the dark values, HB is great for middle values, and 2H is ideal for light values.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  4. 4. 4 9) Draw a value scale of seven different values. Using your 2H pencil, draw the first three values beginning with the lightest. With your HB pencil, draw the next two values. Use your 2B for the two darkest values. Keep practicing this value scale in your sketchbook until you can draw all seven different values. Then try this same exercise in reverse from dark to light. ILLUSTRATION 01-07 ILLUSTRATION 01-08 Have a close look at these two sets of hatching lines and observe the following: In the hatching example in the upper left, you can clearly see my hatching lines. I draw my hatching lines very closely together in the lower right drawing, to create the illusion of a smooth, solid tone (without blending). In this next exercise, your goal is to make seven different smooth values by drawing the hatching lines close together. 10) With 2H and HB pencils, begin with the lightest value, and draw the first three light values as in the next illustration. 11) Use your 2B, 4B and 6B pencils to draw the four darker values. ILLUSTRATION 01-09 12) Draw a value scale of ten different values from light to dark. ILLUSTRATION 01-10 13) Draw another value scale of ten different values from dark to light.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  5. 5. 5 Practice drawing value scales every single day, until you can clearly distinguish ten different values! Put the date on the back of your drawings each day so you can enjoy watching your skills improve. BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  6. 6. HATCHING Brenda Hoddinott F-02 BEGINNER: HATCHINGIn this lesson, you outline three simple mountains and add shading with hatching. You create thefour different values with a 2B pencil, by using a combination of the following two techniques:  Vary the density of the hatching lines by drawing them either far apart or close together.  Vary the pressure used while holding the pencil; you press lightly for the light values and a little harder for darker values.This lesson is divided into the following two parts: SKETCHING THREE MOUNTAINS: You sketch three overlapping mountains beginning with the one that is closest, and working back toward the distant mountain. ADDING SHADING WITH HATCHING: The farther an object recedes into the distance, the lighter in value it seems to become. After shading the sky with a very light value, you then add shading to the mountains with hatching, beginning with the one in the background, and working toward the foreground, making each value progressively darker. This project is recommended for artists and aspiring artists of all ages, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. 6 PAGES – 7 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada, 2005 (Revised 2006)
  7. 7. 2 SKETCHING THREE MOUNTAINS In this section, you sketch three overlapping mountains beginning with the one that is closest, and working back toward the distant mountain and the sky. Overlapping is a technique that gives the illusion of depth in a drawing, and refers to the position of subjects in a composition, when one visually appears to be in front of another (or others). 1. Outline a horizontal rectangle (similar in shape to mine) as your drawing space. A horizontal rectangle is often referred to as a landscape format. Suggested sizes include 2 by 4 inches, or 3 by 6 inches. 2. Sketch the outline of the first mountain. This mountain is in the front, closer to the viewer than the other two. ILLUSTRATION 02-01 The outline begins about three-quarters of the way toward the top of the left side of the rectangle, and meets the lower side approximately three-quarters of the way toward the right. ILLUSTRATION 02-02 3. Outline a second mountain behind the first. Feel free to draw your mountains either more rounded or more jagged.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  8. 8. 3 4. Add a third mountain that appears to be behind the other two. ILLUSTRATION 02-03 ADDING SHADING WITH HATCHING In this section, you begin by shading the sky. Then, you add shading to the mountains with hatching, beginning with the one in the background, and working toward the foreground, making each value progressively darker. This shading process creates a component of perspective known as atmospheric perspective. Atmospheric perspective (sometimes called aerial perspective) refers to the visual depth created by various particles in the atmosphere. The farther an object recedes into the distance, the lighter in value it seems to become, and its edges and forms appear more blurred. Even on a clear day, your ability to see distant objects is decreased by an assortment of atmospheric components, such as minuscule particles of dust and/or pollen and/or tiny droplets of moisture. Your vision becomes even further diminished when the atmosphere is filled with haze, fog, smoke, rain or snow. Even fairly close-up objects can appear out of focus or almost invisible under certain conditions. Shading refers to those parts of a drawing that have values (sometimes called tones), and is used to give the illusion of depth or three-dimensional reality. Hatching is a classical shading technique comprised of sets of lines drawn closely together to give the illusion of various values. Values are the different shades of gray created by varying the density of the lines, and the pressure used in holding the pencil. In this section, you use a 2B pencil to render four different values, by combining two techniques: Vary the density of the hatching lines by drawing them either far apart or close together. Vary the pressure used while holding the pencil; you press lightly for the light values and a little harder for darker values.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  9. 9. 4 5. Press very lightly with your 2B pencil to draw the lightest hatching lines of the sky. The lines are far apart and few in number. ILLUSTRATION 02-04 6. Use an HB pencil to add shading to the mountain in the distance. This mountain needs to be slightly darker than the sky; so, you need to press a little harder on your pencil, and also draw a few more hatching lines. However, keep in mind that the two closer mountains need to be even darker, so be careful not to make this shading too dark. ILLUSTRATION 02-05Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  10. 10. 5 7. Add shading to the second mountain with a 2B pencil. Press a little harder with your pencil, and add lots of hatching lines fairly close together. ILLUSTRATION 02-06 8. Add shading to the mountain in the foreground with a 2B pencil. More lines make up the fourth hatching set, and they are much closer together than in the first three. Also, not much of the white paper is still showing through. ILLUSTRATION 02-07Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  11. 11. 6 BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  12. 12. Brenda Hoddinott F-03 BEGINNER: HATCHINGMany artists struggle unnecessarily for years to create a full range of values with only one or twopencils, totally unaware of how pencils themselves can create different values. In this lesson, youcreate the illusion of depth in a mountain range, by using various grades of pencils. You will alsoutilize two components of perspective, overlapping and atmospheric perspective.This lesson is divided into the following three parts: INTRODUCTION: When you use a combination of several H and B pencils you can easily create a full range of values in your drawings. SKETCHING ELEVEN MOUNTAINS: You sketch eleven overlapping mountains, beginning with the one that appears closest, and working back toward the distant mountain and the sky. PENCILS BUILD A MOUNTAIN RANGE: You use 12 different grades of pencils to add shading to each section of the sky and mountain range to render the illusion of depth as created by atmospheric perspective.Suggested supplies include white drawing paper, kneaded and vinyl erasers, a pencil sharpener,and 5H, 4H, 3H, 2H, HB, 2B, 3B, 4B, 5B, 6B, 7B and 8B pencils. This project is recommended for artists and aspiring artists of all ages, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. 14 PAGES – 27 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada, 2005 (Revised 2006)
  13. 13. 2 INTRODUCTION Many artists labor unnecessarily for years to create a full range of values with only one or two pencils, totally unaware of how pencils themselves can create different values. Generally speaking, H pencils work beautifully for light and middle values, and B pencils are best for middle and dark values. When you use a combination of several H and B pencils you can easily create a full range of values in your drawings. Refer to the following two illustrations to get an idea of the goal of this lesson. Various grades of pencils help create the illusion of depth in the mountain range. ILLUSTRATION 03-01 First of all, you will sketch a range of eleven mountains. You will then add shading to each mountain with a different grade of pencil. You need 5H, 4H, 3H, 2H, HB, 2B, 3B, 4B, 5B, 6B, 7B and 8B pencils. 2H is the lightest (hardest), and the 8B is the darkest (softest). ILLUSTRATION 03-02 In addition to using various grades of pencils, you will employ two components of perspective, overlapping and atmospheric perspective. Overlapping is a technique that gives the illusion of depth in a drawing, and refers to the position of subjects in a composition, when one visually appears to be in front of another (or others). Atmospheric perspective (sometimes called aerial perspective) refers to the visual depth created by various particles in the atmosphere. The farther an object recedes into the distance, the lighter in value it seems to become, and its edges and forms appear more blurred. To learn more about the fundamentals of perspective, refer to lesson E-01 Basic Perspective for Beginners.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  14. 14. 3 SKETCHING ELEVEN MOUNTAINS In this section, you sketch eleven overlapping mountains beginning with the one that is closest and working back toward the distant mountain and the sky. When sketching overlapping objects, I generally find it easier to draw those in the foreground first. 1. Outline a horizontal rectangle, similar in shape to mine, as your drawing space. A drawing space (also called the drawing surface or drawing format) is the area in which you render a drawing within a specific perimeter. A horizontal rectangle is often referred to as a landscape format. You can either turn your drawing paper horizontally, or you can use a ruler to draw a rectangle as your drawing space. My drawing space is 3 by 5 inches. As you continue through this section, try to draw the outlines of the mountains in approximately the same locations as in my sketches. ILLUSTRATION 03-03 2. Sketch the outline of a mountain in the lower left corner of the drawing space. Use a 2H pencil and press very lightly so you don’t indent the paper. ILLUSTRATION 03-04 3. Outline a second mountain behind the first. While it’s important to draw your mountains in approximately the same locations as mine, there’s no need to make their shapes exactly like mine. Feel free to draw them more rounded or jagged.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  15. 15. 4 ILLUSTRATION 03-05 4. Sketch the remaining nine mountains. Follow along with the following nine sketches (Illustrations 03-05 to 13). ILLUSTRATION 03-06 ILLUSTRATION 03-07Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  16. 16. 5 ILLUSTRATION 03-08 ILLUSTRATION 03-09 ILLUSTRATION 03-10 ILLUSTRATION 03-06Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  17. 17. 6 ILLUSTRATION 03-11 ILLUSTRATION 03-12 ILLUSTRATION 03-13Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  18. 18. 7 ILLUSTRATION 03-14 5. Neatly outline each mountain with the pencil that will be used for its shading. For example, the first one you drew in the lower left of the drawing space needs to be outlined with an 8B pencil, the one directly behind it with a 7B, and so on. PENCILS BUILD A MOUNTAIN RANGE Artists have been drawing with graphite for centuries and even today it remains the most popular drawing medium. It has withstood the test of time for permanence, and lends itself beautifully to all styles of drawing. In this section, you add shading to each section of the mountain range to render the illusion of depth as a result of various particles in the atmosphere. Shading is the process of adding values to a drawing so as to create the illusion of form and/or three-dimensional spaces. Feel free to use whatever style of shading you prefer, such as hatching or squirkling (I’ve used hatching). ILLUSTRATION 03-15 6. Use an 8B pencil to add a very dark value to the closest mountain, in the lower left corner.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  19. 19. 8 7. Continue shading each mountain in sequence from the foreground to distant space. Use the pencils indicated in Illustration 03-14. ILLUSTRATION 03-16 Use a 7B for this mountain ILLUSTRATION 03-17 Use a 6B for this mountainCopyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  20. 20. 9 Each mountain needs to be shaded a little lighter than the last. Hence, you may need to occasionally go back over some mountains and adjust their values a little. To make a mountain darker you need to press a little harder with your pencil, and to make the value lighter, you ease off on the pressure used. If a mountain seems way too dark, you can pat it with your kneaded eraser and redo the shading until you are happy with the results. ILLUSTRATION 03-18 Use a 5B for this mountain ILLUSTRATION 03-19 Use a 4B for this mountainCopyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  21. 21. 10 ILLUSTRATION 03-20 Use a 3B for this mountain ILLUSTRATION 03-13 ILLUSTRATION 03-21 Use a 2B for this mountainCopyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  22. 22. 11 ILLUSTRATION 03-22 Use a HB for this mountain ILLUSTRATION 03-23 Use a 2H for this mountainCopyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  23. 23. 12 ILLUSTRATION 03-24 Use a 3H for this mountain ILLUSTRATION 03-25 Use a 4H for this mountainCopyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  24. 24. 13 ILLUSTRATION 03-26 Use a 5H to add shading to the sky As a final touch, (if you want your drawing to look really neat), you can outline the edges of each mountain again with freshly sharpened pencils (as you did in step 6). ILLUSTRATION 03-27Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  25. 25. 14 BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  26. 26. HATCHING Brenda Hoddinott F-06 BEGINNER: HATCHING Whether you are trying hatching graduations for the very first time, or simply wishing to improve your current skills in graduated shading techniques, this lesson has something for you.Graduations are the primary ingredient in realistic shading. Hatching graduations are rendered byvarying the density of lines, varying the pressure used in holding pencils, and/or using differentpencils. The main goal is to keep the transition between the different values flowing into oneanother as smoothly as possible.This lesson is divided into the following three sections: BASIC HATCHING GRADUATION: You render a simple method of graduated values by varying the density (placing lines either far apart or close together) of the hatching lines. HATCHING GRADUATIONS: The process of hatching both smooth and textured graduations, by combining various methods of rendering different values, is demonstrated. EXAMINING GRADUATIONS IN A DRAWING: A drawing of a Dalmatian is examined, and the hatching graduations are discussed.Suggested drawing supplies include 2H, HB, 2B, 4B and 6B pencils, vinyl and kneaded erasers,and good quality drawing paper. 7 PAGES – 9 ILLUSTRATIONS This lesson is recommended for artists and aspiring artists of all levels and abilities, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada, 2005 (Revised 2006)
  27. 27. 2 BASIC HATCHING GRADUATION In this section, you use a 2B pencil to draw a very simple graduation in which different values are rendered by drawing hatching lines of various lengths, either far apart or close together. Graduated shading (also known as a graduation or graduated values) is a continuous progression of different values from dark to light or from light to dark. Hatching is a series of lines (called a set) drawn closely together to give the illusion of values. Shading refers to the various shades of gray that make drawings look three-dimensional. 1. Before you begin to draw the graduation, take a few moments to find your natural hand movement. Draw several parallel lines. As you draw, take note of how you make these lines. Try many different ways of moving your pencil, rotating your paper, or changing the angle of your lines, until you find the motions that are the most natural for you. 2. Draw the first set of hatching lines a little more than halfway across your page. On the left side of your paper, press very lightly with your 2B pencil to draw the lightest lines far apart and few in number. As you get closer to the middle, draw more and more hatching lines closer together. By drawing the individual lines of your hatching in different lengths you can make the transition from one value to the next barely noticeable. ILLUSTRATION 04-01 3. Draw more hatching lines progressively darker and closer together until you get to the end of your drawing space. Try adding a few more short hatching lines in between some of your lines if the transition between your values isn’t as smooth as you like. ILLUSTRATION 04-02Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  28. 28. 3 4. Draw more hatching lines even closer together, until the end of your graduation is very dark. Begin making your lines closer together when you get two thirds of the distance toward the right. Note that many more lines make up the dark values, the lines are much closer together, and very little of the white paper is still showing. ILLUSTRATION 04-03 HATCHING GRADUATIONS Before you begin this part of the lesson, practice hatching lines with each of your pencils and notice their differences. The 2H is the lightest (hardest) and the 6B is the darkest (softest). 2H works well for light values, HB and 2B are great for middle values, and 4B and 6B are very good for darker values. You combine the following three methods to render a smooth graduation:  Use different pencils to do some of the work for you. You have more control when attempting a smoothly drawn transition of values.  Vary the density of the lines.  Vary the pressure used in holding your pencils. Press lightly for the light values and a little harder for darker values. 1. On the left side of your paper, press lightly with your 2H pencil to draw the lightest hatching lines. As you get closer to the middle, make your hatching lines closer together and press a little harder with your pencil. Change to your HB and/or 2B pencils to make some middle values in your graduation. Continue to make your shading progressively darker as you move toward the right. ILLUSTRATION 04-04Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  29. 29. 4 5. With your 2B and/or 4B pencils, draw progressively darker values as you get almost to the end of your drawing space. ILLUSTRATION 04-05 6. With your 4B and 6B pencils draw the darkest values of your graduation. Make sure your pencils are freshly sharpened. Begin making your lines even closer together. Continue pressing a little harder with your pencils until the end of your graduation is very dark. 6B will create the very darkest values. If you notice that the transition between your values isn’t as smooth as you like, you can improve it. Try adding a few more short hatching lines in between some others. ILLUSTRATION 04-06 Have a peek at the smooth transition between the values in Illustration 04-07. The lines are barely noticeable because they are really close together. This close-up view of a graduation is rendered without blending; yet it almost looks like a solid tone. With patience, and lots of practice, you can also draw this type of graduation! Give it a try! ILLUSTRATION 04-07 STEP SIX:Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  30. 30. 5 7. Use curved hatching lines to draw a graduated value scale of ten different values, from light to dark, illustrating the texture of hair. I divided the length of my drawing space into ten equal sections to guide me through the challenge of knowing when to make each value darker. Curved lines are created when a straight line curves (or bends). Examples of curved lines include the letters C and U. Texture is the surface detail of an object, as defined in a drawing with various shading techniques. When drawing hair in a portrait of a human, or fur on the head of an animal, curved hatching lines need to follow the perceived contours of the forms of their heads. Form, as applied to drawing, is the illusion of the three-dimensional structure of a shape, such as a circle, square or triangle, created in a drawing with shading and/or perspective. ILLUSTRATION 04-08 8. Practice drawing more graduations, working from light to dark, and then from dark to light. Your pencils play a major role in the smooth progression of your graduations. Beginners can generally make do nicely with only three or four different graphite pencils. The pencils I use most frequently are a 2H, HB, 2B, 4B and 6B. With a full set of pencils from 6H to 8B, the potential range of values you can render is infinite. Achieving a smooth transition between values makes the shading in a drawing look more realistic. EXAMINING GRADUATIONS IN A DRAWING You can discover lots of ways to use graduations in your drawings, by examining the diverse shading techniques used by various artists. Art has become very accessible in recent years through galleries, art books, and the Internet. Take time to appreciate a diverse range of art and artists. With careful observation of the drawings by other artists, you gain invaluable information, which you can apply to your own drawings. The shading in almost all my drawings is made up of various types of graduations. I find hatching graduations work beautifully to draw hair, fur, and lots of other textures, such as wood. The drawing of a Dalmatian (on the next page) was shaded primarily with hatching graduations, which are especially noticeable in the background. Graduations also provide both the textures and values to the fur and accentuate the three-dimensional forms of her head and neck.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  31. 31. 6 Note that the spots are not simply light and dark values, but rather, highly contrasting, graduated values which give a very realistic illusion of spots in her fur. Contrast measures the degree of difference between the light and dark values within shading, and creates the illusion of three- dimensions in a drawing. ILLUSTRATION 04-09 Try and find time every single day, to practice drawing different types of graduations, working from light to dark, and then from dark to light.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  32. 32. 7 BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  33. 33. Brenda HoddinottF-05 BEGINNER: HATCHINGThis project guides you through the process of settingup proportional guidelines, and using symmetry todraw the facial features and hair of a male animecharacter named Kobrah. Super simple hatching linesare then added to the face to create the illusion ofthree-dimensional reality.The overall proportions of most anime adult faces are similar to those of a human child, givingthe characters the appearance of having a childlike head attached to a mature adult body.This lesson is divided into the following three sections: INTRODUCTION: The term Manga encompasses a vast array of individual styles of drawing, which allows artists to use their creative license in the design of their characters’ faces, hairstyles, personalities, and clothing. SETTING UP PROPORTIONS: I take you step by step through the process of setting up proportional guidelines on a frontal view of an adult male anime head, and sketching his facial features, ears, and hair within the proportional guidelines. OUTLINING AND SHADING WITH HATCHING: You add the hair and more facial details, then outline the drawing with nice neat lines, and finally add shading with hatching.If you choose to render this drawing completely in pencil you need: good quality white drawingpaper, graphite pencils, kneaded and vinyl erasers, pencil sharpener, sandpaper block, and aruler. If you plan to use a marker for the final version, you will also need a fine tip permanentmarker, and you should use a drawing paper that is specifically designed for drawing withmarkers, rather than regular paper. You may even wish to add color to your drawing with suchoptions as colored pencils or markers. This project is recommended for artists from age 10 to adult, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. 17 PAGES – 21 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2004 (Revised 2006)
  34. 34. -2- INTRODUCTION The term Manga encompasses a vast array of individual styles of drawing, which allows artists to use their creative license in the design of their characters’ faces, hairstyles, personalities, and clothing. The eyes of anime characters generally appear disproportionately large, and are the most expressive part of their faces. The nose and mouth tend to be drawn small and simple so as to further emphasize the powerful expressions of the eyes and the facial area around the eyes. Refer to the next drawing and become familiar with terms used to identify each part of an eye: 1. The arch-shaped group of hairs, above the eye, is known as an eyebrow. 2. A fold in the skin, above the eye is called an upper eyelid crease. 3. The upper eyelid is a movable fold of skin that opens and closes to protect the eyeball. 4. The white of the eye (the visible section of the eyeball) is light, but not really white. 5. A highlight is the brightest area where light bounces off the surface of the eye. 6. The pupil of an eye is the darkest circular shape within the iris. 7. The iris is the colored circular section of the eyeball surrounding the pupil. 8. The lower eyelid is a fold of skin protecting the lower section of the eyeball. ILLUSTRATION 05-01 SETTING UP PROPORTIONS In this section, I take you step by step through the process of setting up proportional guidelines on a frontal view of an adult male anime head, and sketching his facial features, ears, and hair within the proportional guidelines. Proportion is the relationship in size of one component of a drawing to another or others. Keep in mind that the facial proportions of this adult manga character are very similar to those of a real life child.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  35. 35. -3- 1. Use a ruler to draw a straight line down the center of your page (Line AB). Use an HB pencil, and keep your line very light so it can be easily erased. Line AB is a line of symmetry and provides you with a guideline for drawing both sides of the head the same size. Symmetry is balanced arrangement (sometimes referred to as a mirror image) of lines and shapes on opposite sides of an often-imaginary centerline. You simply measure various horizontal distances on either side of the line. Shape refers to the outward outline of a form. Basic shapes include circles, squares and triangles. 2. Choose two points along Line AB to be the total length of Kobrah’s head, and draw a horizontal line through each point. The greater the distance between these two points, the larger your drawing will be. The upper line (at point A) marks the location of the top of his head, and the lower line (at point B) marks the bottom of his chin. 3. Measure the total length of the vertical line AB (the total length of the head between points A and B), and mark the halfway point. 4. Draw a horizontal straight line (Line CD) through the point. Line CD divides the total length of the head in half. ILLUSTRATION 05-02 5. Mark the halfway point along line AB (between Line CD and the horizontal line that marks the bottom of the chin), and then draw Line EF through the point. Line EF divides the lower half of the head in half. 6. Mark the halfway point between Line EF, and the horizontal line at the bottom, and then draw a Line GH through the point. Line GH divides the lower quarter of the head in half.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  36. 36. -4- ILLUSTRATION 05-03 7. Sketch the basic outline of the bottom half of Kobrah’s face with an HB pencil. Keep your lines very light so they can be easily erased. Use the line of symmetry (line AB) to provide you with a guideline for drawing both sides of his face the same size. 8. Lightly sketch the top and sides of the upper eyelids. Note that the tops are along line CD. Use the line of symmetry to help you draw both eyes the same size. Observe also that the eyes seem far apart. ILLUSTRATION 05-04 9. Draw a curved line to mark the opening of the mouth in between lines EF and GH. A curved line is created when a straight line curves (or bends). Curved lines can be drawn thick or thin. Note that this line is closer to line GH than EF. Leave space for his lower lip, the bottom of which will be even closer to line GH. 10. Add a tiny dark section, on each end of his mouth to mark the corners.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  37. 37. -5- ILLUSTRATION 05-05 11. Add a line under each eye to identify the location the edge of his lower eyelids. 12. Sketch another line under the opening of his mouth to mark the location of the bottom of his lower lip. This line is almost touching line GH. ILLUSTRATION 05-06 13. Lightly sketch two V-shapes with slightly curved lines. The upper v-shape marks the place where his hair grows from the top of his head. The point of the V is at point A. The lower V-shape identifies the outline of his hairline (commonly known as a widow’s peak).Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  38. 38. -6- ILLUSTRATION 05-07 14. Add the outline of his hair on each side of his head. Remember to measure various horizontal distances on either side of the center line. With lots of practice drawing manga faces, you won’t need to draw the proportional lines with a ruler. You’ll be able to simply eyeball the lines and distances in your mind. ILLUSTRATION 05-08 15. Use angle lines to sketch the positions of the top and bottom of each of his ears. Angle lines occur when two straight lines meet (or join together). The angle lines marking the tops of his ears begin on line CD and are drawn upward and outward from his face. The angle lines marking the bottoms of his ears begin on line EF and are also drawn upward and outward.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  39. 39. -7- ILLUSTRATION 05-09 16. Draw partial circles to identify the positions of the irises of his eyes. 17. Draw the eyebrows. Observe their overall shapes, and the angles of the outlines. Take note of how close together the center sections of the eyebrows are to one another. ILLUSTRATION 05-10Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  40. 40. -8- 18. Draw a long thin triangular shape (the pupil) inside each iris. 19. Add two comma-shapes as the nostrils of the nose. 20. Lightly sketch the texture of the hair with curved lines. Watch closely the various directions in which the lines curve. Also, remember to keep your lines very light by applying very little pressure to your pencil as you draw. ILLUSTRATION 05-11Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  41. 41. -9- OUTLINING AND SHADING WITH HATCHING In this section you discover all the fun parts of this project. You first add more details to Kobrah’s face and hair, then outline the drawing with nice neat lines, and finally add some hatching lines. Anime cartoons tend to be rendered with thin neat lines. Keep a pencil sharpener and sandpaper block handy so you can easily keep your pencil points nice and sharp. 21. Erase your proportional guidelines, and redraw those sections of the sketch that have accidentally been erased. I softened the angular sections of the jaw and chin by making the lines more rounded. ILLUSTRATION 05-12 ILLUSTRATION 05-13 Drawing symmetrical faces and heads becomes quite simple when you’ve devoted lots of time to practicing this skill. A couple of helpful hints include: Try rotating your paper and looking at your drawing from different perspectives. This little trick often allows you insight into the problem areas. Looking at the reflection of your drawing in a mirror will also help you to see areas in need of fixing. 22. Use your kneaded eraser to lighten the sketch lines of the hair until you can barely see them. Pat the sections gently with your kneaded eraser. Refer to the drawing on the next page. 23. Take your time and carefully redraw the hair, paying extra attention to the curved lines which outline its perimeters.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  42. 42. - 10 - ILLUSTRATION 05-14Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  43. 43. - 11 - 24. Add three strands of hair growing down onto Kobrah’s forehead. Note that one of the three strands is large and the other two are smaller. Also carefully observe the directions in which the lines curve. 25. Use your kneaded eraser to gently pat all your sketch lines until they are so light that you can barely see them. ILLUSTRATION 05-15 In the final steps of this lesson, you add more details, and outline the entire character with a freshly sharpened dark pencil such as a 2B, or fine tip black marker. From there you may even want to add color to your drawing; you can color only the eyes or add color to the entire drawing.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  44. 44. - 12 - 26. Outline Kobrah with dark, neat pencil lines or a fine tip black marker. Take note of the small sections of the pupils of the eyes that have been erased to make room for the highlights. Adjust your drawing accordingly. ILLUSTRATION 05-16Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  45. 45. - 13 - 27. Use a 2H pencil to very lightly map the hatching lines on the hair, ears, face, and eyes. The light source in this drawing is from the right, so the shadow sections are mostly on the left. Light source is the direction from which a dominant light originates. The placement of this light source affects every aspect of a drawing. The light source tells you where to draw all the light values and shadows. As you become more familiar with drawing cartoons, you may no longer need to draw your lines lightly before you finalize them with a dark pencil or marker. ILLUSTRATION 05-17Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  46. 46. - 14 - 28. Draw the hatching lines with your dark pencil or fine tip marker. Take note of the top sections of his hair, keeping in mind that they need to be filled in very dark later. Don’t forget to draw the outlines of the highlights in his eyes. If you are using a pencil, keep it very sharp. ILLUSTRATION 05-18Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  47. 47. - 15 - 29. Fill in the upper tips of his hair, his eyebrows, and the pupils of his eyes very darkly. 30. Add hatching lines to the inside sections of his nostrils. 31. Darken the outlines of his upper eyelids. ILLUSTRATION 05-19Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  48. 48. - 16 - ILLUSTRATION 05-20 If you wish, you can add color to his eyes with a fine tip marker or colored pencil. You may even want to try adding color to the hair and face. ILLUSTRATION 05-21Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  49. 49. - 17 - BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporate her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. These sites offer downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. These sites are respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  50. 50. OUTDOORS Brenda Hoddinott F-06 BEGINNER: HATCHING Sketching is an action word, and you can only learn this skill by actually sketching.In this lesson, I first offer suggestions for putting together a portable studio for your outings. Ithen take you step-by -step through the process of rendering a sketch of an outdoor scene. Thestyle you choose for sketching is a matter of personal choice. Some artists prefer lines, moreprefer only shading, and others (like me) prefer a combination of values and lines. INTRODUCTION: Outdoor enthusiasts often enjoy making art while enjoying their surroundings A quick sketch done on location from a portable studio provides an excellent reference for a more detailed drawing when you return to your home studio. PACKING UP YOUR PORTABLE STUDIO: Sometimes, you may want to draw outdoors, and it’s convenient to have a set of drawing materials packed and ready to travel. In this section you explore various suggestions for planning your portable studio. SETTING UP YOUR PLAN OF ACTION: The instructions in this lesson offer suggestions for rendering a sketch in three simple stages: sketch the overall composition of the scene proportionately correct; outline the shapes of important objects in the scene; and add values. SKETCH PROPORTIONS: The first goal of sketching is to sketch a proportionately correct map of where the different parts of the scene are in relation to one another. OUTLINE SHAPES: You focus on outlining the shapes of your subjects by implementing perspective, adding more details, and refining your drawing! DEFINE VALUES: You implement your strategies, planning, and creative ideas into a completed sketch! Light affects the placement and value of every section of shading. A full range of values gives contrast between the light and the shadow areas. 14 PAGES – 27 ILLUSTRATIONS This project is recommended for artists from age 10 to adult, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2004 (Revised 2006)
  51. 51. -2- INTRODUCTION Outdoor enthusiasts often enjoy making art while enjoying their surroundings A quick sketch done on location from a portable studio provides an excellent reference for a more detailed drawing when you return to your home studio. A sketch is a quick, rough representation or outline of a planned drawing subject. A sketch can also be a completed work of art. Only a few simple lines can quickly and efficiently illustrate the important shapes and values of any scene. The language of sketching can also serve to faithfully documents your formative years of artistic development. Sketching refers to the method used for creating a quick, rough representation or outline of a planned drawing subject. The instructions provided in this lesson can apply to any sketching style. However, to help prepare you for sketching on your own, I have provided step-by-step illustrations of one of my own sketches. If you have little or no sketching experience, you are wise to draw along with my project. It’s easier to draw from another sketch than an actual scene. PACKING UP YOUR PORTABLE STUDIO Sometimes, you may want to draw outdoors, and it’s convenient to have a set of drawing materials packed and ready to travel. In this section you explore various suggestions for planning your portable studio. DRAWING SURFACE: Unless you have a really big knapsack, your kitchen table just won’t fit inside! Nonetheless, a lightweight portable surface, on which to draw when you’re out and about, is an integral part of your portable studio. If you prefer sheets of paper rather than a sketchbook, a drawing board is a wonderful portable surface. You can buy very reasonably priced boards in most art supply stores. If you (or someone you know) are handy with tools, you can make your own; just cut a lightweight smooth material (such as plywood or Plexiglas) to any size you prefer, and sand it until its smooth. Drawing paper then needs to be taped or clamped to the drawing board. At most art supply stores you can find special tapes, specifically designed for this purpose, or clamps which come in various sizes. Sketching on large sheets of paper enhances your skills by allowing you the freedom of drawing from your shoulder rather than your wrist. Keep your wrist fairly still, and move your entire arm from your shoulder, to sketch long flowing marks in one continuous movement. A large hardcover sketchbook is a great alternative to carrying a drawing board in that it comes with its own drawing surface, and depending on the size, may fit inside a brief case or knapsack.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  52. 52. -3- PORTABLE EASEL: While many artists are comfortable in simply propping up their drawing surface; others like to use an easel. A sketchbook or drawing board can easily be set up on an easel, but you have to use your creativity to make sure it stays in place as you draw. A gust of wind or even the drawing process itself can easily tip an unsecured easel onto the ground and (gasp!) deposit the drawing into a big puddle of mud. DRAWING MATERIALS: Fill up your pencil case with pencils, erasers, pencil sharpener, sandpaper blocks, and anything else you think you may need. Soft media, such as graphite, conté, or charcoal works best for sketching. CARRYING CASE: You need something in which to carry your drawing materials. An old briefcase, knapsack, or a fabric bag with handles is great for holding supplies, including a small sketchbook and some paper. EXTRAS FOR THE PORTABLE ARTIST: Consider the following for customizing your portable drawing studio to suit your own individual needs: You may want to carry an old blanket to sit on. A viewfinder frame may come in very handy! If you use large sheets of drawing paper, you need to bring your portfolio in which to store and protect your completed drawings and drawing paper. A portable music player with headphones is helpful for blocking distracting noises. It also helps keep spectators from interrupting! Plastic bags can protect your drawings (or you) in case of rain, and are great for sitting on if the ground is damp. Bring along some beverages, snacks, and/or a lunch as well as some wipes or paper towels for clean-up. You can also bring along a small camera to take photos of inspirational scenes and objects. Depending on where you go, you may need bug repellant, and don’t forget your sunscreen! SETTING UP YOUR PLAN OF ACTION Ok, so setting up and getting organized isn’t the most exciting element of anything. But as with most activities and projects, it’s a necessary evil! First of all, when planning to draw outdoors you need to take into consideration such factors as weather, lighting conditions, time of day, and the angle from which you wish to capture your subject. Then make your plans accordingly. When you arrive at your destination, stroll around until you find the best location from which to draw. Look around and decide on a subject that you find incredibly intriguing; otherwise you may get bored before you’re halfway done. Make sure your proposed project isn’t more than you can handle. If you’re a beginner to drawing, choose something very simple. You set yourself up for a frustrating experience by taking on a project beyond your current skill level.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com

×