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Incepatori e perspectiva

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Incepatori e perspectiva

3. 3. -3- A horizon line is drawn horizontal and parallel to the top and bottom of a square or rectangular drawing space. In a drawing, you determine the viewer’s eye level, by choosing the horizontal position of the horizon line. You control whether you want viewers to feel like they’re above, below, or at eye level with the objects in your drawing. By examining various drawings, with the horizon line in different locations, you begin to understand how the eye level seems to change. In the first drawing below (on the left), the horizon line is near the bottom of the drawing space. Drawing space (sometimes called a drawing format) refers to the area of a drawing surface within a specific perimeter, outlined by a shape of any size, such as a square, rectangle or circle. The cubes are above the horizon line and have perspective lines that extend downward from their edges and connect with the vanishing point. Perspective lines (invisible in real life) are lines that extend from the edges of objects and recede into distant space, until they finally seem to vanish at the vanishing point (VP). In the second drawing below (on the right), the horizon line is close to the top of the drawing space. The perspective lines of cubes below the horizon line angle upward and converge at the vanishing point. ILLUSTRATION 01-02 ILLUSTRATION 01-03 Drawing objects above the horizon line follows same perspective rules as drawing objects below. Have a closer look at the above two drawings. Do you notice anything similar about them? Yes, you guessed it. They are the exact same drawing, but one is upside down. Just a little demonstration of the potential illusions of geometric perspective! Lines of objects, that are parallel or perpendicular (at a right angle) to the horizon line, don’t appear to go back in space and therefore rarely meet the vanishing point. However, exceptions to this rule can occur when one side of an object lines up perpendicular to the position of the vanishing point. Also, one horizontal line of an object can sometimes overlap the horizon line.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
4. 4. -4- A WORM’S EYE VIEW To create the illusion that the viewer is looking upward, draw your subjects above the horizon line. In the next drawing, the horizon line is below the various objects. The perspective lines all lead downward to the same vanishing point. ILLUSTRATION 01-04 You sense that you are looking up into the sky, or maybe standing in a valley looking upward. The various three-dimensional shapes look like helium filled balloons, and the perspective lines seem to hold them anchored at the vanishing point. If the perspective lines were erased, they would appear to be floating or flying. A BIRD’S EYE VIEW If you want viewers to feel like they are looking downward, draw objects below the horizon line. In this drawing, consider yourself the viewer. The horizon line is close to the top of the drawing space which makes you feel like you are looking down at the cube. ILLUSTRATION 01-05 To discover how to render one-point perspective, refer to E-04 Beginner: One Point Perspective. As you look at the next drawing, consider yourself the viewer. The horizon line is close to the top of the drawing space. Imagine you are standing on the top of a high cliff, or floating in a hot air balloon. Note the position of the vanishing point (marked VP). The perspective lines of the various objects (such as houses, sidewalks, highway, fence, etc.) are easily identified by visually following their edges back to the vanishing point. These perspective lines all angle upward, toward the horizon line, and converge at the vanishing pointCopyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
5. 5. -5- ILLUSTRATION 01-06 VIEW FROM A LEVEL PERSPECTIVE You are at eye level as you look into the next drawing. The horizon line is the first horizontal line, almost halfway down from the top of the drawing space. Examine the angular lines (neither horizontal nor vertical) that define the edges of the objects. Visually follow them to the vanishing point on the horizon line and note that: ILLUSTRATION 01-07 Angular lines of objects at your eye level (touching the horizon line) converge both downward and upward. The lines of objects above your eye level (above the horizon line) converge downward. Angular lines of objects below your eye level converge upward.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
6. 6. -6- ILLUSTRATION 01-08 An object (person, animal, etc.) can have some of its parts above, on, and below the horizon line. Line AB marks the horizon line in this preliminary drawing of a young man standing on a deck. Note that the perspective lines all originate from the same vanishing point and angle outward in various directions (and at various angles) to meet up with various parts of his body, above, on, and below the horizon line. ILLUSTRATION 01-09 ILLUSTRATION 01-10 Compare the horizontal sections of the railing and the boards of the deck in the drawing on the left, to the various perspective lines in the drawing on the right. The boards seem to recede into distant space, in that they become slightly narrower the farther back they are.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
7. 7. -7- DISAPPEARING INTO A VANISHING POINT As you begin to understand perspective, you discover how to draw objects the size you actually see them, instead of the size you know them to be. In the next drawing, assume that in reality, all the happy faces are exactly the same size. Nonetheless, some are drawn large, while others appear extremely tiny. To create this illusion of depth, I have used the following three different components of perspective: Overlapping: Some happy faces overlap (appear to be in front of) others. A noticeable clue is provided when a section of one seems to be missing. However, it’s not really missing - the one in front of it is merely blocking your line of vision. Size differences: The smaller the happy faces appear to be, the farther they are away from you. The closer they are to you, the larger they look. Arrangement: The horizon line (not visible inside this drawing space) is above the happy faces. Those that are closest to you are not only larger, but also appear near the bottom of the drawing space. Those that are close to the top of the drawing space are the farthest away. ILLUSTRATION 01-11 Objects give the impression of having disappeared when they get close to the vanishing point, but not like vanishing into the Bermuda triangle! Because something (or someone) is too far away to be seen doesn’t mean it has actually disappeared. In fact, people and objects are simply too tiny to see when they are beyond your line of vision. In the next drawing, the illusion of geometric perspective demonstrates how people appear to become smaller and smaller until they finally completely disappear into the vanishing point. Imagine that the striped lines are a bridge that extends all the way back to the vanishing point. People (and objects) on this bridge appear smaller and smaller the farther away they are. Look at the outline of the largest man in relationship to the vanishing point. Use your imagination to visually draw two lines, one from the top of his head and the other from the bottom of his shoes, to the vanishing point. Take note that the space between these two lines becomes progressively smaller closer to the vanishing point.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
8. 8. -8- ILLUSTRATION 01-12 The horizontal lines of his body (such as the locations of his elbows and knees) also follow the rules of geometric perspective and converge at the same vanishing point on the horizon line. The illustrations below shows the perspective lines of two figures. One figure is close to the viewer and the second is farther away closer to the vanishing point. ILLUSTRATION 01-13 ILLUSTRATION 01-14 EXPANDING ON ELEMENTS OF PERSPECTIVE Creating the realistic illusion of spatial depth in your drawings requires an understanding of more than geometric perspective. In this section, I discuss two more elements of perspective, which help artists construct the illusion of a third dimension on a two-dimensional surface. FADING INTO DISTANT SPACE WITH ATMOSPHERIC PERSPECTIVE Atmospheric Perspective (sometimes called aerial perspective) refers to the visual depth created by various particles in the atmosphere. The farther an object recedes into the distance, the lighter in value it seems to become, and its edges and forms appear more blurred.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
9. 9. -9- Even on a clear day, your ability to see distant objects is decreased by an assortment of atmospheric components, such as minuscule particles of dust and/or pollen and/or tiny droplets of moisture. Your vision becomes further diminished when the atmosphere is filled with haze, fog, smoke, rain or snow. Even fairly close-up objects can appear out of focus or almost invisible under certain conditions. Say hello to the Globs and their cousins, the Blobs! They are demonstrating how a heavy fog could affect your ability to see them. You can plainly see the crisp shading lines of Billy Blob (the shy one in the front center), who is the closest to you. However, the farther away they are from the foreground, the fewer details you can see. The Blobs and Globs in the distant space are barely visible at all! ILLUSTRATION 01-15 The next drawing demonstrates a combination of both atmospheric and geometric perspectives. As you examine this drawing, observe the following elements of perspective which provide the illusion of depth to the forest: Atmospheric perspective: The trees in the front are drawn with more details and have more contrasting values than the ones in the distance. Their shadows are darker, and their highlights are brighter. Distant trees are lighter in value and less detailed. Geometric perspective: trees closer to the foreground are larger than the ones farther back in the forest. In that the bases of the trees become progressively higher in the drawing, as they recede into the distance, indicates that they are below the horizon line.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
10. 10. - 10 - ILLUSTRATION 01-16 SHORTENING SUBJECTS WITH FORESHORTENING Foreshortening refers to the visual distortion of a person or object, when viewed at severe angles. The level of distortion becomes more pronounced as the angle of viewing becomes more extreme. Basically, foreshortening creates the illusion that an object is much shorter than it actually is. Foreshortened qualities become even more noticeable when long objects are viewed from an end. In reality, each of the boards in the next illustration is the exact same length. Yet, the boards toward the left seem to become progressively longer. Observe that the board directly under the vanishing point is the shortest of all; its end seems to point straight out toward you. ILLUSTRATION 01-17Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
11. 11. - 11 - Foreshortening takes a little getting used to, but is an essential component of creating depth, especially in a drawing of a human figure. In this drawing my upside down friend, Rob, demonstrates an exceptional perspective on foreshortening. ILLUSTRATION 01-18 I need to draw the extreme visual distortions to his body exactly as I see them, rather than the sizes and proportions that I actually know them to be. Otherwise, accurately rendering the three- dimensional illusion of this pose, on a two-dimensional drawing surface, would be impossible. Observe that: His lower legs, upper right arm, torso, and right hand appear to be very short. Only his left arm and face appear to be their actual lengths. His right foot looks very tiny when compared to his right hand. Keep in mind that all your drawings, especially representational renderings, become visually correct and more realistic with the utilization of various components of perspective.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
12. 12. - 12 - BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Fine Art Education http://www.finearteducation.com and Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporate her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. These sites offer downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. These sites are respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
13. 13. SILLY FACESBrenda HoddinottE-02 BEGINNER: PERSPECTIVE ONEPretend you’re inside a spaceship, flying through the galaxy, while looking outward into spacethrough a square window. Suddenly, you see a whole bunch of silly faces floating toward you!They appear bigger and bigger the closer they move toward you.In this fun lesson, a group of silly faces seem to be floating through space. Overlapping, as acomponent of geometric perspective, is introduced as a means of creating depth.Four elements of perspective are used in this lesson: Overlapping: Most silly faces in thisproject overlap others; Size Differences: The farther away objects are, the smaller they appear tobe; Atmospheric Perspective: The outlines of the faces need to become gradually lighter invalue as they appear to recede into distant space; and Arrangement: Those faces that are closerto the viewer are drawn closer to the bottom of the drawing space.This lesson is divided into the following two sections: INTRODUCTION: An illustrated discussion explores the process of creating the illusion of three-dimensional reality with four elements of perspective. OVERLAPPING SILLY FACES: You draw nine overlapping faces, from the closest to the farthest away, which appear to recede into the distance as they float through space. As for their individual shapes and facial features – feel free to use your imagination.Suggested drawing supplies for this project include HB, 2B, and 4B graphite pencils, a vinyleraser, a ruler, and good quality drawing paper This project is recommended for artists of all ages, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. 9 PAGES – 13 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2003 (Revised 2006)
14. 14. 2 INTRODUCTION Suggested drawing supplies for this project include HB, 2B, and 4B graphite pencils, a vinyl eraser, a ruler, and good quality drawing paper ILLUSTRATION 02-01 Assume that, in reality, all the silly faces you are about to draw are exactly the same size. However, to create the illusion of three-dimensional reality, some need to be drawn large, while others need to be quite tiny. Examine Illustration 02-01 to get an idea of how the silly faces should look when finished. Each is numbered from 1 to 9, according to the sequence in which they will be drawn – 1 is first and 9 last. Refer to this illustration as you read about how the following four elements of perspective are used to create the illusion of depth in this specific drawing: Overlapping: When one object is in front of another, it is obviously closer. Most silly faces in this project overlap (appear to be in front of) others. Overlapping, as a component of perspective, gives the illusion of depth in a drawing and refers to the positions of the subjects, when one visually appears to be in front of another (or others). A noticeable clue is provided when a section of one seems to be missing. However, it’s not really missing - the one in front of it is merely blocking your line of vision. Size differences: The farther away objects are, the smaller they appear to be. As the numbers get higher from 1 to 9, each face is rendered progressively smaller – number 1 is larger than number 2 and so on. Number 9 is the smallest of all! As you progress through each step of this project, make sure every silly face you draw is slightly smaller than the previous one. Atmospheric Perspective: The farther an object recedes into the distance, the lighter in value it seems to become due to the presence of various particles in the atmosphere. Values are the different shades of gray created in a drawing by various means, such as using different grades of pencils, varying the density of the shading lines and/or the pressure used in holding a pencil.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
15. 15. 3 In this drawing, the outlines of the faces need to become gradually lighter in value as the numbers get higher. To create this illusion, use a 4B pencil (dark) to draw number 1 and 2, a 2B pencil (medium) for numbers 3 to 5, and an HB (lighter) for numbers 6 to 9. Arrangement: When subjects are viewed below the horizon line, objects that are closer need to be drawn closer to the bottom of the drawing space. The horizon line: (also known as eye level) refers to an imaginary horizontal line that divides your line of vision when you look straight ahead. In this drawing, the horizon line is not marked, but is above the silly faces. Hence, those faces that are closer to the viewer are drawn closer to the bottom of the drawing space. Conversely, those that are farthest away are drawn closer to the top of the drawing space. The higher the numbers, the higher up each face appears within the drawing space. Drawing space refers to the area in which you render a drawing within a specific perimeter. It can be the shape of your paper or outlined by any shape you choose, such as a rectangle or square. OVERLAPPING SILLY FACES In this fun lesson, groups of overlapping silly faces appear to recede into the distance as they float through space. As for their individual shapes and faces – feel free to use your imagination. 1) Draw a square to represent your drawing space. Your square can be any size you wish. Suggested sizes include 4 inches by 4 inches, 6 inches by 6 inches, or 8 inches by 8 inches. ILLUSTRATION 02-02 2) Use a wiggly line to draw a big sideways C in the lower one- third of your drawing space. Use a 4B pencil. The line does not need to have its wiggles the same as in my drawing. However, pay attention to its size and position within the lower section of the drawing space. Also note that one end of this line touches the bottom side of the square closer to the left than the right. The other end touches the right side of the square near the bottom.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
16. 16. 4 Before you attempt to draw these cartoon eyes, you need to be familiar with the names of each part. Refer to the next drawing and the following terms: ILLUSTRATION 02-03 A highlight is the brightest area where light bounces off the surface of the eye. The iris is the colored circular section of the eyeball. The white of the eye is the visible section of the eyeball. ILLUSTRATION 02-04 3) Draw eyes on the large face. Begin by drawing two ovals and then add a large circle (the iris) in the upper section of each. Outline a tiny circle (the highlight0 inside each large circle. highlights helps make eyes look shiny. 4) Use your 4B pencil to completely shade in the top half of each eye, but remember to leave the highlight white. ILLUSTRATION 02-05 Don’t worry if your silly faces don’t look exactly like mine. If you wish, you can use your imagination and create your own eyes (and mouths) for each of the nine silly faces,Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
17. 17. 5 ILLUSTRATION 02-06 5) Draw an outline of a smaller silly face behind the first. This face appears higher within the drawing space – the top is slightly above the halfway point of the height of the square drawing space. Each end touches the outline of the first. Hence the first face is overlapping (in front of) this one. 6) Draw the eyes and mouth on the second silly face. Note that the eyes and mouth on the second silly face are at an angle. ILLUSTRATION 02-07 7) Draw the outline of the third, even smaller, silly face with a 2B pencil. 8) Add its eyes and mouth. The eyes and nose on the third silly face are also at an angle. ILLUSTRATION 02-08 Take note that the three silly faces are three different sizes with the largest in the front, and the smaller ones appearing to be behind it. The first one you drew looks closer than the other two, because it is largest in size, lowest within the drawing space, and overlaps the others.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
18. 18. 6 ILLUSTRATION 02-09 9) Draw the outline of the fourth face, and add its eyes and mouth. The fourth face is slightly smaller than the third. Its outline looks like a backward C-shape with its ends touching the left side of the drawing space. ILLUSTRATION 02-10 10) Add the fifth face, eyes and mouth. This face is on the far right of the drawing space, and slightly above and to the right of the third face.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
19. 19. 7 ILLUSTRATION 02-11 11) Draw the outline of the sixth face, and add its eyes and mouth. This face is slightly smaller than the fifth, and on the left of the drawing space, slightly higher and a little above the fourth silly face. ILLUSTRATION 02-12 12) Add the seventh Happy (or is it Grumpy) face slightly behind the fifth face.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
20. 20. 8 13) Draw the two smallest faces. The smallest is higher in the drawing space than all the rest, and its upper section is hidden behind the upper edge. If you want, you can use colored pencils to have some creative fun adding color to the faces and background. Sign your name, put the date on the back of your drawing paper, put a silly smile on your face and give yourself a big hug! ILLUSTRATION 02-13Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
21. 21. 9 BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 2792, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 2794, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 2798, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Fine Art Education http://www.finearteducation.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
22. 22. SIMPLE PERSPECTIVE Brenda Hoddinott E-03 BEGINNER: PERSPECTIVE ONEIn this lesson, you render a simple mountain range consisting of foreground, middle ground, anddistant space, by using two components of perspective, overlapping and atmospheric perspective.Overlapping is a technique that gives the illusion of depth in a drawing, and refers to the positionof subjects in a composition, when one visually appears to be in front of another (or others).Atmospheric perspective (sometimes called aerial perspective) refers to the visual depth createdby various particles in the atmosphere. The farther an object recedes into the distance, the lighterin value it seems to become, and its edges and forms appear more blurred.This lesson is divided into the following three parts: INTRODUCTION: An illustrated discussion introduces overlapping, atmospheric perspective, foreground, middle ground, and distant space. OUTLINING OVERLAPPING MOUNTAINS: Three overlapping mountains are sketched within a rectangular drawing format, beginning with the one that is closest (the foreground) and working back toward the distant mountain and the sky (distant space). GIVING DEPTH TO A MOUNTAIN RANGE: Shading is added to the sky and mountains with squirkles to render the illusion of depth as a result of various types of particles in the atmosphere. This project is recommended for artists and aspiring artists of all ages, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. 8 PAGES – 13 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada, 2005 (Revised 2006)
23. 23. 2 INTRODUCTION In this lesson, you render a simple mountain range by using two components of perspective, overlapping and atmospheric perspective. Various elements of perspective are used to help create the illusion of three-dimensional spaces in drawings. Perspective is a method of representing subjects (and the individual parts of subjects) in a drawing, in such a way that they seem to recede into distant space, and appear smaller the farther they are away from you. Overlapping Overlapping is a technique that gives the illusion of depth in a drawing, and refers to the position of subjects in a composition, when one visually appears to be in front of another (or others). The term composition refers to the arrangement of the various facets of your drawing subject within the borders of a drawing space. ILLUSTRATION 03-01 A drawing space (also called the drawing surface or drawing format) is the area in which you render a drawing within a specific perimeter. A drawing space can be separated into foreground, middle ground, and distant space by overlapping (or layering) objects in front of one another. In this square drawing space, the largest happy face (in the foreground at the bottom) is overlapping (in front of) the medium- sized one in the middle ground. The medium-sized happy face is overlapping the one farthest away (in distant space). Atmospheric perspective Atmospheric perspective (sometimes called aerial perspective) refers to the visual depth created by various particles in the atmosphere. The farther an object recedes into the distance, the lighter in value it seems to become, and its edges and forms appear more blurred. Even on a clear day, your ability to see distant objects is decreased by an assortment of atmospheric components, such as minuscule particles of dust and/or pollen and/or tiny droplets of moisture. Your vision becomes further diminished when the atmosphere is filled with haze, fog, smoke, rain or snow. Even fairly close-up objects can appear out of focus or almost invisible under certain conditions. ILLUSTRATION 03-02 As you examine this drawing, observe how atmospheric perspective creates the illusion of depth in a forest. The trees in the front are drawn with more details and have more contrasting values than the ones in the distance. Their shadows are darker, and their highlights are brighter. Distant trees are lighter in value and less detailed.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
24. 24. 3 The following cartoon drawing of a bunch of blobs in a fog demonstrates both overlapping and atmospheric perspective. Take note of which blobs are overlapping (in front of) others. ILLUSTRATION 03-03 The light fog represents atmospheric perspective and shows how your ability to see into the distance can be diminished by moisture particles in the air. You can plainly see the crisp shading lines of Billy Blob (the shy blob in the front center), who is the closest to you. However, the farther away the blobs are from the foreground, the fewer details you can see. The blobs in the distant space are barely visible at all! OUTLINING OVERLAPPING MOUNTAINS In this section, you sketch three mountains beginning with the one that is closest (the foreground) and working back toward the distant mountain and the sky (distant space). ILLUSTRATION 03-04 1. Outline a horizontal rectangle (similar in shape to mine) as your drawing space. A horizontal rectangle is often referred to as a landscape format. You can either turn your drawing paper horizontally, or you can use a ruler to draw a rectangle as your drawing space. ILLUSTRATION 03-05 2. Sketch the outline of a mountain in the foreground. When planning to overlap objects, I generally find it easier to draw objects in the foreground first. Try to draw the outlines of the mountains in approximately the same locations as in my sketches.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
26. 26. 5 5. Use a 2H pencil and squirkles to add a very light value to the sky behind the mountains. ILLUSTRATION 03-08 Press very gently with your pencil so the squirkle lines are very light! 6. Use an HB pencil to add shading to the mountain in the distant space. This mountain needs to be darker than the sky. However, keep in mind that the two closer mountains need to be quite a bit darker, so be careful not to make this shading too dark. Use a gentle graduation of values to give this mountain a little form. A graduation is a continuous progression of values from dark to light or from light to dark. Form refers to the three-dimensional structures of shapes. ILLUSTRATION 03-09Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
27. 27. 6 7. Add shading to the mountain in the middle ground (on the right) with a 2B pencil. This mountain in the middle ground should be darker than the one in the distant ground. Again, graduate the values to give the illusion of form to the individual sections of the mountain. ILLUSTRATION 03-10 8. Add shading to the mountain in the foreground with a 4B pencil. Objects that are in the foreground of a scene are generally in sharper focus than the middle and distant ground. Hence, this mountain has darker darks and lighter lights in the graduations to create the illusion of detail. ILLUSTRATION 03-11Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
28. 28. 7 9. If you wish, add a few shrubs, trees, and shadow sections. Use a HB pencil to add details to the middle ground and a 4B for the foreground. Make sure you keep your pencils very sharp. ILLUSTRATION 03-12 Keep in mind that the trees in the foreground are closer to you and therefore drawn larger and with more detail than those in the middle ground. As you can see in this close-up, the trees are simply thin vertical lines with a few squiggles to represent the branches. To draw a more detailed spruce tree with squirkles, refer to Lesson A-21: Spruce Tree. ILLUSTRATION 03-13 In the interest of simplicity, the focus of this lesson is on overlapping and atmospheric perspective. In G-level lessons you work with various shading techniques along with the rendering of light and shadows based on a dominant light source. Light source is the direction from which a dominant light originates. The placement of the light source affects every aspect of the shading in a drawing.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
29. 29. 8 BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Fine Art Education http://www.finearteducation.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. ART PUBLICATIONS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com