Incepatori d curbele

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Incepatori d curbele

  1. 1. SQUIRKLING VALUES Brenda Hoddinott D-01 BEGINNER: SQUIRKLINGWhat do you get when you cross squiggles with circles? You get Squirkles! Squirkling is amethod of shading incorporating randomly drawn curved lines to create textured values. I chosethis name based on the method of morphing squiggles with circles to create shading. Many of mystudents, from the past two decades, are very familiar with this word!By varying the density (drawing the lines either far apart or close together) of the lines, you canachieve many different values. Light values with squirkles tend to have noticeable curved lineswith lots of white space showing. In darker values, the lines are drawn more closely together,filling in most of the paper with the texture of squirkles.This lesson is divided into the following two parts: DRAWING BASIC SQUIRKLE SETS CREATING SQUIRKLE VALUE SCALESSuggested drawing supplies include HB and 4B pencils, vinyl and kneaded erasers, good qualitydrawing paper, a pencil sharpener, and a sandpaper block. This lesson is recommended for artists of all ages and abilities, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. 6 PAGES – 10 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – Revised 2005
  2. 2. 2 DRAWING BASIC SQUIRKLE SETS Squirkling is a method of shading incorporating randomly drawn curved lines to create textured values and graduated value scales. In this section, you use a 2B pencil to draw three squirkle values. Values are the different shades of gray created by varying the density of the shading lines, and/or the pressure used in holding various pencils. In this exercise, the values are rendered by drawing curved and compound curved lines either far apart or close together. Curved lines are created when a straight line curves (or bends). Examples of curved lines include the letters C and U. A curved line can become a circular shape when the ends meet as in the letter O. A compound curve is created when a straight line curves (or bends) in more than one direction. An example of a compound curve is the letter “S”. Squint your eyes and look at the following sets of squirkles. ILLUSTRATION 01-01 The first set (on the far left) has very few lines drawn far apart, creating the illusion of a light value. The second set is darker, and the third set is the darkest. ILLUSTRATION 01-02 1. Draw a set of lines that curve in many different directions. Notice that some individual lines cut across themselves in many places, creating lots of different shapes, an abstract composition, and an overall light value. The old expression “few and far between” works well here. The lines are far apart and few in number.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  3. 3. 3 ILLUSTRATION 01-03 2. Draw a second set of squirkle lines that are closer together than in your first set. Note that there are more lines than in the first set and the lines are closer together. ILLUSTRATION 01-04 3. Draw the darkest set of squirkle lines very closely together. Many more lines make up this third squirkle set, and the lines are much closer together. Very little of the white paper is still showing.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  4. 4. 4 CREATING SQUIRKLE VALUE SCALES In this exercise you vary the density of the lines (as in the previous exercise), and also use various pencils to help render five different values with squirkles. Before you begin, practice drawing squirkles with each of the three pencils and notice their differences. The 2H is the lightest (hardest) and the 4B is the darkest (softest). The 4B is very good for darker values, 2B is great for middle values, and 2H works well for light values. ILLUSTRATION 01-05 1. Using your 2H pencil, draw the first two values beginning with the lightest. More lines are used to create the second value than the first. ILLUSTRATION 01-06 2. With your 2B pencil, draw the next two values. Again, pay attention to the density of the lines so each progressive value is darker than the last. ILLUSTRATION 01-07 3. Use your 4B to draw the darkest value. Keep practicing these values in your sketchbook until you can draw all five different values.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  5. 5. 5 4. Draw another value scale from light to dark, and then try one from dark to light. Refer to these completed value scales to see the five values in sequence. ILLUSTRATION 01-08 ILLUSTRATION 01-09 ILLUSTRATION 01-10 The beauty of squirkles is its ability to produce an infinite range of values and a variety of textures. Texture is the surface detail of an object, as defined in a drawing with various shading techniques. The senses of touch and sight help identify the surface texture of drawing subject. Examine the wool on this cartoon sheep and identify a light, medium and dark value. Note how the different values make the sheep’s body look three-dimensional.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  6. 6. 6 BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  7. 7. Brenda Hoddinott D-02 BEGINNER: SQUIRKLINGIn this lesson you explore squirkle shading in drawings and then render graduated values withsquirkles. By varying the density (drawing the lines either far apart or close together) of the lines,you can achieve many different values. Light values tend to have noticeable curved lines withlots of white space showing. In darker values, the lines are drawn more closely together, fillingin most of the paper with squirkles.This lesson is divided into the following two parts: EXAMINING SQUIRKLE GRADUATIONS IN DRAWINGS: The beauty of squirkling, and its ability to produce an infinite range of values and a variety of textures, is demonstrated in various drawings. SHADING GRADUATIONS WITH SQUIRKLES: Step-by-step illustrated instructions guide you through the process of rendering graduated squirkles.Suggested drawing supplies include 2H, HB, 2B, 4B and 6B pencils, vinyl and kneaded erasers,good quality drawing paper, a pencil sharpener, and a sandpaper block. 6 PAGES – 11 ILLUSTRATIONS This lesson is recommended for artists and aspiring artists, of all levels and abilities, with an interest in learning the textured shading technique of graduating squirkles, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada - 2007
  8. 8. 2 Squirkles refers to a method of EXAM INING SQUIRK LE shading incorporating randomly GRAD UA TI ONS I N DRAW I NGS drawn curved lines to create Squirkling is an easy method of shading in which textured values and graduated randomly drawn curved lines create textured values. value scales. I chose this name The beauty of squirkles is its ability to produce an based on the method of morphing infinite range of values and a variety of textures. squiggles with circles to create Densely rendered graduated squirkles appear less shading. heavily textured than loosely drawn graduations. Squirkling refers to the technique and the process of adding shading ILLUSTRATION 01 to a drawing with squirkles. Graduations Shading (noun) refers to the with squirkles various values that help make are incredibly drawings look three-dimensional; versatile. (verb) refers to the process of adding shading to a drawing. When rendered very tiny and Curved lines are created when a close together, straight line curves (or bends). they look very Examples of curved lines include smooth, as in the letters C and U. A curved line this intricate can become a circular shape when drawing of a the ends meet as in the letter O. tiny section of a Texture is the surface detail of an portable object, as defined in a drawing with telephone. various shading techniques. The senses of touch and sight help identify the surface texture of drawing subject. Values are the different shades of gray created when you draw by varying both the density of the ILLUSTRATION 02 shading lines, and the pressure This cartoon used in holding various pencils drawing of a Form, as applied to drawing, is the sheep illusion of the three-dimensional demonstrates the structure of a shape, created in a wonderful wooly, drawing with shading and/or (knobby or perspective. bumpy) texture Graduated shading (also known created with as a graduation or graduated loosely rendered values): is a continuous squirkles. progression of values from dark to light or from light to dark.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  9. 9. 3 ILLUSTRATION 03Squirkles work beautifully forrendering foliage andshrubbery in a nature drawing.Both high and low contrastshading can be rendered withsquirkles. Contrast is thecomparison of different valueswhen put beside one another. ILLUSTRATION 04A full range of values from white to blackis used in this high contrast drawing a darkhaired young lady, named Anne. Highcontrast is created when very dark valuesare drawn close to the lightest values.The texture of the fleece fabric of herjacket looks very realistic when renderedwith squirkling. ILLUSTRATION 05 With the exception of the pupils of the eyes, the graduated values, in this low contrast drawing of a baby (my niece Claire), range between light to medium. Low contrast shading has a limited range of values. Graduated squirkles work nicely for rendering both the texture of her terrycloth hat, and the delicate texture of her beautiful face. Specific sections of a drawing subject frequently need customized approaches to graduating values.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  10. 10. 4 ILLUSTRATION 06 ILLUSTRATION 07 Some sections of a single drawing can have a full range of graduated values from very light (or white) to almost black. Another section of the same drawing may have a graduation from light ILLUSTRATION 08 to middle values only. A graduation in a shadow section can range from a dark middle value to almost black. Graduations often need to be drawn within a compact space. Examine the graduation (Illustration 07) and Claire’s eye in Illustration 06. The values around the outer edge of her iris are dark, but graduate lighter toward the pupil. The iris is the colored circular section of the eyeball. The pupil is the dark circular shape within the iris. Conversely, some subjects require values to graduate smoothly over a relatively long distance (Illustration 08) Illustration 06 shows an entire side of Claire’s face, rendered with squirkling graduations that range in value from light to medium.SHAD I NG GR A DUA T I ON S WI TH S QU IR KL E SSquirkles are simple to draw, easy to control, and can produce a full range of values. In agraduation, squirkle lines are lighter and farther apart for lighter values, and gradually get darkerand closer together toward the dark sections.Pencils play a huge role in the smooth progression of a graduation. In general, a 2H works wellfor light values, an HB or 2B is great for middle values, and a 4B or 6B is good for dark values.In addition, you draw fewer lines, farther apart for the lighter values, and more lines, closertogether for darker values. The amount of pressure you put on your pencil as you draw alsoaffects the resulting value. Press very lightly for a light value and harder for a darker value.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  11. 11. 51) Draw a long rectangular drawing space in your sketchbook. Drawing space (sometimes called a drawing format) refers to the area of a drawing surface within a specific perimeter, outlined by a shape of any size, such as a square or rectangle.2) On the left side of your drawing space, press very lightly with your 2H pencil to draw the lightest squirkles. The lines curve in different directions all over your paper, with lots of white space showing. Some lines cut across themselves creating lots of different shapes. Graduations are best rendered by layering darker values over lighter ones. The goal of graduated shading is to keep the transitions between different values flowing smoothly.3) Make your shading a little darker as you move towards the right until you are close to the middle of the rectangle. Switch to an HB, draw your squirkle lines closer together, and press a little harder on the pencil. ILLUSTRATION 094) Add the middle values. Continue making your shading darker and darker until you get almost to the end of your drawing space. Use HB and 2B pencils. Many more lines, drawn closer together, make up the middle values. If the transition between your squirkle values doesn’t go as smoothly as you like, you can improve it by adding a few more short curvy lines in between some of the other lines. ILLUSTRATION 10Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  12. 12. 65) Draw the darkest values toward the end of your graduation. Approximately two thirds across your space begin making your lines closer together. Continue pressing a little harder with your pencil until the end of your graduation is very dark. Use 4B and 6B pencils. In the darkest value, most of the paper is filled in with the texture of squirkles; very little of the white paper is still showing. ILLUSTRATION 11CHALLENGEDraw the following sets of graduating squirkles: Another graduation from light to dark A similar graduation from dark to light A full range of values that graduate within a very short space; draw one from light to dark and another from dark to light A long graduation with only light and middle values A long graduation with a range of values from middle to darkCopyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  13. 13. 7Brenda HoddinottAs a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda utilizesdiverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, contécrayon, and oil paints.My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gentlyintroducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, thequest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable.>Brenda Hoddinott<BiographyBorn in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. Shedeveloped strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning,and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as aself-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments haveemployed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal policedepartments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal CanadianMounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “ForensicArtists International”.Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing andpainting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired andtrained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brendachose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing,drawing, painting, and developing her websites.Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach tocurriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes forstudents of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels andabilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as aresource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughoutthe world.Learn-to-draw booksDrawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is availableon various websites and in major bookstores internationally.The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the YearAward 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book isavailable on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  14. 14. Brenda Hoddinott D03 BEGINNER: SQUIRKLINGThis simple project takes you through the process of sketching the shapes of an iris, pupil, andhighlight; then, you add shading with squirkles.The following three sections show you how to draw the most important components of a realistichuman eye: OUTLINING IRIS AND FRIENDS: The goals are to become familiar with the names of a few parts of an eye, and lightly sketch their outlines in preparation for adding shading with squirkles. You focus on the highlight, pupil, and iris, as well as the edge of the upper eyelid. SQUIRKLING SHADING: You use squirkles to add shading to your sketch. Squirkles are an ideal shading technique for eyes. First of all, squirkles are very easy for beginners to render, and the resulting shading creates a realistic drawing of an eye. CHALLENGE: The iris you just completed would be considered light in color (or in this case value); for example, blue or gray. However, lots of people have dark eyes; hazel or brown for example. You are now challenged to draw a dark iris.Suggested supplies include good quality white drawing paper, 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B pencils, akneaded and vinyl eraser, and a pencil sharpener. 6 PAGES – 12 ILLUSTRATIONS This article is recommended for artists of all ages and skill levels. The curriculum is easily implemented into instructional programs for home schooling, academic and recreational learning environments. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2007
  15. 15. 2OUTLINING IRIS AND FRIENDSThe goals in this section are to become familiar with a few parts of an eye, and sketch their outlinesin preparation for adding shading with squirkles. You focus on two parts of an eye, the iris and pupil,as well as a highlight and the edge of the upper eyelid. Refer to Figure 301 and the following:1. Highlight is the brightest area where light bounces off the surface of the eye. Figure 3012. Pupil is the darkest circular shape, within the iris, that adjusts its size under different lighting conditions.3. Iris is the colored circular section of the eyeball surrounding the pupil.4. Upper eyelid is a movable fold of skin that opens and closes to protect the eyeball. The edge of an upper eyelid is represented in this sketch by a curved line. ART SPEAK Shading: (noun) refers to the various values in a drawing that make images appear three-dimensional; (verb) the process of adding values to a drawing so as to create the illusion of texture, form and/or three-dimensional space. Squirkling: is an easy method of shading, in which randomly drawn curved lines (called squirkles) combine squiggles and scribbles with circles to create textured values. Figure 302 As you sketch the outlines, keep in mind that the iris and pupil of an eye are very rarely perfect circles. More often than not, you view an eye from a slight angle; hence the iris and pupil are more oval-shaped. Check out the irises and pupils of the eyes in Figure 302. 1) Use an HB pencil to lightly sketch a circular shape as the iris of an eye. Remember to press very Figure 303 lightly.T I P : When you draw circles or circular shapes, rotate yourpaper and look at your drawing from different perspectives. Thislittle trick often allows you to find problem areas. Be patient withyourself; drawing circular shapes freehand requires lots ofpractice before you can do it well. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  16. 16. 32) Add a slightly curved line cutting through the upper section of the iris (Figure 304). This line represents the lower edge of the upper eyelid. The upper sections of eyes are usually hidden under the upper eyelid.3) Sketch a small circular shape in the upper left section of the iris (Figure 305). This is the highlight. Its location indicates that the dominant light source is from the upper left. Figure 304 Figure 305 Figure 306 ART SPEAK Light source is the direction from which a dominant light originates. A light source identifies the light and shadow areas of a drawing subject, so artists know where to add different values.4) Draw the pupil of the eye (Figure 306). The ends, of the curved line that outline the pupil, meet the highlight.5) Erase the section of the iris above the edge of the upper eyelid. Figure 3076) Use your kneaded eraser to gently pat your sketch until all the outlines are very faint. The outline is complete and the next step is to add shading. If you are not familiar with squirkles, refer to Lessons D01: Squirkling Values and D-02: Graduating Squirkles in the Beginner section. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  17. 17. 4SQUIRKLING SHADINGIn this section, you use squirkles to add shading to your sketch. Squirkles are an ideal shadingtechnique for eyes. First of all, squirkles are very easy for beginners to render, and the resultingshading creates a realistic drawing of an eye. Figure 308 7) Add a few squirkles to the iris with a 2H pencil. The overall value is light, and lots of white paper is showing through. The squirkle lines curve in all different directions; some have large curves and others are smaller. The more uneven you draw the squirkles, the better the shading of the eye will look. Figure 309 ART SPEAK Values are the different shades of gray that are the basic ingredients of shading. 8) Use an HB pencil to add darker shading to the upper left sections of the iris. The lower right section stays the light value you added in the previous step. The lines of the squirkles added with the HB, fill in a lot of the Figure 310 white paper, resulting in a value that appears much darker. 9) Add tiny squirkles with a freshly sharpened 2B pencil to add the darkest shading. The edges of the iris need to be darker. Also, the upper section of the iris needs to be darker, graduating lighter toward the lower section. The upper section of an iris is often in the shadow of the upper eyelid. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  18. 18. 5 Figure 311 10) Use a 4B pencil and squirkles to fill in the pupil. Naturally, the highlight is left white. Use your vinyl eraser to clean up any smudges or fingerprints on your drawing paper.You’ve just drawn an iris, pupil and highlight. Put today’s date on the page, sign your name and patyourself on the back!CHALLENGEThe iris you just completed would be considered light in color (or in this case value); for example,blue or gray. However, lots of people have dark eyes; hazel or brown for example.You are now challenged to draw a dark iris. First of all, draw another iris, following steps 1 to 10.Then use 2B and 4B pencils to add darker shading to the iris. (Remember to leave a lighter sectionin the lower right.) Then use a 6B pencil to add darker shading to the pupil. Figure 312 Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  19. 19. 6Brenda HoddinottAs a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda utilizesdiverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, contécrayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. Brenda HoddinottBiographyBorn in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. Shedeveloped strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, andthe aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employedBrenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”.Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and paintingclasses. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trainedteachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to endher eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing,painting, and developing her websites.Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach tocurriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students ofall abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praisedthe simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine arteducators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world.Learn-to-draw booksDrawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available onvarious websites and in major bookstores internationally.The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the YearAward 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book isavailable on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  20. 20. Brenda Hoddinott D-04 BEGINNER: SQUIRKLINGThis lesson provides you with lots of information and exercises to help you become familiar withcreating values and graduations with squirkles. You follow along with super simple illustratedstep-by-step instructions to draw an adorable cartoon baby with curly hair.You first outline the shape of the baby’s face in the lower half of a square drawing space, andadd the eyes, eyebrows, nose, ears, and mouth. In addition to creating the texture of curly hairwith squirkles, you also use a graduation of squirkles to make the hair look three-dimensional.Suggested drawing supplies include HB and 4B pencils, vinyl and kneaded erasers, good qualitydrawing paper, a pencil sharpener, and a sandpaper block. This lesson is recommended for artists of all ages and abilities, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. 6 PAGES – 9 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – Revised 2006
  21. 21. -2- You first outline the shape of the baby’s face in the lower half of a square drawing space, and add the eyes, eyebrows, nose, ears, and mouth. In addition to creating the texture of curly hair with squirkles, you use a graduation of squirkles to make the hair look three-dimensional. ILLUSTRATION 04-01 1. Draw a large square to represent your drawing format. Your square can be any size you wish. Suggested sizes include 4 inches by 4 inches, 6 inches by 6 inches, or 8 inches by 8 inches. 2. Draw a wide U-shape to represent the lower half of the head. Take note that this whole U-shape (face) is totally within the lower half of your drawing space. Observe also that there is a slight curve to each side of the face. ILLUSTRATION 04-02 ILLUSTRATION 04-03 3. Outline two almond shaped eyes. The eyes are very far apart, and lower on the face than the beginning point of the lines indicating the sides of the face. 4. Draw a tiny circle in the upper right section of each eye. The inside of the tiny circles need to remain white, so be careful not to accidentally fill them in.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  22. 22. -3- ILLUSTRATION 04-04 5. Use your 4B pencil to shade in each eye. Remember to leave the small circle white. This tiny white spot is called a highlight, and helps make the eye look shiny. A highlight is the brightest area of an eye where light bounces off its surface. 6. Draw a slightly curved short line above each eye to represent eyebrows. ILLUSTRATION 04-05 7. Draw an oval shape between and slightly below the eyes to represent the nose. 8. Draw a slightly curved line below the nose to represent the mouth. 9. Add a tiny curved line on each end of the mouth. 10. Draw another curved line slightly above the bottom of the face to represent a double chin.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  23. 23. -4- ILLUSTRATION 04-06 11. Outline Baby Curly’s ears. Take note that the tops of the ears approximately line up horizontally with the tops of the eyes, and the bottoms of the ears line up with the bottom of the nose. In the next step, you use squirkling to add shading to the hair to make it appear curly. Squirkling is an easy method of shading, in which randomly drawn curved lines (called squirkles) combine squiggles and scribbles with circles to create textured values. ILLUSTRATION 04-07 Values are the different shades of gray created in a drawing by various means, such as varying the density of the shading lines and/or the pressure used in holding a pencil. This illustration shows three different values rendered with squirkles. ILLUSTRATION 04-08 In addition to creating the texture of curly hair with squirkles, you use a graduation of squirkles to make the hair look three-dimensional. A graduation (also known as graduated shading or graduated values) is a continuous progression of values from dark to light or from light to dark. The goal is to keep the transitions between the different values flowing smoothly into one another, as in this illustration. Lesson D-01: SQUIRKLING VALUES provides you with lots of information and exercises to help you become familiar with creating values and value scales with squirkles.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  24. 24. -5- 12. Use a graduation of squirkles to add shading and texture to the curly hair. Observe the hair closely in the next illustration and note the following: The lower sections of the hair (on the sides) overlap the ears and the upper sides of the face. Different values of squirkles make up the hair. Lots of little curls extend beyond the perimeter of her hair helping it to look natural. Begin by lightly outlining the perimeter of the hair with wiggly lines. Then fill in the hair with lots of squirkles to represent light and medium values. Finally add a few sections of dark values. If you notice that the transition between your values isn’t as smooth as you like, you can improve it. Try adding a few more short curvy lines in between other lines. ILLUSTRATION 04-09 Sign your name, put the date on the back of your drawing paper, and give yourself a big hug!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  25. 25. -6- BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  26. 26. Brenda Hoddinott D05 BEGINNER: SQUIRKLING In this project, you use curved lines to outline a cartoon child, and then make the hair curly with squirkles. Most of the illustrated steps are the same for drawing either Sam or Samantha; hence you can draw two children or only one.This lesson is divided into the following two sections: SKETCHING PROPORTIONS: You use curved lines and an HB pencil to outline the shapes of the head, ears, and facial features. SQUIRKLING GRADUATED VALUES: You use squirkles to add a full range of graduated values to the ears, hair, and face. As you work, you will also darken the various outlines.Suggested supplies include 2H, HB, 2B, and 4B pencils, vinyl and kneaded erasers, a pencilsharpener, a sandpaper block, and good quality white drawing paper. 7 PAGES - 15 ILLUSTRATIONS This lesson is recommended for artists of all ages and skill levels. The curriculum of this lesson can be easily implemented into instructional programs for home schooling, academic and recreational learning environments. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2002 (Revised 2007)
  27. 27. 2SKETCHING PROPORTIONS Curved lines are created when a straight line curves (or bends). Curved lines can be drawn thickIn this section, you use curved lines and an or thin.HB pencil to outline the shapes of the head,ears, and facial features. Use your sketchbook Shape refers to the outward outline of a form. Basic shapes include circles, squares and triangles.vertically for this project. Figure 5011) Draw the lower half of the child’s head. If a U-shape had a tiny chin and chubby cheeks it would look exactly like the shape of this section of the child’s head. Note that the chin is just a little extension on the bottom of the U-shape.2) Add a slightly curved line to mark the location of the top of the head. Make sure you leave room above this line to later draw the hair.3) Sketch two more curved lines to mark the locations of the sides of the upper section of the head. Figure 502 4) Draw the two ears. Little kids often seem to have big ears because their faces are proportionately smaller than those of adults. The ears are below the halfway point between the top of the head and the chin. Be careful not to draw them too high. The tops of the ears are slightly higher than the horizontal location of the eyes. The bottoms of the ears are a little below where you will draw the bottom of the nose. 5) Outline two small circles as the eyes. Refer to Figures 503 and 504. The tops of the eyes are slightly lower than the tops of the ears. In addition, there’s lots of space between the outer section of each eye and the side of the face.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  28. 28. 3 Figure 5036) Draw two tiny circles (highlights) in the eyes. Pretend a light is shining A highlight is the from the upper right and in brightest area of front of the child. Hence, an object where the highlights need to be on light bounces off its surface (such the right, closer to the light. as the surface of an eye). 7) Draw an oval as the nose. Figure 504 8) Add a curved line as the mouth. The mouth is closer to the chin than the nose. Figure 505 Figure 506 9) Add a border of squirkles around the perimeter of the hair. Keep the lines very light by pressing gently with your pencil. If your wish, you can erase the three curved lines that marked the location of the skull.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  29. 29. 4 Figure 507SQUIRKLINGGRADUATED VALUESIn this section, you use squirkles toadd a full range of graduated valuesto the ears, hair, and face. As youwork, you will also darken thevarious outlines.10) Use an HB pencil to add light values. Press gently on your pencil for the light values of the face and ears. Use more pressure to make darker shading for the hair. Squirkling is an easy method of shading, in which randomly drawn curved lines (called squirkles) combine squiggles and scribbles with circles to create values. Graduated values, also called graduated shading or a graduation, is a continuous progression of values, from dark to light or light to dark. Figure 50811) Add medium and dark values to the ears and nose.Use an HB for themedium values anda 2B for the dark.Refer to Figures 508and 509. Figure 509Remember, the leftside of the child’shead is farther awayfrom the light.Hence, the overallshading on the leftside of the drawingneeds to be darkerthan on the right.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  30. 30. 5 Figure 510 12) Use a 4B pencil to add shading to the eyes. Highlights create the illusion that eyes are shiny; hence, they are left white. Figure 511 13) Use a 4B pencil to add shading to the hair. Note the little sections that extend outside the hair on the top of his head and along his forehead. Also, lots of light values are showing through. Therefore, it looks like curly hair and not a hat. Figure 512 14) Add shading to his forehead. Use the same techniques used for his ears and nose. 15) Add his eyebrows with a 4B pencil.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  31. 31. 6 Figure 513 16) Complete the shading for the lower half of the face. Now Sam is complete! Figure 514 Figure 515To draw Samantha simply followsteps 1 to 16 again and add somelonger curls (You may think ofthem as braids or ringlets). Or,you may simply prefer to addlonger curls to Sam’s hair to havehim look like Samantha.CHALLENGEDraw another set of twins (or eventriplets) with completely differenthair styles and faces. Use the sameshading techniques as in this project.Be creative! For example, you maywant to give the boy long hair andthe girl short hair. Have fun; you caneven try drawing the eyes, nose, andmouth of each child totally differentfrom one another.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  32. 32. 7Brenda HoddinottAs a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda utilizesdiverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, contécrayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. Brenda HoddinottBiographyBorn in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. Shedeveloped strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning,and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as aself-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments haveemployed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal policedepartments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal CanadianMounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “ForensicArtists International”.Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing andpainting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired andtrained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brendachose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing,drawing, painting, and developing her websites.Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach tocurriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes forstudents of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels andabilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as aresource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughoutthe world.Learn-to-draw booksDrawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is availableon various websites and in major bookstores internationally.The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of theYear Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page bookis available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  33. 33. Brenda Hoddinott D07 BEGINNER: SQUIRKLING In ten simple steps, you use squirkles to transform a single vertical line on a sheet of paper, into a drawing of a majestic spruce tree. With lots of practice using squirkles and examining spruce trees in nature, you can easily learn to sketch a tree in a couple of minutes (or less). However, you need to work your way slowly through this exercise to give yourself a chance to fully understand the process.You first sketch the trunk of a tree and the ground from which it grows. Then, you add branchesto the trunk, grass and shrubs on the earth below, and dark shading to the shadows.Spruce trees come in many shapes and sizes; hence, you can draw your tree any size or shapeyou want. Naturally, branches on trees are usually larger closer to the bottom, but you can’talways tell this by looking at a tree from only one perspective. For a more realistic looking tree,you need to draw some lower branches narrower than others above it. Branches grow outwardfrom the front and back of a tree, not just from the right and left. Hence, some branches arepartially hidden behind the tree trunk and/or growing away from you. Others are at the front ofthe trunk growing toward you; from one perspective, you can’t tell how wide or long they are.Suggested supplies include HB and 2B pencils, vinyl and kneaded erasers, a pencil sharpener, asandpaper block, and good quality drawing paper. 8 PAGES - 19 ILLUSTRATIONSThis lesson is recommended for artists of all levels. The curriculum is easily implemented into instructional programs for home schooling, academic and recreational learning environments. Published by Hoddinott Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2002 (Revised 2007)
  34. 34. 2SKETCHING A SPRUCE TREEYou first draw the trunk of a tree and the ground from which it grows, and then add branchesgrowing from the trunk of the tree and some grass and shrubs on the earth below the tree. Sprucetrees come in many shapes and sizes; hence, you can draw your tree any size or shape you want.Shape refers to the outward outline of a form. FIGURE 601Check out these spruce trees(Figure 601). Even thoughthe proportions are different,they all look like trees.Proportion is the relationshipin size of one component of adrawing to another or others. FIGURE 6021) With an HB pencil, lightly sketch a line (as the center of the trunk of the tree) from the bottom of your drawing space almost to the top. A border around my drawing shows you the rectangular shape of my drawing space. Don’t try to draw the line perfectly straight; trees look more natural with a few bends and curves in their trunks. Drawing space (also called drawing surface or drawing format) refers to the area in which you render a drawing. It can be the shape of your paper or outlined by any shape, such as a rectangle or square.2) Use squirkles to add the ground (or base) from which the tree grows. You can make the ground bumpy or fairly level by varying the shapes and sizes of the squirkles.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  35. 35. 3 FIGURE 603 3) Use squirkles to make the tree trunk progressively wider from the top to the bottom. Observe that the trunk of the tree is very narrow at the top and gradually gets wider closer to the bottom. You make the tree appear stronger by drawing the trunk slightly wider closer to the bottom, and anchoring it in some earth. 4) Add a few tiny branches at the top of the tree trunk. Refer to Figures 604 and 605 (a close-up view). As you can tell by now, loose raggedy squirkling lines create realistic looking branches on a tree. FIGURE 604 FIGURE 605 Don’t try to make your branches look exactly like mine. Just try to make each narrower the farther it is away from the trunk. Keep in mind the FIGURE 606 old expression “Less is more”! It’s easy to add more branches later if your tree looks too sparse, but erasing branches that are too full or thick is very difficult. 5) Add more branches below those at the top. Refer to Figures 606 (a close-up view) and 607 (on the next page). Branches on trees tend to become progressively larger the closer they are to the base of the tree, but don’t forget to draw branches that appear to be in front of and behind the trunk.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com

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