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Avansati z desene pentru specialisti

  1. 1. (LEONARDO DA VINCI) Brenda Hoddinott Z-01 ADVANCED: DRAWING ON THE MASTERS This lesson presents a brief background on Leonardo da Vinci, and then challenges artists to recreate his style of contour and hatching lines within a simple fifteen-step exercise. The artist ought first to exercise his hand by copying drawings from the hand of a good master. (Leonardo da Vinci)The masters of the Renaissance are no longer living, but many of their works survive and canserve as extraordinary teachers of classical styles and techniques. The term Renaissance, derivedfrom the French word rebirth, refers to the diverse changes that occurred within European culturefrom the early 14th to the late 16th centuries.This lesson is divided into the following three sections:  LEONARDO DA VINCI (1452-1519): This section provides a brief background on one of the best known artists of all time, and examines one his drawing styles.  FOLLOWING CONTOURS: Learning to draw is all about learning to see as an artist. In this section, the goal is to duplicate Leonardo’s style of contour drawing with graphite pencil.  HATCHING IN THE STYLE OF LEONARDO: The goal in this section is to add hatching lines to the contour drawing.Suggested drawing supplies include good quality white drawing paper, 2H and 2B graphitepencils, kneaded and vinyl erasers, and a pencil sharpener. 7 PAGES – 20 ILLUSTRATIONS This lesson is recommended for artists, with beginner-level shading skills, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada, 2006
  2. 2. -2- LEONARDO DA VINCI (1452-1519) The artist ought first to exercise his hand by copying drawings from the hand of a good master. (Leonardo da Vinci) Leonardo, one of the best known artists of all time, was born on April 15, 1452, in the small Tuscan town of Vinci; hence his name became Leonardo da Vinci. Many of my favorite drawings by Leonardo are of the human face, and demonstrate his obsession with contrasting the beauty of youth, with the splendor of old age. His drawing media included pen and ink, brush and ink, red and black chalk, and metal-point. Metal-point, considered the ancestor of the modern day pencil, is a small, sharpened metal rod used for drawing on paper or parchment. Silver was very popular because it eventually tarnished, and took on a beautiful luminous brown tonality. You can learn from the drawings of others who do better than yourself; and if you are better than they, you can profit by your contempt for their defects, while the praise of others will incite you to farther merits. (Leonardo da Vinci) Many of Leonardo’s drawings combine contour lines with hatching. Contour lines are formed when the shared edges of spaces and/or objects meet. Hatching is a series of lines (called a set), drawn either close together or far apart, to give the illusion of values. Values are the different shades (or tones) created in a drawing by various means. First draw from drawings by good masters done from works of art and from nature, and not from memory. Any master who should venture to boast that he could remember all the forms and effects of nature would certainly appear to me to be graced with extreme ignorance, inasmuch as these effects are infinite and our memory is not extensive enough to retain them. (Leonardo da Vinci) FOLLOWING CONTOURS Consider with the greatest care the form of the outlines of every object, and the character of their undulations. And these undulations must be separately studied, as to whether the curves are composed of arched convexities or angular concavities. (Leonardo da Vinci)Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  3. 3. -3- This contour drawing of horses is rendered primarily with contour lines. A contour drawing is comprised of lines that follow the contours of the edges of various components of a drawing subject. The individual lines in many of Leonardo’s drawings, especially those done with a pen or brush, are wide in some places and thin in others. The eye, which is called the window of the soul, is the principal means by which the central sense can most completely and abundantly appreciate the infinite works of nature. (Leonardo da Vinci) Examine a tiny section of one of Leonardo’s drawings (on the left) of an old man’s face in profile. Find the contour lines that outline his nose and forehead. Learning to draw is all about learning to see as an artist. In the following exercise, the goal is to duplicate Leonardo’s basic style with graphite pencil (instead of ink). Use the drawing on the left as the major reference, and view mine as merely a copy. The following eleven steps are well illustrated, so you won’t find any text instructions. Leonardo often did a preliminary sketch with chalk or metal point before he drew the outlines; hence, I very lightly sketched the basic proportions with a 2H pencil before rendering the more detailed outline with a 2B pencil. ILLUSTRATION 01-01 ILLUSTRATION 01-02 ILLUSTRATION 01-03 TIP Keep your sketch lines very light! My lines are so faint that they are barely visible; however, I used Adobe Photoshop to darken the images so you can see them.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  4. 4. -4- ILLUSTRATION 01-04 ILLUSTRATION 01-05 ILLUSTRATION 01-06 Let proportion be found not only in numbers and measures, but also in sounds, weights, times, and positions, and what ever force there is. (Leonardo da Vinci) ILLUSTRATION 01-07 ILLUSTRATION 01-08 ILLUSTRATION 01-09 Learn diligence before speedy execution. (Leonardo da Vinci)Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  5. 5. -5- ILLUSTRATION 01-10 ILLUSTRATION 01-11 Before you continue to the next section, compare your sketch to Leonardo’s and make any adjustments you feel are needed. I have been impressed with the urgency of doing. Knowing is not enough; we must apply. Being willing is not enough; we must do. (Leonardo da Vinci) HATCHING IN THE STYLE OF LEONARDO As I examined some of Leonardo’s drawings, I found myself fascinated by his meticulous rendering of straight hatching lines that are all drawn at the same angle, usually around 45 degrees (as in this detail of a man’s profile). Based on his overall style of drawing and a few little technical idiosyncrasies, Leonardo is believed to have been left-handed. Also, Leonardo’s diagonal hatching lines are drawn from the upper left to lower right, and from the lower right to the upper left. The natural hand movement of most right-handed individuals is from the lower left to the upper right (or from the upper right to the lower left). The goal in this section is to add hatching lines to the contour drawing you completed from the last section. The following four illustrations will guide you through the process of adding hatching lines. If you are left-handed, simply keep the drawing right-side-up as you work. If you are right- handed (like me), you can duplicate the authentic drawing style of Leonardo, by simply turning the drawing sideways as you work.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  6. 6. -6- ILLUSTRATION 01-12 ILLUSTRATION 01-13 ILLUSTRATION 01-14 ILLUSTRATION 01-15Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  7. 7. -7- BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  8. 8. Examining Styles and Techniques Brenda Hoddinott Z-02 ADVANCED: DRAWING ON THE MASTERSThis heavily illustrated article serves to define and compare technique and style, anddiscusses their relevance to drawings rendered between 1480 and 1600, and tostudents of today who study classical drawings. To enhance comprehension, a briefbackground of medieval drawing materials, tools, and techniques is provided.The reverence that contemporary society places on the high renaissance is based onthe innovative styles and techniques that were conceived and explored by artists whowere true to themselves and not highly influenced or governed by others. Students ofdrawing during the high renaissance incorporated the techniques of their masters withtheir own personal styles.This article is divided into the following sections: MEDIEVAL DRAWING MATERIALS AND TOOLS: I discuss the medieval materials that would have most likely been used in the rendering of drawings during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. ANALYSIS OF TECHNIQUE AND STYLE: An illustrated discussion compares the styles and techniques of drawings by the masters with my own. This article is recommended for all artists, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators of advanced students. 11 PAGES – 18 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada - 2006
  9. 9. 2 Introduction This article provides a greater understanding of the drawing techniques of the masters of the renaissance, and invites readers to compare masters’ drawings to mine to examine commonalities specific to hatching and crosshatching techniques. The term renaissance, derived from the French word rebirth, refers to the diverse changes that occurred within European culture from the early 1300’s to the late 1500’s. Between 1480 and 1527, during the period known as the high renaissance, many of history’s most renowned artists created the greatest masterpieces in the history of art. During this short period in history, visual art developed more than at any other time since the beginning of mankind. Today, this rebirth, also referred to as new birth, continues its growth with a resurgence of the learning and teaching of classical drawing techniques in home schooling, recreational, and academic learning environments. The masters of the renaissance are no longer living, but many of their works survive and serve as extraordinary teachers of classical styles and techniques. Yet, as we study the drawings of the masters, we must be careful to constantly differentiate the terms style and technique. In simple terms, style refers to an artist’s individual approach to his/her own art. An artist’s style epitomizes and is an accumulation of her/his inherent preferences, life experiences, artistic philosophy, personal goals, and academic background. When an artist’s personal style is critiqued and/or examined by others, the resulting label may focus more so on a particular historical period or artistic movement than the artist’s true style. In other words, labels should not become more important to an artist than staying true to the style with which he/she feels most comfortable. Technique, on the other hand, refers to a well-defined procedure, such as hatching or crosshatching, which is used to accomplish a specific activity or task. Quite often, more than one technique is suitable for accomplishing a specific drawing; hence, the artist’s selection of a specific technique is generally based on individual preferences and personal style. The reverence that contemporary society places on the high renaissance is based on the innovative styles and techniques that were conceived and explored by artists who were true to themselves and not highly influenced or governed by others. Students of drawing during the high renaissance incorporated the techniques of the masters with their own personal styles. I begin this article by discussing a few medieval drawing materials and tools used during the Renaissance. Following an inquiry into compositional challenges, a heavily illustrated discussion compares the styles of medieval and contemporary drawings rendered with contour lines, hatching and crosshatching, and chiaroscuro. You’ll need no drawing materials for this lesson; simply sit back in your favorite chair, and enjoy a short trip back in time!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  10. 10. 3 Medieval Drawing Materials and Tools The more I research the primitive drawing materials and tools of medieval artists, the more I sit in total awe and admiration of their drawings. In this section, I discuss the medieval materials that would have most likely been used in the rendering of drawings during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. Media A few of the media used for drawing and sketching during the latter years of the renaissance included graphite, brown and black inks, and white chalk. Graphite: is a carbon based medium that first appeared in England around 1560. During the renaissance, graphite was used as a lump or sharpened point set into a metal holder for drawing. Graphite is generally grayer and smoother than black chalk or charcoal, and produces a warm-toned gray line that looks very similar to lead point; hence, the two media were often confused. Even to this day, the term lead pencil is incorrectly used to describe our common day graphite pencils that are actually made of made of graphite and clay, not lead. Brown inks: that were associated with the masters’ drawings, were made by boiling or soaking wood soot in water to extract the soluble tars. This liquid was then filtered, resulting in a transparent and luminous ink, the exact tone of which depended on the kind of wood used. During the early fifteenth century, the term sepia actually referred to the brown tone of the masters’ drawings, rather than a genuine sepia ink, which was later made from the secretions of cuttlefish. Black inks: used during the sixteenth century, were made from fine particles of soot, charcoal, charred wood, or burnt lamp oil that were added to water and then mixed with a binding agent, such as gum arabic. Gum arabic is the natural secretion of the acacia tree, and was used to improve the bonding properties of inks and paints, and help hold pigment particles in suspension. White chalk: refers to a medieval drawing media generally made from either calcite (or calcium carbonate) or soapstone. Calcite was soft and produced a fairly brilliant white, and soapstone was slightly harder and created a bluish white. White chalk was applied to drawings to lighten sections and/or accentuate highlights (a technique called heightening) so as to emphasize form, mass, and volume. Papers During the fifteenth century, paper became a popular drawing surface; diverse papers were handmade by breaking down or chopping up source materials such as plants, vegetable matter, rags, or sailcloth, into individual cellulose fibers. These fibers were mixed with water to form a soupy pulp, and were then scooped up with a wire screen set into a wooden mold. The pulp was leveled flat with a shake, and once the water had drained through the screen, an even deposit of matted fibers remained on the screens surface.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  11. 11. 4 This matted deposit was then turned out onto a heavy woolen cloth or felt. Another felt was placed on top of the thin sheet of pulp, and stacks of pulp sheets and felts were then pressed to extract as much of the moisture left in the pulp as possible. The sheets were then hung to dry. At this stage, the paper was still like blotting paper. To harden the surface of the sheet and prevent ink bleeding into the sheet, the paper was sized, or coated with a hard gelatin layer. Prepared paper is a sheet of paper that has been prepared either with multiple coatings of white lead and ground bone, usually tinted with a pigment, and tempered with glue size. Pens Many of the old masters’ pen and ink drawings were rendered with a quill pen, an instrument made from the scraped and cut feathers of birds. Quills are very flexible and versatile when used as either writing or drawing tools, and produce free and energetic lines often characterized by sweeping, almost dancing flourishes and great variations in width. Quills from the pinion feathers of the goose, swan, raven and crow were highly esteemed, producing responsive lines that glided across the textured surface of handmade prepared papers. The goose quill was the most commonly used, and those of the raven or crow were considered to produce the finest and most delicate strokes. Styluses A stylus (sometimes called metal-point) was a drawing tool made from a relatively soft metal, such as silver, gold, or copper; it was commonly used on a sheet of prepared paper, for either creating beautifully intricate drawings, or for rendering preliminary under-drawings and sketches in preparation for a more refined and detailed drawing. So as to provide artists with the creative freedom to vary the width of their lines as they worked, it was most often cast with a fine point at one end and a blunter point at the opposite end. A stylus works by leaving a thin deposit of the metal on the surface of the paper, producing a very fine gray line. Silver-point was very popular with renaissance artists because it eventually tarnished, and took on a beautiful luminous brown tonality. Lead-point, made from lead or a lead alloy, is considered the ancestor of the modern day pencil. Lead-point was the only metal that could leave a mark on unprepared paper; it rendered a very faint line that could easily be erased. On the down side, its points became blunt very quickly. Analysis of Technique and Style Throughout this section, I compare the styles and techniques of drawings by the masters with my own; the techniques are the same, but the styles are very different. I define and provide examples of contour drawings, the shading styles of hatching and crosshatching, as well as chiaroscuro. Other than variations in personal style, other noteworthy differences between the masters’ drawings and mine are that the masters’ drawings are far superior to mine, and their subjects are specific to medieval times.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  12. 12. 5 Overall, the masters’ personal drawing styles were loosely rendered, and demonstrated the confidence and precision of many years of experience working from life. In contrast, my drawing style is illustrative and the shading is more tightly rendered; many of my drawings have been created from photographic references. The roles of drawings in medieval art were as varied as the artists who rendered them. Many drawings, such as studies and sketches, were simply a stage in either the pursuit of knowledge or the creation of another artwork in a different medium. For the most part, drawings that were rendered as studies, revealed very little forethought for composition. As an aside, I suspect that paper was quite precious during these times; hence, artists attempted to fill the entire surface with as many drawings (and notes) as possible so paper wasn’t wasted. Figure 01: Studies of embryos, Leonardo da Vinci, 1509-14, Black and red chalk, pen and ink wash Contour drawings The style of the contour lines rendered by the masters, especially those done with a pen or brush, are wide in some places and thin in others; in comparison, the lines in my drawings are done in graphite and are more uniform in width. Yet, the contour drawing techniques are similar in both. Figure 02: Two contour drawings of a young boy playing, Brenda Hoddinott, 2004, graphite C o n s i d e r w i t h t h e gr ea t e s t c ar e t h e f o r m o f t he o u tl i ne s o f e v e r y o b j e c t , a n d t he ch a r a c t e r o f t h e i r u n d u la t i o ns . A n d t h e s e u nd u l a t io n s m ust b e s e p a r a t el y s t ud i e d , a s t o w h e t h e r t h e c ur v e s a re c o m p o s e d o f a rc h e d c on v e x i t i es o r a n g u la r c o nc a v i ti e s. (Leonard o da Vinci)Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  13. 13. 6 Figure 03: Contour drawings of horses, Leonardo da Vinci, 1482, Metal point, pen and brown ink, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge I h a v e b e e n i mp r e s se d w i t h t h e u r g en c y o f d o i ng . K n o w i n g i s n o t e n o u gh ; w e m u s t a p pl y . B ei n g w ill i n g i s n o t en o u g h ; w e m ust d o . (Leonardo da Vinci) Shading with hatching Many of the masters’ drawings combine contour lines with hatching. Figure 04: Example of a combination of contour lines and hatching, Study of a horse, Brenda Hoddinott, 2006, graphite Even though my personal style has taken on its own characteristics over the past 20 years, my drawings still revel that I have unknowingly been a student of the masters for most of my life. For example, Leonardo da Vinci often did a preliminary sketch with metal-point before adding details, such as contour lines and hatching. My graphite sketch of a horse’s head (Figure 04) demonstrates my technique of lightly rendering proportions before adding details. To get a better sense of the hatching style of Leonardo, I used graphite to copy a section of one of his drawings (Figures 05 and 06). Figures 05 and 06: Comparison of the drawing styles and hatching techniques of Detail of Grotesque Profile, Leonardo da Vinci, 1487-90, pen and ink; and Study of diagonal hatching lines, Brenda Hoddinott, 2006, graphiteCopyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  14. 14. 7 This little exercise has proven extremely valuable in that I picked up on a small detail I have not yet come across in my research on Leonardo da Vinci. Based on his overall style of drawing and a few little technical idiosyncrasies, such as his meticulous rendering of diagonal hatching lines at an angle of around 45 degrees, I believe that he was left-handed. The natural hand movement of most right-handed individuals is from the lower left to the upper right, or from the upper right to the lower left. I’m right-handed; compare my hatching lines (Figures 04) with those of Leonardo (Figure 05). Leonardo’s diagonal hatching lines are drawn from the upper left to lower right, and from the lower right to the upper left. I discovered that by turning my drawing paper sideways as I worked, I could imitate his drawing style fairly well. Every artist is unique, and as such, brings subtle nuances in style into his/her drawings, even when using the exact same techniques as other artists. The following drawings compare the contour hatching styles of Albrecht Dürer and me. Figures 07 and 08: Comparison of the contour hatching styles used for the feathers of The Stork, Albrecht Dürer, 1515, pen and ink; and The Owl, Brenda Hoddinott, 2005, graphite. Yet, no matter how well students of art imitate the masters’ rendering of techniques; their individuality will inadvertently be expressed within their drawings. Otherwise art itself would become boring as artists become mere clones of their teachers. Even if I was actually privy to the in-person teachings of the masters, my personal style would still no doubt be recognizable to a discerning eye; in other words, I remain aware of the importance of allowing my intrinsic style to come through while expanding my skills with techniques and media. I do this by taking what I like from the skill sets of my teachers and discarding those I don’t like.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  15. 15. 8 L e t p r o po r t i o n b e fo un d n o t on l y i n n u m b ers a n d m ea s u r e s , b u t a ls o i n s o u n d s , w e i g h ts , t i mes , a n d p o s i t i on s , a nd w h a t e v er f o r ce t h er e i s . (Leonardo da Vinci) Figures 09 and 10: Comparison of the hatching styles of Grotesque Profile, Leonardo da Vinci, 1487-90, pen and ink; and Profile of Infant, Brenda Hoddinott, 2004, graphite S hading with crosshatching Many drawings by renaissance artists combine contour lines with hatching and crosshatching. The following drawings compare the crosshatching techniques of Albrecht Dürer with mine. Figures 11 and 12: Comparison of the crosshatching styles of Head of the Twelve Year Old Christ, Albrecht Dürer, 1506, brush and ink; and Detail of Female Eye, Brenda Hoddinott, 2005, graphiteCopyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  16. 16. 9 Y o u c a n l e a r n f r o m t he d r a w i ng s o f o t h e rs w h o d o be t t e r t h a n y ou r s e l f ; a n d i f yo u a r e b e t te r th a n t h e y, y o u c a n p rof i t b y yo u r co n t e m p t f o r t h e i r d e f e c t s , w h i l e t h e p r a is e o f o t h e r s wi l l in c i t e y o u t o f a r t h e r m er i t s . (Leonardo da Vinci) Crosshatching is an ideal technique for shading smooth and shiny textures, as demonstrated in these highly realistic drawings of objects made of metal. Figures 13 and 14: Comparison of the crosshatching styles used for shading metal in Side, Front, and Back View of a Helmet, Albrecht Dürer, 1503, pen and ink; and Replica of Medieval Dagger, Brenda Hoddinott, 2006, graphite Chiaroscuro In simple terms and specific to drawing, chiaroscuro refers to the technique of balancing contrasts of light and dark values, so as to create the illusion of a three dimensional reality on a flat surface. Chiaroscuro was first introduced during the Renaissance and the word itself is derived from the Italian words for light (chiaro) and dark (oscuro). Chiaroscuro often employed a process of applying a light value over a dark, such as using white chalk or gouache over colored paper. During the renaissance, drawing papers were often colored, either because the raw materials used in their manufacture was colored, or because of the addition of pigments during the preparation of the finish. Hence, white highlights often needed to be applied with an independent medium, such as white chalk or gouache, to bring out the highlights. As demonstrated in the following medieval and contemporary drawings Chiaroscuro was and still is highly effective for creating an illusion of depth and space.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  17. 17. 10 Figure 15: Grape, Brenda Hoddinott, 2006, graphite Figure 16: Study of the Christ Child, Albrecht Dürer, 1495, pen and ink Figure 17: Study of Trees in Winter, Brenda Hoddinott, 2003, charcoal Figure 18: Green Passion: Christ before Caiaphas, Albrecht Dürer, 1504, Pen on green primed paper. My research has taught me well. First of all, I’m feeling relieved that many of the drawing techniques utilized by the masters’ are already in my repertoire of skills; hence; I need only expand my current skills, and learn how to make and use period tools and materials in order to bring my work closer to authentic medieval renderings. In addition, I have learned that with each new skill, technique or snippet of information I learn, there is an infinite amount of knowledge still to be learned. T h e e y e , w h i c h i s ca l l ed t h e w in d o w of t h e s o u l , i s t h e p ri n c i p a l me a n s b y w h i c h t he c e n tr a l se n se c a n m os t c o mp l e t el y a n d a b u nd a n t l y a p p r ec i a t e t h e i n f i n i t e w o r k s o f na t ur e . ( L e o n a r d o d a V i n c i )Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  18. 18. 11 BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. M y p h i l os o p h y o n t ea ch i n g a r t i s t o f o c us p ri m a r i l y o n t h e e n j oy me n t a s p e c t s w h i l e g e n t ly in t r o d u c in g t h e t e c h n i ca l a n d ac a d e m ic . H e nce , i n c r e a t i n g a p a ss i o n f o r t h e s u b je c t m at t e r , t h e q u e s t f o r k no w l e d g e a l s o b e c o m e s e n j o y ab l e . ( B r e n d a H o d d i n o t t ) Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  19. 19. Examining In Masters’ Paintings Brenda HoddinottZ03 ADVANCED: DRAWING ON THE MASTERSThe primary goal of this brief research paper is to investigate Renaissance portrait lighting, andapply any knowledge gained to reference photographs and a quick sketch of a contemporarycomposition of a model dressed in medieval garb.This article is divided into the following three parts: Researching Lighting and Composition: Lighting and composition are so closely linked that it’s almost impossible to talk about one without the other. Examples of Renaissance and early post-Renaissance portraits explore a few of the diverse roles of lighting and composition in the visual communication of ambiance, form, and spatial depth. Applying Renaissance Composition to Photos: Research has given me numerous ideas that are translated into reference photos of my model. Capturing Light in a Composition: I render a rough sketch with help from various reference photos to demonstrate my proposed composition. This lesson is recommended for anyone with an interest in Renaissance art, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators of advanced students. 7 PAGES – 17 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada - 2007
  20. 20. 2Researching Lighting and CompositionLighting and composition are so closely linked that it’s almost impossible to talk about onewithout the other. This section of the paper uses examples of Renaissance and early post-Renaissance portraits to explore a few of the diverse roles of lighting and composition in thevisual communication of ambiance, form, and spatial depth. A less tangible but significant aspectof composition for portraitists, employs the use of clothing, body language, and facial expressionto create an ambiance appropriate to the artist’s emotional vision for his or her work.Creating the illusion of a three-dimensional space on a two-dimensional surface was a majorinnovation of the masters of the Renaissance. Artists discovered how to transform shapes intoforms by identifying highlights and shadows, and translating them into light and dark values.Hence, lighting became an integral aspect of composition.Johannes (Jan) Vermeer used various techniques,including perspective, chiaroscuro and overlapping,to create numerous levels of depth in his works.In Figure 01, a beautifully balanced paintingillustrates lustrous natural daylight contrasted withdeep rich shadows. A female figure in a blue dressis turned toward what appears to be a window, withher face tilted in the direction of the artist. The artistis seated in an ideal position to paint the highlightsand shadows on the young lady’s face and dress.Figure 01: Jan Vermeer, The Art of Painting, 1666, oilon canvas.What is probably the most famous of Jan Vermeer’sworks is a powerful example of how a similarlighting set-up also works beautifully for a head andshoulders portrait of a young girl.A broad range of graduated values from very lightto black accentuates the various forms of her faceand clothing. The lower section of her headpieceoverlaps her back, thereby enhancing the illusion ofdepth. The dark simplicity of the background servesto pull the figure into the foreground, and focusattention on her face.Figure 02: Jan Vermeer, Girl with a Pearl Earri ng,1660 – 1665, Oil on Canvas.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  21. 21. 3The white fabric of the man’s sleeve inFigure 03 is depicted in shadow, an effectthat draws attention toward the bright uppersection of his shirt and onto his face.Beyond rendering correct facial proportions,being able to portray an accurate perceptionof light and shadows is integral to achievinga likeness to an individual. FigureThe highly detailed painting of the light and 03: Andrea Del Sarto,shadows in the facial sections of Figure 04, Portrait of ademonstrates a delicate approach to lighting Young Man,which seems to soften the facial features of 1517, Oilthe elderly man. By examining the locations on canvas.of the highlights and shadows on his face, itbecomes apparent that the dominant lightsource is from the left.The dark values of the hat and clothingoutline the upper and lower facial sections,thereby bringing the focus to the face. Thehard shiny metal contrasts sharply with thesoft fabric and feather of his hat, creating aparadoxical insight into his persona; his ageimplies frailty but his stiff posture depictsstrength. Figure 04: Rembrandt, An Officer,The paintings in Figures 05 and 06 have 1629-1630,similar lighting and composition. Oil on Wood. Figure 05: Bartolomeo Veneto, Portrait of a Gentleman, 1512, Oil on panel Figure 06: Holbein, Hans the Younger, Portrait of William Warham, Archbishop of Canterbury, 1527, Oil on oak.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  22. 22. 4The eyes of the model in Figures 07 are looking toward thelight; a brilliant philosophical strategy. A portrait withoutdirect eye contact provides a non-intimidating opportunityfor the viewer to explore the face in detail. Figure 07: Albrecht Dürer, Portrait of a Young Man, 1521, Charcoal drawing on paper.My research has provided numerous insights into the lightingand composition used during the Renaissance. In addition, Ihave had the opportunity to study fascinating aspects of facialexpression, posture, background, and accessories that can beused to create relatively authentic period artworks.Applying Renaissance Composition to PhotosMy research has given me numerous ideas that I can now translate into reference photos of mymodel. The following aspects of lighting and composition from Figures 01 to 07, will integratenicely into sketches, studies, and eventually an oil painting of Lord Algernon: Figure 01: I used natural daylight from a large window on a slightly overcast day. The light is coming from the left as in Vermeer’s painting. Figure 02: I improved the illusion of depth by overlapping Lord Algernon’s left arm in front of his body and the sword in front of his right leg. I also plan to use a similar background. Figure 03: I will darken the values of the sleeves so as to bring more attention to Algernon’s face, as in Sarto’s portrait. Figure 04: I will attempt to depict the subtle nuances of light and shadows on Lord Algernon’s face, so as to enhance likeness. His hat and clothing will frame the upper and lower sections of his face and neck. Figure 05: I plan to crop the lower section of the composition slightly and include both hands. Figure 06: Algernon’s face is tilted toward the artist, but his eyes are looking into the light as in Albrecht Dürer’s drawing. Figure 07: The flesh tones and warm hues of the clothing in this painting will work beautifully when I begin my oil painting.I set up my model, who is fully dressed in replicas of medieval garb, in a seated position in frontof a brightly lit window. The resulting photos integrate the aforementioned aspects of lightingand composition.I’m a firm believer that there is no such thing as having too much visual information about adrawing or painting subject. Hence, artists are wise to take numerous photos, and wheneverpossible work from life for the rendering of fine details.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  23. 23. 5My two primary reference photos (Figures 08 and09) demonstrate the implementation of lightingand compositional techniques from the paintingsand drawings previously discussed. Figure 08: Primary reference photo of Lord Algernon. Figure 09: Close-up view of Lord Algernon’s face, hat and collar. Figures 10 to 15 provide additional visual information about the effects of lighting on more intricate aspects of my subject, such as the hands, sword, clothing, and jewelry. Figure 10: Detail of shadows on right hand and ring. Figure 11: Detail of left hand and ring. Figure 12: Detail of the doublet’s fabric, button, and trim, as well as the jewelry.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  24. 24. 6 Figure 13 and 14: Details of the handle and blade of the sword.Figure 15:Detail of theshoulder of the doublet and the gathers in the upper sleeve.Capturing Light in a CompositionLight is not a tangible medium, but it has a huge influence on the viewer’s perception of depthand physical space. Based on my examination of hundreds of drawings and paintings, I havecome to the conclusion that an ability to see and translate light into a drawing, is an artist’s mostvaluable tool for creating the illusion of a three dimensional reality.Light has always existed; however, the artists of the Renaissance were the pioneers whodiscovered how the multifaceted qualities of light affected the world around them. Subsequently,they explored methods of communicating their visions to viewers through the languages ofdrawing and painting.From a technical perspective, this sensitive andpoignant drawing by Albrecht Dürer simplydemonstrates the addition of white paint to a darkprepared surface to enhance highlights. Thehighlights serve to identify the light, which is fromthe upper left.I attempted to look into the genius of the artist, andfound myself questioning his motive for using thatspecific lighting. I expect to continue examiningthis drawing from time to time, in search of insightsinto Dürer’s thought processes when planning thecompositional lighting. Figure 16: Albrecht Dürer, Head of the Twelve Year Old Christ, 1506, brush and ink.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  25. 25. 7I render a quick sketch with help from the variousreference photos to demonstrate my proposedcomposition. My primary goal is to use the lightsource to communicate both sensitivity and strengthin the face of Lord Algernon.I used red chalk on Arches 140 lb. hot pressed,100% cotton, watercolor paper that had beendarkened with a diluted wash of sepia ink, toenhance the planned heightening.Shading is rendered with diagonal hatching lines.White chalk created the light values on the face,hands, and clothing.Figure 17: A loosely rendered sketch that demonstratesbasic composition and lighting.My research provided numerous ideas for capturing period composition and lighting in myreference photographs. However, in addition to using these photos, I will also need to work fromlife to render additional details.GlossaryChalk: is a drawing medium derived from various natural sources, such as hematite, carbon, andcalcite.Chiaroscuro: refers to the technique (introduced during the Renaissance) of balancing contrastsof light and dark values, so as to create the illusion of a three dimensional reality on a flatsurface.Heightening: refers to the technique of applying a light pigment, such as white chalk or gouacheto sections of a drawing so as to enhance the illusion of form.Life drawing: refers to the process of drawing from an actual object or living being.Renaissance: derived from the French word rebirth, refers to the diverse changes that occurredwithin European culture from the early 14th to the late 16th centuries.Rough sketch: refers to a visual notation of an idea that is quickly rendered to illustrate theimportant elements of a subject with very few details. Sketches can capture lighting, establishvalues, suggest proportions, and/or arrange the major components of a composition.Technique: refers to a well-defined procedure, such as chiaroscuro or perspective used toaccomplish a specific effect or ambience.White chalk: refers to either calcite (or calcium carbonate) or soapstone, that is applied todrawings to lighten sections and/or accentuate highlights so as to emphasize form, mass, andvolume.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  26. 26. 8BibliographyBooks:Braham, Allan. Dürer. London, England: Spring Books, 1965Buck, Stephanie. Masters of German Art: Hans Holbein. Cologne, Germany: KonemannVerlaggsgesellschaft, 1999Eichler, Anja-Franziska. Masters of German Art: Albrecht Dürer. Germany: KonemannVerlagsgesellschaft, 1999.Hodge, Jessica. Rembrandt. London: PRC Publishing Ltd., 2001Mitchell, B. Great Artists: A Treasury of Paintings by the Masters. Toronto: W. H. Smith,Marshall Cavendish Books Limited, 1987Perard, Victor. Anatomy of Drawing. New York: Victor Perard Publisher, 1934Teiche, Jessica and Tracy Barr. Da Vinci for Dummies. Indianapolis, Indiana: Wiley PublishingIncorporated, 2005Zollner, Frank. Leonardo da Vinci: Sketches and Drawings. Taschen, 2005Websites:www.artmuseums.harvard.edu/sargentatharvard/drawingglossary.htmlwww.clemusart.com/butkin/html/3804852.htmlhttp://www.wga.hu/index1.htmlhttp://arthistory.about.com/cs/arthistory10one/a/high_ren_2.htmwww.portfoliostep.com/390.1TerminologyDefinitions.htmwww.worldimages.com/art_glossary.phpwww.georgetown.edu/uis/ia/dw/GLOSSARY0816.htmlwww-personal.umich.edu/~alandear/glossary/t.htmlecosurvey.gmu.edu/glossary.htmwww.artsconnected.org/artsnetmn/spaces/vocabulary.htmlCopyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  27. 27. 9Brenda HoddinottAs a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda utilizesdiverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, contécrayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott<BIOGRAPHYBorn in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. Shedeveloped strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning,and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as aself-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments haveemployed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal policedepartments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal CanadianMounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “ForensicArtists International”.Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing andpainting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired andtrained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brendachose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing,drawing, painting, and developing her websites.Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach tocurriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes forstudents of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels andabilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as aresource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughoutthe world.LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  28. 28. Brenda HoddinottZ-04 ADVANCED: DRAWING ON THE MASTERSThe more I research the primitive drawing materials of medieval artists, the more I sit in totalawe and admiration of their drawings. This pen and ink project focuses on rendering the forms ofan infant’s nose with the classical drawing techniques of contour crosshatching and chiaroscuro.White gouache is applied over a darker value (the cream colored paper) to create the highlights,sepia colored ink produces the middle values, and dark brown ink creates the darkest values.This lesson is divided into the following three sections: CHIAROSCURO IN RENAISSANCE DRAWINGS: Chiaroscuro was introduced during the Renaissance, and as demonstrated in two drawings by Leonardo da Vinci, was highly effective for creating an illusion of depth and space. DRAWING PAPER, PENS, AND MEDIA: I begin by discussing the medieval drawing materials that would have most likely been used in the rendering of this type of drawing during the fifteenth century. I then list the contemporary supplies I used to reproduce the medieval drawing style. DRAWING WITH CHIAROSCURO: As you follow along with step-by-step instructions, your primary goal is to get a feel for working with pen and ink, while incorporating contour crosshatching techniques.Suggested drawing supplies include 100% cotton paper, nibs and holders, black and burnt siennainks, white gouache, paintbrush, and a few deep containers to hold water and mixed ink colors. This lesson is recommended for artists with strong drawing skills, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators of advanced students. 7 PAGES – 9 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada - 2006
  29. 29. 2 CHIAROSCURO IN RENAISSANCE DRAWINGS In simple terms and specific to drawing, Chiaroscuro refers to the technique of balancing contrasts of light and dark values, so as to create the illusion of a three dimensional reality on a flat surface. The drawing process often employs a method of applying a light value over a dark, such as using white chalk or gouache over colored paper. The word chiaroscuro is derived from the Italian words for light (chiaro) and dark (oscuro). Chiaroscuro was introduced during the Renaissance, and was highly effective for creating an illusion of depth and space around the principal figures in a composition. Leonardo Da Vinci was renowned for his extraordinary drawing skills with chiaroscuro. Leonardo’s drawing papers were various colors, depending on the materials used in their preparation. Hence, white highlights had to be applied with an independent medium, such as white gouache. Brown or sepia colored ink produced middle values, and dark brown or black ink created dark values. Examine the following two drawings and see if you can find the sections where white pigment is added. Figure 04-01: Leonardo, da Vinci, Womans Head. Pen and ink, and white pigment on paper. 11 by 7.5 inches. Figure 04-02: Leonardo da Vinci. Lily (detail). Pen and ink, black chalk, and white pigment on paper, 12 by 7 inches,Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  30. 30. 3 DRAWING PAPER, PENS, AND MEDIA The more I research the primitive drawing materials and tools of medieval artists, the more I sit in total awe and admiration of their drawings. In this section, I begin by discussing the medieval drawing materials that would have most likely been used in the rendering of this type of drawing during the fifteenth century. I then list the contemporary supplies I used to reproduce the medieval drawing style. Papers During the fifteenth century, paper became a popular drawing surface; diverse papers were handmade by breaking down or chopping up source materials such as plants, vegetable matter, rags, or sailcloth, into individual cellulose fibers. These fibers were mixed with water to form a soupy pulp, and were then scooped up with a wire screen set into a wooden mold. The pulp was leveled flat with a shake, and once the water had drained through the screen, an even deposit of matted fibers remained on the screens surface. This matted deposit was then turned out onto a heavy woolen cloth or felt. Another felt was placed on top of the thin sheet of pulp, and stacks of pulp sheets and felts were then pressed to extract as much of the moisture left in the pulp as possible. The sheets were then hung to dry. At this stage, the paper was still like blotting paper. To harden the surface of the sheet and prevent ink bleeding into the sheet, the paper was sized, or coated with a hard gelatin layer. Pens Most of the old masters’ drawings with pen are rendered with a quill pen, an instrument made from the scraped and cut feathers of birds. Quills from the pinion feathers of the goose, swan, raven and crow were highly esteemed, producing responsive lines that glided across the textured surface of handmade papers. The goose quill was the most commonly used, and those of the raven or crow were considered to produce the finest and most delicate strokes. The quill is very flexible and versatile, resulting in free and lively drawings often characterized by sweeping, almost dancing flourishes and great variations in the width of the pen line. Media The brown inks we associate today with old masters’ drawings were made by boiling or soaking wood soot in water to extract the soluble tars. This liquid was then filtered, resulting in a transparent and luminous ink, the exact tone of which depended on the kind of wood used. During the early fifteenth century, the term sepia actually referred to the brown tone of the masters’ drawings, rather than a genuine sepia ink composition, which was later made from the secretions of cuttlefish. Black inks were made from fine particles of soot, charcoal, charred wood, or burnt lamp oil, which were added to water and then mixed with a binding agent, such as gum arabic. Gum arabic is the natural secretion of the acacia tree, and was used to improve the bonding properties of inks and paints, and help hold pigment particles in suspension. Gouache, an opaque paint, was made by adding white pigment or chalk to a translucent water- based paint, along with a binding agent such as gum arabic. Gouache was added to the lightest sections of drawings (highlights) to emphasize mass and volume.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  31. 31. 4 Drawing Supplies used for this Project At some point in the future, I may investigate the process of making authentic drawing papers, pens, and media; however, for this particular drawing, I used the following: Arches 140 lb. hot pressed, 100% cotton, watercolor paper Speedball, Number 20, General Purpose nibs and holders Windsor and Newton, black and burnt sienna inks Windsor and Newton, permanent white gouache Number 2, round paintbrush Three small deep containers to hold mixed ink colors (I used small shot glasses) Large container of water for cleaning pens and brushes Before you begin drawing the nose, practice a few different types of lines on a small piece of paper (as in this illustration). Metal nibs do not flow as smoothly across contemporary cotton paper as did the smoothly rounded quills of the masters. Hence, you need to work slowly and press gently with your pen. Following are a few simple guidelines for drawing with a pen: Dip the pen deep enough into the ink to fill the reservoir Carefully wipe the underside of the nib in the side of the container to wipe off extra ink As you work, wipe the tip frequently with a soft cloth that doesn’t shed fabric fibers Check the tip each time you reload, in case you have a fabric fiber or hair attached to the tip of the nib (a stray hair can quickly ruin your drawing by forming a big blob instead of a line). Draw as slowly and precisely as possible; speed comes with lots of practice Clean nibs, holders, and brushes immediately after use with warm soapy water A soft toothbrush works best for cleaning dried-on ink from a nib Figure 04-03: Various styles of hatching and crosshatching lines rendered with pen and ink.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  32. 32. 5 I pre-mixed the following three values of ink before I began this project, and then covered each with plastic wrap to keep them from evaporating until I was ready to draw (I tested each on paper to see the actual color): Light: Begin with a small amount of water and slowly add small drops of burnt sienna ink until the color is similar to this sample. Test the mixture with a small paintbrush after adding each drop of ink. Medium: Use the burnt sienna ink as it is from the bottle. Dark: Mix drops of black into a small amount of burnt sienna ink, until you get a dark brown (almost black). Black is very powerful, so you need very little. Figure 04-04: Three hues of ink - from the left: light, medium, and dark DRAWING WITH CHIAROSCURO My primary project goal is to get a feel for working with pen and ink, while incorporating the hatching and crosshatching styles. STEP 1 1) Use the light ink color to outline the shapes of the lower sections of the nose. I find ink to be an incredibly intimidating and tedious medium in that I know I can’t erase mistakes. STEP 2 2) Add contour crosshatching to build up light values. Remember to leave the three highlight sections of the nose the color of the paper. My contour lines are somewhat jerky as I very slowly establish proportions with the light ink color.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  33. 33. 6 STEP 3 3) Use the medium ink color to add medium values. The light source is coming primarily from the upper right. I’m gaining an increasing admiration for the students’ of the masters of the Renaissance; they no doubt spent many years practicing drawing before their lines flowed as smoothly as their teachers’. 4) Add the darkest values to the shadow STEP 4 sections with the dark ink color. 5) Use white gouache to paint the brightest sections, the highlights. You may need to mix a tiny bit of water to the gouache to make it fluid enough to go on smoothly. STEP 5 If you’re not happy with the results of your drawing, do this little project over again. Sign your name, and add today’s date to the back of your drawing paper. Try this same technique to draw another object (or small section of an object) from either a photo or life.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  34. 34. 7 BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. WEB RESOURCES FOR THIS ARTICLE www.artmuseums.harvard.edu/sargentatharvard/drawingglossary.html www.clemusart.com/butkin/html/3804852.html http://www.wga.hu/index1.htmlCopyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  35. 35. Study of theMedieval Crosshatching TechniquesBrenda HoddinottZ-05 ADVANCED: DRAWING ON THE MASTERSThis article is modified from a small section of an academic documentation for a drawingI recently entered in an Arts and Science Competition for The Society for CreativeAnachronism, Inc. This drawing represents my first attempt at using contemporarycounterparts of medieval drawing tools, and while I am very critical of numeroustechnical problems, I am very happy with all that I have learned. Other excerpts from thisresearch paper are included in Z-02 Advanced: Examining Styles and Techniques.This article is divided into the following three sections: INTRODUCTION: Even though the masters’ drawings are far superior to mine, and their subjects are specific to medieval times, the fundamental techniques of crosshatching and chiaroscuro are the same. PLANNING AN ORIGINAL MEDIEVAL DRAWING: I introduce my drawing subject, discuss anticipated challenges, and provide a description of media and tools. GOALS, POTENTIAL OBSTACLES AND MEDIA: My primary project goal is to get a feel for working with pen and ink, while incorporating the hatching and crosshatching styles of Leonardo da Vinci and Albrecht Dürer. ILLUSTRATED DISCUSSION OF PROCESS: Readers are invited to either follow along with a visual presentation of my drawing process, or render their own version of my subject by incorporating their own drawing styles.Suggested drawing supplies include 100% cotton paper, nibs and holders, black and burntsienna inks, white gouache, paintbrush, and containers to hold water and ink. This lesson is recommended for artists with strong drawing skills, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators of advanced students. 12 PAGES – 24 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada - 2006
  36. 36. 2IntroductionThe Society for Creative Anachronism (commonly called the SCA), an internationalorganization, with over 30,000 members residing in countries around the world, is dedicated toresearching and re-creating the arts and skills of pre-17th-century Europe.As a member, I dress in clothing of the Middle Ages and Renaissance, and attend eventsthroughout Eastern Canada and the Northern United States, that feature arts exhibits, classes,workshops, dancing, feasts, and more. I am currently on a quest for a specific period identity.Graphite is my favorite drawing medium; hence, I have decided that my persona’s lifespan willinclude the late 1500’s when graphite made its appearance as a drawing medium. My goal is toexplore the diverse drawing and painting techniques of the renaissance, and pursue a dream tobecome a student of the masters. Renaissance, derived from the French word rebirth, refers to thediverse changes that occurred within European culture from the early 14th to the late 16thcenturies.In this article, I discuss the process of rendering a study of an infant’s head by utilizingcontemporary counterparts of medieval drawing materials and tools, and my own personaldrawing style. Technique refers to a well-defined procedure, such as hatching or crosshatching,used to accomplish a specific effect or ambience. Style refers to an artist’s individual approach tomaking art, and is an accumulation of her/his inherent preferences, life experiences, artisticphilosophy, personal goals, and academic background. Throughout the actual execution of thedrawing I provide a heavily illustrated journal documenting my successes and frustrationsworking with the unfamiliar medium of pen and ink.Drawing media and materials used for rendering this type of drawing during the renaissanceincluded quill pens, styluses, inks, and white gouache. A quill pen is a very flexible and versatilewriting or drawing instrument made from the scraped and cut feathers of birds. Stylus(sometimes called metal-point) refers to a drawing tool that was made from a relatively softmetal, such as lead, silver, gold, or copper, and cast with a fine point at one end and a blunterpoint at the opposite end.I use easily accessible modern-day drawing materials for my drawing, including Arches 140 lb. hot pressed, 100% cotton, watercolor paper Speedball, Number 20, General Purpose nibs and holders Windsor and Newton, black and burnt sienna inks White gouache Small script-liner brushEven though the masters’ drawings are far superior to mine, and their subjects are specific tomedieval times, the fundamental techniques of crosshatching and chiaroscuro are the same. Forexample, their crosshatching techniques are very similar to those I have used for most of my life.Crosshatching is a shading technique in which one set of lines crosses over (overlaps) anotherset creating a dense grid-like pattern. Chiaroscuro refers to the technique of balancing contrastsof light and dark values, so as to create the illusion of a three dimensional reality on a flatsurface. Chiaroscuro was first introduced during the Renaissance.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com

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