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  • 1. Ideal for homeschooling and self-directed learning!DRAWINGBOOK 1: GETTING STARTED Brenda Hoddinott Author of Drawing for Dummies and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People Illustrated120 pages and morethan 230 illustrations!► Choose the right drawing supplies► Set up a place to draw► Make a portfolio and viewfinder frame► 10 fun exercises and projectsFlesch-Kincaid Grade Level: 6.84Flesch reading ease score: 74.7
  • 2. Brenda Hoddinott Artist, illustrator, art educator, curriculum designer, forensic artist (retired), owner of Drawspace.com, and author of Drawing for Dummies, The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People Illustrated, and Drawing Book 1: Getting Started.********************************************************************** Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. With the help of learn-to-draw books, she developed good drawing skills by the age of 16. In 1982 Brenda left her well established career as a portraitist, graphic designer, and forensic artist, to move to Nova Scotia with her family. In addition to resuming the various facets of her art career, she began learning to paint in oils. From 1988 to 1994, Brenda began exhibiting her paintings and drawings in provincial and regional art exhibitions and competitions. She was honored with more than twenty prestigious visual art awards during these six years. Brenda and her partner John live in the suburbs of Halifax, Nova Scotia with their two SPCA rescue dogs, Timber (Huskador) and Katie (Rottbeagle). Their blended family includes five adult children and two grandchildren.**********************************************************************
  • 3. I DRAWING BOOK 1 GETTING STARTED by Brenda HoddinottAuthor of Drawing for Dummies and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People Illustrated Published by Drawspace.com, Halifax, NS, Canada
  • 4. II This book is dedicated to my loving partner, John Percy. Copyright © 2009 Brenda Hoddinott All rights reserved. No part of this electronic book shall be reproduced by any method or means, electronically sent or transferred to additional individuals or companies other than the original purchaser of this electronic book, or transmitted by any method or means; electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. This electronic publication contains the opinions and ideas of the author, Brenda Hoddinott, and it is intended to provide helpful and informative material on all aspects of the subject matter, specifically the basics of drawing. Brenda Hoddinott and Drawspace.com disclaim any responsibility for any liability, damages, loss, or risk, personal or otherwise, which is incurred as a consequence, directly or indirectly, resulting from the use or misuse of information and applications of any of the contents of this book. Publisher: Drawspace.com, Halifax, NS, Canada Illustrations, curriculum, book layout, and cover design: Brenda Hoddinott Editor: Suzanne Beaton Brenda Hoddinott can be contacted at brenda@drawspace.com or through her website at http://www.drawspace.com.
  • 5. III CONTENTS*****************************************************************Introduction .................................................................1 Look into this Book ..................................................................................3 Sizing up the sidebars ................................................................................3 ArtSpeak ....................................................................................................................3 Info Tidbit ....................................................................................................................3 Warning! ....................................................................................................................4 Tip! ............................................................................................................................4 Art Quote ...................................................................................................................4 Eyeing action icons ....................................................................................4 Shaping up with exercises ..........................................................................................4 Step-by-step projects .................................................................................................4 Action sidebar numbers and letters .............................................................................4 A few words on illustrations ........................................................................5 Insights into the Parts .............................................................................6 Part 1: Get Ready! .....................................................................................6 Part 2: Get Set! ..........................................................................................6 Part 3: Go Draw! ........................................................................................6 How to Use this Book ..............................................................................6Part 1: Get Ready! ......................................................7 Chapter 1: Welcome to Drawing ...................................................9 A Brief History of Drawing .....................................................................11 In the time of the caveman .......................................................................11 The birth of classical art ...........................................................................12 Remembering the Renaissance ................................................................13 The Inside Scoop on Drawing ................................................................14 Drawing is an action word ........................................................................15 YOU can draw! .........................................................................................15
  • 6. IV Welcome to Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Chapter 2: Getting a Grasp on Graphite and Grades ...................17 Traveling Back in Time with Graphite ....................................................17 How the “lead” pencil got its name ...........................................................18 The link between graphite and sheep .......................................................19 Making the Grade ...................................................................................19 Hard is light .............................................................................................21 Soft is dark ..............................................................................................22 Combining soft and hard grades ...............................................................23 Finding out your grade .............................................................................24 Chapter 3: More Drawing Mediums ..............................................25 Picking out Proper Pencils ....................................................................26 Wood-encased pencils .............................................................................28 Graphite pencils .......................................................................................................27 Charcoal pencils .......................................................................................................27 Other fun pencil mediums ........................................................................29 Mechanical pencils ...................................................................................................29 Woodless graphite pencils ........................................................................................29 Sticks and Stones (oops!) Powders ......................................................31 Chapter 4: Sketchbooks and Drawing Papers .............................33 Check up on Tooth (without a Dentist!) .................................................34 The surface of a smooth tooth ..................................................................35 Big smile for a medium tooth ....................................................................36 Textures on a rough tooth .........................................................................37 Sketchbooks and Papers .......................................................................38 Softcover, hardcover, or sheets? ..............................................................39 Weighing in on paper ...............................................................................39 Larger is not always better .......................................................................40 Chapter 5: Adding to the Basics ..................................................41 Tools for Erasing ....................................................................................41 Vinyl erasers ............................................................................................41 Kneaded erasers ......................................................................................42 Sharpening your Mediums .....................................................................43 Pencil sharpeners ....................................................................................43
  • 7. Contents V Sandpaper blocks and sheets ..................................................................43 A Few Extras ..........................................................................................44 Stuff you can’t do without .........................................................................44 Pencil case ...............................................................................................................44 Portfolio ....................................................................................................................44 Ruler ........................................................................................................................44 Viewfinder frame .......................................................................................................45 Nice to have, but not necessary ...............................................................45 Display boards ..........................................................................................................46 Spray fixative ...........................................................................................................46 Manikins ...................................................................................................................46Part 2: Get Set! .................................................47 Chapter 6: Setting up For Drawing ..............................................49 A Comfy Place to Sit and Draw ..............................................................49 Choosing a drawing surface .....................................................................50 Shedding light on your art ........................................................................50 Good Posture First! ................................................................................51 How NOT to sit! ........................................................................................52 Sitting correctly ........................................................................................52 Putting Together a Portable Studio .......................................................53 Chapter 7: Making a List, Portfolio, and Viewfinder Frame ........55 Action 7A: The Shopping List ................................................................55 Must have ................................................................................................55 Nice to have .............................................................................................56 Supplies for making a portfolio .................................................................57 Supplies for making a viewfinder frame ....................................................57 Supplies for a portable studio ...................................................................57 Action 7B: Making a Portfolio ................................................................57 Deciding on a size ....................................................................................58 Option 1: Using one large sheet of board .................................................58 Option 2: Using two pieces of board .........................................................61 Adding ties and final touches ...................................................................62 Action 7C: Making a Viewfinder Frame .................................................63
  • 8. VI Welcome to Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Chapter 8: Give Yourself a Helping Hand ....................................65 Holding your Mediums ...........................................................................65 Becoming a Natural ...............................................................................67 Leonardo the lefty ....................................................................................67 Finding your natural hand movement ........................................................68 Rotating your paper as you draw ..............................................................68 Part 3: Go Draw! ...............................................69 Chapter 9: Putting your Supplies to Work ...................................71 Action 9A: Sketching a Self-Portrait .....................................................71 Action 9B: Creating Values with Squirkles ...........................................72 Action 9C: Playing with Pencils ............................................................76 Action 9D: Playing with Erasers ............................................................77 Action 9E: Drawing Shapes by Rotating Your Paper ............................80 Part 1: Circular shape ..............................................................................81 Part 2: Straight-sided shape .....................................................................84 Part 3: Circle ............................................................................................88 Just for fun! ..............................................................................................90 Action 9F: Framing with a Viewfinder ...................................................91 Three steps for framing a view .................................................................92 Create a sketch by framing your view .......................................................93 Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings ............................................95 Action 10A: Drawing a Caveperson .......................................................95 Action 10B: A Realistic Eye ...................................................................99 Action 10C: Mugly Wigglebottom ........................................................103 Outlining Mugly with neat lines ...............................................................104 Squirkling shading for Mugly ..................................................................108 Glossary ............................................................................................115
  • 9. Foreword by Robert A. Roughley VII Foreword***************************************************************** I have known Brenda Hoddinott for many years. It was during a difficult life transition that she provided me with the gift of encouragement to explore my creative self-awareness. Until that point, I didn’t believe that I was creative or artistic. My perception of art and creativity was limited by my perfectionist ideals of what defined “artistic ability”. However, with patience (and a sense of humor), Brenda played a pivotal role in helping me reconnect with my artist within. When Brenda first approached me to write the forward for this, her third book; Drawing Book 1: Getting Started – the first in a series for homeschooling families and self-directed learners, I was filled with joy. Not only because she asked me, but because I had been eagerly awaiting the completion of this learning resource. For many, including those who learn outside the boundaries of traditional and prescribed learning environments, access to quality learning and teaching materials is limited. Many of the existing resources on the market are written and published without careful attention to the learning needs of the intended audience. As an educator with graduate training and expertise in curriculum and instructional design, I believe that Brenda Hoddinott has not only responded to, but has exceeded the expectations of her audience with this invaluable arts-based curriculum. Blending expertise with encouragement, Brenda’s lesson plans and instructions accommodate a wide range of learning styles, abilities, and skill levels. Most notably, her genuine and compassionate nature extends to her teaching of art and drawing, as she leads students on a journey of self-discovery through self-directed learning. For the past fifteen years, my own journey has taken me into the field of education. The integration of my training has allowed me to participate in many roles: learner, teacher, mentor, and advocate. As a learner, I pursued undergraduate degrees in music and elementary and adult education.
  • 10. VIII Welcome to Drawing Book 1: Getting Started My graduate work focused on educational and curriculum studies, and counseling psychology. As I transitioned from learner to teacher, I worked with children from kindergarten to grade six, with a focus in special education. Later in my career, I became a consultant for change in curriculum development and inclusive education. My current positions have merged my credentials and focus into three main areas: teacher development (teaching professionals how to teach), reflective practice, and inclusive education. And now, after years of study, I have the pleasure of putting my academic “stamp of approval” in the front pages of this very unique and thorough approach to art education. In my various personal and professional roles, I have learned, unlearned, and relearned the importance of creativity and artistic expression in marking our developmental milestones and other life transitions. As an educator and co-learner with students of all ages, abilities, self-identities, and worldviews, I have noticed the effect of inclusive and purposeful curriculum in the emergence of the creative self. As a counseling practitioner, I have witnessed the long-term, negative implications resulting from the demise or discontinuation of arts-based education in traditional and homeschooling settings. As human beings, we possess the intentions of creativity, but are far too often limited by the influence of those who fear the unlimited possibilities that come from creative thinking. Someone once said, “What we learn from others becomes our own through reflection”. I encourage readers, learners, and practitioners to build upon this quotation and consider that what one sees in their own self-reflection is the core of one’s creative identity. Each chapter of this book represents a stage in the development and awareness of one’s artistic self. Through her gentle and supportive directions, unique humor, and detailed visual illustrations, Brenda joins her learners as they discover their creative talents. It is my hope that you find this experience just as enlightening as you explore, discover, (or even rediscover!) your own artist within. Robert A. Roughley B.A., B.Ed., BAEd., M.Ed., MC., Doctoral Student, University of Calgary Instructor, Teaching and Learning Centre, University of Calgary
  • 11. Introduction 1 Introduction***************************************************************** YOU can learn to draw! ArtSpeak All you need is some vision and a way to hold a drawing medium. ArtSpeak is a fun word used to describe the This book tells you about vocabulary of art. drawing supplies, and shows you how to use Drawing (verb) refers to them. Several simple the process of applying exercises and projects a medium to a surface help you warm up your to create an image Figure 01: A hand is drawing a drawing hand. (Figure 01). cartoon. I also discuss how to set Drawing (noun) is an Figure up a practical place to image created on a 02: A draw indoors. In addition, drawing surface with a cartoon drawing you find out what to pack drawing medium (Figure is created in a portable studio so 02). with a you can comfortably pencil. Vision is the ability to draw outdoors. see. In this introduction, you Medium refers to any Figure 03: A regular find out about each drawing tool (anything from pencil with a medium part of this book and inside a wooden a pencil to the burnt end of holder is a very all the different types of a stick) used to make marks popular drawing tool. sidebars. You are also on a surface. introduced to several art related words and terms. Sidebar is a box of text (some have illustrations) that provides additional information about a topic. Finally, I explain the very This sidebar is called ArtSpeak, and it provides best way to work through you with definitions of art words and terms. this book. Pencil refers to a broad category of drawing tools So, sit back and relax as that have the medium inside a holder (Figure 03). I tell you about this book and how to use it.
  • 12. 2 Welcome to Drawing Book 1: Getting Started ArtSpeak TIP! Illustration is an image (such as a drawing) that is Save all your sketches and used to help explain text. drawings! Icon is an image (such as a drawing) used to Someday, you may want to identify a specific task or information. ArtSpeak look back on your early works sidebars are identified by a cartoon icon of Albert to see how much you’ve Einstein. improved. Text refers to the words I created the drawings in used in writing. Figures 07 and 08 when I was around 14. Luckily, my parents Sketch (noun) is a had saved them for me. simple drawing of the important parts of a subject. A sketch is usually done quickly with simple lines (Figure 04) and (or) shading (Figure 05). Sketch (verb) refers to Figure 04: Simple sketch of a seated man. the process of doing a sketch. Shading (noun) refers to the various values within a drawing that Figure 07: A family living in a log make images appear house in the forest. three-dimensional. Shading (verb) is the process of adding values to a drawing. Values are the different shades of gray you Figure 05: Shading is make when adding added to the same sketch. shading to a drawing. Figure 06: Five values from light to dark. Figure 08: Little girl with a doll.
  • 13. Introduction 3 Look into this ArtSpeak Book In this section, I tell you about, andShape refers to the outward outline of a three- show you how to identify the variousdimensional object. sidebars, icons, exercises, projects, and illustrations in this book. Figure 09: Shading transforms the shape of a simple circle into Sizing up the the planet Earth. sidebarsClassical drawing refers to the drawing Scattered throughout this book, youmethods invented by ancient Greeks and find five different sidebars (identifiedRomans for creating realistic drawings (called with circle-shaped icons) that arerealism). Classical drawing was later enhanced filled with useful information.by the great artists of the Renaissance.Realism is a ArtSpeakway of drawingin which living ArtSpeak sidebars (Figure 12) definebeings and the drawing words and terms in thisobjects are book, so you can better understanddrawn as they what you read.appear in reallife. The artist Info Tidbittries to drawwhat he or Info Tidbit sidebars (Figure 13)she sees as provide tidbits of information aboutrealistically as art-related subjects, such as thepossible. history of art.Renaissance Figure 10: I used classical drawing methods to copy a work(from the Figure 12: ArtSpeak created by Leonardo da VinciFrench word during the Renaissance. icon is a cartoon offor “rebirth”) Albert Einstein’s face.refers to thechanges withinEuropeanculture fromthe earlytwelfth centuryto the late Figure 13: Info Tidbit icon is a simplesixteenth Figure 11: A lifelike drawing of flower rendered withcentury. an eye is an example of realism. classical drawing techniques.
  • 14. 4 Welcome to Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Warning! Figure 14: Warning icon is a scared- Better safe than sorry! Protect your drawings looking cartoon face (or yourself) from potential dangers by with a nose shaped following the advice in these sidebars (Figure like an exclamation mark. 14). Tip! A tip can be more than the pointy end of a Figure 15: Tip icon stick! The tips inside these sidebars (Figure is a cartoon face on a 15) can save you time, energy, and frustration light bulb. by telling you easier ways to do some tasks or how to take better care of your supplies. Art Quote Quotes about art (Figure 16) provide insights Figure 16: Art Quote into the creative minds of well-known artists. icon is an adorable cartoon called a Wooly Woo. Eying action icons In Chapters 7, 9, and 10, you find several action icons. Some ask you to make something and Figure 17: others ask you to gather your drawing supplies Exercises and draw. are identified by an icon of a Shaping up with exercises boy doing exercises. Wherever you see the icon in Figure 17, you find an exercise designed to help you make or use drawing supplies. In addition, an exercise icon may ask you to do a simple sketch or drawing. Step-by-step projects When you see the icon in Figure 18, it’s time to complete a step-by-step project. Projects usually take more time than exercises. Each has two or Figure 18: Step-by-step projects are more illustrated instructions to help guide you. identified with a hand holding a pencil. Action sidebar numbers and letters As you know, an action icon identifies either an exercise or project. Each exercise and project can be identified by the number of the chapter in which it appears. A letter identifies its order within the chapter.
  • 15. Introduction 5 For example, the first action sidebar in ► AC T I ON 7 A ◄ Chapter 7 is marked 7A (A is the first letter of the alphabet). As Figure 19: The first exercise in Chapter 7 helps you make out a shopping list for buying drawing supplies. you can tell by the icon (Figure 19), this one is an exercise. The number and letter 10C (C being ► AC T I ON 1 0 C ◄ the third letter of the alphabet) identifies the third action in Figure 20: Action 10C takes you step-by-step Chapter 10. The icon through the process of drawing a cartoon puppy named Mugly Wigglebottom. identifies a project.A few words on illustrationsYou are not expected to draw all the illustrations in this book! Most drawings are intended toillustrate and help you understand the topics being discussed.As an added bonus, you maybecome inspired by examiningthe skills you are working toachieve.For example, maybe one ofyour artistic goals is to drawrealistic animals (check outFigure 21).Each illustration in this book ismarked with a number basedon its placement within achapter.For example, the first illustrationin Chapter 1 (a drawing ofmountains on page 9) is markedFigure 101.Likewise, the fourth illustrationin Chapter 6 (a cartoon artistpracticing his drawing skills onpage 50) is marked Figure 604. Figure 21: A challenging drawing of a Shih Tzu who goes by the name of Panda. Do you happen to know the name of a good orthodontist?
  • 16. 6 Welcome to Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Insights into the parts In this section, you find out what’s inside each of the three parts of this book. Part 1: Get Ready! Sit back and relax as I tell you about the drawing supplies you need to complete the exercises and projects in this book. Part 2: Get Set! In this part, I help you set up a comfortable place to draw. You find out about proper lighting, ideal drawing surfaces, good posture for drawing, and various ways to hold your pencil. You also have the option of making an artist’s portfolio and viewfinder frame. Part 3: Go Draw! The first two parts of this book prepare you for the activities in this part. Nine fun exercises and projects challenge you to put your drawing supplies to work as you learn several basic drawing skills and techniques. How to Use this Book This book is designed to be read in order - from beginning to end. However, human nature being what it is, I offer the two following options: Plan A Slowly work through the entire book in sequence, doing each exercise along the way. Each new piece of information, skill, or technique prepares you for the next. If an exercise or project is too difficult, go back and try it again (and again if you need to), until you are happy with the results. By the time you reach the end of the book, you’ll be ready for Drawing Book 2: Lines and Spaces. Plan B Read through this book in no particular order. Enjoy the illustrations and try your hand at the various exercises and projects that appeal to you. You will encounter a few challenges with terminology (this is why you have a glossary in the back of the book), and some projects beyond your current skill level. When you begin to feel totally overwhelmed and frustrated, go back to plan A and work through the book from beginning to end!
  • 17. Part 1: Get Ready! 7 PART 1GET READY!► Simple history of drawing► Process of learning to draw► Fun history of graphite► Grades of graphite► Differences between B and H grades► How grades affect the look of drawings► Graphite and charcoal drawing mediums► Wood-encased, mechanical, and woodless pencils► Drawing powders and sticks► Textures, sizes, and weights of drawing papers► How to select and protect the tooth of paper► Vinyl and kneaded erasers► Pencil sharpeners and sandpaper► Pencil case, portfolio, viewfinder frame, and ruler► Manikins, display boards, and spray fixative
  • 18. 8 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started
  • 19. Chapter 1: Welcome to Drawing 9 Chapter 1Welcome to Drawing*****************************************************************On a simple sheet of drawing paper, the tallest trees on earth grow toward the sky. Inanother drawing, ogres and trolls are chasing one another through a dark, magical forest.How about a snow dragon dancing with polar bears and penguins? Or stone faces standingguard over a river valley in another galaxy far away?How many stone faces can you find in the drawing in Figure 101? Figures 102 and 103show you a couple just to get you started.Figure 101: You won’t find this scene anywhere on planet Earth. I wonder if any other life forms besides stone faces live here?
  • 20. 10 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started In this chapter, you learn 32,000 years of art history by reading a thousand words. (Obviously, a very shortened version of history!) You also find out the real truth behind the silly gossip that you Figure 102: Imagine yourself strolling Figure 103: See the face of a regal need a magical peacefully along this path, unaware of the male warrior gazing toward the right. talent to become creature with the huge open mouth waiting Can you find his nose, mouth, chin, an artist. for lunch to walk by. and an eye? ArtSpeak Portfolio is a case in which artists store (or History is a written record of the past; carry) drawings and papers to protect them mostly about the lives and activities of from damage. human beings and their environments. For example, historians (people who study and write about history) have documented that Figure 104: Leonardo da Vinci was born In Action 7B in Italy in the year 1452. in Chapter 7, I show you how to Archaeologist is a make a simple portfolio. person who studies ancient peoples Prehistoric describes the period in time before by finding and language was used to write and record history. documenting the things they left behind. (As an aside, many archeologists have excellent drawing skills.) Figure 105: Prehistoric humans drew Figure 106: A drawing of pictures like an old arrowhead that looks these on the similar to some that were walls of caves. discovered by archeologists.
  • 21. Chapter 1: Welcome to Drawing 11A Brief History of DrawingDrawing is a universally understood language; a form of communication that is free ofsuch rules as correct spelling or proper grammar. This section offers a brief backgroundon drawing - from the cave drawings of prehistoric humans, to the masterpieces of theRenaissance.In the time Figure 107: Copies ofof the prehistoric cavecaveman drawings created by cavemen (orArtists have been cavewomen).drawing for at least32,000 years.Archaeologistshave discovered Figuremany of their 108:drawings on the Drawing based onwalls of caves. an actual prehistoricThe drawings drawingin Figure 107 discoveredare similar to on a stone inprehistoric Africa.drawings found onthe walls of caves inFrance.These drawings tell us a lot about ArtSpeakhow prehistoric humans lived.In other words, the drawingsrecorded their stories without Style refers to an artist’s approach to his or herspoken language or written own art. An artist’s style may be based on his orwords. her personal preferences and art education.During prehistoric times in Africa, For example, realism is a well-known style.drawings of simple human figures(Figure 108) were added to burial Technique is a well-known method (such asstones. a specific way to do shading) that is used to accomplish a particular activity or task.You can try your hand at drawing For example, more than one shading technique may bea human figure the way some suitable for a specific drawing. Hence, an artist’s choice of aprehistoric people did, in Action shading technique (or techniques) is generally based on his10A in Chapter 10. or her skill level and what works best to capture the subject.
  • 22. 12 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started ArtSpeak Mural is a drawing or painting on a wall, ceiling, or other Mummy portrait is a painting of large surface. a man, woman, or child that was discovered attached to the face Murals have been discovered on the walls of prehistoric caves and inside ancient Egyptian tombs. of a burial mummy. Many date back to the Roman occupation Fresco is an artwork painted on a thin layer of plaster of Egypt. that covers a wall or ceiling. The drawing in Figure 110 is copied from a mummy portrait that was Frescos that date back more than 3500 years have been discovered discovered in Egypt. in Greece. The ceiling of the Sistine Chapel (in Rome) is also a fresco that was painted by Michelangelo between 1508 and 1512. Visual art refers to artworks Sculpture is a three-dimensional artwork that is made of (such as drawings, paintings, a material such as bronze, rock, or marble. and sculptures) that can be appreciated by the sense of Sculptor is an artist who creates sculptures. sight. A very well-known sculptor of the Renaissance was Michelangelo, For example, all the drawings in this and one of his most famous sculptures is the Statue of David. book are considered visual art. The birth of classical art Long before the Renaissance, ancient Greek and Roman artists created realistic artworks of nature, animals, and people. The discovery of several of these artworks helps us understand the styles and techniques of the artists, as well as how people lived during these times. Archeologists have found the remnants of murals and frescos painted on walls of buildings in ancient Greece and Rome. Many show major deterioration, but others are remarkably well preserved. Figure 109 is a drawing of an antelope, copied from a fresco that had been buried under volcanic ash in Greece for more than 3500 years. Figure 109: The smoothly flowing lines of this drawing capture an antelope as it appeared on an ancient fresco.
  • 23. Chapter 1: Welcome to Drawing 13In addition to murals, frescos,coins, and pottery; severalbreathtaking, realistic sculpturesand paintings of people havesurvived the ravages of time.One of my favorite ancientpaintings is a mummy portrait ofa young man, possibly a Romansoldier (Figure 110). I couldn’tresist the challenge of drawingsomeone who lived more than2,000 years ago.The unknown artist used classicaltechniques to make the faceappear three-dimensional. Figure 110: My goal was to create a drawing that looked like the ancient painting. I decided to include the flaws of the old wooden panels on which it was painted.Remembering theRenaissanceThe beginning of the Renaissance is identified by the very popular rebirth of classicaldrawing throughout Europe. During this time, classical drawing techniques were greatlyimproved and many new techniques were born.Throughout the Renaissance, art students were encouraged to study and practicethe techniques of the most highly skilled artists (called “masters”). Some of the morededicated art students experimented with new ways of drawing and ended up creating newtechniques. Hence, many students of the masters eventually became masters themselves.Between 1480 and 1527, during the time known as the High Renaissance, many veryfamous artists (called “great masters”) further developed drawing as the most important ofall visual arts. Great masters, such as Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Hans Holbein, andAlbrecht Dürer, created the most magnificent masterpieces our world has ever known.Even today, students of art all over the world are still learning from the masters of theRenaissance. Classical drawing techniques are considered the foundation of all visual artsincluding painting, sculpture, and digital art.Figures 111 and 112 demonstrate classical drawing techniques from the High Renaissance.
  • 24. 14 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Figure 111: This classical drawing of a youth is Figure 112: Classical drawing copied from a work by Michelangelo. techniques are used in a drawing of a young girl (based on a drawing by Leonardo da Vinci). The Inside Scoop on Drawing Throughout the process of learning to draw, you automatically learn to observe, appreciate, and better understand the world around you. As your drawing abilities become stronger, creativity is also enhanced. Check out the artist’s model and compare him to the Figure 113: An artist uses his creativity to make a few drawing (Figure 113). changes to the body of the model in his drawing.
  • 25. Chapter 1: Welcome to Drawing 15Drawing is an action wordMusic students can’t learn to play piano by reading a music book without actually applyingtheir knowledge to the action of playing a piano. People who expect to know how to skiafter reading a book on skiing are not going to have any success until they actually goskiing. Both of these activities require some sort of action in order to be learned.Drawing is also an action word. The process of reading this and every other art book fromcover to cover cannot improve your drawing skills. You need to actually draw to achievestrong skills. In other words, you must put your knowledge into practice!YOU can draw!Drawing is an easily acquired skill that everyone can learn. All you need is some vision anda way to hold a drawing tool. Talent is nothing more than a word that describes the processin which you accept your ability to become a good artist. Simply put, learning to draw doesnot require a magical force to have been born within you.The closest relatives of drawing are printing and writing. Just as you learned to draw theletters of the alphabet, you can also learn to draw objects, people, and other subjects.Drawing provides a way for you todocument how you see the world.Being able to draw also allows you Figure 114:to take up other visual arts (such as A photodigital art and painting) more easily of a horsethan people who cannot draw. in a field as viewedYou can also learn to draw from your through the legsimagination. With a little creative of anotherthought, artists can even change horse.what they seein the real worldinto somethingcompletelydifferent!Compare myreference photoin Figure 114 tothe drawing inFigure 115. Figure 115: The horse hasmagically turned into a unicorn!
  • 26. 16 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Info Tidbit ArtSpeak Developing your own style Underdrawing is a loosely rendered sketch that is created as a guide for a To develop a personal style of your own, you final drawing (or painting). first need to learn as many techniques as possible. The techniques that you like best Figure 116 shows an underdrawing of a horse. help determine your unique style. My drawing techniques reveal that I have been a student of the masters for most of my life. For instance, Leonardo da Vinci often My sketch of a horse’s head (Figure used the technique of doing an underdrawing 116) demonstrates the classical with metalpoint (refer to definition on page technique of lightly rendering an 18) before beginning a drawing or painting. underdrawing before beginning a final drawing (Figure 117). Figure 116: A very faint underdrawing identifies the basic shapes of a horse’s head. Figure 117: The style I use to draw a horse’s head is similar to the styles of the drawings of the masters demonstrated in Figures 111 and 112. Strong drawing skills eventually come to everyone who works hard. Always take joy in your good drawings, and learn from those that you don’t like. You CAN draw! With lots of patience and hard work, you can become as good as you can imagine.
  • 27. Chapter 2: Getting a Grasp on Graphite and Grades 17 Chapter 2Getting a Grasp on Graphiteand Grades*****************************************************************Something called “graphite” is the best friend of many artists who love to draw. In thischapter, I share a little bit of fun information about graphite and its history.You also learn about the gradesof graphite. (When it comes tographite, a B grade is not betterthan an H!) ArtSpeakIn addition, you examine drawingsrendered with different grades ofgraphite to give you an idea of how Graphite is a soft black form of opaque (non-B and H pencils affect the look of transparent) carbon found in nature. It is oftendrawings. mixed with clay to make various types of drawing tools for artists. Clay is a naturally occurring material thatTraveling Back becomes hardened when dried. Grade refers to the softness or hardness ofin Time with the mixture used in the manufacture of drawing mediums.GraphiteIn this section, you discover a fewfascinating tidbits about the historyof graphite.Some graphite drawings createdhundreds of years ago are still Figure 201: The base value of five different grades ofaround today. Hence, graphite has graphite.survived the test of time.
  • 28. 18 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Another great thing about graphite is its ability to be erased. Therefore, many mistakes can be fixed. ArtSpeak Stylus (sometimes How the “lead” pencil got called leadpoint or its name metalpoint) refers to a thin metal stick used Before the discovery of graphite, ancient artists for drawing. Styluses made drawings with long, thin rods (referred to made of lead have as “styluses”). Styluses were made from a soft been traced back to metal, such as lead, and so they became known ancient Rome. as “leadpoint”. During the A stylus worked by leaving a thin deposit of Renaissance, styluses metal on the surface of paper, producing a fine were also made from gray line. silver, gold, or copper. Some styluses had a fine point at one end and a Figure 202: The earliest blunter point at the opposite end so artists could stylus was a thin metal stick draw both thin and thick lines. made of lead. Leadpoint is considered the ancestor of the modern graphite pencil. The term “lead pencil” is often incorrectly used to describe graphite pencils that are made of graphite and clay (and contain no WARNING! lead whatsoever). On the other hand, graphite pencils Stay away from poor-quality do produce a warm-toned gray line graphite! that looks very similar to the marks made by leadpoint. When most people think of drawing, an ordinary graphite pencil comes to mind (like the ones used During the Renaissance, the by schoolchildren). However, a word of caution: masters created many beautiful these pencils are not designed for drawing! intricate drawings with only a stylus. Inexpensive graphite may work well for writing, but can scratch your drawing paper instead of Artists also used styluses to do going on smoothly. underdrawings for more detailed drawings (and paintings). Professional drawing pencils are made with a higher quality mixture of graphite and clay and When you look closely at old make marks that flow more smoothly. drawings, you can often find a few of the faint lines from the On the downside, they are usually more underdrawings. expensive than pencils made for writing.
  • 29. Chapter 2: Getting a Grasp on Graphite and Grades 19The link between graphite and sheepGraphite was discovered in England somewhere between 1500 and 1560. Farmers arethought to be the first people who found a practical use for graphite. They used a lump ofgraphite to mark their sheep so they could easily identify their flocks. Check out the cartoondrawing of a sheep in Figure 203.News of the discovery of graphitesoon traveled far and widethroughout the known world,and graphite quickly became avaluable drawing medium withinartistic communities.Artists often sharpened a chunkof graphite into a point and setit into a metal holder. Thesesharpened chunks became thevery first graphite pencils!Making theGradeAs you now know, graphitepencils are made with a mixtureof graphite and clay. Graphite is Figure 203: A cartoon sheep proudly displaysvery black and soft and makes a big “X” marked on her wool with graphite.dark marks. Clay is hard andmakes light marks.To make shopping a little easier, pencils are labeled with a number-letter code dependingon the amounts of graphite and clay in the mixture. For example, a 6B pencil has moregraphite than clay and makes very dark marks. A 2H pencil has less graphite and thereforemakes very light marks.Many art supply stores carry a broad range of grades. An HB grade is in the middle andcan be called either an H or a B (Figure 204).Figure 204: A computer-generated image shows the base value of 17 different grades of graphite.
  • 30. 20 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Trying to draw with 17 different pencils can be a nightmare! Besides, some grades make almost identical marks. Artists can draw a full range of values (Figure 205) with only five grades of graphite: 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B. For example, the advanced drawing of a replica of a medieval dagger (Figure 206) is drawn with only these five grades. Whenever you draw, your goal is to choose whichever grades of pencils can best give you the results you want. For drawings needing a softer touch, you Figure 205: may prefer to use mostly H grades. On the A range of other hand, B grades may work better for different drawing subjects needing a darker, bolder values can approach. be created by each of And more often than not, a combination of these five B and H grades is a perfect choice. grades of graphite. Figure 206: A realistic drawing of a dagger is created with 2H, HB, 2B, 4B and 6B grades of pencils.
  • 31. Chapter 2: Getting a Grasp on Graphite and Grades 21Hard is lightHard pencils can’t make very dark values. However, they can create light to medium marks(Figure 207) that work well for some drawings. Figure 207: Values created with four H pencils (HB is considered the darkest hard pencil).As a rule, hard (H) pencils:► Have a hard, brittle medium ArtSpeak► Make light to medium marks► Wear down slowly Pupil of an eye is the tiny, dark, circular part of an eye that adjusts its size under► Need very little sharpening different lighting conditions.► Create very thin to medium-width lines Figure 208: An arrowThe lines made by H pencils are points to themostly thin and delicate; hence, pupil of an eye.they work best for small to mediumdrawings (unless, of course, you havelots of patience).The drawing in Figure 209 isalmost completely renderedwith four different grades of TIP!hard pencils. Always lay your graphite pencils somewhere safe so they don’t fall! Info Tidbit Graphite is quite fragile - especially the softer grades. When a pencil falls to the floor, the graphite inside the The word pencil comes from core breaks, and the pencil becomes very difficult to the Latin word pencillus (which sharpen. Small pieces of broken graphite can jam up means “little tail”). the inside of the sharpener.
  • 32. 22 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started I used a 2B (soft) pencil for only a few dark accents, Figure 209: This drawing of such as the pupils of his eyes and tiny sections of a friend (Christopher Church) playing a violin took more than a the darkest shadows. month to complete with 6H, 4H, 2H, HB, and 2B pencils. Soft is dark B pencils tend to “B” soft, and can make very dark marks because they have more graphite than clay. However, by pressing very gently with B pencils, you can also create light and medium values. Figure 210 shows the base value of four B grades of graphite. Figure 210: Values created with four B pencils (HB is the lightest B pencil).
  • 33. Chapter 2: Getting a Grasp on Graphite and Grades 23Generally speaking, B grades ofpencils:► Have a soft medium► Make light, medium, and dark marks► Wear down quickly► Need to be sharpened frequently► Can make thin to thick linesThe darker marks Figure 211: Loosely rendered sketch of a side-on view of a young man.created by B pencils areideal for loosely renderedsketches on medium tolarge sheets of paper.Check out the sketch ofthe young man (Figure211) created with only 2Band 4B pencils.If you are patient, anddon’t mind constantlysharpening their points,B pencils can alsowork well for renderingdetailed subjects onsmall sheets of paper. Figure 212:B pencils were used for Drawingthe small drawing of a of a peachpeach in Figure 212. using HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B pencils.Combiningsoft and hardgrades Info TidbitWhen you draw a subjectwith lots of light and darkvalues, you may need to My favorite brands of graphite pencils are made in Germany,use both B and H grades and are sold under the names Staedtler and Faber-Castell.of pencils.
  • 34. 24 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started And what animal could show you a combination of B and H pencils better than a zebra (Figure 213)? The white stripes are shaded with 2H, HB, and 2B, and the black stripes are drawn with HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B. Figure 213: A drawing of a baby zebra (named Spot) is created with both H and B grades of graphite. Finding out your grade When you go to an art store, expect to be surprised by how many different brands of pencils are available. Figure 214: Professional pencils often look identical, even At first glance, different though the grades are different (Figure 214). grades of But don’t be fooled! The grade of the graphite drawing pencils may is written somewhere on the wood part of each all look the pencil (Look closely at Figure 215). same. Figure 215: Can you see the grade written on these three brands of pencils?
  • 35. Chapter 3: More Drawing Mediums 25 Chapter 3More Drawing Mediums*****************************************************************In addition to graphite pencils, you need tobegin learning to draw with mediums that arespecifically designed for artists. As with most ArtSpeakactivities, the better the tools, the happier youare with the outcomes. Charcoal is a drawing mediumIn this chapter, I tell you about a few popular made from burnt organicdrawing mediums. I show you what each looks material (such as wood). Aslike, and the kind of marks it makes. with graphite, charcoal comes in various grades. Charcoal pencils have a thin cylindrical stick of compressed charcoal inside a wooden casing. Charcoal sticks are made by compressing powdered charcoal into round or rectangular sticks. Figure 302: A few different types of charcoal that are designed for drawing.Figure 301: Shopping for drawing mediums is a big challenge whenyou have to choose from so many different types.
  • 36. 26 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started ArtSpeak Drawing stick (1) is made by compressing and shaping a medium (such as graphite or charcoal) into a cylindrical or rectangular chunk. Woodless pencil (2) is a thick cylindrical stick of graphite wrapped in a vinyl casing. Mechanical pencil (3) has an internal mechanism that pushes a thin graphite lead, from the tiny tube inside the holder, through the tip. Wood-encased pencil (4) (better known Figure 303: Four types of drawing tools: (1) sticks, (2) woodless as a regular pencil) has a thin cylindrical pencil, (3) mechanical pencils, and (4) wood-encased pencils. stick of graphite or charcoal inside a wooden casing. Figure 304: Pencils last Sandpaper block is an artist’s tool with longer if you sharpen only tear-off sheets of fine sandpaper used to their points on sharpen the points of pencils. a sandpaper block. Picking out Proper Pencils In this section, I discuss three types of drawing pencils: wood-encased, mechanical, and woodless. Several drawings invite you to compare the abilities of these pencils. Wood-encased pencils Art Quote Graphite pencils are ideal for either simple, loosely rendered drawings or very complicated, intricate drawings on small to medium-sized surfaces. Every child is an artist. The problem is how to remain an Charcoal pencils are fantastic for medium to artist once he (she) grows up. large drawings on large sheets of paper. Pablo Picasso
  • 37. Chapter 3: More Drawing Mediums 27 Graphite pencils Graphite pencils are a favorite Figure 305: drawing tool of many artists. Most art supply stores Some artists prefer to draw carry a huge with a slightly worn-down selection of pencil point (Figure 306). professional- quality, Others constantly sharpen thewood-encased drawing graphite points to make thin pencils. marks (Figure 307). Figure 306: Marks made with the worn-down points of graphite pencils. Figure 307: Thin lines drawn with freshly sharpened graphite pencils. The drawing in Figure 308 was created with graphite pencils. The pencil points were slightly worn down to shade the eyes. A sandpaper block kept the pencil points nice and sharp to do the scraggly feathers. You can sharpen the points of regular pencils with a pencil sharpener, some fine sandpaper, or a sandpaper block. Charcoal pencils Charcoal pencils are a lot more messy than graphite, but (thanks to the wooden holder) less messy than sticks ofFigure 308: Cartoon drawing of an emu is created with regular pencils. charcoal.
  • 38. 28 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Wonderful black marks can be made with charcoal (Figure 310), which is much softer than graphite. Hard grades of charcoal can be carefully sharpened in a pencil sharpener with an oversized opening. If you want thin lines, you need to keep the point sharpened with a sandpaper block. Figure 309: Most charcoal pencils are a little thicker than graphite pencils. Soft grades of charcoal simply crumble and break when you try to sharpen them in a pencil sharpener. A heavy-duty utility knife works best for cutting away some of the wood so you can sharpen the exposed charcoal with a sandpaper block. Charcoal is fun to work with and is ideal for drawing anything - including people, scenery, and objects. Check out the charcoal drawing in Figure 311. Figure 310: Various marks made by a charcoal pencil. WARNING! Utility knives are VERY dangerous! Utility knives are as sharp as razors! One small slip of the knife can cause permanent damage to your hand or fingers. They should only be used by responsible adults who are handy with tools. So, if you don’t want to “draw blood,” ask someone to help you sharpen charcoal pencils. (And, remember to tell that person to be very careful!) You may even want to completely stay away from charcoal pencils and use charcoal sticks instead. They are a little messier, but can do everything a pencil can do (and more).
  • 39. Chapter 3: More Drawing Mediums 29 Figure 311: A loosely rendered Other fun pencil charcoal sketch of Christopher Church mediums playing his violin. Two other types of pencil mediums that are well worth having are: mechanical pencils (they never need sharpening) and woodless pencils. Mechanical pencils Mechanical pencils (Figure 312) are a super alternative to pencils that need to be sharpened constantly. The marks they make stay approximately the same size, even after hours of drawing. A professional-quality mechanical pencil designed for drawing is expensive; but in the long run, it tends to be more economical than constantly buying wood- encased pencils. When well cared for, a mechanical pencil can last a very long time; I have several Figure 312: that are more than 15 years A sampling of mechanical pencils. old. TIP! Purchase only professional-quality mechanical pencilsYou can find inexpensive novelty mechanical pencils in many stores. However, professional mechanicalpencils that are designed for drawing can only be found in art supply stores. Most are expensive, butthey tend to last much longer than the department store variety.
  • 40. 30 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Mechanical pencils come in different sizes. A 0.5 mm is the most popular size and works best for drawing on small to medium-sized sheets of paper. A 0.7 mm is a great choice for sketching loosely or drawing on a large surface (or both). A mechanical pencil can be loaded with leads of different grades ranging from very hard to soft. (However, you should load only one grade at a time.) Leads of the same grade are sold in a single package, so, you may have to buy a package of each of the grades you want to use. Woodless graphite pencils Obviously, woodless pencils do not have a wooden casing! A thick rod of graphite is surrounded by a thin (usually vinyl) casing; hence, your hands stay clean as you work. Woodless pencils rarely need to be sharpened in a pencil sharpener. A few strokes on sandpaper and the points are sharp! They can make lots of different marks (Figure 314), and are great for subjects needing wider, bolder strokes than regular pencils. When the points are sharpened, they can also make very thin lines (Figure 315). Figure 313: Drawing of an unusual glass bottle completely rendered with 0.5 mm mechanical pencils and various grades of leads. TIP! Before you buy leads for a mechanical pencil, check the size! Read the label on each package of leads you want to buy, to make sure they are the right size for your mechanical pencil. For example, 0.7 mm leads are too big to fit through the pointed end of a 0.5 mm mechanical pencil. Figure 314: Marks made with a woodless pencil.
  • 41. Chapter 3: More Drawing Mediums 31 Sticks and Stones (oops!) Powders Graphite and charcoal sticks are not considered pencils, but they are well worth having. Both are messy, but lots of fun! For instance, you can rub a charcoal or graphite stick on sandpaper to make powdered charcoal or graphite (Figure 316). Then, you simply dip your finger into the powder and draw! Or, (if messy isn’t your style) you mayFigure 315: A wood-encased graphite pencil worked well for creating three prefer to wrap yoursketches of my grandson, Brandon. finger in a piece of paper towel first. Sticks are great for rendering any subject, and especially for medium to large sketches and drawings. Surprisingly, charcoal and graphite sticks are one of the few art mediums that work well when broken! The crisp edges of broken pieces are fantastic for rendering thin, strongFigure 316: Drawing powder can be made from graphite or lines. The flat ends and sides can becharcoal sticks. used for broad strokes (Figure 317).
  • 42. 32 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started You can use a charcoal stick, charcoal powder, and a charcoal pencil in the same sketch. In addition, you can combine Figure a graphite stick and graphite 317: A powder with various graphite small sample of pencils to create a drawing. marks you However, charcoal and can make with a stick. graphite do not usually play (or work) well together. Try to combine graphite and charcoal in a drawing and you can see what I mean! Use either graphite or charcoal mediums in a drawing - but not Figure both together. 318: Various You can also use erasers to marks draw with either charcoal or created graphite (Figures 318 and by erasing 319). You simply apply some sections of powder to the paper’s surface a layer of charcoal. and erase sections to create an image. Figure 319: A winter scene created with charcoal pencils, powder, and sticks, as well as erasers.
  • 43. Chapter 4: Sketchbooks and Drawing Papers 33 Chapter 4Sketchbooks and DrawingPapers*****************************************************************Picking out drawing paper is a scary task for even the most experienced artists. To furtherconfuse artists, almost every store with an arts or crafts department carries some type ofdrawing paper. Some papers are great for drawing and others are not.In this chapter, I tell you about the textures, sizes, and weights of various drawing papersso you can make wise choices when you go shopping. You examine artworks done ondifferent papers to give you an idea of how a paper can affect the look of a drawing. I alsoexplain how artists (not dentists) protect the tooth of paper. ArtSpeak Tooth refers to the surface texture of paper. Paper with a smooth tooth is flat and silky; medium tooth has a slightly uneven texture; and rough tooth is bumpy with lots of craters and peaks. Figures 401 to 403 show you highly magnified views of shading with a 6B pencil on papers with a smooth, medium, and rough tooth. Figure Figure 402: Figure 401: Printer Drawing 403: paper with paper with Watercolor a smooth a medium paper with a tooth. tooth. rough tooth.
  • 44. 34 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Info Tidbit ArtSpeak Drawing Papers during the Texture refers to the surface detail of an Renaissance object. The type of texture can be identified with vision, a sense of touch, and a general knowledge of the object. Shopping for drawing papers is no doubt a challenge. However, can you imagine Figure 304: Short fur having to make your own drawing paper? (as on cats) is soft and silky. During the Renaissance, drawing papers were handmade. This time-consuming process included the following seven basic steps: 1. Materials such as plants, vegetable matter, and rags were chopped up into fibers. 2. Water was then added to create a soupy mixture. 3. The mixture was scooped up with a screen and placed into a wooden mold. Figure 306: A single Figure 305: A child’s drop of liquid can 4. The mold was shaken until most knit sweater is bumpy appear so shiny that it of the water drained through the and soft. almost sparkles. screen, leaving a flattened layer of fibers. 5. Flattened sheets of fibers were stacked into a pile with a layer of woolen cloth or felt in between each. Check up on Tooth 6. Most of the remaining moisture was squeezed out by pressing down on (without a Dentist!) the stack. The more tooth a paper has, the rougher 7. The sheets of paper were then hung it feels. Some artists like smooth drawing to dry. paper, others prefer very rough paper, and many prefer paper that is somewhere in When completely dry, the paper was between. usually coated with a substance (such as In this section, I discuss the tooth of three a gelatin mixture) to make it suitable for common types of paper. I also show you drawing. how a paper’s tooth can influence the look of a drawing.
  • 45. Chapter 4: Sketchbooks and Drawing Papers 35The surface of a smooth toothThe surface of smooth tooth papers (that are designed specifically for artists), feelsrelatively even and silky, but is not shiny. Artists who prefer drawing highly detailed subjectsoften choose papers with a smooth tooth.The realistic drawing of a cat in Figure 407 was rendered with graphite on a professional-quality, smooth watercolor paper. Figure 407: A detailed drawingof Bill the cat on smooth paper. His beautiful coat of striped fur looksvery soft.
  • 46. 36 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Big smile for a medium TIP! tooth Medium tooth papers Stay away from papers with a glossy surface! are ideal for most Smooth drawing paper is wonderful, but glossy paper is just drawing subjects. plain awful. Glossy paper is toothless, and therefore too They work beautifully smooth for graphite or charcoal to properly stick to it. for creating a full range of values and lots of different textures. Many sketchbooks have paper with a medium tooth and are a fantastic choice for beginners. Figure 408: Sketchbook paper with a medium tooth is perfect for capturing the texture of an owl’s feathers.
  • 47. Chapter 4: Sketchbooks and Drawing Papers 37 ArtSpeak WARNING!Acid-free refers to a high-quality and Stay away from acid!long-lasting paper that has had theacid removed from the pulp in the Don’t be fooled by cheap imitations of good-papermaking process. quality drawing paper. Before you buy a sketchbook, look for a label that says theDrawings can be ruined when paper is acid-free. Just because the cover ofpapers with acid deteriorate and turn a sketchbook says it’s suitable for drawingyellow. Drawing books and papers doesn’t mean it’s acid-free.often have labels that tell you thepaper is acid-free.Hot pressed refers to a paper thatis pressed through hot cylindersduring its manufacture. Many smoothwatercolor papers are hot pressed. Art QuoteHardcover refers to a durable typeof book cover that is made from athick and unbendable material. He (or she) who works with his hands is a laborer. He who works with his hands and his head is a craftsman. He who works with his hands and his head and his heart is an artist. Saint Francis of Assisi Textures on a roughFigure 409: A hardcover sketchbook toothprotects your papers and drawings Rough paper is terrible for tiny detailedfrom being wrinkled. drawings, but ideal for sketching on large sheets of paper. Fun patterns and texturesSoftcover describes a flexible often appear when the peaks of the paperbook cover that is usually made of grab the graphite, and some craters showpaper. Softcover sketchbooks are through as white.inexpensive, however, you need tohandle them carefully so the paper The peaks and craters of rough watercolordoesn’t wrinkle. paper helped create the wonderful textured shading in Figures 410 and 411.
  • 48. 38 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Figure 410: The bumpy, jagged textures of trees are captured on watercolor paper with a rough tooth. Info Tidbit My favorite drawing paper is Arches, 100% cotton, acid- free, hot pressed watercolor paper with a 140 lb weight. The surface works beautifully for most drawing Figure 411: A media and all subjects. As close-up view an extra perk, this paper shows how is similar to that used by rough paper can help render the the masters during the late texture of a tree Renaissance. trunk. Sketchbooks and Papers Art supply stores sell individual sheets of papers that are designed specifically for drawing. A sketchbook has several sheets of drawing paper in a book format. The quality, size, and weight of paper, are much more important than whether you purchase individual sheets or a sketchbook (or both).
  • 49. Chapter 4: Sketchbooks and Drawing Papers 39Softcover, hardcover, orsheets? TIP!Even though softcover sketchbooks arerelatively inexpensive, the paper can be easily Always take good care of awrinkled and damaged. Softcover sketchbooks paper’s tooth!have to be carefully stored on a flat surface. The tooth of any paper can beA hardcover sketchbook is much more durable, easily destroyed by pressingand protects the paper inside. As an extra too hard on its surface with yourperk, the hard cover provides a solid surface pencil.on which to work when you’re away from yourdesk or table. If your shading begins to look shiny, the tooth is flattened beyondIndividual sheets of drawing paper need to be repair. Additional shading will nostored on a flat surface inside a hard-sided longer hold fast to the paper’sportfolio. surface. So, remember to apply only a littleWeighing in on paper bit of pressure to your pencil when you draw.The “weight” of paper describes the thickness Avoid pressing too hard when youof individual sheets of paper. Thin paper want darker shading - switch to aweighs very little, but is easily torn and softer B pencil instead.damaged. Thick paper is more durable thanthin because it weighs more.For example, inexpensive,everyday printer paper has a 20lb (75 g/m²) weight and thereforeis too thin (and too smooth) fordrawing.Heavy Arches drawing paper hasa 140 lb (300 g/m²) weight and isperfect for drawing masterpieces.However, it’s much too expensivefor everyday use.A professional-quality paper foreveryday use should have atleast a 50 lb (260 g/m²) weight.The weight of a paper is usuallymarked on the packaging or frontcover. You can also feel the paperto make sure it’s thick. Figure 412: A small sampling of drawing papers and sketchbooks.
  • 50. 40 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Larger is not always better Choose a sketchbook or drawing papers in a size that is easy to transport when you travel. However, stay away from sketchbooks under 9 by 12 inches or your drawing options become too limited. On the other hand, most large sketchbooks (over 16 by 20 inches) are softcover. Hence, if you prefer making large drawings, you need to store the sketchbook on a large, hard surface to prevent the paper from bending. Individual sheets of paper (Figure 413) come in many sizes. A really big sheet can be cut down into Figure 413: A large sheet of drawing paper can be smaller sheets. Some types are attached to a drawing board with clamps. inexpensive and others can be quite costly. Info Tidbit TIP! Are you tired of reading yet? Keep going - by the end of Chapter 6, you’ll Check before you buy! know all you need to know about drawing supplies. Check out art supply, stationery, and department stores in your In Chapter 7, I give you a checklist so you know community to find out what types exactly what you need to buy (or find at home). of drawing paper are available. In Chapter 9, you finally have a chance to pick Then, you can select the best up a pencil and begin drawing! type of paper for your needs (and budget!).
  • 51. Chapter 5: Adding to the Basics 41 Chapter 5Adding to the Basics*****************************************************************In addition to pencils and paper,you need to have a few otherdrawing supplies, such aspencil sharpeners and erasers.In this chapter, I tell you aboutthe supplies that work best fordrawing, and the ones you shouldavoid.I also suggest a few extra items toconsider adding to your shoppinglist. For example, manikins arecertainly not necessary for learninghow to draw; however, they doprovide a fun way to strengthenyour visual and drawing skills. Figure 501: A few more art supplies: (1) pencil cases, (2) a metal ruler, (3) manikins, (4) a small knife for cutting paper; and (5) spray fixative.Tools for ErasingIn this section, you find out about two types of art erasers that are very gentle to the surfaceof your paper: vinyl and kneaded. Erasers that are designed specifically for artists can bepurchased in an art supply store.Vinyl erasersVinyl erasers (Figure 502) have many practical uses. They can erase small or large sectionsof drawings, as well as pull out (erase) light sections from a layer of graphite or charcoal. Toerase tiny details or draw thin lines, you can use the sharp edge of a regular block eraser. (Ifthe edges of your vinyl eraser are worn, a sharp knife can be used to cut off the end.)
  • 52. 42 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Kneaded Figure 502: erasers Three popular Kneaded erasers (Figure types of vinyl erasers: (1) 503) are a real joy! They don’t regular blocks, leave annoying eraser crumbs (2) eraser on your paper, and can easily wheel, and (3) be molded into a point or pencil erasers wedge for erasing. and refills. You can also use a kneaded eraser to carefully pat or gently rub a section of a drawing to lighten lines or values. Figure 503: Kneaded The drawing of a sphere in erasers are Figure 504 was created with simple boring the help of both vinyl and blocks until you begin kneaded erasers. molding and stretching First of all, I covered my paper them. with a layer of charcoal. Then, I pulled out light values with a kneaded eraser. The sharp edge of a vinyl eraser created the brightest whites. Dark TIP! shadows and crisp outlines were added with a charcoal pencil. To clean a kneaded eraser, you simply stretch and reshape it (also known as “kneading”) several times. In Chapter 9, I show you how However, kneaded erasers eventually get too dirty to to draw with your kneaded work well, so pick up some extras. eraser (Action 9D: Playing with Erasers). Figure 504: With the help of erasers, a three-dimensional sphere seems to come out of the dark.
  • 53. Chapter 5: Adding to the Basics 43Sharpening yourMediums WARNING!Pencil sharpeners and sandpaper(blocks or sheets) are a must for The wrong eraser can ruinkeeping your mediums (also called your drawings!media) in shape. Stay away from erasers that are coloredLots of different stores carry sharpeners (especially the pink ones) or very hard (such- especially if they carry school supplies. as those on the ends of some pencils).Sandpaper blocks are more difficult tofind; art supply stores are your best bet.As for sheets of sandpaper,check out a building suppliesstore or a department store with ahardware department. Make surethe surface is a fine grade (lookfor anything that falls between100-180 grit). Figure 505: Four of myPencil sharpeners favorite pencil sharpeners.If you use any type of pencilmedia, you need a pencilsharpener.Stay away from toy sharpeners, and battery-operated or expensive sharpeners. Instead,choose a simple, sturdy, hand-held (preferably metal) pencil sharpener. The best oneshave two openings: a small one for regular graphite pencils and a large one for oversizedpencils.The sharpeners in Figure 505 last a very long time; especially those for which you canpurchase replacement blades (available at most art supply stores).Sandpaper blocks and sheetsSandpaper preserves the wooden sections of your pencils that could otherwise get quicklyeaten up by your sharpener. Sandpaper sharpens just the exposed sections of mediuminstead of both the wood and the medium.Sandpaper blocks have sheets of fine sandpaper attached to a wooden base. You simplyhold the wooden handle as you sharpen your pencil point on the sandpaper. When the topsheet of sandpaper becomes worn and dirty, you simply tear it off, throw it away, and usethe next sheet. Sandpaper blocks are not expensive, so pick up more than one.
  • 54. 44 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started A Few Extras Have fun wandering through art supply stores! TIP! However, resist the temptation to pick up a bunch of stuff you really don’t need and may never use. You don’t need to spend a lot of You can make a sanding tool money on supplies to learn how to draw well. similar to an artist’s sandpaper block. Cut sheets of fine sandpaper into long, narrow pieces, and use a heavy-duty Stuff you can’t do without stapler to hold them together at In this section, I discuss four more necessities: one end. pencil case, portfolio, ruler, and viewfinder frame. (In Chapter 7 you find step-by-step instructions for making a portfolio and viewfinder frame.) Pencil case WARNING! A container for storing your pencils, erasers, and other smaller drawing supplies is essential - especially if you have small children or pets in Keep your drawing your home. (I have two large dogs who consider supplies, small children, pencils and erasers to be chew toys!) and pets safe! Always put your supplies away In addition, if you keep everything together in a container when you are in one place, you can avoid the frustration of done drawing. always searching for misplaced items. Portfolio Drawings stored in a pile on a shelf (or anywhere that’s dusty or within direct sunlight) can be damaged easily. A hard-sided portfolio can protect your drawing paper and completed drawings from becoming wrinkled, damaged, or destroyed. You can buy many types of wonderful portfolios in art supply stores, however, many tend to be very expensive (especially those made of leather). Ruler At some point in your life, you may have tried using something like the edge of a book as a ruler. I speak from experience when I say this is not a great idea! A good-quality ruler does a far better job and is much easier to use (plus, it has measurement guidelines). A ruler comes in handy for outlining drawing spaces, and as a guide for cutting straight pieces of drawing paper. An all-metal ruler with raised edges may be a little more expensive, but can last a lifetime with proper care. Metal rulers are easy to clean, and their raised edges protect your drawings from being smudged as you draw lines.
  • 55. Chapter 5: Adding to the Basics 45 ArtSpeak Viewfinder frame is an adjustable, Composition refers to the arrangement of the various see-through rectangle or square parts of your drawing subject within the borders of a that allows you to look at a drawing drawing space. subject from various viewpoints. Drawing space (also called a drawing surface or a drawing format) is the area in which you render a drawing within a specific perimeter. It can be the shape of a sheet of paper itself, or a shape you outline on your paper, such as a square, rectangle, or circle. Figure 507: Drawing of a spider within a square Figure 506: A simple viewfinder frame. drawing space.Viewfinder frameBeginners to drawing often include too manyobjects in their drawings. A viewfinder framehelps you visually weed out boring stuff in ascene, so you can draw only the exciting parts.As you adjust its size, you can remove most ofthe clutter and unnecessary objects from yourview. In doing so, you can choose an idealcomposition for a drawing.Small ones are great for planning compositionsfrom photos. Large viewfinder frames are idealfor finding a composition when you are outside Figure 508: A section of atrying to choose a drawing subject. cartoon face is viewed through the opening of a viewfinder frame.Nice to have, but not necessaryBefore you go shopping for additional drawing supplies, a manikin, display board, andspray fixative should be the top three items on your list.
  • 56. 46 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Display boards Bulletin or display boards (I especially love the metal ones with magnets) are relatively inexpensive and provide display space for your drawings. You can even choose a wall in your home (or use your fridge) for an ongoing exhibition of your work. Spray fixative A spray fixative that is designed for graphite and charcoal can protect your completed drawings from being accidentally smudged. However, before you use a spray fixative, keep the following in mind: ► Spray only in a well-ventilated area (such as outdoors). ► Make sure you read the directions carefully. WARNING! ► Two or three thin coats are better than one thick coat (less is more!). Don’t use spray fixative on your unfinished Manikins drawings! Often made of wood, manikins are wonderful You can’t erase problem areas models: they don’t move, require no bathroom after your drawing has been breaks, and don’t talk your ears off! Manikins can sprayed. be manipulated into numerous poses and viewed from any angle. In addition to female and male figures, you can also purchase animals. Figure 509: A simple sketch of a figure is created with the help of a manikin.
  • 57. Part 2: Get Set! 47 PART 2 GET SET!► Ideal surfaces on which to draw► Proper lighting for drawing► Good posture for sitting to draw► What to pack in a portable studio► Creating your shopping list► Make an artist’s portfolio► Construct a simple viewfinder frame► Three ways to hold your drawing medium► Discover your natural hand movement
  • 58. 48 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started
  • 59. Chapter 6: Setting up for Drawing 49 Chapter 6Setting up for Drawing*****************************************************************In this chapter, I tell youabout drawing surfaces andlighting that work well for ArtSpeakcreating art in your home.In addition, I show youhow to sit comfortably for Drafting deskdrawing, and properly hold (or drafting Figure 601: Ayour pencils as you work. table) is an simple drawing adjustable of a drafting deskI also tell you how to pack worktable with (and chair) thatup a portable drawing kit so is adjusted for a slanted top drawing.you can take your love of (Figure 601).drawing wherever you go.When assembling your Drawing boarddrawing supplies, be sure is a portable, Figureto check around your lightweight, 602: Ahome; you may already smooth surface sketchhave many of these items. (often made of of a wood) used for horse is attached sketching and to a drawing (Figure drawingA Comfy 602). board with aPlace to Sit Clips (usually clip. made of metal)and Draw can be used to attach sheetsYour special artistic place Figure 603: A of paper to ain your home should be as popular type of clip drawing boardrelaxing, peaceful, and free is called a Boston (Figure 603). Bulldog.of distractions as possible.
  • 60. 50 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Choosing a drawing surface You can easily find a surface on which you can comfortably draw. Consider such options as a table, desk, drafting desk, or drawing board. An adjustable sloped table or drafting desk is a fantastic choice. Another option is to prop up a drawing board at an angle on a regular table or desk. Many art stores sell different types of inexpensive drawing boards in various sizes. Figure 604: An artist is sketching on paper that Drawing papers can be held in is attached to a drawing board with a clip. place with either clips or tape. Art supply stores usually carry large clips and special tapes for attaching paper to a drawing board. Masking tapes designed TIP! for painting the interiors of homes, also work fairly well. Some types of tapes can damage your paper. Experiment with your tape on a small piece of drawing paper to find out if it can be safely removed. Shedding light on your art To prevent your eyes from becoming tired or strained, always make sure you have Info Tidbit good lighting. Consider a natural light source A drawing board is easy to make (if you know an from a window in the daytime adult who is handy with a saw). and from a lamp for evenings and overcast days. Simply cut a piece of thin, smoothly finished plywood, Plexiglas, or another sturdy product to a size A flexible-neck study lamp is slightly larger than your favorite drawing paper. Use designed to focus light directly sandpaper to sand it until its surface and edges are on your drawing surface (Figure very smooth. 605).
  • 61. Chapter 6: Setting up for Drawing 51An ideal lamp mimicsnatural daylight, so,read the packagingcarefully before youbuy!Also, check out thecost of replacementbulbs; some types cancost almost as muchas (or more than) thelamp itself. Figure 605: An artist sits comfortably at a drafting desk with an attached lamp shedding light on his drawing. Art Quote WARNING! I don’t think people are born Don’t attempt large drawings on artists; I think it comes from a a flat (horizontal) surface! mixture of your surroundings, the people you meet, and luck. Instead, use something to prop up your sketchbook or paper so your drawing surface is Francis Bacon sloped. When you create large drawings on a flat surface (such as a table or desk), the top of your paper is farther away from you thanGood Posture the bottom. As a result, you can end up with all sorts of problems trying to draw accurateFirst! proportions. For example, if you are drawing a figure, his or her head may end up too bigSitting correctly (and eating your for the body. Unfortunately, you usually findvegetables) is very important; not this out the hard way - after your drawing isjust for your health, but also for complete.improving your drawing skills.
  • 62. 52 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Good posture and a comfortable, adjustable chair can prevent your muscles from becoming strained and sore. Arrange your chair and drawing surface so you can easily move your hand, arm, shoulder, and upper body as you draw. How NOT to sit! Many people do not sit up straight. They hunch or lean over too much, and twist their bodies into all sorts of positions that place their back out of proper alignment (Figure 606). Figure 606: How NOT to sit! You become uncomfortable very quickly when you are not sitting properly. TIP! Sitting correctly Most drafting tables and some office chairs have height adjustments. You can also position your To prevent cramping and chair closer or farther away from your table. repetitive movement injuries, move your fingers and wrist as Refer to Figure 607 and arrange your table and little as possible when you draw. chair until you can: You should be moving your ► Sit up straight with your feet flat on the floor lower and upper arm (and (or on a raised surface such as a footstool). sometimes your shoulder and ► Distribute your body weight evenly on both upper body as well). hips. If you absolutely have to move ► Bend your knees at a right angle. your fingers and wrist (for example, to draw tiny details), ► See your drawing clearly without bending take a break every ten minutes your lower back. to relax your hand and wrist. ► Comfortably rest your lower arm on the table.
  • 63. Chapter 6: Setting up for Drawing 53 Once you are used to sitting correctly, you can fully focus on drawing. Putting Together a Portable Studio In this section, I suggest practical supplies for bringing your love of drawing on any type of excursion, such as to a local park or a picnic at the beach. Learning to draw is learning to see! The more you practice - the faster your skills improve!Figure 607: A cartoon artist shows you how to sit Doing sketches on a regularproperly at a drafting desk. basis trains your brain to see as an artist (a fun way to see the world). A very thorough visual examination of your drawing subject imprints its image into your mind. You can then draw what you see in your sketchbook - often with only a few simple lines. For example, sometimes all you need is a wiggly line to capture a section of land. Figure 608 shows a simple sketch of the lake behind my home. You should keep a fewFigure 608: Simple lines capture a sky, hills, a lake, drawing materials packed andtrees, and a few plants. ready to travel.
  • 64. 54 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started When you feel like drawing outdoors, you can just grab your portable studio and go. First of all, you need something in which to carry your art materials. A backpack or fabric bag with handles is great. Select something large enough to hold everything you need. Naturally, you need a surface on which to draw. You can bring a drawing board, paper, and clips (or tape). A hardcover sketchbook is a great alternative to sheets of paper; its hard cover serves as a drawing surface. Add a pencil case filled with pencils, erasers, sandpaper blocks, and a pencil sharpener. Here’s a list of additional things you may want to bring along: ► A viewfinder frame. ► Your portfolio (if you use sheets of drawing paper). ► Plastic bags to protect your drawings (and you) in case of rain. ► Beverages and snacks. ► Wipes or paper towels for clean-up (especially if you use charcoal). ► A small camera to take photos of inspirational scenes and objects. ► Depending on where you go, you may need bug repellent. ► Oh, and don’t forget your sunscreen and a hat! Save all your sketches! By Art Quote examining your older sketches, you can measure how much your skills have advanced. When we speak of Nature it is wrong to forget that we are ourselves a part of In addition, as your creativity and Nature. artistic vision improves, you may look back on your early works with a new We ought to view ourselves with the appreciation. same curiosity and openness with which we study a tree, the sky or a thought, For example, a face may be hidden because we too are linked to the entire within a sketch of an old log. universe. (Remember the stone faces hidden in Figure 101 in Chapter 1.) Henri Matisse
  • 65. Chapter 7: Making a List, Portfolio, and Viewfinder Frame 55 Chapter 7Making a List, Portfolio,and Viewfinder Frame*****************************************************************In this chapter, your first exercise is to make a shopping list and buy your drawing supplies.You then follow step-by-step illustrated instructions to make a portfolio and viewfinderframe. (I show you how to use a viewfinder frame in Action 9F in Chapter 9.) ► AC T I O N 7 A ◄ The Shopping List Goal: Write out a shopping list so you can go shopping for your supplies. Supplies needed: Paper and pencil (or pen). The following lists are guides for making your own shopping list. Must have Figure 701: Shopping for art supplies. Plan to purchase (or find around your home) the items on this list first: ► Sketchbook with medium tooth, acid-free paper: 9 by 12 inches (or larger) ► Package of inexpensive sheets of paper (printer/copy paper works well)
  • 66. 56 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started ► Regular vinyl eraser ► Kneaded eraser ► Pencil case ► 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B wood-encased pencils ► Sturdy handheld pencil sharpener ► Sandpaper blocks or sheets of fine-grit sandpaper ► Drawing surface, such as a drafting desk, or table with a drawing board ► Lamp ► Metal ruler ► Metal clips (if you plan to use a drawing board) ► Comfortable chair ► Portfolio case (for storing your completed drawings) ► Viewfinder frame (Supplies for making a portfolio and viewfinder frame are on the next page.) Nice to have As your skills improve and you have extra money, you can shop for items from this list: ► Wooden manikins ► Bulletin or display board ► Spray fixative TIP! ► Mechanical pencils with 2H, HB, and 2B leads When buying matboard or cardboard to make a ► A selection of good-quality drawing viewfinder frame, stay with papers neutral rather than bright colors. ► Camera When using a brightly ► Hardcover sketchbook colored viewfinder frame, ► Graphite sticks and woodless pencils your eye is grabbed by the loud color, making it hard ► Pencil-type vinyl eraser to concentrate on the view inside.
  • 67. Chapter 7: Making a List, Portfolio, and Viewfinder Frame 57Supplies for making a portfolioIf you (or someone else) plan to make a portfolio, you need the following:► Roll of wide tape (duct tape is great and comes in lots of fun colors)► Heavy-duty, sharp utility knife► Straight edge or long ruler with a metal edge► Sharp tool (such as a scratch awl or a large nail) for punching holes for ties.► Strong string, thin rope, or shoelaces (long enough to tie the portfolio closed in three places)► Acid-free cardboard or matboard (usually offered in a wide selection of colors at framing and art supply stores)► Drawing supplies for adding a design (optional)Supplies for making a viewfinder frameBesides acid-free board, a utility knife, and a ruler, you also need two large paperclips.Supplies for a portable studioYou need a second set of basic drawing supplies, as well as some of the extraitems suggested on Page 54. ► AC T I O N 7 B ◄Making aPortfolioGoal: Make and design your Figurevery own unique portfolio. 702: A homemade portfolio.
  • 68. 58 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Gather your supplies on a large, flat surface that can’t be damaged with a sharp knife. For example, cutting the board on the dining room table may not be the best idea! You may want to ask an adult for help. Deciding on a size The finished size of your portfolio needs to be a little larger than your largest sheet of drawing paper. When choosing board, you can use either one large sheet or two smaller pieces. One large folded sheet of board makes a slightly stronger portfolio than two smaller pieces - especially along the bottom. If you decide on one large sheet, take into account that you need to fold it in half. In other words, the finished portfolio will be half the size of your board. If you buy two pieces (one for each side), each needs to be the finished size. Suggested portfolio sizes include: ► 16 by 20 inches (one sheet at least 32 by 20 inches, or two pieces at 16 by 20 inches each). ► 20 by 30 inches (one sheet at least 40 by 30 inches, or two pieces at 20 by 30 inches each). Option 1: Using one large sheet of board TIP! 1. Trim the large piece of board to the overall size you want. Some boards (such as Measure the board first - it may not matboard) are colored on one need to be trimmed. Refer back to side and white on the other. the previous section for suggested Hence, you may want the sizes. Keep in mind that it needs colored side facing outward on to be folded in half (peek ahead to your portfolio. Figure 703). If your board is the same color If your board is already the size you on both sides, simply ignore want, go to step 2. references to color. 2. Place your large sheet of board The colored side in the (colored side facing up) on a flat illustrations is shown as gray. surface.
  • 69. Chapter 7: Making a List, Portfolio, and Viewfinder Frame 593. Measure the board and mark the center points along the width. For example, if your board is 32 by 20 inches, the middle points are at 16 inches. If your board is 40 by 30 inches, the center points need to be at 20 inches. Use a ruler to measure, and an HB pencil to mark the points.4. Use a long ruler or straight edge to draw a straight line along the points. Use an HB pencil. This line shows you where you later score (slightly cut) the board (Figure 703).5. Add wide tape to all four edges of the large board. Figure 703: A straight line is drawn down the center of the board, and the edges are made strong with wide tape.6. Measure, and then mark the halfway distances of the sides and top of each half with a dot (to mark where the ties go). See Figure 704. The sides have one dot. The top and bottom edges have two, and each is halfway between the edge and the center line.7. Use a sharp tool to punch holes where each of the six dots is marked. Figure 704: Dots mark the spots where the ties attach.
  • 70. 60 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started 8. With your knife and a straight edge, cut very slightly (sometimes TIP! referred to as “scoring”) along the straight line on the If you accidentally end up with two pieces, colored side. all is not lost. Be very careful; if you Simply continue on and follow the cut too deeply into the instructions for working with two pieces board, you’ll have two instead of one. pieces of board instead of one scored piece. 9. Gently fold the large Figure 705: Portfolio sheet of board inward is folded along the score along the scored line. line, and the inner fold line section is reinforced with The colored side should wide tape. now be on the outside. 10. Open the portfolio and tape over the inside center seam. To make this seam super strong, use two strips of tape (Figure 705). 11. With the portfolio closed, tape over the scored seam at the bottom. The basic construction of the portfolio is complete (Figure 706). 12. Continue on to the Adding ties and final touches section on page 62. Figure 706: The bottom edge of portfolio (the folded edge) has been reinforced with strong tape.
  • 71. Chapter 7: Making a List, Portfolio, and Viewfinder Frame 61Option 2: Using two pieces of board1. Using wide tape, reinforce all but one long edge of each piece of board.2. Place the boards colored side up so the two wide edges that are not taped (the bottom of the portfolio) are close together.3. Measure, and then mark dots at the halfway distances of the sides and top of each piece of board. These dots show you where to punch holes for the ties (Figure 707). Do not mark dots on the sides without tape. These sides are the bottom of your portfolio.4. Use a sharp tool to punch holes where the dots are marked. You end up with three holes on each piece of board.5. Butt the bottoms of each piece of Figure 707: Three sides of each piece are reinforced with wide tape; the board tightly holes for the ties are marked and then punched with a sharp tool. together on a flat surface. The inside surfaces should now be facing you (Figure 708).6. Tape both pieces together. To make the seam super strong, use two strips of tape (Figure 708). Figure 708: The boards are butted together and then taped together with wide tape.
  • 72. 62 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started 7. Fold the portfolio so the colored sides are on the outside. See Figure 709. The holes for ties should line up on the top and sides. 8. Use at least two strips of wide tape to reinforce the bottom edge on the outside. Figure 709: The bottom edge of the portfolio is Adding ties and reinforced with strong tape. final touches In this section, you finish your portfolio by adding ties. You have the option of decorating either one side or both with creative designs. 1. Tie a knot in the end of each tie. Figure Refer to Figure 710. Each of the six 710: A knot ties needs to be between 12 to 16 is tied on inches long. one end of a shoelace. If you use shoelaces, you may get away with using half for each tie (if they are long). If using a half, tie the knot in the end that has been cut. If you use a full shoelace for each tie, it doesn’t matter on which Figure end you tie a knot. 711: The laces are 2. Thread a tie through each of the threaded six holes from the inside. through the holes from Refer to Figure 711. The end with the inside toward the the knot needs to be on the inside. outside. If the hole is bigger than the knot, you can tie additional knots on top of the first so the end won’t go through the hole. 3. Use wide tape to secure the Figure 712: Wide tape knotted ends of the ties to the covers the inside (Figure 712). knotted ends
  • 73. Chapter 7: Making a List, Portfolio, and Viewfinder Frame 634. Close the portfolio. Figure 713 shows the outside of an undecorated portfolio.5. Add a design or Figure 713: drawing to the sides The portfolio of your portfolio. awaits a spiffy Decorating your design. portfolio is completely optional. You may prefer to use it as is. The portfolio in Figure 714 has a drawing of daisies on the front. You can probably think of oodles of other ideas to decorate your portfolio. Place your drawing paper and drawings inside and tie the ties. Figure 714: A drawing of daisies graces one side of a portfolio case. ► AC T I O N 7 C ◄Making aViewfinder Frame FigureGoal: Make a viewfinder frame. 715: A homemadeSet up your supplies on a flat space that viewfinderis adult-approved. frame.
  • 74. 64 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Consider making several viewfinder frames in different sizes. Smaller ones are great for planning compositions from photos. Bigger ones are Figure 716: Each L-shaped piece of matboard needs to be ideal for finding a cut perfectly square. This means that the corners should form a composition when ninety-degree angle (also known as a right angle). you are outside trying to choose a subject. Figure 717: Two L-shaped 1. Use a ruler and pieces of matboard are joined a utility knife to with paper clips so the inside cut two identical becomes either a square or L-shaped pieces rectangle. of cardboard any size you want. Again, don’t be afraid to ask for Figure 718: A close- help using a knife. up view of my grandson (Brandon) is selected with Refer to Figure the help of a viewfinder 716. When frame. choosing a size, keep in mind that the wider your frame, the more you can block distracting and unwanted objects from your view. 2. Use two large paper clips to join the two pieces together to form a frame. Refer to Figures 717 and 718.
  • 75. Chapter 8: Give Yourself a Helping Hand 65 Chapter 8Give Yourself a HelpingHand*****************************************************************Moving your drawing hand naturally and rotating your paper as you work can improveyour artistic outcomes. In this chapter, you discover how these simple actions can quicklyadvance your current drawing skills.Holding Your MediumsThe way you hold your drawing mediums can affect the look of your drawings. If you moveonly your fingers and wrist, your lines may end up looking shaky and rigid.Creating smoothly flowing lines requires broad, gentle movements of your whole arm.Adjust your chair and table until you can easily move your hand, arm, shoulder, and upperbody as you draw.Choosing the mostcomfortable way to holdyour medium depends ArtSpeakon the following:► Your choice of medium Straight line provides the shortest connection between► Whether your any two points. Straight lines drawing surface is can be drawn in any direction. flat, vertical, or on an angle Figure 801: Several straight lines that are drawn in six► The size of your different directions. drawing paper
  • 76. 66 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Figure 802 illustrates how most people hold their pencil when first beginning to write and draw. (Remember to move your arm rather than just your fingers and wrist.) This method is ideal for creating small drawings on a flat or sloped surface. Figure 802: Holding a pencil in the most familiar and traditional manner. The second way of holding a pencil (Figure 803) is great for rendering a medium to large sketch (or drawing) on a sloped or vertical surface. This method requires movement from your Figure arm, and sometimes your 803: How shoulder and upper body as to hold a pencil when well. you are creating The method shown in Figure big, bold 804 requires movement sketches. from your arm and shoulder, and is ideal for holding pencils or sticks of graphite and charcoal. You can hold your pencil this way when you work on a sloped or vertical surface. Experiment with each of Figure the three ways to hold your 804: An drawing mediums. You ideal way to hold various may find a couple of these types of methods a little awkward at drawing first, but with practice you do mediums for get used to them. sketching.
  • 77. Chapter 8: Give Yourself a Helping Hand 67Becoming aNaturalAs discussed in the previous section,you can choose from three differentways to hold your pencil. The nextlogical step is to find the most naturalway to move your pencil as you draw.Many aspiring artists simply jumpinto drawing without taking thetime to discover their natural handmovement.As a matter of fact, most people don’teven know they have one!This section explores the natural handmovement of Leonardo da Vinci, andhelps you find and use yours.Leonardo the leftyYou can tell a lot about artists by Figure 805: This drawing of an old man (including the marks and age spots on the paper) is copied from a drawing byexamining their art. Leonardo.Recently, I took the time to checkout some of Leonardo da Vinci’sdrawings. I found myself in awe of hisshading lines - mostly drawn at thesame angle.I used a graphite pencil to render astudy of one of Leonardo’s pen-and-ink drawings. Figure 805 shows mydrawing of an old man’s face.Leonardo’s shading lines appear to berendered from the upper left to lowerright, and from the lower right to theupper left. Examine the close-up viewof the shading lines in Figure 806). Figure 806: I turned this drawing sideways as I worked so I could imitate Leonardo’s lines with my own natural hand movement.
  • 78. 68 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Finding your natural hand movement You natural hand movement may not be the same as either Leonardo’s or mine. Try your hand at drawing sets of slanted straight lines in your sketchbook (Figure 807). Pay attention to how you make these lines. Use many different ways of moving your pencil or changing the slant of your lines. Some will feel comfortable and others will feel awkward. Figure 807: A sketchbook page has lines that slant in many directions. However, there will be one motion that feels the most comfortable. This is your natural hand movement, and you should try to use it to your advantage whenever possible. Info Tidbit Many experts claim that Leonardo da Vinci Rotating your paper was left-handed because of the way he as you draw drew straight lines (slanted from the upper left to lower right). This is the natural hand Professional artists have many secret movement of many left-handed artists. ways to make sure their drawings turn out well. In addition to using their Right-handed artists (like me) often draw natural hand movement, they often lines from the upper right to the lower left. rotate their paper. You should rotate your drawing paper as you work to take full advantage of your natural hand movement. Remembering to always rotate your paper takes lots of Art Quote practice. But, before you know it, you are rotating your paper all the time without even thinking about it. The artist ought first to exercise his hand by copying drawings In Action 9E in Chapter 9, you can try your from the hand of a good master. hand at drawing shapes by rotating your paper. Leonardo da Vinci
  • 79. Part 3: Go Draw! 69 PART 3 GO DRAW!► Action 9A: Sketching a Self-Portrait► Action 9B: Creating Values with Squirkles► Action 9C: Playing with Pencils► Action 9D: Playing with Erasers► Action 9E: Drawing Shapes by Rotating Your Paper► Action 9F: Framing with a Viewfinder► Action 10A: Drawing a Caveperson► Action 10B: A Realistic Eye► Action 10C: Mugly Wigglebottom
  • 80. 70 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started
  • 81. Chapter 9: Putting Your Supplies to Work 71 Chapter 9Putting Your Suppliesto Work*****************************************************************Finally! Time to draw!In this chapter, you complete a fewexercises and projects designed to teach TIP!you how to use your supplies. You alsodiscover how to use a few basic drawing Always sharpen your pencils beforetechniques. you begin a drawing project. ► AC T I ON 9 A ◄ Sketching a Self-Portrait Goal: Document your current drawing skills by drawing yourself. Supplies needed: Paper, erasers, a 2B pencil, and a mirror. Set yourself up for drawing where you can clearly see your reflection in a mirror. Draw a portrait of yourself as realistically as possible. When you’re finished, sign your name, write the date on the back, put your drawing away in a safe place, and give yourself a big hug!
  • 82. 72 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started ArtSpeak Squirkling is a simple shading Figure technique in which randomly 901: drawn curved lines (called Squirkling “squirkles”) create values. is great for drawing Squirkling is ideal for simple wool on drawings by beginners (Figure a cartoon 901), as well as highly realistic sheep. works by professional artists (Figure 902). Figure 902: Advanced Value scale is a range of different values drawing of a tiny section of that are drawn in order from light to dark or a phone that is completely from dark to light (Refer to Figure 903). rendered with squirkles. ► AC T I ON 9 B ◄ Creating Values with Squirkles Goal: Find out the base value of Figure 903: A value scale created with squirkles. each of your five grades of graphite Each grade of pencil has a different base value. pencils. Supplies needed: Paper and 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B graphite pencils. What do you get when you cross squiggles with circles? You get Squirkles! Squirkling is a simple method of shading that uses randomly drawn curved lines to create values. I chose this name based on the method of mixing squiggles with circles to create shading. Many of my students from the past three decades are very familiar with this word! In this project, you create five different values with five grades of pencils. Don’t press too hard or too softly with your pencil. Apply a medium amount of pressure. Allow your pencils to do most of the work.
  • 83. Chapter 9: Putting Your Supplies to Work 731. Draw a rectangle that is 2 inches high by ten inches long, and divide it into five squares that are each 2 by 2 inches. Surprise! Math is a very important part of drawing! But don’t grumble yet - I’ll be introducing the various math skills very gently. Figure 904: I used a ruler to outline a drawing space that is 2 by 10 inches (divided into five squares).2. Mark the grade of one of your pencils under each square. Figure 905: Each square is marked with a grade of pencil from the lightest (on the left) to the darkest.3. In the first square, use a 2H pencil to scribble (squirkle) curved TIP! lines that twist and bend in many directions. Take your time! Refer to Figures 906 and 907. Your goal is to create a light value. Work very slowly and closely watch your line as it curves If you see a very large white space around within this square. (the white of your paper), draw a Small squirkles make much curved line through it so it becomes smoother values than large two small spaces. If a section has a ones. lot of lines, don’t add any more. Accuracy is much more The white spaces can be many important than speed. Speed different shapes, but they should be increases with lots of practice. approximately the same size.
  • 84. 74 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Figures 906 and 907: A 2H makes a very light value. Try squinting your eyes a little to see the squirkles as a value. 4. Use the same method to draw squirkles in each of the other four squares. Refer to Figures 907 to 915. Use an HB pencil in the second square; a 2B in the third; a 4B in the fourth; and a 6B in the fifth. Figures 908 and 909: A slightly darker value is created by an HB Pencil. If you make a value that looks too light, you can simply add a few extra squirkling lines to make it slightly darker. Figures 910 and 911: The middle value is made with a 2B pencil. Make sure that each new value you draw is slightly darker than the previous one.
  • 85. Chapter 9: Putting Your Supplies to Work 75 Figures 912 and 913: A 4B grade of pencil makes a dark value. Figure 914: The darkest value is drawn with a 6B.Figure 915: A value scale of fivedifferent values.You have completed a value scale from light (on the left) to dark (on the right).Prop up your drawing and stand a few feet away. Can you see five differentvalues from light (on the left) to dark (on the right)?5. Draw another value scale from dark (on the left) to light (on the right). Refer to Figure 916. When you’re done, pat yourself on the back ten times.Figure 916: A value scale from dark to light.
  • 86. 76 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started ► AC T I O N 9 C ◄ Playing with Pencils Figure 917: Many different values of lines can Goal: Draw three sets of lines be made with only five grades of pencils. with each of your five pencils. Supplies needed: Paper and 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B graphite pencils. As you know from Action 9B, each grade of pencil makes a different base value. However, did you know that each grade on its own can make several values? In this project I show you how to create light, medium, and dark lines with each of your pencils. To do this, you simply vary the pressure you apply to your pencil. 1. Use a 2H pencil to draw a light, medium, and dark set of three straight lines (nine lines in total). ► Set of three light lines: Apply very little pressure to your pencil. ► Set of three medium lines: Use a medium amount of pressure. ► Set of three dark lines: Press firmly with your pencil. Remember to rotate your paper so you can use your natural hand movement. Art Quote What we call creative work ought not to be called work at all, because it isn’t. I imagine that Thomas Edison never did a day’s work in his last fifty years. Stephen B. Leacock Figure 918: Three different values of lines made with a 2H grade of pencil.
  • 87. Chapter 9: Putting Your Supplies to Work 772. Use the same technique to draw three different lines with each of your other four pencils (Figure 919). Figure 919: Fifteen sets of lines result in a wide range of different values. Congratulations! You now have a better idea of how artists make several different values with only one pencil. Put one finger on the tip of your nose and walk seven steps in a straight line. ► AC T I O N 9 D ◄ Figure 920: Lines and shapes WARNING! created with This project erasers. is very messy! Stay away fromPlaying with Erasers light-colored carpets or fabrics.Goal: Draw lines and shapes with an eraser Cover yourinstead of a pencil. drawing surfaceSupplies needed: Heavy white drawing paper with paper orwith a medium tooth, a 2B or 4B charcoal stick, plastic before you2B or 4B charcoal pencil, vinyl eraser, kneaded begin.eraser, and paper towels.
  • 88. 78 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started ArtSpeak Blending is the process of gently rubbing Figure 921: A shading with a blending section of shading tool (such as a facial before it is blended. tissue or paper towel) to evenly distribute the Figure 922: The drawing medium over same shading after sections of the surface it was blended with of drawing paper. a facial tissue. Most artists are familiar with drawing dark values on a light surface. However, as you will soon see, you can also draw light values on a dark surface by using an eraser (or erasers). In this section, you experiment with two different types of erasers as drawing tools. 1. Use the side of a charcoal stick to smoothly fill in a section of your paper. Gently does it! Don’t press hard with the charcoal. The charcoal needs to sit on the top of the paper’s tooth – not flatten it! In real life, my section is 6 by 3 inches – but larger is even better! 2. Use a piece of paper towel to VERY GENTLY blend the whole surface. Don’t apply too much pressure, or you’ll grind the charcoal into the paper so much that it won’t erase (thereby defeating the whole purpose of this project). Figure 923: A section of my paper is filled in with charcoal and then very gently blended.
  • 89. Chapter 9: Putting Your Supplies to Work 793. Use your erasers however you wish to experiment with pulling light values from the darkened drawing surface. For a few ideas refer to Figures 924 and 925. Figures 924 and 925: A few lines, dots, and shapes are pulled out of the charcoal with the edges of vinyl erasers, and kneaded erasers molded into various shapes. Info Tidbit Thomas Edison is best known as an inventor (he helped invent many wonderful items such as the light bulb and motion picture camera). However, did you know that he could draw well? He often sketched his ideas and drew diagrams of the inventions on which he worked.4. Use your imagination and the same process to create more drawings. You can also use your charcoal pencil to draw more details after the white sections are erased (Figure 926).
  • 90. 80 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started TIP! Completed charcoal drawings should always be sprayed with a fixative so they don’t smudge too badly. Art Quote Genius is one percent inspiration, ninety-nine percent perspiration. Thomas Edison Figure 926: I used a charcoal When you’re done, go wash the charcoal off pencil to add a few dark lines to your face, and put a big smile on your face! my eraser drawing. ► AC T I ON 9 E ◄ Drawing Shapes by Rotating Your Paper Goal: Draw three different shapes by rotating your paper and using your natural hand movement. Supplies needed: Paper, a 2B graphite pencil, vinyl eraser, Figure 927: Three shapes created by using my natural and kneaded eraser. hand movement and rotating my paper.
  • 91. Chapter 9: Putting Your Supplies to Work 81You find two illustrations beside eachstep; one for righties and the otherfor lefties. To help you remember TIP!which drawing is which, the lefty oneis on the left and the righty one is onthe right. Don’t worry about copying my drawings exactly! Just take your time and do yourPart 1: Circular best.shape It’s more important to get used toYour goal in this section is to draw a rotating your paper so you can useshape using only curved lines. your natural hand movement.1. Write the word “TOP” at the top of your paper so you don’t get lost.2. Draw the first Figure 928L Figure 928R part of the shape (Figure 928).3. Rotate your paper so the word “TOP” is on the side (Figure 929). Figure 929L Figure 929R
  • 92. 82 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started 4. Draw the second part of the shape (Figure 930). Figure 930L Figure 930R 5. Rotate your paper until the word “TOP” is on the bottom (Figure 931). Figure 931L Figure 931R 6. Draw the third part of the shape (Figure 932). Figure 932L Figure 932R
  • 93. Chapter 9: Putting Your Supplies to Work 837. Rotate your paper until the word “TOP” is on the other side (Figure 933). Figure 933L Figure 933R8. Draw the final part of the shape (Figure 934). Figure 934L Figure 934R9. Rotate your paper until the word “TOP” is on the top again. Examine your drawing of a circular shape while patting yourself on the head and standing on one foot. Then, compare my final lefty and righty drawings (Figure 935). When placed side by side, they are mirror images of one another. Figure 935L Figure 935R
  • 94. 84 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Part 2: Straight- sided shape Info Tidbit In this section, you draw a ten-sided shape with straight lines. To help In Drawing Book 2: Lines and keep you on track, I have numbered Spaces, I show you how to draw each line (Figure 936). very straight lines freehand Righties and lefties draw the exact (without a ruler). same shape this time (rather than mirror images). However, you still need to turn your paper in different directions as you work. Again, righty illustrations are on the right and lefty ones are on the left. 1. Write the word “TOP” at the top of your paper, and refer to Figure 937 as you draw lines 1 and 2. Before you begin, locate lines 1 and 2 in Figure 936. Make sure you leave lots of room on your paper for the other eight lines that outline this shape. Lefty’s need to rotate their paper for this step and righties don’t. Figure 936: The lines are numbered in the order in which you draw them. Figure 937L Figure 937R
  • 95. Chapter 9: Putting Your Supplies to Work 853. Rotate your paper and draw line 3 (Figure 938). Figure 938L Figure 938R4. Rotate your paper again and draw line 4 (Figure 939). Figure 939R Figure 939L5. Complete your drawing of the straight-sided shape by following along with figures 940 to 943. By now you know how to follow along with illustrations to complete a drawing. Take your time and refer back to Figure 936 if you get lost.
  • 96. 86 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Figure 940L Figure 940R Figure 941R Figure 941L Art Quote “When I was a boy of 14, my father was so ignorant I could hardly stand to have the old man around. But when I got to be 21, I was astonished at how much the old man had learned in seven years.” Mark Twain
  • 97. Chapter 9: Putting Your Supplies to Work 87 Figure 942R Figure 942L Figure 943R Figure 943LRotate your paper until your Figure 944:shape is right-side-up again If this shape was part of a(Figure 944). familiar object,Then stand up and wiggle what would it be? Try lookingyour whole body! at it sideways, slanted, and upside-down.
  • 98. 88 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Part 3: Circle TIP! Most artists consider circles to be the most difficult shape to draw. A square can help you draw a better circle! In this section, you try 1. Use a ruler to measure and draw a square on your hand at drawing your paper (Figure 945). a circle. You may be quite surprised by how 2. Measure and then mark a small dot (or line) at well you do with help the halfway point of each of the four sides. from your new skills - Your circle should only touch the sides of the using your natural hand square at each of these four marks. movement and rotating your paper. 1. Follow along with Figures 946 to 950 to draw a circle. You may prefer Figure 945: to draw a circle When you without drawing the want a really square first. If so, good-looking circle, try simply ignore the drawing square outlines in it inside a the illustrations. square. Figure 946L Figure 946R
  • 99. Chapter 9: Putting Your Supplies to Work 89Figure 947L Figure 947R Figure 948L Figure 948R Figure 949RFigure 949L
  • 100. 90 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started 2. Erase your square outline (if you drew it). Stand up and turn around in a circle three times. Just for fun! So, now you have three very boring shapes (Figure 951). How can you make them more interesting? Easy! Turn them into something Figure 950 or somebody. A few lines and squirkles (and an imagination) gave my shapes a little personality (Figure 952). Have fun transforming your shapes into something more interesting. You can turn each shape around in any direction. Figure 951 Figure 952: As a child, I spent many hours drawing random shapes and giving them faces (as well as noses, ears, hair, and hats). Challenge: Draw three more shapes: one with curved lines, another with straight lines, and a circle. Remember to use your natural hand movement and rotate your paper as you draw. Then, use your imagination to turn each into something or somebody.
  • 101. Chapter 9: Putting Your Supplies to Work 91 ArtSpeakDrawing from life refers to the process of drawing froman actual person, animal, or scene, rather than from aphotograph or computer image.Landscape format (sometimes called a horizontal format)is a rectangular drawing space that is rotated so the twolonger sides are at the top and bottom (Figure 953).Portrait format (sometimes called a vertical format) is arectangular drawing space that is rotated so the two shortersides are at the top and bottom (Figure 954). Figure 954: A portraitFigure 953: A fun drawing of a format works well for thiscartoon snake fits nicely into a drawing of a giraffe.landscape format. ► AC T I ON 9 F ◄ Framing with a Viewfinder Goal: Use a viewfinder frame to choose a composition from a photograph, then set up a drawing space, and draw what you see inside the borders of the frame. Supplies needed: Photograph, viewfinder frame, ruler, drawing paper, pencils, erasers, and Figure 956: Fishing shacks viewed pencil sharpener. through a viewfinder frame.
  • 102. 92 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Info Tidbit Unfortunately, I was unable to put any actual scenes into this book (grin). Hence, this project (and many others) are based on photographs. However, keep in mind that the basic process for using a viewfinder frame with a photo is almost identical to viewing drawing subjects from life. Three steps for framing a view To give you an idea of how a viewfinder frame works, I have broken down the process into three basic steps (refer to Figure 957): 1. I choose a photo that I really like. It’s a landscape format, and I want to draw the fishing shacks in a portrait format. 2. I adjust the two parts of the viewfinder frame until I find a portrait format that I like. 3. I draw what I see inside the frame. (I decided not to draw the boat on the right.) Figure 957: Working with a viewfinder frame includes: (1) choosing a photo, (2) deciding on a composition, and (3) drawing what you see inside the frame’s opening.
  • 103. Chapter 9: Putting Your Supplies to Work 93Create a sketchby framing your TIP!view Choose a photo that you really like!1. Choose a photograph. Make sure your subject is something that If you want to draw from looks like it might be fun to draw. You may a valuable or cherished become bored with a subject that doesn’t photo, scan and print a appeal to you. copy rather than work from the original. Make sure the photo isn’t fuzzy, out of focus, or in really bright light or dark shadows. You Better still - take a photo can’t draw something you can’t see. of something simple that you want to draw and then print it.2. Place your viewfinder frame on top of the photo and choose the section you want to draw. Continuously adjust both sections of the viewfinder frame until Figure the part you want to draw is 958: Photo completely in view. I took of a fun duck- Remember, you can choose either shaped a square, vertical, or horizontal candle that drawing format. I wanted to draw. Use a pen or pencil to mark small dots on the photo inside the four corners of the frame. Check out the small dots marked in blue in Figure 959. Figure 959: The Remove the section of viewfinder frame, the photo and use a ruler to that I want to draw connect the dots to is framed outline a square or inside a rectangle (Figure viewfinder 960). frame.
  • 104. 94 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started ArtSpeak Cast shadow is a dark section on a surface adjacent to (beside) an object (or living being) that receives little or no direct light. Examine the cast shadow (cast by the duck candle) on the surface of the table in the lower right of Figure 960. A fun part of being an artist is that you can decide to change what you Figure 960: The section of the photo that I want to draw is outlined. see in a photo before you draw. For example, I decided to not include the edge of the table, the background clutter, or the cast shadow in my drawing. 3. Draw your subject with any medium and in any way you want. First of all, decide if you want to leave out something that you see in your photo. Then, outline a drawing space on your paper that is the same shape and proportions as the outlined section of your photo. For example, if the outline on your photo is 2 by 3 inches, you can make a larger drawing by using a Figure 961: I decided to do a simple line drawing of the duck-shaped candle. drawing format that is 4 by 6 inches (twice the size), or 6 by 9 inches (three times the size of the original). When you are done, quack like a duck as you flap your arms like wings!
  • 105. Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings 95 Chapter 10Three Simple Drawings*****************************************************************This chapter presents three fun projects that put your new drawing skills into action. Thefirst challenges you to draw several shapes with curved lines; the second encourages youto put your squirkling skills into action to draw the pupil of an eye; and the third takes youthrough the entire process of drawing - from sketching lines to adding shading.Remember to rotate your paper so you can use your natural hand movement. Be patientwith yourself; drawing lines and shapes freehand requires lots of practice before you cando it well. ► AC T I ON 1 0 A ◄ Drawing a Caveperson Goal: Draw a human figure that looks like a prehistoric cave drawing. Supplies needed: Paper, erasers, ruler, and Figure a 2B pencil. 1001: A simple In this project, you use curved lines to draw drawing of a a body; then add a head, two arms and two caveperson. legs; and finally draw hands and feet. 1. Use a ruler to draw a rectangular drawing space that is approximately 3 inches wide by 5.5 inches long.
  • 106. 96 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started 2. Draw a partial oval-shape (Figure 1002) as the main section of the body (called a torso). Plan where to draw the torso on your paper so you leave room for a head, arms, and legs. For example, the whole torso fits into the top half of the drawing space. Also, if you look closely, the torso is a little closer to the left side of the rectangle than the right. 3. Add a head and neck (Figure 1003). Figure 1002 Figure 1003 4. Draw the upper part of the arms (Figure 1004). 5. Draw the lower sections of the arms and the hands (Figure 1005). The upper part of the body is finished - the torso, head, arms, and hands all fit nicely into the upper half of your drawing space.
  • 107. Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings 97 Figure 1004 Figure 1005 Art Quote Info Tidbit “The way to learn to do things is to do Long before people things. learned to write, they used bones or sticks dipped intoThe way to learn a trade is to work at it. paint to draw their stories Success teaches how to succeed. on the walls of caves.Begin with the determination to succeed, Their paint was often and the work is half done already.” made from plants or Henry Ford animal blood.
  • 108. 98 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started 2. Add the upper legs and knees Figure 1006 (Figure 1006). 3. Draw the lower parts of the legs and the feet (Figure 1007). Figure 1007 Challenge: Use your imagination to create other prehistoric drawings. For instance, you can draw animals, hunters with bows, or people dancing around a fire. Refer to Figure 1008 for ideas. Figure 1008: Five prehistoric cave drawings.
  • 109. Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings 99 ArtSpeakIris (1) is the colored circular part of an eyeballsurrounding the pupil (2) (defined on page 21).Highlight (3) is the brightest area where lightbounces off the surface of the eye.Upper eyelid (4) is amovable fold of skin thatopens and closes toprotect the eyeball.Eyeball (also called the Figure 1009: The parts of anwhite of the eye) is the eye include the: iris (1), pupil (2),entire spherical section of highlight (3), upper eyelid (4), and white of the eye (5).an eye that is protectedinside an opening in theskull (Figure 1010). Figure 1010: A drawing of an eyeball with an iris (1), pupil (2), and highlight (3). ► AC T I ON 1 0 B ◄ A Realistic Eye Goal: Lightly sketch the shapes of an iris, pupil, and highlight and add shading with squirkles. Supplies needed: Paper, HB, 2B, and 6B pencils, kneaded and vinyl erasers, sandpaper block, and a pencil sharpener. Figure 1011: Simple drawing of a pupil, an In this project, you focus on the highlight, iris, a highlight, and the edge of the upper pupil, and iris, as well as the edge of the eyelid. upper eyelid. 1. Use an HB pencil to lightly sketch a circular shape as the iris of an eye. Refer to Figure 1012. Remember to press very lightly.
  • 110. 100 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started 2. Sketch a small circular shape in the upper left section of the iris (Figure 1013). This is the highlight. Its location indicates that a light is shining on the eye from the upper left. 3. Use a curved line (almost a circle) to draw the pupil of the eye (Figure 1014). This curved line begins and ends at the highlight. Figure 1012 Figure 1013 Figure 1014 4. Add a slightly curved line cutting through the upper section of the iris (Figure 1015). This line represents the lower edge of the upper eyelid. The upper sections of irises are usually hidden under the upper eyelid (represented by a simple curved line). 5. Use your kneaded eraser to gently erase the section of the iris above the edge of the upper eyelid (Figure 1016). Figure 1015 Figure 1016
  • 111. Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings 101 ArtSpeakShadow refers to any dark area where direct lightfrom a light source is blocked (or partially blocked)by an object or living being.Shadows can be on the surface of an object orliving being (1), or on a surface that is adjacent toan object or living being (called a cast shadow) (2). Figure 1017: A light source from the upper left creates a shadow (1) on the lower right surface of an egg, as well as a cast shadow (2) on the surface on which the egg sits. 6. Add a few tiny squirkles to the iris with an HB pencil (Figure 1018). Press very gently on your pencil to keep the lines light. The more uneven you draw the squirkles, the better the shading of the eye will look. Figure 1018: The overall value of the iris is light, and lots Therefore, make sure of white paper is showing through. your squirkle lines curve in all different directions. Also, some lines need to have large curves and others should be smaller. 7. Use freshly sharpened HB and 2B pencils to shade in the dark values of the iris (Figure 1019). Press firmly with an HB pencil to add slightly darker shading around the edges of the iris (especially next to the edge of the eyelid). Press gently with a 2B pencil to make the shading closest to the edge of the upper eyelid even darker. The upper section of an iris is often in the shadow of the upper eyelid.
  • 112. 102 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started 8. Add the darkest shading of the iris (Figure 1020). Use your 2B pencil again, and this time press firmly (but not too hard) to make the outer edges of the iris and the shadow under the upper eyelid darker. Figure 1019: The shading is darker in the upper section of At this point, you the iris and around its edges. Some of the light shading is still showing around the lower section of the pupil. should see very few white spaces still showing in these sections. 9. Use a 6B pencil and squirkles to fill in the pupil (Figure 1020). Make sure your pencil is freshly sharpened. Naturally, the highlight is left white. 10. Use your vinyl eraser to clean up Figure 1020: The darkest shading in the iris is directly below the edge of the upper eyelid. The darkest shading any smudges or of all is in the pupil. fingerprints on your drawing paper. Now, sit comfortably in your chair and relax your eyes as follows: 1. Rub your hands together quickly until the palms of your hands feel warm. 2. Close your eyes lightly. 3. Cover each of your eyes gently with the palm of a hand (the section close to your wrist). 4. Place your fingers lightly on your forehead. 5. Relax your body and stay in this position for two minutes.
  • 113. Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings 103 ArtSpeakSymmetry in drawing is a balancedarrangement of lines, shapes, and (or)values on opposite sides of a center line Figure(which is often imaginary). 1021: The wings in thisMany drawing subjects, such as vases drawing areand frontal views of faces, look more symmetrical;believable when drawn the same on both each is a mirror imagesides. In other words, both sides need to of the other.be symmetrical.Line of symmetry is aline (real or imaginary)down the center of adrawing (or section of adrawing), dividing it inhalf.On each side of a line Figure 1022: A line of symmetry Figure 1023: The center of a drawing ofof symmetry is a mirror (shown in blue) identifies the center wings that do not touch is marked with aimage of the other side. point of wings that touch. line of symmetry. ► AC T I ON 1 0 C ◄ Mugly Wigglebottom Goal: Use a line of symmetry to outline a cartoon and then add shading with squirkles. Supplies needed: Paper, 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B pencils, kneaded and vinyl erasers, sandpaper block, and a pencil sharpener. In this project, simple illustrated instructions guide you through the process of drawing Figure 1024: Mugley’s nose, face, an adorable puppy. and ears are symmetrical.
  • 114. 104 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started TIP! Protect your drawing as you work! Always place a piece of clean paper under your hand as you draw. Each time you work on a new section, remember to move your paper so it’s always under your hand. This prevents you from smudging your drawing. Outlining Mugly with neat lines In this section, your goal is to use a line of symmetry to draw Mugly’s head, ears, and facial features proportionately correct. Keep your pencils sharpened so your lines stay crisp and thin. 1. Use your ruler and an HB pencil to outline a square drawing space. Mine is 4 by 4 inches, but feel free to make your drawing space larger. 2. Draw a very faint line of Figure 1025 symmetry down the center of your page. Refer to Figure 1025. Measure carefully! My line of symmetry is two inches from each side of my drawing space. A line of symmetry helps you draw both sides of Mugly symmetrical.
  • 115. Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings 1053. Use an HB Figure 1026 pencil to sketch a wide oval as the lower section of Mugly’s head (also called a muzzle) (Figure 1026). His nose and mouth need to fit inside this oval. Leave lots of space above and on the sides for the top of his head and ears. Both sides of his muzzle are approximately the same size and shape. You can use a ruler to measure Figure 1027 distances if you want.4. Draw a smaller oval (his nose) inside the large one (Figure 1027).5. Add a tiny circle below his nose as his mouth. His mouth is slightly to the right of the line of symmetry (just to give him a little extra personality).
  • 116. 106 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started 6. Add two curved Figure 1028 lines as the sides of the upper part of his head (Figure 1028). Take note that these lines are also symmetrical. Pay close attention to where each line begins and ends. 7. Draw another curved line as the top of his head (Figure 1029). His very long ears will extend above this line Figure 1029 and below the lower edge of his chin. Examine the reflection of your drawing in a mirror to help locate problem areas. Seeing his head in reverse gives you a brand new perspective on its symmetry. Erase and redraw any sections with which you are not happy.
  • 117. Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings 1078. Draw his long Figure 1030 floppy ears (Figures 1030 and 1031). Continue referring to your line of symmetry to keep his ears symmetrical. Figure 1031 9. Draw his eyes (Figures 1032 and 1033). His eyes are upside-down U-shapes with circles inside. Figure 1032 You may prefer to turn your drawing paper upside-down to draw his eyes. Compare your drawing to Figure 1033 and make any changes you feel are needed.
  • 118. 108 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Figure 1033 Use your vinyl or kneaded eraser to carefully erase your line of symmetry. Redraw any sections that were accidently erased. Squirkling shading for Mugly In this section, your goal is to add shading and texture to Mugly with squirkles. 10. Draw a value scale to use as a shading guide (Figure 1034). Refer to Action 9B on page 72. You may have room in an upper or lower corner of the same sheet you are using for drawing Mugly. If not, draw the value scale on a separate sheet of paper. Number each value from 1 to 5 and mark the grades of the pencils used. Figure 1034
  • 119. Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings 10911. Use a 1-2H Figure 1035 value (Figure 1034) to add the shading you see in Figures 1035 to 1038. Do not rush your shading. Draw the squirkles very carefully and slowly. Assume a direct light source is shining from the upper left. Therefore, Figure 1036 the overall shading on the left needs to be slightly lighter than on the right. Use your imagination to think of Mugly as three- dimensional to help you decide which areas are in shadow.
  • 120. 110 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started When your Figure 1037 shading skills become strong, your speed will increase all by itself. Before you add shading to the nose, take note of the locations of the squirkles. Very light squirkles are all around the edges of the nose except for a section in the upper right that is left white. Figure 1038 A few extra squirkles are added to the nose over a small section of the first layer to create a crescent shape in the lower left. As you soon discover, this shadow area on the nose becomes even darker when you switch to a darker pencil.
  • 121. Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings 11111. Use a 2-HB Figure 1039 value to add medium values (Figures 1039 to 1042). Begin with the ear on the left. Leave the inner sections of shading light. Only add medium values over those light values that are closest to the Figure 1040 edges of the various shapes. Don’t miss the dark shadows cast from his ears onto his upper head. In Figure 1040, the highlights of the eyes are outlined so you remember to leave them white.
  • 122. 112 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Medium Figure 1041 values are added along the edges of the lower section of his muzzle, and the tiny round opening that is his mouth (Figure 1041). The Figure 1042 crescent shape of the nose becomes darker when you add middle values (Figure 1042).
  • 123. Chapter 10: Three Simple Drawings 11311. Add shading to his eyes and the darkest shadow sections of his fur. Refer to Figures 1043 to 1046. Use 3-2B and 4-4B values to add shading to his eyes. Use value 3-2B for the dark shading on the outer edges of his left ear and upper head. If you want, you can shade Mugly’s eyes the same as in Project 10B: A Realistic Eye. Also, refer to the close-up Figure 1043 view in Figure 1044. Feel free to outline the pupil before you begin shading the eyes. Figure 1044
  • 124. 114 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Additional dark Figure 1045 values are added to tiny sections of his fur and nose in the darkest shadow sections. Don’t miss the shadow on his lower face cast by his nose (Figure 1046). 12. Use a 5-6B value to make the mouth and the pupils of his eyes a little darker. Collect all the drawings you Figure 1046 completed as you worked through this book. Sign your name and write the date completed on the back of each. Put all your drawings away in a safe place. Then, gather your drawing supplies and create more drawings of subjects you enjoy!
  • 125. Glossary 115 Glossary*****************************************************************This glossary provides definitions of most of the art-related words and terms usedthroughout this book. Knowing the meanings of these words allows you to betterunderstand the text. Hence, your drawing experiences become more enjoyable, and lessfrustrating!Acid-free (Page 37) refers to a high- Charcoal (Page 25) is a drawingquality and long-lasting paper that has medium made from burnt organic materialhad the acid removed from the pulp in the (such as wood). As with graphite, charcoalpapermaking process. Drawings can be comes in various grades.ruined when papers with acid deteriorateand turn yellow. Drawing books and Charcoal pencils (Page 25) havepapers often have labels that tell you the a thin cylindrical stick of compressedpaper is acid-free. charcoal inside a wooden casing.Archaeologist (Page 10) is a person Charcoal sticks (Page 25) are madewho studies ancient peoples by finding by compressing powdered charcoal intoand documenting the things they left round or rectangular sticks.behind. (As an aside, many archeologistshave excellent drawing skills.) Classical drawing (Page 3) refers to the drawing methods invented by ancientArtSpeak (Page 1) is a fun word Greeks and Romans for creating realisticused to describe the vocabulary of art. drawings (called realism). ClassicalArtSpeak sidebars help you understand drawing was later enhanced by the greatthe meanings of drawing words and terms artists of the Renaissance.that appear in the exercises and projectsin this book. Clay (Page 17) is a naturally occurring material that becomes hardened whenBlending (Page 78) is the process of dried. For example, clay is mixed withgently rubbing shading with a blending graphite to make graphite drawingtool (such as a facial tissue or paper mediums.towel) to evenly distribute the drawingmedium over sections of the surface of Clips (Page 49) (usually made of metal) can be used to attach sheets of paper to adrawing paper. drawing board.Cast shadow (Page 94) is a darksection on a surface adjacent to (beside) Composition (Page 45) refers to the arrangement of the various parts of youran object (or living being) that receives drawing subject within the borders of alittle or no direct light. drawing space.
  • 126. 116 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Curved line is created when a straight Eyeball (Page 99) (also called the white line curves or bends. Curved lines can be of the eye) is the entire spherical section drawn in any direction and be any length. of an eye that is safely protected within an opening in the skull. Drafting desk (Page 49) (or drafting table) is an adjustable worktable with a Figure (Page 1) is a diagram or picture slanted top. that illustrates text. For example, the first figure in this book (Figure 01) is a drawing Drawing (noun) (Page 1) is an image of a hand sketching a cartoon. created on a drawing surface with a drawing medium. Figure (Page 11) refers to the body of a human being. Drawing (verb) (Page 1) refers to the process of applying a medium to a Fresco (Page 12) is an artwork painted surface to create an image. on a thin layer of plaster that covers a wall or ceiling. For example, frescoes that Drawing board (Page 49) is a date back more than 3500 years have portable, lightweight, smooth surface been discovered in Greece. The ceiling used to support an artist’s sketchbook or of the Sistine Chapel (in Rome) is also a drawing paper. fresco that was painted by Michelangelo between 1508 and 1512. Drawing from life (Page 91) refers to the process of drawing from an actual Grade (Page 17) refers to the softness person, animal, or scene, rather than a or hardness of the mixture used in the photograph or computer image. manufacture of drawing mediums. Drawing powder (Page 31) refers to Graphite (Page 17) is a soft black form tiny loose particles of a drawing medium of opaque (non-transparent) carbon found that have been broken down from a solid in nature. It is often mixed with clay to into a powder. For example, drawing make various types of drawing tools for powder can be made by using coarse artists. sandpaper to wear away sections of graphite and charcoal sticks. Hardcover (Page 37) refers to a durable type of book cover that is made Drawing space (Page 45) (also called from a thick and unbendable material. a drawing surface or a drawing format) is The hard cover protects your papers and the area in which you render a drawing drawings from being wrinkled. within a specific perimeter. It can be the shape of a sheet of paper itself, or a Highlight (Page 99) is the brightest shape you outline on your paper, such as area where light bounces off the surface a square, rectangle, or circle. of the eye. Drawing stick (Page 26) is a drawing tool that is made by compressing and shaping a medium (such as graphite or charcoal) into a round or rectangular chunk.
  • 127. Glossary 117History (Page 10) is a written record Leadpoint (Page 18) (also called aof the past; mostly about the lives and stylus) is a thin metal stick made of leadactivities of human beings and their and used for drawing.environments. For example, historians(people who study and write about history) Line of symmetry (Page 103) is ahave documented that Leonardo da Vinci line (real or imaginary) down the centerwas born in Italy in the year 1452. of a drawing (or section of a drawing), dividing it in half. On each side of a line ofHot pressed (Page 37) refers to symmetry is a mirror image of the othera paper that is pressed through hot side.cylinders during its manufacture. Manysmooth watercolor papers are hot Manikin (Page 41) is a model of a figurepressed. or animal (often made of wood) that is used for learning how to draw. MostIcon (Page 2) is a visual image (such as manikins have bendable joints so theya drawing) used to identify a specific task can be manipulated into various poses.or information. For example, in this bookArtSpeak sidebars are identified with a Master (Page 13) refers to someonecircular, cartoon icon of Albert Einstein. who is an expert in a specific profession or area of study. For example, LeonardoIllustration (Page 2) is an image (such da Vinci was a master of painting andas a drawing or photograph) that is used drawing.to enhance the reader’s understanding oftext and (or) make text more interesting. Mechanical pencil (Page 26) isSome books (such as a picture book) a drawing tool that has an internalhave only illustrations and no text. mechanism that pushes a thin graphiteOthers have mostly illustrations and a lead, from the tiny tube inside the holder,small amount of text to describe each through the tip.illustration. Media (Page 43) (also called mediums)Iris (Page 99) is the colored circular part refers to more than one drawing medium.of an eyeball surrounding the pupil. Medium (Page 1) refers to a drawingKneaded eraser (Page 42) is an tool (anything from a pencil to the burntartist’s tool made of a grey or white pliable end of a stick) used to make marks on amaterial that can be shaped by hand for surface.accurate erasing. Kneaded erasers aredesigned to absorb and pick up particles Metalpoint (Page 18) is a thin stickof graphite and charcoal without leaving used for drawing and made from a type ofbehind eraser crumbs. They do not wear metal.away like other types of erasers, but canbecome too dirty to work properly. Mummy portrait (Page 12) is an ancient painting of a man, woman, or childLandscape format (Page 91) that was attached to the face of a burial(sometimes called a vertical format) is a mummy. Many date back to the Romanrectangular drawing space that is rotated occupation of Egypt.so the two longer sides are at the top andbottom.
  • 128. 118 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Mural (Page 12) is a drawing or Renaissance (Page 3) (from the painting on a wall, ceiling, or other large French word for rebirth) refers to the surface. For example, murals have been changes within European culture from the discovered on the walls of prehistoric early twelfth century to the late sixteenth caves and inside ancient Egyptian tombs. century. Pencil (Page 1) refers to a broad Render (Page 3) describes the process category of drawing tools that have a of making something happen. For medium inside a holder. For example, example, the process of drawing a turtle a regular pencil (also called a wood- can also be referred to as rendering a encased pencil) has a medium encased drawing of a turtle. inside a wooden cylinder. On the other hand, a mechanical pencil holds Right angle (Page 64) is created when replaceable thin cylindrical sticks of a horizontal straight line meets a vertical medium that are manually loaded into a straight line at a ninety-degree angle. tiny tube inside a holder. Sandpaper block (Page 26) is an Portfolio (Page 10) is a case in which artist’s tool with tear-off sheets of fine artists store (or carry) drawings and sandpaper used to sharpen the points of papers to protect them from damage. pencils. Portrait format (Page 91) (sometimes Score (Page 59) is the process of cutting called a horizontal format) is a rectangular very slightly into a thin object (such as drawing space that is rotated so the two cardboard or heavy paper) so as to fold it shorter sides are at the top and bottom. evenly. Prehistoric (Page 10) describes the Sculptor (Page 12) is an artist who period in time before written language was creates sculptures. For example, a very used to record history. Many prehistoric well-known sculptor of the Renaissance humans drew pictures on the walls of was Michelangelo, and one of his most caves instead. famous sculptures is the statue of David. Pupil of an eye (Page 21) is the tiny, Sculpture (Page 12) is a three- dark circular-shaped part of an eye that dimensional artwork that is made of a adjusts its size under different lighting material such as bronze, rock, or marble. conditions. Self-portrait (Page 71) is a drawing or Realism (Page 3) is a way of drawing painting an artist creates using his or her in which living beings and objects are own face and (or) body as a model. A self drawn as they appear in real life. The portrait is usually rendered by memory or artist tries to draw what he or she sees as by drawing his or her reflection in a mirror. realistically as possible. Shading (noun) (Page 2) refers to the Regular pencil (Page 1) (also called various values within a drawing that make a wood-encased pencil) has a drawing images appear three-dimensional. medium encased inside a cylindrical wooden casing. Shading (verb) (Page 2) is the process of adding values to a drawing.
  • 129. Glossary 119Shadow (Page 101) refers to any dark Straight line (Page 65) provides thearea where direct light from a light source shortest connection between any twois blocked (or partially blocked) by an points. Straight lines can be drawn in anyobject or living being. Shadows can be on direction.the surface of an object or living being, oron a surface that is adjacent to an object Style (Page 11) refers to an artist’sor living being (called a cast shadow). approach to his or her own art. An artist’s style may be based on his or her personalShape (Page 3) refers to the outward preferences and art education. Foroutline of a three-dimensional object. example, realism is a well-known style.Sidebar (Page 1) is a box of text (some Stylus (Page 18) (sometimes calledhave illustrations) that provides additional leadpoint or metalpoint) refers to a thininformation about a topic. In this book, metal stick used for drawing. Stylusesa sidebar called ArtSpeak provides you made of lead have been traced back towith definitions of art words and terms. ancient Rome. During the Renaissance, styluses were also made from silver, gold,Sketch (noun) (Page 2) is a simple or copper.drawing of the important parts of asubject. A sketch is usually done quickly Subject (Page 11) refers to whateverwith simple lines and (or) shading. an artist chooses to draw. For example, popular drawing subjects include people,Sketch (verb) (Page 2) refers to the animals, objects, flowers, and scenery.process of doing a sketch. Symmetry (Page 103) is a balancedSoftcover (Page 37) describes a arrangement of lines, shapes, and (or)flexible book cover that is usually made values on opposite sides of a centerof paper. Softcover sketchbooks are line (the center line is often imaginary).inexpensive, however, you need to Each side provides a mirror image ofhandle them carefully so the paper the other. In other words, both sides aredoesn’t wrinkle. symmetrical. Many drawing subjects, such as vases and frontal views of faces, lookSpray fixative (Page 41) is a more believable when drawn the same ontransparent coating sprayed onto an both sides.artwork to help the medium adhere to thepaper, so the drawing doesn’t smudge. Talent (Page 10) refers to the process of self-discovery during which you realizeSquirkling (Page 72) is a simple that you have the interest and motivationshading technique in which randomly needed to become exceptional in adrawn curved lines (called “squirkles”) specific area. To find out what a talentedcreate values. Squirkling is ideal for person looks like, go look in a mirror! Withsimple drawings by beginners as well commitment, patience, and dedication,as highly realistic works by professional you can turn your talent into a skill.artists.
  • 130. 120 Drawing Book 1: Getting Started Technique (Page 11) is a well known Viewfinder frame (Page 45) is an method (such as a specific way to do adjustable, see-through rectangular or shading) that is used to accomplish a square frame that allows you to look at a particular activity or task. For example, drawing subject from various viewpoints. more than one shading technique may be It’s an invaluable tool for planning suitable for a specific drawing. Hence, an a composition, and can be used for artist’s selection of a shading technique portraits, figures, landscapes, or any other is generally based on his or her skill drawing subject. level, and what works best to capture the subject. Vinyl eraser (Page 41) is soft, non- abrasive artist’s tool that erases graphite Text (Page 2) refers to the words used in and charcoal more cleanly than a regular writing. pink eraser (which has been known to make holes in paper and ruin drawings). Texture (Page 34) refers to the surface detail of an object. The type of texture can Vision (Page 1) is the ability to see. be identified with vision, a sense of touch, and a general knowledge of the object. Visual art (Page 12) refers to artworks (such as drawings, paintings, and Tooth (Page 33) refers to the surface sculptures) that can be appreciated by texture of paper. Paper with a smooth the sense of sight. For example, all the tooth is flat and silky; medium tooth has a drawings in this book are considered slightly uneven texture; and rough tooth is visual art. bumpy with lots of craters and peaks. Wood-encased pencil (Page 26) Underdrawing (Page 16) is a loosely (better known as a regular pencil) has rendered sketch that is created as a guide a thin cylindrical stick of graphite or for a final drawing (or painting). charcoal inside a wooden casing. Upper eyelid (Page 99) is a movable Woodless pencil (Page 26) is a thick fold of skin that opens and closes to cylindrical stick of graphite wrapped in a protect the eyeball. vinyl casing. Value scale (Page 72) is a range of different values that are drawn in order from light to dark or from dark to light. Values (Page 2) are the different shades of gray made when adding shading to a drawing.
  • 131. In this book:► Simple history of drawing► Process of learning to draw► Fun history of graphite► Grades of graphite► Differences between B and H grades► How grades affect the look of drawings► Graphite and charcoal drawing mediums► Wood-encased, mechanical, and woodless pencils► Drawing powders and sticks► Textures, sizes, and weights of drawing papers► How to select and protect the tooth of paper► Vinyl and kneaded erasers► Pencil sharpeners and sandpaper► Pencil case, portfolio, viewfinder frame, and ruler► Manikins, display boards, and spray fixative► Ideal surfaces on which to draw► Proper lighting for drawing► Good posture for sitting to draw► What to pack in a portable studio► Supplies to add to your shopping list► Make an artist’s portfolio► Construct a simple viewfinder frame► Three ways to hold your medium as you draw► Discover your natural hand movement► Action 9A: Sketching a Self-Portrait► Action 9B: Creating Values with Squirkles► Action 9C: Playing with Pencils► Action 9D: Playing with Erasers► Action 9E: Drawing Shapes by Rotating Your Paper► Action 9F: Framing with a Viewfinder► Action 10A: Drawing a Caveperson► Action 10B: A Realistic Eye► Action 10C: Mugly Wigglebottom
  • 132. $20.00 (U.S.)Drawing Book 1: GettingStarted is the first in a seriesof instructional books forhomeschooling families and self-directed learners.“My current positions have merged mycredentials and focus into three main areas:teacher development (teaching professionalshow to teach), reflective practice, and inclusiveeducation. And now, after years of study, Ihave the pleasure of putting my academic“stamp of approval” in the front pages of thisvery unique and thorough approach to arteducation.”Robert A. RoughleyB.A., B.Ed., BAEd., M.Ed., MC., Doctoral Student, University ofCalgaryInstructor, Teaching and Learning Centre, University of CalgaryMy philosophy on teaching art is to focusprimarily on the enjoyment aspects whilegently introducing the technical and academic.Hence, in creating a passion for the subjectmatter, the quest for knowledge also becomesenjoyable.Brenda HoddinottArt educator, visual artist, forensic artist (retired), illustrator,author of Drawing for Dummies, The Complete Idiot’s Guideto Drawing People, and Drawing Book 1: Getting Started, andowner of Drawspace.com. Published by http://www.drawspace.com