Incepatori b deprindeti-va sa vedeti

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Incepatori b deprindeti-va sa vedeti

  1. 1. Brenda HoddinottWhen you can identify positive and negative spaces inside a drawing space, you can drawB-01 BEGINNER: LEARN TO SEEwhat you see more accurately. This article illustrates the process of drawing objects byidentifying and drawing three different types of spaces.This project is divided into the following three sections:  THE SIMPLE TRUTH IN BLACK AND WHITE: Before you can draw an object, you need to be able to identify its edges. When you can see the object’s edges, you can train your eyes to see the space it occupies as a shape.  SEEING SPACES IN A REAL WORLD VIEW: You can’t always define negative spaces (NS) and positive spaces (PS) in terms of simple black and white. You often need to identify several layers of spaces to draw a subject accurately.  CHALLENGE: Your challenge is to draw the shape of a simple object from life by outlining only the negative space.Suggested drawing supplies include drawing paper, graphite pencils, and a viewfinderframe. This project is recommended for artists from age 10 to adult, as well as students of home schooling, academic, and recreational fine art educators. 5 PAGES – 12 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Drawspace.com, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2006 (Revised 2009)
  2. 2. -2- ART SPEAK Positive space (PS) is the space in a drawing that is occupied by an object. Negative space (NS) is the background around an object. Overlapping refers to a technique for creating the illusion of depth by drawing a subject so it visually appears to be in front of another (or others). Drawing space (also called a drawing surface or a drawing format) is the area in which you render a drawing within a specific perimeter. It can be the shape of the paper or outlined by any shape you draw, such as a square, rectangle, or circle. A drawing space can be separated into foreground, middle ground, and background by overlapping (or layering) objects in front of one another. Shape refers to the outward outline of a form. Basic shapes include circles, squares and triangles. Proportion refers to the relationship in size of one part of a drawing to another or others.Before you can draw an object, you need to be able to identify its edges. When you can seeTHE SIMPLE TRUTH IN BLACK AND WHITEthe object’s edges, you can train your eyes to see the space it occupies as a shape.A single object contained inside a drawing space is the PS. By the simple process ofelimination, the remaining space is NS.1) Examine the duck-shaped Figure 101 Figure 102 The duck is the PS and the white candle in Figure 101. background is the NS.2) Squint your eyes until you can With a little magic in Photoshop, see the duck as a shape. the PS becomes a simple black shape (Figure 102). You are no doubt familiar with drawing an object by drawing around the edges of its shape. Figure 103 Figure 1043) Examine Figure 101 again and With another little tweak, the NS try to see the shape of the NS. becomes a black shape (Figure 103). As you can see, you can also draw an outline of the duck (Figure 104) by drawing only the edges of the negative space.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  3. 3. -3-Ah, yes! But, if seeing positive and negative spaces was really this easy, this lesson would beover. But it’s not! When was the last time you examined an object that was completelysurrounded by clean white space - an object with absolutely nothing behind it?You can’t always define negative spaces (NS) and positive spaces (PS) in terms of simpleSEEING SPACES IN A REAL WORLD VIEWblack and white. You often need to identify several layers of spaces to draw a subjectaccurately.To further confuse, spaces can change their identities; apositive space can become a negative space and vice versa. In Figure 105this exercise I show you how to draw with three layers ofspaces (instead of only two).1) Examine my original photo of a duck-shaped candle The duck (foreground) is in front of (or on top of) the in Figure 105. table (middle ground). Both the duck and table are in front of the sections of a blue pillow and brown wall in the background. In other words, the duck overlaps the table and the table overlaps the background. Therefore (for now) the shape of the table and duck combined becomes a PS and Figure 106 the background is NS. As an aside, many drawings are rendered by working from the background toward the foreground.2) Outline a rectangular drawing space that is Use a ruler and any pencil you prefer. approximately 2 by 2.4 inches (Figure 106). In Figure 106, the background (behind the edge of the3) Examine the shape of the negative space. table) is the NS. Compare its shape to the shape of the NS (shown as a light gray value) in Figure 107. Figure 107 You can clearly see the shape of the wick of the duck- shaped candle in the NS. Obviously, the wick overlaps the background, hiding this tiny section of the background from view. Keep in mind that the NS is already outlined by the4) Outline the shape of the NS (Figure 108). drawing space on the top and sides. Therefore, you only need to outline the lower edge.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  4. 4. -4- Compare the size and shape of the NS to the edges of the drawing space. You can’t see the tiny section of the NS Figure 108 hidden behind the wick; so, you need to draw around it. For now, both the table and the duck come together to5) Examine the shape of the new PS in Figure 109. become a large PS. The light gray silhouette shows you the shape of this new PS. The table is the new NS. Naturally, a large section of the6) Mentally switch this new PS to NS. table is hidden from view by the duck (Figure 110). Remember, the duck overlaps the table. Therefore, it now claims the distinction of7) Consider the shape of the duck as the new PS. being PS. However, you can draw the duck more accurately if you draw the NS instead of the PS (Figure 110). As you draw, constantly refer to the size and shape of the NS in relation to the8) Outline the shape of the NS (Figure 111). drawing space. By outlining the negative space, you have also outlined the duck. Positive and negative spaces assume distinctive shapes, and fit together like pieces of a puzzle. Figure 109 Figure 110 Figure 111Your challenge is to draw the shape of a simple object from life by outlining only theCHALLENGEnegative space.1) Find a very simple object (such as an apple or mug).2) Place the object in front of you on a table (or other flat surface).Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  5. 5. -5-3) Prop up a viewfinder frame in front of you so you can see your object through its I show you how to make a viewfinder frame in A-07 Making and Using a Viewfinder opening. Frame. Figure 112 shows the duck as seen through a4) Decide how much of the table and negative space you want to include. viewfinder frame. Arrange your object in much the same way, so a section of it appears above Figure 112 the edge of the table. Adjust your viewfinder frame as needed. You may also need to move the object closer to you or farther away.5) Draw your object by outlining the negative Follow along with the steps in the previous spaces. section (Seeing Spaces in a Real World View). With lots of practice, this process becomes totally automatic, and you can draw accurately without consciously focusing on the various stages. As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist BRENDA HODDINOTT (retired), and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including her favorites: graphite and paint. Brenda is the author of Drawing for Dummies (Wiley Publishing, Inc., New York, NY) and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN). She is currently writing two books on classical drawing. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable.Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong >Brenda Hoddinott<drawing and painting skills through self-directed learning.During her twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, various criminal investigationdepartments have employed Brenda’s skills, including the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. In 1992, Brendawas honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded aCertificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”.In 2003, Brenda retired from her careers as a forensic artist and teacher to work full time writing books anddeveloping her website (Drawspace.com). This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, homeschooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  6. 6. SEE AND DRAW THE Brenda HoddinottB01 BEGINNER:Seeing and sketching accurateLEARN TO SEEproportions is the foundation ofdrawing.This lesson takes you step-by-step, through the entire processof drawing a cute little candle-shaped duck, from initiallylooking at the shapes andproportions to completing acontour drawing.This project is divided into the following six sections:  Introduction  Visually Identify Shapes  Visually Measure Shapes and Proportions  Sketch Proportions  Check Proportions and Add Final Details  Challenge Suggested supplies include: paper, HB pencil, kneaded and vinyl erasers, and a pencil sharpener. This project is recommended for artists from age 10 to adult, as well as students of home schooling, academic, and recreational fine art educators. 7 PAGES – 17 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Drawspace.com, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2005 (Revised 2009)
  7. 7. -2-Learning to draw is learning to see! The process ofINTRODUCTION ART SPEAKdrawing becomes less intimidating when you can see Shape refers to thethrough the eyes of an artist. With lots of practice, you can outward outline of a form.learn this skill so well that the process becomes Basic shapes includeautomatic. circles, squares andIn this lesson, you use a photo to accurately create a triangles.contour drawing of an adorable duck-shaped candle. To Proportion refers to thedraw each part of the duck in its correct place, you relationship in size of onevisually: part of a drawing to another or others.  Break the whole object down into simple shapes. Positive space is the Figure 201 space in a drawing that is  Measure various distances occupied by an object. within shapes and spaces. Negative space is the  Sketch proportions background around an accurately. object. Contour drawing isI have changed the photo to comprised of lines thatgrayscale (Figure 201) so you follow the contours of thecan better concentrate on the edges of variousindependent shapes. components of a drawing subject and define the outlines of its forms.In this section, photos demonstrate the importance of a thorough visual examination of aVISUALLY IDENTIFY SHAPESdrawing subject. You follow along with five photos (Figures 202 to 206) to see howindividual shapes come together to create a duck-shaped candle.You can use positive and negative spaces to see the overall shape of the duck in lesson B01Drawing with Spaces. Figure 202 Figure 203 Figure 204The duck’s body is A simple circle defines The candle wick is ashaped like a kidney (or the basic shape of the long thin rectangle.kidney bean). head.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  8. 8. -3- Figure 205 ART SPEAKThe beak Overlapping is a technique used to create the illusion ofis defined depth by drawing a subject (or a part of a subject) so itas a visually appears to be in front of another (or others).simple Each of the shapes, the kidney, circle, rectangle,triangular and triangle come together like pieces of ashape. puzzle to complete an outline of the overall shape of the duck (Figure 206).A couple of unnecessarylines are deleted where Figure 206 Figure 207the head overlaps thebody, and where thebeak overlaps the head(Figure 207).VISUALLYMEASURESHAPES ANDTo draw accuratePROPORTIONSproportions, you needto visually measure the Figure 208 Figure 209vertical and horizontaldistances of each part ofyour subject.Compare each distanceto others and look forsimilarities anddifferences.For example, as Iexamine the photo ofthe duck (Figure 208), Iimmediately notice similarvertical distances inside the shapes of the head and body.As you can see in Figure 209, the length of the head (marked A) is almost exactly the sameas the distance from the bottom of the head to the bottom of the body (marked B).I again search the photo (Figure 210) for more clues to seeing the duck’s proportions bycomparing the horizontal distances inside the shapes.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  9. 9. -4-I focus on the horizontalwidth of the body. Figure 210 Figure 211I discover that thissection of the body isalmost twice as wide asthe width of the head(Figure 211).The seeing part ofdrawing is now over,and it’s time to gatheryour drawing supplies!Time to put your new visual skills into action and draw! As you sketch, visually break downSKETCH PROPORTIONSeach part into its simple shape, measure proportions, and constantly check therelationships of lines and spaces to one another. If you’re not happy with some of the linesyou draw, simply erase that section, redraw the lines, and keep on going.Keep in mind that you can turn your sketchbook around as you draw, especially whensketching a circle. You can also rotate your paper and look at your drawing from differentperspectives to find problem areas.1) Draw a kidney shape in the lower section of your drawing space as the duck’s Observe that the section on the left is much larger than the tail section. Keep your body (Figure 212). lines very light by pressing very gently with your HB pencil. The circle does not sit on top of the kidney shape.2) Add a circular shape as the head (Figure 213). Rather, the lower section of the circle Figure 213 extends into the upper section of the kidney Figure 212 shape.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  10. 10. -5- Figure 2143) Add a triangular shape as the beak and a thin rectangular shape as the wick Observe that each of the lines used to (Figure 214). sketch the beak and wick are at an angle rather than horizontal or vertical.CHECK PROPORTIONS ANDIn this section, you complete your drawing.ADD FINAL DETAILSKeep in mind that each shape represents anindependent form. Hence, you need toconstantly compare my drawings to thereference photo to understand why the linesneed to curve around these forms.In addition, you need to pay close attention to thelengths of the various lines and the directions in which they curve.As you complete this contour drawing, continuously check whether the sizes andproportions of each section are correct, and adjust as needed. Keep the following in mind:  Don’t press too hard with your pencils! No matter how careful you are, accidents do happen, and you may need to erase sections with which you aren’t happy.  Draw slowly! Accuracy is more important than speed. Your speed will automatically improve the more you practice.  Keep your pencils sharpened so your lines stay neat and thin. Try using a piece of fine sandpaper or a sandpaper block to keep your pencil points nice and sharp. Pencil sharpeners tend to wear down pencils very quickly. WARNING! Do not draw directly over your sketch lines! Instead, visually re-measure spaces to confirm that the proportions are correct as you outline the duck with a new set of thin neat lines.4) Use your kneaded eraser to pat your entire sketch until the lines are very faint.5) With a freshly sharpened HB pencil outline the perimeters of the duck’s beak Round off the outer section of the beak and add rounded corners to the triangular and the wick (Figure 215). shape.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  11. 11. -6- Don’t outline the lower section of the wick, because it needs to look like it’s Figure 215 attached to the top of the head.6) Outline the duck’s head on either Don’t outline the lower section of the side of the beak and the wick. head or the part where the wick meets the top of the head. The head needs to look like it’s joined to the body.7) Outline the duck’s body.8) Outline the eye and the tiny circular Take note of the distance the eye is shape inside it (Figure 216). from various points on the outline of the head, such as the top and sides. Examine the length of the line and the9) Draw a line as the opening of the bill. sections that are straight and curved. Figure 21610) Erase any remaining fingerprints, smudges, and sketch lines (Figure Use your 217). kneaded eraser molded to a Figure 217 point or a sharp edge of your vinyl eraser. Sign your name and put today’s date on the back of your drawing.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  12. 12. -7-CHALLENGEFind a simple object (such as mug, vase, or piece of fruit) and create a contourTake your time and use the skills presented in this lesson.drawing from life.Remember to always examine the object you are drawing very closely, and take note ofwhether its shapes (or parts of its shapes) are in front of or behind others. As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic BRENDA HODDINOTT artist (retired), and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including her favorites: graphite and paint. Brenda is the author of Drawing for Dummies (Wiley Publishing, Inc., New York, NY) and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN). She is currently writing two books on classical drawing. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott<Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. Shedeveloped strong drawing and painting skills through self-directed learning.During her twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, variouscriminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including the RoyalCanadian Mounted Police. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from theRoyal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membershipfrom “Forensic Artists International”.In 2003, Brenda retired from her careers as a forensic artist and teacher to work full timewriting books and developing her website (Drawspace.com). This site is respected as aresource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilitiesthroughout the world.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  13. 13. Brenda Hoddinott B-03: BEGINNER: LEARN TO SEEWith a focus on improving your observation skills, this project offers simple step-by-stepillustrated instructions, to guide aspiring artists through the process of drawing with a line ofsymmetry. Many drawing subjects, including frontal views of faces, etc., look more believablewhen drawn the same on both sides.You need basic drawing supplies including paper, pencils, erasers, a pencil sharpener, a ruler,and markers, crayons, or colored pencils if you want to add color to your design. The followingthree sections guide you step-by-step through this project: UNDERSTANDING SYMMETRY: A simple discussion combined with illustrations provides a basic understanding of symmetry. Symmetry in drawing is a balanced arrangement of lines and shapes, on opposite sides of an often-imaginary centerline. DRAWING THE FIRST HALF: In this section, you draw simple shapes and lines on the left of the line of symmetry. You need a ruler and pencils, as well as an eraser so you can fix any lines you aren’t happy with. ADDING A MIRROR IMAGE: Your goal in this section is to draw a mirror image of the design. You should read through all the instructions and examine each drawing in this section before you begin. This project is recommended for artists from age 10 to adult, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. 13 PAGES – 23 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – Revised 2006
  14. 14. -2- UNDERSTANDING SYMMETRY Symmetry in drawing is a balanced arrangement of lines and shapes, on opposite sides of an often-imaginary centerline. Shape refers to the outward outline of a form. Basic shapes include circles, squares and triangles. Lines are basically comprised of three families, straight, angle, and curved, which can be combined to make line drawings. Each family includes an endless range of different lines from thick, dark, and bold, to thin, light, and delicate. Many drawing subjects, including frontal views of faces, etc., look more believable when drawn the same on both sides. Imagine a line down the center of the following drawing, dividing it in half. On each side of this line is a mirror image of the other. Both sides are symmetrical. ILLUSTRATION 03-01 Can you see the beautiful chalice in this illustration? Can you also see the two old witches? If you have difficulty seeing both images, refer to Illustrations 03- 02 and 03-03. ILLUSTRATION 03-02 ILLUSTRATION 03-03Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com
  15. 15. -3- Use your minds eye to visualize an imaginary centerline right down the middle of this drawing of a koala. Again, both sides are symmetrical. ILLUSTRATION 03-04 DRAWING THE FIRST HALF In this section, you draw simple shapes and lines on the left of the line of symmetry. You need a ruler and pencils, as well as an eraser so you can fix any lines you aren’t happy with. ILLUSTRATION 03-05 1. Draw a square of any size, preferably bigger than 4 by 4 inches. 2. Use your ruler to measure the horizontal midpoint of your paper at the top and bottom, and mark each with a tiny dot. 3. Very lightly draw a line down the center of the square dividing it into two equal rectangles. This line of symmetry serves as a reference to help keep both sides of your drawing symmetrical.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com
  16. 16. -4- 4. Draw a curved line in the upper half of the rectangle on the left. Begin at a point on the line of symmetry near the top. Curve the line outward toward the left and then downward and toward the right until it meets the line of symmetry. ILLUSTRATION 03-06 Always place a piece of clean paper under your hand as you draw. Each time you work on a new section, remember to move your paper so it’s always under your hand. This prevents you from smudging your drawing, and protects the paper from the oils in your skin.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com
  17. 17. -5- 5. Draw a compound curved line that extends from the top side of the rectangle down to the bottom side. Take note that this line doesn’t touch the line of symmetry. Begin at a point on the top side, gently curve the line outward toward the left, and then downward and toward the right until you are approximately halfway down the length of the rectangle. Gently curve the line back toward the left until it meets the lower side of the rectangle close to its left side. ILLUSTRATION 03-07Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com
  18. 18. -6- 6. Choose a point on the last line you drew, closer to the top than the bottom and mark it with a tiny dot. 7. Pick another point close to the bottom of the left side of the rectangle, and mark it with a tiny dot. 8. Use a gently flowing curved line to connect the dots. ILLUSTRATION 03-08Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com
  19. 19. -7- 9. Add several straight lines inside the space created by the two lower curved lines. Take note that the lines become progressively longer and farther apart the closer they are to the bottom of the space. Watch closely the various directions in which the lines are angled. ILLUSTRATION 03-09 ADDING A MIRROR IMAGE Your goal in this section is to draw a mirror image of what’s inside the left rectangle, within the perimeter of the second rectangle. Read through all the instructions and examine each drawing before you begin. Then, put this lesson away, so you aren’t tempted to refer to my drawing instead of your own.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com
  20. 20. -8- Drawing upside down or sideways exercises your right brain. The following illustrations show four different views of the drawing. Experiment with each and choose whichever feels more natural for you. For example, if you are left handed, you may want to try Illustration 03-12. ILLUSTRATION 03-10 ILLUSTRATION 03-11 ILLUSTRATION 03-12 ILLUSTRATION 03-13 10. Draw a mirror image of your drawing in the second rectangle. Examine the following four illustrations before you begin. Some tips to make the process easier include: Constantly refer to your first drawing on the opposite side of your paper. Imagine you are drawing its reflection in a mirror. Think about the shape of the spaces in between the various lines. Concentrate on the directions in which the lines curve, as well as their angles and lengths, as compared to your first drawing.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com
  21. 21. -9- ILLUSTRATION 03-14 ILLUSTRATION 03-15Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com
  22. 22. - 10 - ILLUSTRATION 03-16 ILLUSTRATION 03-17Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com
  23. 23. - 11 - You can greatly enhance your artistic development by practicing symmetry exercises. Put your brain in gear and your pencil in motion and try each of the following. ILLUSTRATION 03-18 ILLUSTRATION 03-19 ILLUSTRATION 03-20 ILLUSTRATION 03-21 Try and find five to ten minutes each day to do symmetry exercises. Make up your very own designs, and you can even color them in with colored markers for additional fun!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com
  24. 24. - 12 - ILLUSTRATION 03-22 You may want to use colored pencils or markers to add color to your design. Here are a couple of samples (colored in Photoshop) to get your creative juices flowing! ILLUSTRATION 03-23Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com
  25. 25. - 13 - BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com
  26. 26. Brenda Hoddinott B-04 BEGINNER: LEARN TO SEEThis lesson is all about tricking your brain into allowing your vision to see differently. In a funproject, you exercise your brain, vision, and drawing skills with a traditional optical illusion inwhich you see two different images within the same drawing.The next time you go outside on a cloudy day, examine the clouds. Your left-brain allows you tosee only a cloud. But, sometimes you can look at a cloud and see the shape of something else.Your right brain often allows you to see other things in clouds, such as animals or faces.You need good quality white drawing paper, graphite pencils, a ruler and erasers. This lesson isdivided into the following two sections: EXERCISING YOUR RIGHT BRAIN: You exercise both your brain and vision with an illustrated discussion surrounding your brain’s perspective on artistic perceptions. All you need is a brain, an open mind, and a little patience. DRAWING AN OPTICAL ILLUSION: From pencils to sketchbooks, many tools of drawing are integral to creating art. However, the most important drawing tool of all is your brain. This project invites you to follow along with step-by-step instructions, and draw an optical illusion by transforming two faces into a vase. 12 PAGES – 22 ILLUSTRATIONS Recommended for artists of all ages with basic drawing skills, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada, Revised 2006
  27. 27. 2 EXERCISING YOUR RIGHT BRAIN In this part, all you need is a brain, an open mind, and a little patience. With some simple visual exercises, you exercise both your brain and vision. Your brain has two sides, the right hemisphere (right brain) and the left hemisphere (left-brain). Left-brain thinking is analytical and verbal. Right-brain thinking is visual and perceptive. You use both right and left-brain functions for drawing. Our education system emphasizes the importance of left-brain functions. This is logical when you realize that the left-brain controls most mathematical and verbal skills. As a result, many persons are left-brain dominant. Many of the perceptive skills needed for drawing are processed by the right brain. Exercising some dormant abilities of your right brain helps you to see differently and thereby draw better. This exercise may help you notice when your brain switches sides. It’s sometimes referred to as an optical illusion. Have a look at the drawing in Illustration 04-01. What do you see? Do you see a vase? Can you see two faces? ILLUSTRATION 04-01Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  28. 28. 3 If you could see both the vase and the two faces, you just experienced a switch of your right and left-brain functions. If you had difficulty seeing both, the next two drawings may help. In the first one the vase is black. In the second the faces are black. Can you see them both now? ILLUSTRATION 04-02 ILLUSTRATION 04-03 Many of the perceptive skills needed for drawing are processed by the right brain. Your creative and insightful right brain plays various roles in drawing, such as:  Seeing abstract connections between lines, shapes, and spaces,  Helping with the process of drawing in a non-narrative context by instinctively seeing proportions,  Combining the varied visual components of your drawing subject to form a whole image,  Planning instinctive compositions  Allowing you to better concentrate on drawing by blocking distractions and sometimes even losing track of time. The primary functions of your left brain include:  Using mathematical logic to establish proportions, such as examining measurements of lines and spaces, and drawing grid lines,  Naming the individual parts of the person you are drawing,  Analyzing the numerical and verbal sequences of step-by-step instructions  Keeping track of time frames.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  29. 29. 4 The next illustration provides you with another opportunity to see both the faces and a vase. The solution to this illusion is in the two illustrations following this one. ILLUSTRATION 04-04 ILLUSTRATION 04-05 ILLUSTRATION 04-06 Symmetry in drawing is a balanced arrangement of lines and shapes on opposite sides of an often-imaginary centerline. Many drawing subjects, including frontal views of vases, faces, wine glasses, flowerpots, and forms such as spheres, cones, and cylinders, look more realistic when drawn the same on both sides.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  30. 30. 5 Can you see the symmetry in the beautiful chalice in Illustration 04-07? Imagine a line of symmetry right down the middle of this drawing, dividing it in half vertically. Each side is a mirror image of the other. Both sides are symmetrical. Can you also see the two old witches? ILLUSTRATION 04-07 ILLUSTRATION 04-08 ILLUSTRATION 04-09Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  31. 31. 6 DRAWING AN OPTICAL ILLUSION From pencils to sketchbooks, many tools of drawing are integral to creating art. However, the most important drawing tool of all is your brain. In this simple step-by-step exercise you use both sides of your brain to draw your very own optical illusion! You need a ruler, pencils, and an eraser. Read carefully through all the instructions for the entire project before you begin. 1. Establish a vertical drawing space. A drawing space (sometimes called a drawing format) refers to the area of a drawing surface within a specific perimeter, outlined by a shape of any size, such as a square, rectangle or circle. The rectangular shape of a sketchbook or drawing paper can be turned vertical (sometimes referred to as a portrait format). Another option is to use a ruler to draw a vertical rectangle similar in shape to mine. 2. Use your ruler to measure the horizontal midpoint of your drawing space and very lightly draw a line down the center. This line serves as a reference to help keep both sides of your drawing symmetrical. Symmetry is a balanced arrangement of lines and shapes on opposite sides of an often- imaginary centerline. ILLUSTRATION 04-10 3. Use your ruler to measure an equal distance along the line of symmetry from both the top and bottom of your drawing space, and mark them with dots. The distance from the top and bottom should be very short. The dots will be helpful later in this project. For now pretend they’re not there. The farther the facial profiles are from the line of symmetry, the wider the vase will be. For a narrow vase, draw the faces closer to the center line.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  32. 32. 7 4. Draw a facial profile (facing the right) on the left side of your paper (If you are left handed, draw the profile facing the left on the right side of your paper). Take note that the top of the head begins on the side and not the top of the drawing space. Also the point where you begin to draw is at the same height as the upper dot. As you draw each part of the face, think about its name: forehead, nose, lips, chin, and neck. This is a very left brain exercise. ILLUSTRATION 04-11Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  33. 33. 8 5. Draw a second facial profile facing the first. As you draw, don’t think about naming the parts of the face. Constantly refer to your first drawing on the opposite side of your paper. Imagine you are drawing its reflection in a mirror. Think about the shapes of the spaces in between the two profiles. Shape refers to the outward outline of a form. Turn your paper upside down or sideways to draw the second face. Drawing upside down or sideways exercises your right brain by confusing your left- brain. When the left brain can no longer identify and name the individual parts of a face, it gives up. Your right brain jumps in and takes over. ILLUSTRATION 04-12 Concentrate on the lines and the directions in which they curve, their angles, and the lengths of the lines as compared with your first drawing. You may notice that you are drawing somewhat differently for this second profile. Your right- brain is now in charge!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  34. 34. 9 ILLUSTRATION 04-13 6. Draw horizontal lines across the top and bottom of your paper through the dots you marked in Step 2. These lines don’t have to be the same length. However, the points, where the ends of these lines meet the facial profiles, should be the same distance from the line of symmetry. 7. Erase the line of symmetry, and any extra facial lines outside the perimeter of the vase. ILLUSTRATION 04-14 ILLUSTRATION 04-15 The magical illusion of faces and a vase is complete. You can more clearly see the illusion when the vase is filled in with black, and when the faces are filled in with black.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  35. 35. 10 The following four illustrations show you another way to draw the same illusion without drawing dots on the line of symmetry. You simply begin drawing the faces from the top of your drawing space rather than the sides. When you use this method, you don’t have spaces above and below the vase. Neither method is right or wrong – it’s simply a matter of which you prefer! ILLUSTRATION 04-16 ILLUSTRATION 04-17 ILLUSTRATION 04-18 ILLUSTRATION 04-19 The next two drawings show first the vase and then the faces filled in with black, so you can see how each part of this illusion looks when drawn by this method.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  36. 36. 11 ILLUSTRATION 04-20 ILLUSTRATION 04-21 You can have lots of fun creating and sharing a personalized collection of faces and vase drawings. Think about creating making unique gifts for your family and friends with this amusing illusion. Consider the following options:  Dig into your imagination and make up a unique facial profile.  Have a friend or family member pose sideways and make a contour drawing of his or her profile.  Take a photo of someone’s facial profile, and use it as a reference for drawing. ILLUSTRATION 04-22 When you have an outline of the side of a face, you can follow the previous instructions to create your personal optical illusion. This photo was the inspiration for my optical illusion. You enhance your artistic development by practicing mental and visual exercises, such as optical illusions. So, put your brain in gear and your pencil in motion and see how many unique illusions you can create!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  37. 37. 12 BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporate her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. These sites offer downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. These sites are respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  38. 38. BLIND Brenda HoddinottB-05 BEGINNER: LEARN TO SEELearning to draw accurately depends onmany hours of practicing the skill ofcoordinating your visual skills with yourdrawing hand, until your eyes and handwork together effortlessly.This fun project enhances yourobservation skills by encouraging you tovery closely examine your subject. Inessence, you draw by looking only at yourdrawing subject, rather than your subjectand your pencil and paper.This exercise is divided into two sections: SETTING UP YOUR DRAWING SPACE: This section tells you how to prepare your subject and supplies for doing this exercise. CONTOUR DRAWING WITH ONLY ONE LINE: Coordinating your vision with your drawing hand is fundamental to learning to draw proportionately correct. You use one long continuous line to draw a simple object without looking at your paper.Suggested supplies include several sheets of white drawing paper, a few freshly sharpenedpencils, a pencil sharpener, and tape. 5 PAGES – 6 ILLUSTRATIONS This lesson is recommended for artists of all ages and skill levels, as well as students of home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2008
  39. 39. -2-SETTING UP YOUR DRAWING SPACE ART SPEAKCoordinating your vision with your drawing hand is Drawing: is the application offundamental to learning to draw proportionately correct. No an art medium to a surface sodoubt, you are familiar with the artistic concept of right and left as to produce a visual imagesides of the brain. In this exercise you draw on (pun intended) that visually defines anboth sides of your brain. Your right brain controls most of the artist’s choice of drawingactual drawing, but your left brain helps by visually measuring subjects from his or her owndistances and sizing up proportions. unique perspective. Proportion: is theBefore you begin this exercise, you need to understand the relationship in size of oneconcept of contour drawing. component of a drawing toAs with most communications, another or others.a visual example speaks much Right brain: helps with themore clearly than words. process of drawing in a non-Examine the contour drawings narrative context by seeingin Figures 501 and 502. proportions and relationships between lines, shapes, and spaces. Left-brain: uses logic to establish accurate Figure 501: Contour proportions. For example,drawing of the well chewed mathematically measuring the end of a rawhide dog toy. distances of lines and the sizes of shapes relies mostly on the left-brain. Your left- Figure 502: Contour brain also helps you to drawing of a small analyze and follow step-by- plastic toy. step instructions. Contour drawing: is a drawing comprised of linesHowever, don’t think that follow the contours of thefor a second that edges of various componentsdrawings done with of a drawing subject.blind contour drawing Form: as applied to drawing,can look this precise! is the illusion of the three- dimensional structure of aActually, your drawings shape, such as a circle,will probably look square or triangle, created inawful (but no doubt a drawing with shading and/orvery funny) the first perspective.few times you try this Curved lines: are createdexercise. You may even when a straight line curveswant to play a game (or bends).with your friends of“What is this?” Shape: refers to the outward outline of a form. BasicIn other words, the process you use for blind contour drawing shapes include circles,is in itself, a million times more valuable than the resulting squares and triangles.drawings.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  40. 40. -3-With lots of practice, you acquire more confidence with drawing what you actually see, ratherthat your preconceived notions of what you think you see.Figure 503 is a blind contour drawing of a hand, rendered with one long continuous line. In otherwords, the pencil wasn’t lifted from the paper until the drawing was complete. You need very little in the way of art supplies to do this invaluable little Figure 503: Blind exercise; only pencils, paper, and tape.contour drawing of a hand showing Your goal is to simply make the most the starting and accurate drawing you possibly can finishing points of without looking at your drawing paper. the one line used Set yourself up to draw as follows: to render the drawing. 1) Sharpen several pencils (or you can use a fine point black marker if you prefer). 2) Find a simple object to draw. Place it in a position where you can see it clearly from where you are seated. If you’re right handed place the object on your far left and if you’re left handed put it on your far right. 3) Tape a sheet of drawing paper (from your sketchbook if you wish) to your drawing surface so the paper doesn’t move as you draw.CONTOUR DRAWING WITH ONLY ONE LINEIn this section you use one long continuous line to draw a simple object without looking at yourpaper. Choose a time when you can work without interruptions. Put out the cat, take the phoneoff the hook, and settle down in a comfortable well lit part of your home.Position yourself so that you are facing the object, but can’t see your drawing paper. Resist theurge to look at what you are drawing. No cheating now!Read through all the following instructions before you begin:1) Rest your drawing arm on the table in a comfortable position.2) Place the point of your pencil on your drawing surface and look back at the object.3) Focus your complete attention on the edges and lines of the object.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  41. 41. -4-4) Allow your eyes to focus on one section of an edge of the object and very slowly visually follow the line created by this edge. At the same time, move your pencil very slowly in the same direction as your eyes. As you draw, don’t think about what the subject is. Instead focus on the shapes and spaces on either side of the lines. Keep your eyes and pencil moving together at the same slow, steady pace. Carefully notice each time the line on the edge of the object changes direction. Without peeking at your paper, allow your pencil to record every detail of the line (or lines) you are seeing.5) Continue looking and drawing until you have drawn the entire object.CHALLENGERepeat this exercise (with the same object Figure 504: Blindor different objects) several times using contour drawingthe same process of drawing with one line. created by sometimesThen, to add a more challenging twist, lifting the pencil fromdraw another object in the same way, but the paper.occasionally lift your pencil as you drawthe object. This is actually much moredifficult in that it’s almost impossible tobegin in the correct place again once yourpencil leaves the paper.Figure 506: The bestof several blind contourdrawings of my hand;each was rendered bylifting the pencil from Figures 504 and 505 showthe paper once and a drawings rendered by occasionallywhile. lifting the pencil. By the way, I did several other drawings of each of these subjects, but picked the best ones to show you. For example, I threw away the one of my hand with three fingers growing out of my thumb! Repeat these exercises every chance you can. Remember, the goal is to enhance your visual skills; hence, your drawing skills naturally improve. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  42. 42. -5-BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHYAs a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, BrendaHoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalkpastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott<Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. Shedeveloped strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning,and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as aself-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments haveemployed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal policedepartments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal CanadianMounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “ForensicArtists International”.Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing andpainting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired andtrained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brendachose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing,drawing, painting, and developing her websites.Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach tocurriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes forstudents of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels andabilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as aresource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughoutthe world.LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. Drawing on the Masters, Book 1: to be published in 2008. Drawing on the Masters, Book 2: to be published in 2009.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  43. 43. Brenda Hoddinott B-06 BEGINNER: LEARN TO SEE Learning to draw is learning to see. Values are the most important ingredients in realistic drawings. Values are the different shades of gray created by various means, such as when you draw by varying both the density of the shading lines, and the pressure used in holding your pencils. The principles of drawing values provide a foundation for learning to render shading. Shading can transform a line drawing into a three dimensional object or space. Skills introduced in this lesson include: learning how to recognize angled, curved and/or straight lines which make up hatching and crosshatching sets; and identifying and shading different values. Suggested supplies include 2H, HB, 4B and 6B pencils, vinyl eraser and kneaded eraser, and drawing paper.This lesson is divided into the following three sections: LINES BECOME SHADING: shading can be rendered in various ways, including curved or straight lines, long or short lines, light or dark lines, or even combinations of different types and lengths of lines. Some sets of shading lines have noticeable spaces between the lines, and others have lines drawn very closely together so they appear to be solid tone. SHADING VARIOUS SPACES: The four worksheets in this section are designed to help you to identify values and then combine lines, shapes, and shading to render very simple two-dimensional drawings. SEEING SHADING IN DRAWINGS: Shading really makes a drawing jump out at you. I’ve learned a lot about shading by studying drawings or photos of drawings, by various artists. This section discusses the shading in two very different drawings. 12 PAGES – 5 ILLUSTRATIONS – 4 WORKSHEETS Recommended for artists of all ages and abilities, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada, Revised 2006
  44. 44. 2 LINES BECOME SHADING People sometimes comment to me that my shading techniques look difficult. Well, as I tell them, not so at all! My favorite shading techniques, hatching and crosshatching are simple, as easy as drawing lines (or sets of lines)! Shading refers to the various shades of gray (values) in a drawing that make drawings look three- dimensional. Generally speaking, shading can have curved or straight lines, long or short lines, light or dark lines, combinations of different types and lengths of lines, or no lines at all. Hatching is a series of lines (called a set) drawn closely together to give the illusion of values. Crosshatching is a technique for rendering an infinite range of values within shading, in which one set of lines crosses over (overlaps) another set. Some sets of hatching and crosshatching have noticeable spaces between the lines, and others have lines drawn very closely together so they appear to be solid tone. 1. Look closely at the shading techniques in illustrations 06-01 (hatching) and 06-04 (crosshatching) and take note of all the different types of lines. 2. Find your drawing supplies and try your hand at drawing some of these different ways of making sets of shading lines. ILLUSTRATION 06-01Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com

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