Incepatori a resourse

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Incepatori a resourse

  1. 1. ILLUSTRATED OF DRAWING WORDS AND TERMS Brenda HoddinottA-01 GETTING STARTED: This glossary provides definitions and illustrations of the art-related vocabulary used throughout Drawspace lessons and articles.I tend to stay away from complicated and unnecessary words. However, knowing themeanings of fundamental terms is essential to the learning process. Becoming familiar withthe vocabulary of drawing enhances your comprehension of the diverse articles andlessons throughout this website, and helps make your drawing experiences morepleasurable and less frustrating!TALENT: is the first word an aspiring artist needs to know. Talent is the self-discovery andacknowledgment that you possess the interest and motivation needed to becomeexceptional in a specific area. To find out what a talented person looks like, go look in amirror! With a personal commitment, patience, and dedication, you can develop your talentfor drawing.My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gentlyintroducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter,the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. DEFINITIONS FOR MORE THAN 130 TERMS AND WORDS This glossary is recommended for artists from age 10 to adult, as well as students of home schooling, academic, and recreational fine art educators. 18 PAGES – 88 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Drawspace.com, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2006 (Revised 2010)
  2. 2. 2 ACID-FREE: refers to a high-quality, long-lasting, and pH-balanced paper or board that has had the acid removed from the pulp in the paper-making process. Drawings can be ruined when papers with acid, deteriorate and turn yellow. This photo shows various acid-free sketchbooks and drawing papers. AERIAL PERSPECTIVE: also called atmospheric perspective, refers to the visual depth created by particles in the atmosphere. The farther objects and/or people recede into the distance, the lighter in value they seem to become, and their edges and forms appear more blurred. The trees that are farther away from the viewer become progressively lighter in value. AGE PROGRESSION: refers to the art of rendering individuals older than they really are. AGE REGRESSION: is the art of rendering a person younger than her or his actual age. These drawings demonstrate a male’s age progression from infancy to old age. When rendered in reverse, from older to younger, the process is called age regression. ANGLE LINES: occur when two straight lines meet (or join together). Various types and sizes of angle lines can be used to draw various shapes, including squares, rectangles, and triangles. BALANCE: is a stable arrangement of subjects and values within a drawing composition. While the shapes of these two heads are different, they are balanced on opposite sides of the composition by their individual masses.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing lesson belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  3. 3. 3 BLENDING: is the process of rubbing shading lines with a blending tool (such as tissue or paper towel) to evenly distribute the drawing medium over the surface of the paper, thereby achieving a silky smooth graduation of values. This is a drawing before and after blending the shading with a tissue. BULLS EYE: is the center section of a drawing space. A composition usually becomes weak when the primary subject is drawn within the bulls eye. This cartoon face isn’t very happy about being in the center of this rectangular drawing space. CAST SHADOW: is a dark section on an object or/and surface that receives little or no light. The values of a cast shadow are darkest next to the object and become gradually lighter farther away. CIRCULAR SHAPE: is a two-dimensional shape, created when the ends of a curved line meet, such as in the letter O. Circular shapes are the primary ingredients for outlining the forms of various objects and most living creatures. These circular shapes were created when different types of curved lines met. CLIPS: are used to securely clamp sheets of paper to a drawing board. When artists draw outdoors, they protect drawings from falling on the ground, or blowing away with a gust of wind. COMPOUND CURVE: is a term used to describe the line created when a curved line changes direction. For example, think of the letter S or an open ended number 8.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing lesson belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  4. 4. 4 COMPOSITION: refers to the arrangement of the various facets of a drawing subject within the borders of a drawing space. A strong composition brings the eyes of the viewer into what the artist considers the most important elements. In this composition, the viewers’ eyes are drawn into the scene by the gentle s-curve of the river. CONTOUR DRAWING: is a drawing comprised of lines that follow the contours of the edges of various components of a drawing subject. CONTOUR LINES: are formed when the shared edges of spaces and/or objects meet. This contour drawing of a mouse is made up of curved contour lines. CONTOUR HATCHING: is a shading technique in which curved hatching lines follow the outlines, contours, and/or forms of the drawing subject, so as to accentuate the illusion of three- dimensional reality. Contour crosshatching has two sets of curved lines crossing over one another. Contour hatching is invaluable for drawing hair or fur. CONTRAST: is the comparison of different values when put beside one another, and is an invaluable tool for heightening the effects of composition. High contrast is created by drawing the darkest values, close to the highlights and lightest values. Low contrast has a limited range of values. The profile of young man’s face is accentuated by using a strong contrast of light and dark values. CRANIAL MASS: often referred to as the cranium or skull, is the large upper section of the head. The cranial mass of a baby is more than three times bigger than the face, whereas the cranial mass of an adult is only twice the size of the face.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing lesson belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  5. 5. 5 CROSSHATCHING: is a shading technique in which one set of lines crosses over (overlaps) another set. CURVED LINE: is formed when a straight line curves or bends (as in the letters "C" and "U"). DRAWING: is the application of a medium to a surface so as to produce an image that defines an artists choice of subjects from his or her unique perspective. Three butterflies demonstrate three different styles of drawing. DRAWING BOARD: is a portable drawing surface, perfect for drawing on sheets of paper to protect drawings from becoming crinkled, wrinkled, or torn. DRAWING PAPER: an acid-free paper, designed specifically for artists, comes in various colors, textures, and sizes. This photo shows drawing paper held firmly to a drawing board with a clip. DRAWING SPACE: (also called a drawing surface or a drawing format) is the area in which you render a drawing within a specific perimeter. It can be the shape of the paper or outlined by any shape you draw, such as a square, rectangle, or circle. A long rectangular format is ideal for drawing the full body of a giraffe. A short rectangle and a square, work well for closer up views.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing lesson belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  6. 6. 6 EAR: Drawing human ears is easier when you are familiar with the following five basic parts: 1. Outer rim is the long form along the outside edge of the ear that meets the earlobe at the lower section. 2. Inner rim is the smaller long form inside the ear that circles the rear of the opening to the ear canal. 3. Small lobe is the tiny form over the frontal section of the opening to the ear canal. 4. Ear canal is the opening to the inner ear. 5. Earlobe is the soft, fleshy, lower section of the ear. EASEL: is used to hold drawings (or paintings) securely in place as an artist works. It is often made from wood or metal and looks similar to a tripod in that it usually has three legs. The easel in this photo is holding a drawing board. EYE: Refer to this numbered drawing to identify each of the following: 1. Eyebrow is an arch-shaped group of hairs, above the eye. 2. Upper eyelid crease is a fold in the skin, at the top of the eyeball, above the eye. 3. Upper eyelid is a movable fold of skin that opens and closes to protect the eyeball. 4. Inner corner is a small, reddish, triangular-shaped form in the inside corner of the eye, close to the nose. 5. White of the eye (a section of the eyeball) is light, but not really white. 6. Highlight is the brightest area where light bounces off the surface of the eye. 7. Eyelashes are fine hairs that grow from the outer edges of the upper and lower eyelids. 8. Pupil of an eye is the darkest circular shape, within the iris, that adjusts its size under different lighting conditions. 9. Iris is the colored circular section of the eyeball surrounding the pupil. 10. Lower eyelid is the fold of skin that protects the lower section of the eyeball.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing lesson belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  7. 7. 7 EYEBALL: commonly referred to as the white of an eye, is the fragile sphere nestled safely inside a protective bone cavity of the face, called the orbital cavity. FACIAL MUSCLES: Ten major facial muscles can create an infinite range of facial expressions. 1. Eyebrow-lifter muscle is a wide flat muscle, with two independent halves, that runs vertically across the forehead. It helps create the expressions of surprise, sadness, and fear. 2. Frowner muscles are between the eyebrows and extend from the bridge of the nose upward and outward in a fan shape. Their movements contribute to the facial expressions of sadness, fear, concentration, anxiety, and anger. 3. Eyelid-lifter is a tiny muscle in each upper eyelid that controls the up and down movements of the upper eyelid to open and close the eyes. 4. Eye-squeezer muscle is a large oval-shaped muscle mass, surrounding the eye and extending onto the upper section of the cheek. The various sections can work independently or together to show happiness, stress, anger, and pain. 5. Lip-raiser muscles extend from above the outer mouth area, directly upward on the cheek in a fan shape. The movement of the upper lip displays disgust, devastation, despair, and sneering. 6. Smiling muscles run from the corners of the mouth back toward the ears, and contribute to the happy expressions of smiling, laughing, giggling, and grinning. 7. Speaking muscles encircle the mouth, and work with other muscles to give the mouth its movements when talking and helps create the expressions of anger, surprise, and sadness. 8. Sadness muscle extends from the corners of the mouth downward, and contributes to such facial expressions as grief, sadness, and frowning. 9. Pouting muscle pushes the center of the mouth upward, resulting in a raised and puckered chin. 10. Lip-stretcher muscles pull the lips horizontally back on the face in such extreme expressions as devastation, terror, or intense anger.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing lesson belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  8. 8. 8 FACIAL GUIDELINES: sometimes called proportional guidelines, identify the placements of all aspects of diverse human faces within generic spaces. Vertical and horizontal guidelines mark the locations of an adult’s facial features. FACIAL MASS: also called the face or facial area, refers to the frontal lower section of a human head. An adult face represents only half of the total mass of the head. FOCAL POINT: is a term used to identify the most important elements in a drawing. Primary focal point is the most important center of interest (or focus) in a drawing. For example, in a drawing of an animal, it may be the eyes, the entire face, or a whole section of the body that is especially fascinating. Secondary focal point(s) is a center of interest in a drawing composition that is significant but not as important as the primary focal point. In this cartoon, the very happy primary focal point takes center stage, while the disgruntled secondary focal points look on. FORESHORTENING: describes the visual distortion of a person, animal, or object when viewed at an extreme angle. As the angle of viewing of these boards becomes more extreme, the level of distortion becomes more pronounced. FORMS: are created in drawings by adding shading to transform a shape into three- dimensional structures, such as a circle becoming a sphere.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing lesson belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  9. 9. 9 GESTURE SKETCH: uses simple sketching methods to capture the past, present, or potential movements of living beings. These simple sketches capture my grandson, Brandon, in motion. GOLDEN MEAN: refers to a precise composition devised by the ancient Greeks, and based on the division of what they deemed as a perfect rectangle, into three triangles. GRADUATION: is also called graduated shading or graduated values, and is a continuous progression of values, from dark to light or light to dark. The goal of graduated shading is to keep the transitions between the different values flowing smoothly into one another, as in this illustration. GRID: is a precise arrangement of a specific number of squares, of exact sizes, proportionately drawn on both a photo and a drawing surface. A grid can help render the precise proportions of the cartoon snake in this sketch. HATCHING: is a series of lines (called a set) drawn closely together to give the illusion of values. The individual lines in hatching sets can be either far apart or close together. HIGHLIGHT: identifies the brightest area of a form where light bounces off its surface; usually the section closest to the light source. On this section of a sphere, the highlight is left the white of the paper.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing lesson belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  10. 10. 10 HORIZON LINE: is an element of perspective, also known as eye level that refers to an imaginary horizontal line that divides your line of vision when you look straight ahead. Your eye level always stays with you wherever you move. The horizon line is drawn parallel to the upper and lower sides of a square or rectangular drawing space. IN-HOME STUDIO: is a personal drawing place within an artists home, which has adequate space for the artist and his or her art supplies. It can range from a corner of the kitchen table to a large professional fully equipped art studio. My favorite part of my studio is the view of my back yard. KNEADED ERASER: is a versatile, soft, pliable eraser, used to erase parts of a drawing or to make a section lighter. Its tip can be molded to a point (or wedge) to erase small sections of a drawing, or to draw fine lines on a surface, covered with a drawing medium, such as graphite. KEY: refers to the overall amount of light and dark values in a drawing. Low-key drawings (think of low levels of light) have a range of mostly dark values and tend to be ominous or moody. Except for sections of the face, this low key drawing of a man High-key drawings (think of high levels of light) can has mostly dark values. have either a full or limited range of values that are mostly light. Even the shadows and dark areas are often shaded with medium values rather than extreme darks. Only the pupils of the eyes are dark in this high key drawing of a young girl.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing lesson belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  11. 11. 11 LIFE DRAWING: refers to the process of drawing from an actual object or living being, rather than a photo or sketch. Charcoal is a wonderful medium for sketching human figures. LINE DRAWING: is rendered with straight, angle, and/or curved lines so as to outline various aspects of the subject such as shapes, forms and/or textures. The fur of this line drawing of a koala bear looks furry. LINES: visually separate and/or define the forms of the various components of a drawing subject. All lines in this drawing can be categorized into one of three types: straight, angle, or curved. LIGHT SOURCE: is the direction from which a dominant light originates. A light source identifies the light and shadow areas of a drawing subject, so artists know where to add different values. In this cartoon, drawing the light source is from the upper right. MECHANICAL PENCILS: are an alternative to pencils that need to be sharpened, and can hold various grades of graphite from hard to soft. They come in different sizes: 0.3 mm pencil allows you to render very detailed drawings, 0.5 mm pencil is great for regular drawings, and 0.7 or 0.9 mm are ideal for sketching loosely on a large surface. NEGATIVE SPACE: refers to the background around and/or behind a drawing subject such as objects, people, or animals. The black space around this swan and its reflection in the water is considered negative space.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing lesson belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  12. 12. 12 NOSE: Refer to the numbered drawing and identify each of the various parts of a human nose: 1. Bridge (sometimes called the nasal bone) is the section of the nose where the upper bony section joins the cartilage. While barely visible on young children, the bridge on an adult nose often protrudes as a noticeable bulge or bump. 2. Ball (also called the tip) refers to the central rounded form on the lower half of the nose. 3. Wings are two soft, rounded (often triangular shaped) forms extending from the sides of the ball of the nose. 4. Nostril is the opening on the lower section of each side of a nose. 5. Base of a nose (also called a septum) is in between the nostrils and connects with the lower face above the upper lip. Noses come in many shapes and sizes. Upturned noses (see the first drawing) angle upward and the ball is higher than the wings. The ball and nostrils of straight noses (the middle drawing) line up horizontally with the wings. On down-turned noses (the third drawing) the ball is lower than the wings creating a downward angle. OVERLAPPING: refers to a technique for creating the illusion of depth in a drawing by drawing a subject so it visually appears to be in front of another (or others). A drawing space can be separated into foreground, middle ground, and distant space by overlapping (or layering) objects in front of one another. In this cartoon of overlapping happy faces, 1 is in front of 2, and 3 is behind 2. PATTERN: refers to the different values (or colors) of the drawing subject, represented in a drawing, by lines or shading. Sight alone identifies patterns. The pattern of fur on a zebra is striped; however the texture is furry.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing lesson belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  13. 13. 13 PERSPECTIVE: is a visual illusion in a drawing in which objects appear to become smaller, and recede into distant space, the farther away they are from the viewer. The railings and boards of the deck appear to become progressively smaller the farther away they are. PERSPECTIVE LINES: are straight, angular lines (invisible in real life), which extend from the edges of subjects back to a vanishing point(s) on the horizon line. Perspective lines, drawn from the edges of each cube to the vanishing point, create the illusion that the cubes are floating in the air like helium-filled balloons. PORTFOLIO CASE: is a hard-sided case used to keep drawings safe from being wrinkled or damaged. Portfolios come in many different sizes and types, ranging from simple inexpensive cardboard to high quality expensive leather. A portfolio case can be easily made from two pieces of cardboard or foam core. POSITIVE SPACE: refers to the space occupied by the drawing subject and/or its (or his or her) various parts. The silhouette of the swan and its reflection in the water represent positive space. PROPORTION: is the relationship in size of one component of a drawing to another or others. These four cartoons need to be drawn proportionately correct in order to accurately represent their various shapes and sizes.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing lesson belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  14. 14. 14 REFLECTED LIGHT: is a faint light reflected or bounced back on an object from those surfaces that are close to and around it. Refer to the thin section of light shading (marked RL) along the lower edge of a sphere. RESOURCE FILES: are a collection of articles, photos, and information used by artists as references for drawing. Three-ring binders work well for organizing small drawings and photos, which have been inserted into plastic sheet protectors. ROUGH SKETCH: is a quickly rendered drawing that illustrates the important elements of a subject with very few details. A few simple, quickly-rendered lines capture the gestures of three figures. RULE OF THIRDS: is a simplified variation of an old traditional compositional formula known as the golden mean. The points, where the perpendicular lines intersect, identify four ideal locations for the most important components of a composition. SANDPAPER BLOCK: is a tool with tear-off sheets of fine sandpaper used for sharpening only the points of pencils; hence, pencils won’t wear down as quickly as with pencil sharpeners. SETS OF LINES: are created when several individual lines are grouped together to create shading. For example, in this drawing, crosshatching is used to create a variety of shading techniques.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing lesson belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  15. 15. 15 SHADING: (noun) refers to the various values in a drawing that make images appear three-dimensional; (verb) the process of adding values to a drawing so as to create the illusion of texture, form and/or three-dimensional space. The shading of this cartoon is rendered with hatching graduations. SHADING MAP: (also called a value map), is a plan (or blueprint) for adding shading to a drawing. The locations and sizes of the shapes of various values are identified and lightly outlined. Outlines identify the locations of dark and light spots on a furry texture. SHAPE: refers to the outward outline of a form. Basic shapes include circles, squares and triangles. Examine the six circular shapes on the left. SHARPENER: A tool for sharpening pencils. An ideal choice is a simple, inexpensive, sturdy, hand-held type, preferably with two openings for regular and oversized pencils. SKETCH: (noun) is a simple drawing that captures the integral aspects of a subject quickly and efficiently; (verb) refers to the process of rendering a sketch. Squirkling: is an easy method of shading, in which randomly drawn curved lines (called squirkles) combine squiggles and scribbles with circles to create textured values.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing lesson belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  16. 16. 16 STRAIGHT LINES: can be thick or thin, long or short, and drawn in any direction. Each is classified as either horizontal (level and at a right angle to vertical lines), vertical (straight up and down and at a right angle to a horizontal lines), or diagonal (slanting or sloping at an angle). SYMMETRY: is a balanced arrangement (sometimes referred to as a mirror image) of lines and shapes on opposite sides of an often-imaginary centerline. TEXTURE: refers to the surface detail of an object in a drawing. The properties of a texture are identified with vision, a sense of touch, and a general knowledge of the subject. Rough refers to surface features that feel uneven, irregular, or jagged, such as the bark on a tree. Furry, fuzzy, and fluffy depict a surface texture such as animal fur. Additional descriptors include striped or spotted, soft or coarse, long or short, thick or thin, or curly or straight. Matte is dull and lusterless and often has additional characteristics, such as smooth or rough. Many fabrics, rocks and stones, and unfinished wood, have a matte texture. Shiny has highlights reflecting off the surface. Shiny objects can be glossy or highly polished, such as the surfaces of crystal, a diamond, a shiny new penny, or polished brass. Smooth Texture: has little or no surface features. When you run your hand over a smooth surface, you feel no unevenness or roughness. THUMBNAIL SKETCH: a preliminary sketch rendered before an artist begins a drawing, is designed to work through potential problems with composition, values, perspective, and proportions. The thumbnail sketch on the left was created prior to rendering the drawing on the right.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing lesson belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  17. 17. 17 TOOTH: refers to the surface texture of paper, which can range from silky smooth to very course. The more tooth a paper has, the rougher it feels to the touch. TORSO: also called the trunk, is the primary structure of a human body to which is connected the head, arms, and legs. This drawing shows frontal and posterior views of male and female torsos. VALUES: are the different shades of gray created in a drawing by various means. VALUE SCALE: refers to the range of different values from light to dark or from dark to light. VANISHING POINT: is an imaginary point (marked VP in this drawing) on the horizon line where perspective lines seem to converge. VIEWFINDER FRAME: is an adjustable, see-through drawing format, which allows artists to examine a potential drawing subject from various viewpoints, and is a priceless tool for planning a composition. VINYL ERASER: is an artistic tool used for erasing sections of drawings and/or drawing crisp light lines and fine details on a surface covered with a drawing medium, such as graphite. As you can see in this illustration, a vast selection of vinyl erasers is available.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing lesson belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  18. 18. 18 WARM FUZZIES: are words of encouragement or affirmations either given or received. They represent something unique to everyone and live wherever kindheartedness dwells. As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist BRENDA HODDINOTT (retired), and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including her favorites: graphite and paint. Brenda is the author of Drawing for Dummies (Wiley Publishing, Inc., New York, NY) and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN). She is currently writing two books on classical drawing. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She >Brenda Hoddinott< developed strong drawing and painting skills through self-directed learning. During her twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, various criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. In 2003, Brenda retired from her careers as a forensic artist and teacher to work full time writing books and developing her website (Drawspace.com). This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the worldCopyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing lesson belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  19. 19. Brenda HoddinottA-02 GETTING STARTED: This inspirational article provides insights into myths surroundingart and artists, and is divided into the following sections: Thankfully, nobody ever told me I couldn’t draw. “Talent” is a word often misunderstood. Individuals progress at their own special pace. Talent must be nurtured and developed. Almost everyone can learn to draw. Drawing means something different to everyone. The joy of drawing is in the process not the product. Drawing is seeing. The act of drawing produces a physical reward, art. Draw in a way you really love. You have already taken the first step! Art has become very accessible in recent years 7 PAGES – 2 ILLUSTRATIONS This article is recommended for artists of all ages and abilities, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – Revised 2005
  20. 20. 2 Thankfully, nobody ever told me I couldn’t draw. As an introverted child, I was oblivious to the meaning of the word “talent”. I discovered drawing could entertain me for hours and provide me with something everybody needs, a sense of being special. The respect and praise of a friend, parent or teacher gave me a boost of self- confidence, which enhanced my desire to constantly improve my skills. Growing up in the small town of Corner Brook, Newfoundland, presented the challenge of accessing information necessary to improve my drawing skills. ILLUSTRATION 02-01 I was an avid reader and loved visiting our public library, in which I spent many hours devouring everything I could find about art, from children’s picture books to encyclopedias with photographs of art by the Great Masters. I was rarely without inspiration or subject material for my drawings. My greatest love was drawing faces. I thrived on the challenge of being able to draw likenesses of friends and celebrities, and it was this early interest in faces, which ultimately brought me beyond the frustrations of self-education, to a very rewarding career in art. By the time I discovered that many people believed “drawing” to be very difficult or required a special talent, I was already well on my way to becoming technically skilled. As a young artist of fourteen (after several years of teaching myself) I drew this little girl and her doll. “Talent” is a word often misunderstood. Talented artists are often presented to us through movies, television, and media as magical, illusive, and mysterious eccentrics. In the art world, you sometimes hear the media hailing such things as human excrement, or random blobs of paint on a canvas, as great works of art. If you’re anything like me, you struggle to understand these artworks. You’re often left scratching your head, amused yet puzzled. The critics encourage you to believe that these artworks are the result of “extraordinary talent”. No wonder so many people believe that talent itself is magical, elusive, and not within the grasp of mere mortals, such as us! However, even the bizarre or zany stuff is usually great for a few giggles.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  21. 21. 3 There will always be artists who prefer to rely on “shock” to achieve recognition. But, the general population seems to respect artists who demonstrate strong technical skills in their style (or styles) of choice, representational, impressionistic, or abstract. Talent is actually the self-discovery and acknowledgment that you possess the interest and motivation needed to become exceptional in a specific area. Individuals progress at their own special pace. In fact, drawing is as natural a human activity as learning to walk or talk. From the ancient caves of pre-historic humans to the tombs of Egyptian and Native peoples all over the world, we have found evidence that humans used art to communicate and immortalize events and objects precious to their lives and cultures. The creators, of these ancient artworks, were probably not disparaged by self-doubt. They made art because it was the natural thing to do. From the beginnings of history to modern day, prodigies have been considered as persons who acquire a special ability with little effort. Talent is understood by many to only include these people. However, most prodigies, from a very young age, obsessively work to develop their skills. By continuing to challenge themselves, they discover their ability to transcend to extraordinary levels of technical competence. You are a unique individual with diverse abilities. Be patient with yourself. Your drawing skills develop over time. If your dream is to be a talented artist, you need to be true to yourself. Hard work, patience and devotion inevitably challenge a mediocre artist to become an exceptional artist. Talent must be nurtured and developed. Sadly, the world is full of “talented” people who never pursue that which they love, because they understand talent to be some magical elusive quality. Many people arrive at the conclusion that talent is only available to individuals who were born with it. I disagree. I wasn’t “born” an artist. With various books I taught myself how to draw and so can you! Continue to explore and nurture your desire to draw. We all possess talent. Almost everyone can learn to draw. Most individuals are capable of developing superior skills in specific areas. Many persons, including individuals challenged by visual, physical and mental limitations, enjoy drawing. The drawing techniques presented in my books and CD-ROMS require only two abilities, the ability to see, and some way to hold a pencil. Luckily, I can see and have hands. Some people without hands have become successful artists by accepting the challenge of using their mouth or feet to hold their drawing tools. If you have some vision and a way to hold a pencil, the only obstacle left is making a commitment. With a better understanding of talent and ability, you begin to recognize that drawing can be one of your special skills.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  22. 22. 4 Drawing means something different to everyone. You could look up the definition of drawing in a dictionary or even create your own nonspecific definition such as: Drawing is the applying of an art medium to a surface so as to produce a visual image. These words don’t define drawing as it personally relates to you. What comes into your mind when you think of the word drawing? How do YOU define this word? Put on your thinking cap for a moment, and finish the following sentence. To me, drawing is…….. You can learn to draw. With interest, patience and commitment, you can become as good at drawing as you wish. The most important thing is that you are actually drawing, making art, and communicating through and nurturing the artist within. The joy of drawing is in the process not the product. Drawing adds a new and exciting activity to your life. The joy and personal satisfaction of creating a drawing is both your incentive, and reward. The process of discovering this ability is enriching to all aspects of your life. The drawing process enhances many aspects of human development. As a means of expressing yourself, the language of art is a relaxing, stimulating and productive communication. Your drawings illustrate your personal perceptions. Drawing challenges you to communicate what you see into a non-verbal language. With only a few supplies and some basic skills, you soon find yourself taking pride in your new achievements. Drawing is seeing. Through your own eyes, as an artist, you appreciate everything around you from new perspectives, wherein you visually explore with a whole new purpose, discovering drawing subjects! Drawing is more than simply rendering a specific object. It visually defines your choice of drawing subjects from your own unique perspectives. No other person in the whole world is exactly like you. The act of drawing produces a physical reward, art. It really doesn’t matter why you draw or who sees your drawings. Maybe you hope to one day publicly exhibit your drawings. Or, you may choose to only share them with family and friends. You also have the option of keeping them all to yourself. Your drawings serve as a journal of your artistic journey. For example, have you ever thought about writing a book? Use your own drawings to illustrate your literary art. You can use your drawings to decorate your surroundings with a personal touch. Have some of your drawings framed and hang them in your home or workspace.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  23. 23. 5 Family, co-workers, and friends often become quite fascinated by your artistic creations. Don’t be surprised if they soon request some of your drawings for their own homes. Of course, this is a good time to encourage them to take up drawing themselves. ILLUSTRATION 02-02 In this illustration, you see one of my many current styles of drawing. I have no names or labels to identify my styles. I simply enjoy drawing in various ways.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  24. 24. 6 Draw in a way you really love. Every artist seems to have a unique approach to drawing. Some love big bold loose drawings, while others like little tiny drawings with lots of intricate details. Deciding which style applies to a specific drawing is not easy. Many artists choose to not label their drawings at all. Your personal style evolves each time you attempt new and diverse methods of drawing. Keep an open mind while carefully noting which of your drawings you prefer. Styles are neither right nor wrong… they just are. With time, your style (or styles) develops all by itself. You have already taken the first step! In that you are reading this, you are already on your way to becoming an artist. Perceived personal limitations are not obstacles. Your only challenge is making a commitment. For most of my adult life, I have chosen to share my love of art with both children and adults by teaching art. Today I am blessed with the commitment and technology to bring my knowledge and love of drawing to you from my web site at: www.finearteducation.com or www.drawspace.com Whether it is your desire to learn the very basics of drawing or to improve the drawing skills you already have, my classes will hopefully have something of interest to you. Art has become very accessible in recent years Vast art resources are available through galleries, the Internet, art books, and possibly even within your own community. With careful observation of the drawings of other artists, you gain invaluable information, which you can apply to your own drawings. Take time to examine, and appreciate a diverse range of art and artists. Investigate and participate in some of the wonderful drawing e-groups, where international artists share tips, critique one another’s works, and openly discuss various art techniques and art resources. Check out your local community based educational facilities and recreational centers, for drawing programs in your area. You can always benefit from drawing classes and workshops. You meet others within your community who also want to improve their drawing skills, techniques and styles. As you uncover local art resources, you meet diverse artists, and have opportunities to become involved in art groups. Many art groups organize incredible workshops, taught by prominent artists, and the camaraderie and enjoyment is well worth your time. With an interest in self-expression, you CAN develop exceptional drawing skills.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  25. 25. 7 BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  26. 26. BUYING DRAWINGBrenda HoddinottA-03 GETTING STARTED: With so manydifferent products available, its easy to feeloverwhelmed. Actually, you need very little to getstarted! This article offers practical guidance forbuying drawing materials.This article discusses the following: DRAWING BOOKS AND PAPERS: Experiment with a broad range of different types of sketch books and drawing papers. PENCILS AND OTHER DRAWING MEDIA: Some types of drawing media are very similar and others are quite unique. SOME OTHER MEDIA TO CONSIDER: As your skills improve, you may want to add to your selection of drawing materials. PORTFOLIO CASE: You need a hard-sided case to keep your drawings safe. TOOLS FOR ERASING: Vinyl and kneaded erasers are incredibly effective. TOOLS FOR SHARPENING: If you use any type of pencil media, you need a pencil sharpener. TOOLS FOR BLENDING: Blending tools distribute the drawing medium over the surface of the paper, to achieve a silky smooth graduation of values. SKETCHING WITH PAPER ON A DRAWING BOARD: A portable surface is perfect for drawing with sheets of paper. ADDING TO THE BASICS: In addition to the basics, you may want to check out other drawing supplies. 11 PAGES – 14 ILLUSTRATIONS This article is recommended for artists of all ages and abilities, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – Revised 2005
  27. 27. 2 INTRODUCTION With so many different products available, its easy to feel overwhelmed. Actually, you need very little to get started! This article offers practical guidance for buying drawing materials. You could probably find a few pencils and sheets of paper lying around your home. However, keep in mind that they may be designed for purposes other than drawing. You need to begin your drawing journey with professional materials that are designed specifically for artists. As with most activities, the better your tools the happier you’ll be with the outcomes. ILLUSTRATION 03-01 Even though you may be able to economize on some drawing materials, don’t try to scrimp and save money on the three most important items - sketchbooks, pencils, and erasers. Plan to go shopping at a reputable art store and buy the best quality you can comfortably afford. Time to make your shopping list! The old expression “You get what you pay for” definitely applies to art supplies. DRAWING BOOKS AND PAPERS Treat yourself to the luxury of experimenting with a broad range of different types of sketch books and drawing papers. Check out various art supply and stationary stores, and some department stores and purchase the best quality that you can afford. Make sure the actual paper is acid-free, or your drawings will deteriorate quickly. DRAWING BOOKS (SOMETIMES CALLED SKETCHBOOKS) Even though soft-covered sketchbooks are usually less expensive, drawings may easily become crumpled and damaged. A hard cover sketchbook is much more durable, and protects your treasured masterpieces from being ruined. If you happen to like drawing outside, away from a table, you’ll really come to appreciate the hard covers as a solid surface on which to draw. Choose a size that is easy to transport when you travel. Stay away from sketchbooks under 9 by 12 inches or your drawing options for composition and subjects will be too limited.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  28. 28. 3 ILLUSTRATION 03-02 DRAWING PAPERS Drawing papers come in oodles of colors, textures, and sizes. Go to a good art supply store, purchase several different types, and then try sketching on each until you discover your favorites. Tooth refers to the surface texture of paper and can range from silky smooth to very course. The more tooth a paper has, the rougher it feels to the touch. Some artists like smooth paper, and others prefer rougher, more heavily textured paper. Consider the qualities of the following three types of paper: ILLUSTRATION 03-03 This close-up of shading was rendered with a 6B pencil on smooth, fine-tooth paper. Fine tooth paper often feels velvety smooth to the touch and is perfect for rendering fine textures with hatching, crosshatching and/or squirkling. A word to the wise: stay away from papers with a really glossy surface! If the paper’s surface is too smooth, the graphite simply won’t stick very well, and it’s darn near impossible to render medium and dark values.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  29. 29. 4 ILLUSTRATION 03-04 Shading with a 6B pencil on medium-tooth sketchbook paper created this wonderful delicate texture. Medium tooth papers are ideal for most portrait drawings and work beautifully for rendering a full range of values from light to dark. The surface allows you to easily create diverse textures. Many artists prefer a medium tooth drawing surface in that it’s somewhere in between smooth and rough. ILLUSTRATION 03-05 The peaks and crevices of rough watercolor paper helped create this textured shading. Coarse, highly textured paper holds graphite very well. Some really great textures appear when the peaks of the paper grab the graphite and some of the crevices show through as white. PENCILS AND OTHER DRAWING MEDIA Artists have been drawing with graphite for centuries and even today it remains the most popular drawing medium. It has withstood the test of time for permanence, and lends itself beautifully to all styles of drawing. Some other types of drawing media are very similar and others are quite unique. For example, a drawing done with charcoal looks completely different than one done in graphite or pen. Media such as colored pencils, conté crayons, and pastels present you with the challenge of combining values with colors. ILLUSTRATION 03-06Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  30. 30. 5 GRAPHITE (SOMETIMES CALLED LEAD PENCIL) Pencils are your most important drawing tools, so buy the highest quality you can afford. Inexpensive graphite may work well for writing, but are often poor quality and can sometimes scratch your drawing paper instead of going on smoothly. A big ugly scratch mark right smack dab in the middle of smooth shading can be incredibly annoying and frustrating. Graphite comes in various grades and beginners only need a few different pencils. Generally speaking, H pencils work beautifully for light and middle values, and B pencils are best for middle and dark values. When you use a combination of both H and B pencils you can easily create a full range of values in your drawings. Choose a selection of both H and B pencils, such as 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B. 2H is the lightest (hardest), and the 6B is the darkest (softest). ILLUSTRATION 03-07 6H 5H 4H 3H 2H H F HB ILLUSTRATION 03-08 B 2B 3B 4B 5B 6B 7B 8B Mechanical pencils are a fantastic alternative to pencils that need to be constantly sharpened. They can hold various grades of graphite from very hard to soft and come in different sizes, such as 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 0.9. A 0.3 mm pencil allows you to render very detailed drawings, a 0.5 mm pencil is great for regular drawings and 0.7 or 0.9 mm mechanical pencils are ideal for sketching loosely or drawing on a large surface (or both).Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  31. 31. 6 SOME OTHER MEDIA TO CONSIDER As your skills improve, you may want to add some of the following to your selection of drawing materials: Chalk pastels come in tons of wonderful colors, and can be layered and blended to build up a paint-like quality in a drawing. Charcoal offers beautiful rich intense blacks that work brilliantly for sketching. However, keeping your sketches clean as you work can be challenging in that charcoal is messy and easy to smudge. On the up side, charcoal blends beautifully because of its soft texture, is available in both pencils and sticks, and come in various grades from hard to soft. Conté is similar to charcoal, is also available in either pencils or sticks, and comes in black, white, and gray, as well as a gorgeous range of rich earth tones, such as browns and sepias. Colored pencils (also called crayon pencils or crayons) have become very popular and highly respected over the past two decades. Painting with colored pencils involves dry mixing by layering colors on top of one another. Colored pencils rarely smudge, but they don’t blend very well and are difficult to erase. You can purchase colored pencils individually or in sets, and they come in tons of different colors. Stay away from cheap colored pencils. They’re much too waxy to blend and they fade very quickly. Pens and markers have become very popular as drawing tools in recent decades, and are relatively inexpensive. They work beautifully for various cartooning styles, such as Manga. PORTFOLIO CASE You absolutely must have a hard-sided case in which to keep your completed drawings safe from being wrinkled or damaged. You can purchase many different sizes and types of portfolio cases ranging from simple inexpensive cardboard to high quality expensive leather. You can even make your very own unique portfolio case (Refer to Lesson A-05: Making a Portfolio Case). TOOLS FOR ERASING Vinyl erasers are gentle to the surface of your paper, and are incredibly effective for both artistic uses (such as pulling light sections from a layer of graphite or charcoal) and reparative needs (such as erasing complete sections of a drawing). If you need to erase very tiny details, you can cut off a small slice of a vinyl eraser with a utility knife. For erasing small sections of a drawing try a pencil type of vinyl eraser (for which you can buy inexpensive refills). If you aren’t familiar with art erasers, have a salesperson help you. Kneaded erasers are a real joy to work with in that they dont leave annoying eraser crumbs on your paper, and can easily be molded to a point or wedge for erasing or lightening sections of drawings. You can either pat or gently rub the surface of your paper to make a section of shading lighter. Your kneaded eraser can be easily cleaned by simply stretching and reshaping (also known as "kneading") it several times until it comes clean. However, eventually kneaded erasers get too dirty to work well, so pick up some extras.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  32. 32. 7 ILLUSTRATION 03-09 TOOLS FOR SHARPENING If you use any type of pencil media, you need a pencil sharpener. Stay away from fancy, battery- operated, or expensive sharpeners. Instead, choose a simple, inexpensive, sturdy, hand-held metal pencil sharpener, preferably with two openings for regular and oversized pencils. They seem to last forever, especially when you buy replacement blades for them at art supply shops. Also pick up a few sandpaper blocks, with tear-off sheets designed to sharpen just the pencil points; hence, the wooden sections of your pencils won’t wear down as quickly. ILLUSTRATION 03-10 TOOLS FOR BLENDING Blending is the process of rubbing shading lines with a blending tool (such as tissue or paper towel), to evenly distribute the drawing medium over the surface of the paper, to achieve a silky smooth graduation of values. Choose blending tools that are clean, and experiment with colored items (such as fabrics) before you use them, to make sure they don’t leave dyes on your drawing surface.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  33. 33. 8 Consider a few of the following blending tools: Blending stumps (or tortillons) are tightly wound sticks of paper with points on both ends. Check out the various sizes and types available in art supply stores. Chamois is a soft fabric found in many grocery and department stores, and is ideal for creating a silky smooth texture. Cotton balls work well for blending large sections of your drawings. Facial tissues are great for blending soft pencil strokes. Felt creates different textures for various subjects, and is usually found in department or craft supply stores. Select white so colored dyes don’t spoil your drawings. Make-up wedges are ideal when your goal is very smooth blending. You can find them in cosmetic sections of department or drug stores. Paper towels are durable and work well for various blending applications. Q-tips work beautifully for blending tiny detailed sections of drawings. ILLUSTRATION 03-11 SKETCHING WITH PAPER ON A DRAWING BOARD A portable drawing surface, such as a drawing board is perfect when you draw with sheets of paper and don’t want your drawings to end up all crinkled, wrinkled, or torn. Many art supply stores sell different types in various sizes, and they are relatively inexpensive. As a matter of fact, if you (or someone you know) are handy with tools, you can very easily make your own drawing board. Simply cut a piece of smoothly finished, thin plywood to a size slightly larger than your favorite drawing paper. Use a fine sandpaper to sand it until its surface and edges are very smooth.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com

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