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Avansati w studio Avansati w studio Document Transcript

  • Brenda Hoddinott W-01 Advanced: Studio Series This diary explores the entire process of choosing a photo, planning a composition, and setting up grids on both the photo and paper, to draw a fun portrait of a beautiful child named Karin.You will find no step-by-step directions in this heavily illustrated diary; rather Isimply share my drawing process, including my motivation for using variousartistic tools and techniques. You can follow along with me and gain a greaterunderstanding into my drawing processes, and also gather up your drawingmaterials, and either draw Karin, or someone special in your own life.The most important component of learning to draw is maintaining theenthusiasm. Aspiring artists should feel comfortable in using whatever tools areavailable to them, such as viewfinder frames and grids, so as to create drawingsthat make them happy and subsequently motivated to continue onward. Gridsdo not hinder artistic growth; rather, they serve as tools to make the learningprocess more pleasurable by helping with such challenges as renderingbelievable proportions and correct perspective. 21 PAGES – 25 ILLUSTRATIONS Recommended for artists with advanced drawing skills, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – January, 2005
  • 2 Learning to draw is not a short term goal but rather a lifelong journey. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. If you decide to work from your own photo, make sure you choose a large one in which the facial features are clear and in focus. I took this photo of my friend Kathleen’s daughter, Karin, several years ago, always with a drawing in mind someday. Today Karin is 14 years old! I prefer to make modifications to my photo in the planning stages, before I actually start to draw. After playing with the photo for a few minutes, I decided that the composition would be more expressive and aesthetically pleasing if her head appeared to be more tilted in the drawing than in my photo. Therefore, I taped my photo to a sheet of grid paper at an angle, rather than lined up with the grid lines.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 3 Using the lines of the graph paper as guidelines, I drew the horizontal and vertical grid lines with a fine tip ballpoint pen. My graph paper has one quarter inch squares; hence, the grid squares on the photo are the same size. I placed a viewfinder frame on my photo and continuously adjusted both sections until I found a composition I liked. I usually keep a few viewfinder frames of various sizes handy, for helping me with choosing compositions when I work from photos.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 4 I taped the perimeter of my composition with masking tape, and then used a pen to mark letters and numbers on the tape to identify each vertical and horizontal row. Next, I carefully taped the corners of my Arches 140lb. watercolor paper to a large sheet of graph paper. I wanted my drawing to be twice the size of the photo, so I drew half inch squares on my drawing paper. Hence, four (2 by 2) of the graph squares on the paper, represent one of the grid squares on the photo. As I drew the grid on the paper with an HB pencil, only the weight of the pencil itself created the very faint lines. Needless to say, this illustration has been scanned much darker than the original drawing, so you can see it! I added letters and numbers to the drawing paper to correspond with those on the photo. I can now identify each square as I work; hopefully, I can avoid drawing the wrong image in a grid square.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 5 When I work with a grid, I prefer beginning my drawing in the upper left and then work downward toward the right (I’m right handed). Again, the following illustrations have been scanned very dark so you can see my sketch lines, which are in fact very light. I used an HB pencil, and worked on one square at a time, while constantly referring to my photo to make sure that I was working in the correct squares.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 6 As I drew the lines inside each square, I visually measured the proportions, and observed the relationships between the lines, shapes, and spaces.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 7Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 8Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 9Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 10 Sometimes I add diagonal lines in the grid squares of those sections that have more details. However, in this case, my grid squares are very small anyway, so this is not necessary. I’ve sketched the location of her eyebrow even lighter than the eye and nose; a darker outline may be difficult to completely erase. The individual hairs of the eyebrow will be drawn with hatching lines.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 11 After completing the initial sketch, I took a break, then came back and corrected a few sections with which I wasn’t completely happy. I’m now ready to plan my shading and get started on the really fun stuff – adding values!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 12 With everything in place, I then referred to the photo to map out where I planed to draw the light and dark values. And yes! This scan is much darker than the actual sketch! Next, I erased the grid lines in the facial area and used my kneaded eraser to gently pat the mapping lines until they were barely visible.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 13 In my photo, the light source is from the right. To keep her face looking soft, I’ll use mostly light and middle values, and use dark values very sparingly. I began shading with a 2H pencil. The crosshatching lines graduate smoothly to create the various light values identified by my shading map. I then used an HB pencil to add medium values to the shadowed areas. This foundation of shading has identified the facial forms; the next step is to add more details to her individual features.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 14 I completed her hair and eyebrow with hatching lines that curve in many different directions. I used darker shading to accentuate some sections of her upper face around her eyes. I shaded her eye with my usual techniques. The iris and white of the eye are darker under the upper eyelid and on the right. The darkest shading is in the pupil. The eyelashes appear thicker closer to the eyelids. This effect was rendered by using curved hatching lines of various thicknesses and lengths.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 15 I used HB and 2B pencils to add more contrast by adding darker values to the face around the nose, lips, forms of the lower face, and the opening of her mouth. I left a section around her mouth very light to further accentuate the three-dimensional forms of her lower face.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 16 I darkened the shading of the neck. Then, to make the mouth look more realistic, I completely erased the outlines around the lips and teeth, and added shading to the teeth.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 17 I wanted the entire facial area to be the focal point of this drawing; hence the shading needed to be perfect. Before I continued on to the clothing, I took several breaks, coming back after each and making tiny adjustments to sections that didn’t look quite right. To further accentuate Karin’s face, I plan to use various shades of gray for the dark sections of her clothing rather than black.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 18 At this point, I checked my drawing carefully to make sure all the grid lines were erased from the clothing sections. I began shading the clothing by using crosshatching to add light values to define the major forms.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 19 I added darker shading to the shadowed areas of her clothing and hat, and to the background sections on the right.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 20 After shading in some polka dots and ribbons on her clothing, my drawing is complete!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 21 BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • View 2 Brenda Hoddinott W-02 Advanced: Studio Series This heavily illustrated diary invites artists to follow along with me through the entire process of planning a composition, modifying a frontal light source, and rendering diverse shading techniques to define various textures and patterns.This animal portrait is based on a photograph of Bill the cat, the proud owner ofmy friend Lynn. You are invited to gather up your drawing materials, and eitherdraw Bill or a special animal in your own life. As an artist, you should worktoward creating drawings that make you happy, and subsequently motivated tocontinue onward in your art making journey; hence, you should feelcomfortable in using whatever drawing tools are available to you, such asviewfinder frames and grids.This project expands on Lesson W-02: Bill the Cat: View 1, which offers detailedinstructions for drawing Bill’s head and facial features. 21 PAGES – 22 ILLUSTRATIONS Recommended for artists with advanced drawing skills, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – March, 2005
  • -2- If you decide to work from your own photo, make sure you choose a large one in which the facial features are clear and in focus. My friend Lynn generously supplied this photo of Bill. While this is a great photo, its translation into a drawing requires a little tweaking. I generally prefer to modify photos in the planning stages, before I actually start to draw. After playing with the photo for a few minutes, I decide that the composition would be more expressive and aesthetically pleasing if I use a vertical (portrait) composition, rather than a horizontal (landscape). I then take the photo into my Photoshop program and rotate it until I find an angle that I like. As I view this new version of the photo, I realize that in addition to modifying the direction of the light source, I also need to change the pattern of the linoleum so the lines are at more of an angle.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • -3- Setting up accurate proportions is a great way to make sure my drawing is off to a great start! The lines in this sketch seem dark; however, in reality the lines are so light that I can barely see them. I have made them darker in a computer program so you can see them. As I sketch, I continuously refer to the photo and constantly compare and double check the relationships of lines and spaces to one another.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • -4- I’m now reasonably happy with my proportions, so I begin the process of very lightly outlining Bill’s body and facial features with thin neat lines. As I complete each section, I erase the rough sketch lines.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • -5- I use a ruler to outline the pattern of the floor. In that perspective in photos is sometimes deceiving, I make sure that the lines are progressively closer together toward the top of the page so as to enhance the illusion of depth.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • -6- By carefully scrutinizing the photo, I map out the approximate locations, shapes, and sizes of the major stripes of his fur. To accentuate the forms of his body, I pay special attention to curving my mapping lines around the perceived three-dimensional structures of various parts of his body, legs, and head.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • -7- In that the eyes and furry face will be the focal points of this drawing, I spend considerable time carefully mapping and outlining the subtle nuances of values needed to accurately portray a likeness to Bill.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • -8- Before I begin shading, I lighten the mapping lines with my kneaded eraser, and then examine the photo closely and plan modifications that will enhance the drawing. This photo of Bill was taken with a flash; consequently, the cat’s face and body appear somewhat flat, and the eyes lack strong contrast. My task is to adjust all the values I see in the photo to represent a new light source. You can tell by the highlights in his eyes that the light source is now from the upper right. Accordingly, my overall shading for the face and body will be darker on the lower left. The eyes will be rendered with high contrast shading to enhance their spherical forms. I also plan to make the pupils of the eyes larger and darker, and soften the overall contrast of the striped fur by making the darkest darks and the lightest lights less extreme.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • -9- If you anticipate that shading Bill’s face may be too difficult for your current skill level, refer to the detailed step-by-step instructions in “Bill the Cat: Version 1”. As I continue to block in values on his face, I refer to the photo and examine the different directions in which the fur grows. My individual hatching lines vary in length to keep the fur looking natural; they also curve in various directions to help give the illusion of depth to the forms of the face under the fur. When adding shading to a drawing, I prefer to work from light to dark. In the lightest sections, some values are almost white and the hatching lines are faint and far apart. In darker sections, the hatching lines are dark and close together.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • - 10 - I generally work with mechanical pencils to avoid having to constantly sharpen my pencils. However, when I draw with regular pencils, I keep the points very sharp with a sandpaper block. When drawing striped fur, I keep the transitions between values short and abrupt. I prefer 2H and HB pencils for light values, and 2B and 4B pencils work well for the dark values, especially the darkest stripes in the shadow sections. My favorite part of drawing animals is bringing their eyes to life. I first add light values to the iris with an HB, and then draw dark values around the rims of the eyes with 2B and 4B. I use a Q-tip to gently blend the shading in the irises. With my kneaded eraser, I next pull out a small section of lighter shading in the lower left section of the iris, opposite the highlight.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • - 11 - 2B and 4B pencils help create the dark cast shadows on the uppermost sections of the irises, and a 6B works beautifully for shading the pupil. After shading the nose, I blend it slightly and then use my kneaded eraser to brighten the primary highlight on its tip. As I add shading to his ears and lower face, I keep in mind that the shading needs to be lighter on the upper right because these sections are closer to the light source. I add slightly darker shading along the insides of the edges of the ears, which helps give the illusion of depth to their forms. As I render each section of fur, I take my time and frequently refer to the photo to determine the different directions in which the hatching lines need to curve.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • - 12 - The overall shading of his lower face becomes progressively darker toward the lower left. As I draw, I continually refer back to other sections that are almost complete, compare those values to the section in which I am working, and make adjustments as needed. To make a section darker I simply add more hatching lines. To lighten a section, I pat it very gently and carefully with a kneaded eraser that is molded to a wedge shape. The shading of the head and neck has the darkest darks and the lightest lights, so as to bring the attention of the viewer directly to these sections. To define the cast shadow of his head on his body, and further emphasize the edge of his lower face, I use very dark shading under his chin on the left.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • - 13 - As I begin shading the body, I frequently refer back to the shading of the head to make sure that I am using mostly mid range values so as to not detract attention away from his eyes. I indicate the whiskers in the upper section by shading the negative spaces on both sides of the individual hairs.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • - 14 - My overall values become progressively lighter toward the upper sections of the drawing, and his back is shaded with less contrast toward the edge of the drawing space. Hence, no section of my drawing will compete with Bill’s beautiful eyes and face, which are rendered with high contrast shading.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • - 15 - I need to modify the pattern of the floor to be more three-dimensional and less drastic in terms of contrast, so as to provide interest to the overall drawing without detracting from the cat’s face. I love how the lines of the pattern lead the viewer’s eye toward the head, further accentuating the focal point.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • - 16 - By adding a little texture to the surface of the flooring I am setting the stage for a more interesting cast shadow. The upper leg and paw are rendered with mostly light values and very few details, so as to establish a baseline for adding low contrast shading to the rest of the body.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • - 17 - The pattern of Bill’s chest is gorgeous; hence I use a broad range of values that are darker on the lower left to enhance the form. By adding a foundation of light values over the remainder of the body, I am defining the lightest values in this section, which need to be subdued rather than harsh white.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • - 18 - As I add the cast shadow of his body on the flooring according to the new light source. The shadows are darkest closest to his body and graduate lighter outward. I use mostly horizontal hatching lines, but add diagonal crosshatching lines to soften the outer sections. I then add more contrast to the areas of the floor that are in shadow, by slightly darkening the darks, and then using my kneaded eraser to somewhat lighten the sections between the tiles.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • - 19 - I complete the shading of his body by adding medium values to represent his dark stripes. As a grand finale, I check over my drawing and add a few final touches, such as lightening the edges of his fur in some places, including the edge of the top of his head (between his ears) above the cast shadow of his ear.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • - 20 - I always love to take a final look at the reference photo and compare it to my drawing. Hence, I can find any areas still in need of fixing. In closing, remember that learning to draw is not a short term goal but rather a lifelong journey. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • - 21 - BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • Brenda HoddinottW-03 Advanced: Studio Diary SeriesA complex grid assists with the settingup of proportions for this drawing of abeautiful, seventeen- year-old ladynamed Evie.Two reference photographs provideadequate information for modifying thecomposition and light source, andrendering diverse shading techniques todefine various textures and furry patterns.As Evie aged, the overall values of the fur on her face lightened as some of her dark furturned silver. Hence, I plan to portray this “salt and pepper” effect to depict her age.Evie’s eyes will be the primary focal points and her furry face will be the secondarycenter of attention.You are invited to gather up your drawing materials, and either draw Evie or a specialanimal in your own life. Or, if you prefer, simply print this lesson, curl up in yourfavorite comfy chair, and explore thirty-five illustrations as you read about the process ofcreating this drawing. 29 PAGES – 35 ILLUSTRATIONS Recommended for artists with advanced drawing skills, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2005
  • -2- PLANNING AND SETTING UP PROPORTIONS Learning to draw is not a short term goal but rather a lifelong journey. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. I took this photo of Evie, the owner of my friend John, without a flash. In that my finger is sometimes quicker than my camera’s ability to recharge the flash, this photo was a happy accident. Evie’s pose is fabulous, but the photo is out of focus. Not a problem! I will work from an additional resource photo so I can add intricate details. If you decide to render a drawing from a photo, try and choose a large one that is clear and in focus. Setting up accurate proportions is a great way to make sure my drawing is off to a great start! Therefore, I will use a grid to help me sketch her markings and features in their correct places. After examining the composition of the photo, I decide that Evie’s endearing expression will be more aesthetically pleasing if I tilt her head a little more upward.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • -3- I rotate the photo until I find an angle that I like. In that I’ve already decided to work with a grid, I simply tape the photo to my graph paper at an angle rather that vertical. Using the lines of the graph paper as guidelines, I draw the grid lines with a fine tip ballpoint pen. My graph paper has one quarter inch squares; hence, the grid squares on the photo are the same size. Each square becomes easy to keep track of by marking letters (A to T) and numbers (1 to 15) on the grid paper to identify each vertical and horizontal row. Next, I carefully tape the corners of my drawing paper (Arches 140lb. hot pressed, watercolor paper) to a large sheet of graph paper. My photo is 4 by 6 inches; however, I want my drawing to be larger. So, I draw each square on my drawing paper three-eighths of an inch; hence, my drawing will be one and a half times larger than the photo. By the same formula, if you want a drawing that is twice the size of a photo, you use squares that are twice the size of the graph squares; hence, four (2 by 2) of the graph squares on the drawing paper, represent one of the grid squares on the photo.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • -4- As I draw the grid on the paper (with an HB pencil), only the weight of the pencil itself creates the very faint lines. The lines in the next few illustrations seem dark; however, in reality the lines are so light that I can barely see them. I have made them darker in a computer program so you can see them. I add letters and numbers to the drawing paper to correspond with those on the photo. I can now easily identify each square as I work. Hopefully, I can avoid drawing the wrong image in a grid square! When I draw with a grid, I generally prefer to begin in the upper left and work downward toward the right (I’m right handed). Naturally, you should work in any way you prefer. 2H or HB pencils are great for drawing within a grid. I prefer using mechanical pencils to avoid having to constantly sharpen my pencils. On the other hand, when I do draw with regular pencils, I keep the points very sharp with a sandpaper block. I work in only one square at a time. I visually measure the proportions, and observe the relationships between the lines, shapes, and spaces in that square, while constantly referring to my photo.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • -5- Sometimes I add diagonal lines in the grid squares of highly detailed sections, such as an eye or nose. However, in this particular drawing, my grid squares are very small anyway, so this is not necessary. This small illustration shows my entire sketch within the grid, as well as the mapping lines I will use to help me with the shading. But, no need to look for a magnifying glass to try and draw from this small illustration! On the following five pages I provide computer enhanced versions of this sketch, including close up illustrations of each section.  Remember, no actual drawings have been injured in the production of the next five images! (I love my Photoshop!) Please don’t adjust your grid lines to be as dark as mine. Also, don’t add numbers as close to the actual drawing as my computer enhanced drawings show. By the way, I deleted the letters S and T, which are now redundant. I first sketched all the parts of the dog’s head, ears, and face in their correct places, beginning in the upper right. I then referred to the photo to map out where to draw the light and dark values. I won’t be deciding the final composition until the drawing is complete. Therefore the letters identifying the rows are far away from the actual sketch to provide me with lots of leeway for adding any background I may (or may not) choose to later add.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • -6- Don’t press too hard with your pencils! No matter how careful you are, when you draw with a grid, accidents do happen. If you draw some lines in the wrong grid squares, simply erase that section, redraw the grid lines, and keep on going! Lightly drawn lines are easy to erase!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • -7- When drawing an oval or a circle, rotate your paper and look at it from different perspectives. Examine its reflection in a mirror to help locate problems.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • -8- Confirm that objects, spaces, and perspective elements are drawn correctly. Check the relationships of objects to one another, observe that angles, sizes, and proportions are accurate, and adjust as needed. Pay close attention to the shapes created by negative and positive spaces. Draw slowly. Accuracy is more important than speed. Your speed will automatically improve the more you practice.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • -9-Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • - 10 - Always place a piece of clean paper under your hand as you draw. Each time you work on a new section, remember to move your paper so it’s always under your hand. This prevents you from smudging your drawing, and protects the paper from the oils in your skin. Handle your drawing paper by the edges. Don’t touch (or let anyone else touch) the surface of your drawing paper, unless absolutely necessary (even before you begin to draw). The natural oils or dirt on someone’s hands can damage your drawing paper.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • - 11 - After completing the initial sketch, I took a break, then came back and corrected a few sections with which I wasn’t completely happy. Next, I use my kneaded eraser to gently pat the entire sketch, including the grid lines, until they are barely visible. I’m now ready to get started on the really fun stuff – adding values! In that my primary reference photo isn’t very detailed, I will also be referring to this photo. This close-up of Evie’s face provides lots of information, including the beautifully symmetrical markings of the fur on her face. As you can no doubt see, Evie is not exactly a puppy. This loveable and gentle old girl is over 120 years old in people years. Yet, she still loves to play with her toys and drag her person outside for a walk each day! To prevent your eyes from becoming too tired, always make sure you have adequate lighting. Natural light through a window is best in the daytime. On overcast days and in the evenings, a flexible-neck study lamp can focus light directly on your drawing surface.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • - 12 - ADDING VALUES AND TEXTURES TO EVIE’S EYE Evie’s eyes will be the primary focal points of this drawing, and her furry face will be the secondary center of attention. I will begin by shading her left eye, and then work outward with a focus on illustrating the subtle nuances of values and textures needed to capture her likeness and portray her age. I closely examine Evie’s left eye in both reference photos, and then visually merge the information I gather. I carefully replace the initial sketch lines of my drawing with detailed outlines that definitively identify the shapes of the various parts of her eye. By mapping the locations of the highlights and various values, I can easily visualize the proposed shading. Before I actually begin shading, I lighten the mapping lines with my kneaded eraser. As I add values, I use my mapping lines as guides, and work from light to dark. You can tell by the highlights in the main photo that a light source is coming from the upper left. However, I may later decide to change it to come more from above. I use a 2H pencil for those values that are almost white, such as the crescent shaped section of the white of the eye. An HB works well for the middle values of the iris.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • - 13 - Even though Evie doesn’t see very well anymore, her eyes are still bright and very expressive. I use a Q-tip to gently blend the medium values of the irises. With my kneaded eraser, I then pull out a small section of lighter shading in the lower right, opposite the highlight. 2B and 4B pencils help shade the dark cast shadows on the uppermost sections of the irises, and 6B and 8B work beautifully for the pupil. The highlight is left white and therefore contrasts sharply to the dark pupil. By the way, all sections of fur will be shaded with values that are lighter than those of the pupil. I draw medium and dark values around the rims of the eyes with 2B and 4B, and then use a kneaded eraser shaped to a point to pull out a couple of lighter sections. As I begin to draw the fur around the eye with hatching, I continuously refer to both photos and examine the different directions in which the fur grows. I outline a few wisps of long light fur that grow from between her eyes toward the right. As I draw Evie’s fur, I make sure that I am using mostly mid range values so as to not take attention away from the pupil of her eye, which will be the darkest value of the entire drawing.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • - 14 - As Evie aged, the fur on her face lightened. Hence, I need to portray this “salt and pepper” effect in order to accurately depict her age. Refer to the drawings on the next few pages to see what I mean. My individual hatching lines vary in length to keep the fur looking natural, and curve in various directions to help give the illusion of depth to the forms of her face under the fur. The high contrast shading around her left eye establishes a baseline for all the values still to add. (Check out the drawing on the right and the close-up on the next page.) At this point, I can visualize the shading of the remainder of the drawing. Evie’s face will be shaded slightly darker on the lower right, farther from the light. I also need to draw (pun intended) attention away from the outer edges of the drawing, so this eye and the fur surrounding it, remain very strong as the focal points. Therefore, I will render the shading toward the lower edge of the paper with less contrast, by gradually making the darkest darks and the lightest lights less extreme.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • - 15 -Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • - 16 -Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • - 17 - When indicating the patterns of Evie’s facial fur, I keep the transitions between values short and abrupt. For example, take note of the V-shaped section of dark fur in the upper section of her forehead. I prefer 2H and HB pencils for shading light fur, and 2B and 4B pencils work well for the dark sections. Examine Evie’s eyes in the next drawing, and note that the highlights in her eyes represent two different light sources. The highlight of the eye on the left side of the drawing indicates a light source that is more from above than from the side. Just before I added shading to this eye, I decided to modify the light source very slightly, so it seems to come more from above. In that she is looking upward, she will appear to be looking into the light, an effect that I love from both technical and philosophical perspectives. I now need to erase and redraw sections of the eye on the right, to represent this new light source.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • - 18 - Compare these two drawings to see how I modified the eye on the right to represent the same light source as the other. Thankfully, I didn’t apply too much pressure to my pencils as I originally drew this eye, so erasing did not create major problems. I always place a piece of clean paper under my hand as I draw, to shield my drawing from smudging and protect the paper from the oils in my skin. Take note of how the nostril on the left is considerably higher than the other. Also, the lines marking the placement of the various parts of the nose are at an angle rather than horizontal. Before I begin adding shading to the nose with squirkles, I use my kneaded eraser to lighten my grid lines until they are almost invisible. I then redraw the outline of the nose with neat, thin lines.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • - 19 - Keep in mind that the light source is from above and slightly to the left; hence, the values need to be slightly lighter on the upper left, closer to the light source. Observe the v-shape in the center of the very bottom section of the nose. I use 2H and HB pencils to lay down a layer of light and medium values with squirkles. A combination of tiny circles, dots and squirkle lines provides the fun texture to all sections of the nose. I use a 2B pencil to add darker shading to the sections in shadow and a 4B for the inner sections of the nostrils. At this point, I examine the nose closely and modify any sections I’m not happy with. To darken a section of her nose, I simply add more squirkling lines. To lighten a section, I pat it with a kneaded eraser that is molded to a point.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • - 20 - The hatching lines used to indicate the fur around the nose are ragged and uneven, and are also various values, lengths and thicknesses. As I render each section of fur, I take my time and refer to the photos to determine the different directions in which the hatching lines need to curve. The overall shading of her lower face becomes progressively darker toward the lower right. As I draw, I continually refer back to other sections that are almost complete, compare those values to the section in which I am working, and make adjustments as needed. To make a section of fur darker I simply add more hatching lines. To lighten a furry section, I pat the individual hatching lines very gently and carefully with a kneaded eraser that is molded to a wedge shape.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • - 21 - The shading of Evie’s face has the darkest darks and the lightest lights, so as to bring the attention of the viewer directly to this center of interest. Her ears will be rendered with slightly less contrast toward their tips. Hence, the sections of the drawing around the edges will not draw attention away from her beautiful eyes and face, which are rendered with high contrast shading.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • - 22 - I identify and outline the lightest wisps of hair on her right ear with neat thin lines so I won’t be as likely to accidentally add shading to these sections. I continuously examine both reference photos as I add shading to the negative spaces behind the outlined fur. Refer to the following five illustrations to check out my shading process.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • - 23 - As I add shading to her ear, I keep in mind that the values need to be lighter on the upper left because these sections are closer to the light source. I add slightly darker shading along the inside edges, which helps give the illusion of depth to the forms.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • - 24 -Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • - 25 -Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • - 26 -Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • - 27 - Her second ear is shaded in much the same way as the first. The overall values are slightly darker however, because this ear is more in shadow. I indicate her whiskers and unruly gray wisps of fur by shading the negative spaces on both sides of the individual strands. In some places, I use my kneaded eraser, shaped to a wedge, to pull out long thin strands of fur. I layer a light value (with my HB pencil) over the shadow areas to very slightly darken any sections of white paper that are showing through.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • - 28 - I complete the shading of her neck and upper body. I then take a final look at the reference photos and compare them to my drawing. Hence, I can find any areas that can still use a little improvement. I add a few final touches, such as adding more contrast to the fur. Additional dark, short hatching lines, and light sections pulled out with my kneaded eraser, accentuate the silver hairs amidst the black. As a grand finale, I accentuate some of the individual strands of fur around her ears and lower face.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • - 29 - As an artist, you should work toward creating drawings that make you happy, and subsequently motivated to continue onward in your art making journey; hence, you should feel comfortable in using whatever drawing tools are available to you, such as viewfinder frames or grids. In closing, remember that learning to draw is not a short term goal but rather a lifelong journey. BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha- Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • Brenda Hoddinott W-04 Advanced: Studio Diary Series The drawing of a stone dragon featured in this diary, demonstrates the process of rendering high contrast shading with squirkling and stippling, so as to create the textures and patterns of highly polished smooth stone, jagged stone, and glass.You can choose from various approaches to exploring the creative and technicalprocesses of rendering this drawing, including: Printing this lesson, curling up in your favorite comfy chair, and closely examining the thirty-six illustrations as you read. Rendering a drawing of this sculpture by following along with the text and illustrations. Using this lesson as a guideline while drawing a stone object of your choice, or a similar subject from a photograph, life, or your imagination.I get my sketch off to a great start by first setting up the lighting and composition, andthen sketching accurate proportions. From there a detailed outline of the sculpture allowsme to plan my shading approach. To protect my drawing from accidental smudging, andmaintain the crisp edges of the high contrast shading, I work from the upper section ofthe drawing downward to the cast shadow. 16 PAGES – 36 ILLUSTRATIONS Recommended for artists with advanced drawing skills, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2005
  • -2- If your goal with this lesson is to simply explore the creative and technical processes of my drawing rather than draw, simply print this lesson, curl up in your favorite comfy chair, and closely examine the thirty-six illustrations as you read. On the other hand, you may prefer to render a drawing of this sculpture by following along with the text and illustrations. Or you can use this lesson as a guideline while drawing a stone object of your choice or a similar subject from life. If you are drawing from your own subject, choose something that appeals to you. Otherwise you may get bored halfway through. If you’re a beginner, choose a subject that you feel is very, very simple. You set yourself up for a frustrating experience by taking on a project beyond your skill level. Set up your subject and plan your drawing before you begin. Rotate the object until you find an angle that pleases you and take the time to set up suitable lighting. Then plan your drawing format. Choose an approximate size. Decide if your completed drawing should be horizontal or vertical, and whether a rectangular, square, oval, circular or another shaped format is more appropriate for your subject. The subject of my drawing is an original sculpture made for me as a gift by my friend Jesse Wilts. Unfortunately, the actual sculpture cannot be included with this lesson!  So, I took a couple of photos to give you an idea of what it looks like. Always place a piece of clean paper under your hand as you draw. Each time you work on a new section, remember to move your paper so it’s always under your hand. This prevents you from smudging your drawing, and protects the paper from the oils in your skin.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • -3- Setting up accurate proportions is a great way to make sure my drawing is off to a great start! As I sketch with an HB pencil, only the weight of the pencil itself creates the very faint lines. The lines in the next few illustrations seem dark; however, in reality the lines are so light that I can barely see them. I have made them darker in a computer program so you can see them.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • -4- Don’t press too hard with your pencils! No matter how careful you are, accidents do happen and you may need to erase a section. I prefer using mechanical pencils to avoid having to constantly sharpen my pencils. On the other hand, when I do draw with regular pencils, I keep the points very sharp with a sandpaper block. I visually measure the proportions of my sketch, while constantly comparing them to the sculpture. Confirm that spaces and perspective elements are drawn correctly. Check the relationships of the various parts to one another, observe that angles, sizes, and proportions are accurate, and adjust as needed. Pay close attention to the shapes of the negative and positive spaces.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • -5- The head of the dragon is drawn as it was created. First I outline the form of the stone and then slowly “cut away” sections. The edges of the forms of this sculpture are neither parallel nor perpendicular to one another. However, having a firm grasp of the rules of perspective is a tremendous help with rendering many aspects of this drawing. To learn some of the basic elements of perspective, refer to lessons A- 14: Perspective Basics, B-26: One Point Perspective and C-27: Above, On and Below the Horizon Line.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • -6- I sketch the final details, including the fingers and toes. At this point, my initial sketch is almost complete. I check my proportions carefully by comparing my drawing to the actual sculpture and fix problem areas. I use my kneaded eraser to gently pat my entire sketch until the lines are so light that I can barely see them. With a freshly sharpened HB pencil, I lightly outline the entire drawing and add additional details. As I draw, I constantly study the sculpture in search of intricate details that will enhance the accuracy of my drawing. Draw slowly. Accuracy is more important than speed. Your speed automatically improves with practice. After patting the outline with my kneaded eraser, my drawing is ready for shading. The light source is from the upper left; hence, the overall shading on the left will be lighter than on the right. However, additional very dark shadows are visible in the carved out crevices, such as the eye and nostrils.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • -7- I use various grades of pencils from 2H (for the lightest values), to 6B (for the darkest shadow sections). The high contrast shading technique I use for the stone texture of this sculpture, combines squirkling with stippling. Squirkling is an easy method of shading, in which randomly drawn curved lines, squiggles, scribbles, and squirkles are combined with circular shapes to create textured values. Stippling (sometimes referred to as pointillism) is a shading method in which various dots are used to create values. High contrast shading is created by drawing very dark values beside the highlights and light values. As you can see in this close up, the high shine of the polished stone in the upper sections of this sculpture, is achieved by utilizing high contrast values rendered with squirkling and stippling.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • -8- I add a few dark spots with a 2B pencil (in the light sections) and a 6B (in the shadow sections) to accentuate the intricate patterns within the stone. The eye and nostrils are cut into the stone and therefore in shadow (shaded with a 6B pencil). To maintain a realistic representation of the sculpture, I vary the thicknesses and values of the lines that outline the edges of the forms.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • -9- As my shading extends downward to the shoulders and arms, I become increasingly aware of the sharp contrast between the light values on the left as compared to the extreme darks on the right. A combination of tiny circles, dots and squirkle lines continue to create the wonderful texture and pattern of the stone.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • - 10 - The shiny texture of the glass egg is slightly different than that of polished stone. To accentuate the high gloss sheen of the egg, I blend it slightly with a Q-tip. I then use my kneaded eraser to brighten the highlight, and the reflected light on the lower right. I then add thin lines to indicate the pattern. The shading on the right side of the wing exemplifies high contrast shading. The very dark cast shadow on the inner section wing, where the light is blocked by the arm and shoulder, is shaded with a 6B pencil. In contrast, the highlights on the upper section of the wing are the white of the paper.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • - 11 - Accurately rendering the reflected light, is integral to creating the illusion of three- dimensional reality, especially on the leg, foot, and toes.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • - 12 - As I draw, I continually refer back to other sections that are almost complete, compare those values to the section in which I am working, and make adjustments as needed. To make a section darker I simply add more shading. To lighten a section, I pat it very gently and carefully with a kneaded eraser that is molded to a point or wedge shape. The upper section of the base of the sculpture is slightly less shiny that the dragon. Numerous highlights and shadows need to be rendered so as to accurately portray the uneven surface of the base.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • - 13 - The frontal edge of the base of the statue is mostly shaded with light values. This section has not been polished smooth like the figure; hence, its natural stone texture is highly evident, and captured in the drawing with irregular shaped sections of shading. I have purposely made the outlines along the edges of the base more ragged looking than in the actual statue, so as to enhance the jagged texture. As you complete your drawing - a word of caution - Handle your drawing paper by the edges only. Don’t touch (or let anyone else touch) the surface of your drawing paper, unless absolutely necessary. Natural oils or dirt on someone’s hands can damage your drawing.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • - 14 - The edge of the base on the right is in shadow and therefore shaded with dark values. However, some areas are left slightly lighter so the jagged forms of the stone are visible. I layer a light value (with my HB pencil) over all the darkest shadow areas, to very slightly darken any tiny sections of white paper that are still showing through. Less is more! I am very careful not to overdo this – I stick to the darkest shadows only! As the grand finale, I add the cast shadow with crosshatching lines (as in the next illustration). But, I simply can resist putting the drawing away for an hour or so, and then coming back for one last look. I find a few things that need to be touched up, such as making some sections lighter or darker, using my kneaded eraser to brighten highlights, and adding more spots to the pattern of the stone.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • - 15 - As an artist, you should work toward creating drawings that make you happy, and subsequently motivated to continue onward in your art making journey. In addition to drawing from life, you should also feel comfortable in using whatever drawing tools are available to you, such as viewfinder frames or grids. In closing, remember that learning to draw is not a short term goal but rather a lifelong journey.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • - 16 - BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha- Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • Brenda Hoddinott W-05 ADVANCED: STUDIO SERIESThis heavily illustrated diary explores the process of planning and drawing a double portrait fromtwo photos of the same person, one as a child and the other as an adult. A complex grid serves asa valuable artistic tool, for helping with such challenges as rendering believable proportions andcorrect perspective.The most important component of learning to draw is maintaining the enthusiasm. Aspiringartists should feel comfortable in using whatever tools are available to them, such as viewfinderframes and grids, so as to create drawings that make them happy and subsequently motivated tocontinue onward.If you are very familiar with setting up and working from a grid, you may wish to consider usingtwo of your own photos of someone special (or two different people), and just follow along withmy directions as guidelines. If you decide to work from your own photos, make sure you chooselarge ones in which the facial features are clear and in focus. 23 PAGES – 39 ILLUSTRATIONSRecommended for artists with advanced drawing skills, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – November, 2005
  • 2 My drawing is done from two different reference photos of my friend Rob, the first as a child and the second as an adult. My goal is to create a drawing that includes both images. If you are feeling brave, and are very familiar with setting up and working from a grid, you may wish to consider using two of your own photos. Simply follow along with my directions as guidelines for rendering your own project. Using the lines of a sheet of graph paper as guidelines, I draw horizontal and vertical grid lines on a copy of each photo with a fine tip ballpoint pen. I then mark letters (A to J) and numbers (1 to 10) on each photo to identify the vertical and horizontal rows. Next, I carefully tape the corners of my Arches 140lb. watercolor paper to a large sheet of graph paper. I work out the approximate size of my final drawing based on it being twice the size of my photos. The grid squares on the photos are one-quarter inch, and I draw half-inch squares on the drawing paper. My drawing is quite small, so I will use mostly 0.3mm and 0.5mm mechanical pencils, from 4H to 2B. Feel free to use whatever size squares you wish depending on if you would like a small or large drawing. However, it is generally accepted that a drawing of a human face should be smaller that life size. I haven’t decided on the final composition yet, so the grid lines are drawn on the entire surface of my paper. The section of the grid that I plan to use for the actual drawing is 19 squares across and 10 squares down. Because the accuracy of the facial proportions and their relative size is crucial to obtaining a good likeness, I have drawn diagonal lines on both the photo and the drawing paper to further help me place the features. Make sure you draw your grid lines VERY lightly, preferably with an HB mechanical pencil. Only the weight of the pencil itself created my very faint lines. They are so light that they barely showed up on the scan, so I had to adjust the contrast in Photoshop. I decide to draw adult Rob first, on the right side of my drawing format. I number and letter only this side of the drawing for now, using numbers along the top and letters down the side. I add letters (A to J) and numbers (1 to 10) to the drawing paper to correspond with those on the photo, and outline his face, hat and clothing.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 3 I work on one square at a time, while constantly referring to the photo to make sure that I am working in the correct squares. I draw slowly and check the proportions often. As I work, I carefully observe the relationships between the lines, shapes, and spaces inside each grid square. After completing the initial sketch, I took a break, then came back and corrected a few sections with which I wasn’t completely happy.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 4 I’m now ready to begin the fun stuff – adding values! Before I start the hat, I erase the vertical and horizontal grid lines. I leave some of the diagonal lines as reference for my crosshatching lines. With a kneaded eraser, I gently pat this section of the drawing, to remove any tiny eraser crumbs, before I begin the shading. By the way, this scan is considerably more accurate for the actual values of the grid and the outlines. The images in this tutorial are fairly self-explanatory, so you’ll find very little text from this point onward. Have a close peek at the actual crosshatching lines in the below illustration. Before you start shading each section, remember to erase the grid lines.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 5 The reference photo of adult Rob is incredibly “flat” due to outdoor lighting from above and a flash. I have chosen a light source from the upper right and slightly in front of his face and will attempt to add a little more dimension to his features. I add the tiny section of hair on the left and the shading under the rim of the hat on his forehead, and finish the hat. The shading on his forehead is added with 4H to HB pencils. I use HB and 2B for his eyebrows and the hair on the right. Contour hatching lines work well for both the hair and eyebrows. Examine the following three illustrations and take note that the overall shading of the eye on the left is slightly darker than the other because it is farther away from the light source. The irises and whites of the eyes are darker under each upper eyelid and on the right. Keep your drawing relatively light at this point. It is simple to darken areas, but somewhat more difficult to lighten areas which are too dark.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 6 I first use 4H and 2H to add light and medium values to the irises and the whites of his eyes, and the forms of the face around his eyes. Remember, the overall values on the right are slightly lighter due to the location of the light source. I then use slightly darker shading (2H, HB, and 2B) to complete the eyes and accentuate the shadow sections of his face around his eyes. For the pupil I use 6B very lightly and sparingly. The hatching lines of the eyebrows and eyelashes curve in many different directions. Also, darker shading close to the upper eyelid helps make the eyelashes appear thicker. When you draw eyelashes, keep your pencil point very sharp. Use slightly curved hatching lines of various thicknesses and lengths.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 7 As I finish the shading of his nose and ears, and the center of his face, I am finally beginning to achieve a likeness, which is always exciting. I have added some background shading on the right with 2H and HB pencils and have also begun the shading on a small section of his jacket.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 8 The photo I am working from was taken during a ski trip and I really like his facial expression. You may have noticed a little beard stubble on his lower face, which I have chosen to include because it implies a casual mood. To make the mouth look more realistic, I erase the outlines around the lips and teeth, before adding shading. A smiling mouth is always a challenge. Teeth are very difficult to draw and it is very important to keep the initial shading very light. Take note that his lips are shaded without a distinctive outline. The teeth are not left white, but rather shaded very lightly with 4H and 2H pencils.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 9 Shading is added to the neck, sweater, jacket, and the lower section of his face. After establishing basic values on the darker side of his jacket, I now touch up a few sections of his face by darkening a few of the shadow areas. This young man has a gentle nature and I have decided to keep the contrast of darks and lights on his face minimal to accentuate this. Take a few minutes and check over your drawing and make any adjustments needed. There are several methods of checking your drawing for problems. My favorites are turning the drawing upside down or holding it in front of a mirror for a fresh perspective.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 10 Finally I have the basic drawing of his face completed. I add light shading to his jacket on the left. I plan to made value adjustments when the other half of the drawing is finished. Later, I will also need to touch up other sections, but for now I am interested in starting the other half of this drawing.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 11 Before you start the second portrait of the child, examine the drawing of the adult closely and make any changes you feel are important. If you are among those brave souls who are working from your own photos, sketch a to- scale outline drawing of the second person on a piece of tracing paper before you work on the actual drawing. By placing the outline over the drawing you can choose the best placement and even change the size if you are not happy with it. It’s now time to draw the little angel. I establish my grid, and number it from 1 to 9 along the top and letter it from A to J down the left side. I add diagonal lines to assist me with more accurate placements of the facial features. I draw a to-scale sketch of the outline of the little angel on a piece of tracing paper, and then lay it over the left side of my drawing paper. When I have confirmed where I want the second face to be, I very lightly mark the corresponding grid squares on both the photo and the drawing paper.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 12 Once I remove the tracing paper, I know where to draw the child. I then take my time and very lightly outline his various parts, including the wings. Draw the outline very lightly! My scanner software has darkened this sketch, so that you are able to see my lines. My next goal is to add the light and medium values. I’ll then compare the values to the adult Rob and then add darker sections of shading. I add light and medium values to the hair and background, taking care to leave the halo the white of the paper.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 13 I indicate the halo by shading only the negative space around its oval shape. His hair needs to be fair, soft and wispy; hence, I use freshly sharpened 2H and HB pencils and keep my hatching lines light. I add more crosshatching to the background, finish the hair, and add shading to his eye on the left and the section of the face around the eye. More light and medium values are added to the face and his second eye. I add a subtle image into the shadows. If you find my image disturbing, just leave it out or draw something else.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 14 I finish the background and his ear, and begin working on his face, neck, and clothing. I draw rose leaves on the wings instead of feathers. The symbolism of a rose seems perfect for this drawing.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 15 I finish the face, neck, and background. I also draw a small rosebud in the background. If you prefer, you can add something of special meaning to you. Generally the shading on the face of a child is much softer, lighter in value, and has less contrast than of an adult. Take your time drawing the lips and the shading around the mouth. Check your proportions carefully as you work. As you can see in the next illustration, I have finished drawing the other wing and the clothing.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 16 I now add darker shading and final touches. Examine the next four detailed illustrations of the facial sections of the angel. My changes and additions include the following: Add darker shading to the nose and lips. Use a 6B to add darker shading to the pupils of the eyes. Accentuate the muscles between the eyebrows with HB. Exaggerate the facial expression by moving the inside upper edge of the eyebrows upward. Move the corners of the mouth downward slightly. Add more stress to the chin area by tightening the muscles with more detailed shading. Lighten the iris of the eye on the side opposite the highlight, with a kneaded eraser molded to a point. Add more crosshatching to the lighter sections of his face and features with 2H and 4H.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 17 Before I add darker values, and do a few final touchups, I check the drawing for any problem areas, and make any changes that I feel are important. If you are drawing this little angel, take a few minutes to compare your drawing of the facial section to mine and fix any areas that you are not completely happy with. Sometimes, turning the drawing upside down or holding it in front of a mirror, provides a new perspective.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 18 I use HB to darken the background in a few places. I add darker values and more details to the shirt, neck, wings, rose, and the hair on the shadow side. Take your time with these sections of shading. Refer to the illustration on the left, and the three illustrations on the next two pages.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 19Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 20 I have darkened several areas of shading on the young man’s face and clothing including the: Hat, hair and eyebrows (2B). Pupils of the eyes (6B) and the upper eyelashes (HB). Teeth closest to the outside corners of his mouth (2H). Corners of his mouth (2B). Lower lip and just under his lower lip on the left (HB). Small section of his sweater under his ear on the right (HB). Shoulder areas of his jacket and the lower area of the collar on the right (HB). I have also lightened his front teeth and the whites of his eyes, added more detail to the creases under the eye on the right, lightened the irises of his eyes opposite the highlight, and softened the edge of his jaw on the right, by lightening the line of shadow. Refer to the next two illustrations:Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 21Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 22 Have a last look at your entire drawing. Turn it upside down or hold it in front of a mirror to check for problem areas. Make changes to anything you are not happy with. Then, sign your name, add today’s date to the back of the drawing, and pat yourself on the back!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 23 BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 2792, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 2794, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 2798, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. These sites are respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • Brenda HoddinottW-06 Advanced: Studio SeriesThis heavily illustrated diary demonstrates theprocess of drawing my favorite style of caricature,affectionately referred to as a gigglecature (a wordyou will probably not find in any dictionary). As youexplore the creation of this lifelike gigglecature of ayoung child, a complex grid will help with suchchallenges as rendering believable proportions.If you are very familiar with setting up and working from a grid, you may wish to consider usingphotos of someone special to you, and just follow along with my guidelines. If you decide towork from a photo, make sure you choose a large one in which the facial features are clear and infocus.This lesson is divided into the following three sections: PLANNING THE DRAWING AND SETTING UP THE GRID: Using the lines of the graph paper as guidelines, I use an HB mechanical pencil and a ruler to draw a rectangle, and divide it into 48 squares OUTLINING FACE, HAIR, AND CLOTHING: I lightly sketch the outline of the facial features, the yarn-textured hair, and the unique clothing. GRADUATIONS, TEXTURES, AND INTRICATE DETAILS: I add shading to the entire drawing, according to a dominant light source from the right and above. ADDING FINAL TOUCHES: I lighten some sections of shading with my kneaded eraser, and darken others with a 2B pencil to enhance the overall contrast.This project is recommended for artists with strong drawing skills, who have a well-trained eyefor details and an incredible amount of patience. The actual drawing time on this project will be20 to 40 hours. Curriculum is designed for advanced students of home schooling, academic andrecreational fine art educators. 30 PAGES – 44 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – December, 2005
  • 2 PLANNING THE DRAWING AND SETTING UP THE GRID This caricature came to mind as I watched a movie on TV, starring a young child actress with an incredibly endearing face. You may know Hallie Kate Eisenberg from her numerous acting roles, including soft drink commercials and The Miracle Worker. The drawing of her wonderfully animated face is based mostly on memory, from which I retrieved this rough sketch. One of an artist’s best friends is a sketchbook, in which I often capture creative thoughts as visual images. I drew her freehand, but wanted to make it into a lesson; therefore, I made numerous scans of the work in progress. The grid is added to the drawing simply to help students accurately render such intricacies as her clothing and curly hair. However, not everyone likes working with a grid, so feel free to draw freehand. As you draw, simply ignore any references to the grid. To accentuate her most distinctive feature, her eyes, I plan a tightly cropped composition. The dark shading of the background, hair, and clothing will surround and frame her very fair face. Hence, her dark eyes will become the focal point. Feel free to use your creative license to modify this lesson any way you wish. Maybe you would prefer to do a caricature of someone you know, or simply make up a character from your imagination.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 3 To set up the grid, I first carefully tape the corners of my Arches 140lb. watercolor paper to a large sheet of graph paper. My drawing is quite small, 6 by 8 inches and the grid is made up of 1 inch squares. For a larger drawing use 1.5 inch squares (9 by 12 inch drawing), or 2 inch squares (12 by 16 inch drawing) Using the lines of a sheet of graph paper as guidelines, I use an HB mechanical pencil and a ruler to draw a rectangle and divide it into 48 squares. Starting from the left, I number the vertical squares along the top and bottom with numbers 1 through 6. Starting from the top, I letter the horizontal squares down both sides with letters A through H. Always draw grid lines VERY lightly, preferably with an HB mechanical pencil. For increased accuracy, draw diagonal lines in the grid squares to help you place the features more accurately. Only the weight of the pencils themselves created my very faint lines. They are so light that they barely showed up on the scan, so I had to adjust the contrast in Photoshop. By the way, this entire project is rendered with 0.3mm and 0.5mm mechanical pencils, from 4H to 2B.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 4 OUTLINING FACE, HAIR, AND CLOTHING I lightly sketch the outline of the face, and then add the intricate strands of hair around the perimeter of forehead (refer to the drawing on the next page for a close-up of the hair). Drawing the contents of one grid square at a time is much simpler than trying to tackle a whole section at once.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 5 I lightly outline the eyes, nose, and mouth. The placement of the facial features of this child, follow the same proportional guidelines as realistic portraiture. Strong drawing skills and a good knowledge of facial anatomy are important aspects of drawing both caricatures and cartoons of people. When you know the rules, you know how to break them successfully! As I work, I constantly double check both sides of my drawing to make sure her features are symmetrical (see the close-up drawing on the next page).Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 6 My favorite methods of checking a drawing for problems are to turn it upside down, or hold it in front of a mirror. An accurately rendered preliminary drawing, helps make the shading phase of this artwork seem much simpler. I continue adding strands of hair to the upper section of hair on the left (see the following two illustrations). I find it very helpful to follow each strand of hair from its origin to its ending, over, under, and behind other strands. By now, you have no doubt, discovered why this drawing is considered advanced. You not only need an incredible amount of patience, but a little OCD would be considered a definite advantage. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 7 I complete the outlines of the hair on the left. Even though all the individual strands of hair are curved, many are thicker than others. They overlap and intertwine throughout the hair. Draw slowly and check the proportions often. Carefully observe the relationships between the lines, shapes, and spaces inside each grid square. Take time each day to capture your creative thoughts as visual images in your sketchbook.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 8 I draw the little section of the ear that is showing, and the hair on the right. The hair is not quite as curly on this side and is therefore easier to draw. I decide to take a little break from drawing hair and work on the clothing for a while. Refer to the close-up of her clothing on the next page. When I originally envisioned this character, I wanted her clothing to have a natural, aboriginal, or native look… to compliment her casual hairstyle. Yet I wanted to add a contemporary touch as well. I achieved my goal with a combination of lace, fabric, and feathers. Also, the unusual texture of the neck of her garment adds a touch of mystery and fantasy as to her origin.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 9 I’m close to finishing the outline and well into my second day of working on this drawing (including making scans of the drawing in progress, of course). I’m beginning to get bored with the outline drawing and am looking forward to the shading. I finish drawing the hair on the right and add the outline of the shoulders (visible only in small segments behind the strands of hair). Refer to the drawing on the next page. Constantly refer to my drawing to make sure you are working in the correct squares. Compare the placement of everything with your drawing. Continue making any changes needed until you are completely happy with everything.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 10Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 11Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 12 GRADUATIONS, TEXTURES, AND INTRICATE DETAILS After completing the initial sketch, I took a break, then came back and corrected a few sections with which I wasn’t completely happy. I’m now ready to begin the fun stuff – adding values! Before you begin adding values, examine the completed drawing on the right to get an overview of the shading goals. The dominant light source is from the right and above. Remember, the shading of the hair is lighter in some places with the white paper showing through. The strands of hair are generally thicker, lighter in value, and more detailed closer to the face. I use the edge of my vinyl eraser to erase the vertical and horizontal grid lines in the sections in which I plan to work. I leave some of the diagonal lines as references for my crosshatching lines. The background is shaded with crosshatching graduations. All my crosshatching lines are diagonal rather than horizontal and vertical. This is a matter of personal preference and style. Before you begin each section, pat the drawing with a kneaded eraser to lighten the sketch lines, and remove any remaining eraser crumbs. A 2H pencil works well for the light values, and an HB for the darker areas in the upper corner and toward the bottom. The images in this tutorial are fairly self-explanatory, so you’ll find very little text from this point onward.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 13 Experiment with different techniques to find a comfortable style for shading the hair before you begin. Remember, this drawing has a LOT of hair, so, if you don’t have an extraordinary attention span, choose a less tedious style of shading. I first added shading to the darker hair on the left with curved hatching lines that follow the perceived form of each strand of hair. I have attempted to give the hair a yarn or dreadlock texture. Before you start shading each section, remember to erase the grid linesCopyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 14 I add light and medium values to the hair with 0.3mm and 0.5mm mechanical pencils, from 4H to HB. The darkest values will be added later with a 2B pencil, when the drawing is almost complete. Generally speaking, the hair in the background is dark and the strands become progressively lighter in value toward the foreground.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 15 I add shading to the section of the ear that is showing on the left, with 2H and HB pencils. This shading graduates darker closer to the side of the face. I add more textured shading to the hair strands on the left side of the bangs. The very dark shading that is peeking out from under and below her ear is rendered with an HB pencil.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 16 With 2H and HB pencils, I add shading to the sections of hair in front of and around the ear. The different values give form to the hair, and the technique of shading with curved hatching lines, adds the texture. I complete the background shading on this side, graduating the values to dark, closer to the bottom of the page.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 17 I complete more strands of hair on the left. An HB pencil works well to add dark shading to the tiny section of the neck. With 2H and HB pencils, I add a little shading to her clothing, paying close attention to the different values, which give the illusion of depth to the gathers of the fabric. I add the texture and design of the band of trim on her sleeve.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 18 Most of the hair on the other side of her head is lighter in value because it is closer to the light source. I use mostly 2H and HB pencils.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 19 I erase the grid lines from the face in preparation for shading. I begin with the forehead and slowly progress down the face to the chin and neck. All the delicate facial shading is done with diagonal crosshatching lines. To render intricate crosshatching lines, you need to keep your pencil point very sharp. I use my 2H pencil for the lighter areas on the face, and my HB for the darker shadow areas. The shading that defines the forms of the forehead, eye sockets, cheeks and chin is slightly darker on the left. The areas in the shadows of the nose, corners of the mouth, and the strands of hair on the forehead, are indicated by darker shading.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 20 Before I began shading the facial features, I fix a lock of hair over the eyebrow on the right, which I just didn’t like. I erased the section touching the brow, and shortened and straightened it. Using a shading style similar to that of the hair, I shaded the eyebrows and added a shadow under each brow. I outline the pupil, iris, and the highlight of each eye, and add shading to the nose. The shading of the nose is similar to shading a sphere. Remember to leave the highlight white, and to leave a light area along the shadow edge of the nose to represent reflected light.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 21 The iris of each eye is shaded with an HB pencil, and the pupil with a 4B. The irises are darker on the side where the highlight is drawn. The shading on the face around and between the eyes is darker on the side of the face further away from the light source. The dark shading on the ear creates the illusion of the ear being under the hair and set further back than the edge of the face. With HB and 2H pencils, I continue with more shading in the background, noting that it is becoming progressively lighter as it is drawn diagonally towards the lower left corner. I added dark shading to the strands of hair under her ear behind the side of her face.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 22 I add several more strands of hair on the right. HB and 2H pencils work great for adding more graduated shading to the background. At this point, the values become gradually darker toward the bottom of the page. The shoulder on the right becomes more clearly defined when I add the shading to the background and draw more strands of hair.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 23 With 2H, 2B, and HB pencils, I continue shading the clothing, varying the shading techniques for the different textures of the fabric, trim, lace, and feathers. As you can see in the below illustration, I am almost finished shading the lace around her neck, the fabric on the shoulder and sleeve with its decorative band, and the feathers. I complete the lower section of background shading on this side.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 24 I finish the hair on this side of the drawing. ADDING FINAL TOUCHES At this point, the shading is comprised of mostly middle values; hence, I need to lighten some sections with my kneaded eraser and darken others with a 2B pencil to enhance the overall contrast. First of all, I go over the entire drawing and pull out the lightest values, such as the highlights in her eyes, and on her nose, chin, and cheeks.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 25Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 26 With freshly sharpened 2B and 4B pencils, I darken tiny sections of shading, especially in the shadow areas. Refer to the close-up of her face (on the right) and the following five illustrations.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 27 Practice gigglecatures on your family and friends either from life, sketches, or photographs. Even though they are a lot of fun, you are still learning valuable drawing skills. The secret to drawing a likeness to an actual person is to exaggerate prominent features. Strong observation skills and a creative mind will result in an exciting project. Only practice, practice and more practice will help you improve.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 28 Take a few minutes and check over your drawing and make any adjustments needed. Sign your name and put today’s date on the back of your drawing.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 29Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 30 BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. These sites are respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • Greek Brenda Hoddinott In this project, featuring a detailed drawing W07 ADVANCED: STUDIO SERIES based on a 200-year-old painting, you use several drawing techniques to capture the forms and textures according to the lights and darks created by two light sources.This lesson is divided into the following six sections:  Planning the drawing  Sketching proportions  If you prefer to work with a grid  Outlining the face, hair, and clothing  Shading the background and hair  Shading the face, beard, and clothingYou need various grades of pencils, good quality drawing paper, and erasers. If you plan touse regular wood pencils instead of mechanical, you also need a pencil sharpener and asandpaper block. This project is recommended for artists from age 10 to adult, as well as students of home schooling, academic, and recreational fine art educators. 13 PAGES – 18 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Drawspace.com, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2009
  • 2 PLANNING THE DRAWING Long before the Renaissance, ancient Greek and Roman artists created realistic artworks of nature, animals, and people. In addition to sculptures, murals, frescos, coins, and pottery, several breathtaking realistic mummy paintings have survived the ravages of time. One of my favorites is a mummy portrait of a young man, possibly a Roman soldier. A mummy portrait is a painting of a man, woman, or child that was discovered attached to the face of a burial mummy. Many date back to the Roman occupation of Egypt. I couldn’t resist the challenge of drawing someone who lived Figure 701 more than 2000 years ago. My goal is to create a drawing that looks like the painting, including the imperfections of the old wooden panel on which it was painted. My drawing is based on photos I found on the Internet and in books. I seriously doubted that the museum curators would let me borrow the original! I plan to make several changes, such as moving the cracks in the wooden panel that run through his face. SKETCHING PROPORTIONS If you don’t want to draw freehand, Figure 703 provides you with an easy to follow grid of my final contour drawing. I began by lightly and loosely sketching the basic proportions. Refer to Figure 701.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 3 Figure 702 OUTLINING THE FACE, HAIR, AND CLOTHING I lightly sketch the outline of the face, and then add the intricate strands of hair around the perimeter of his forehead. Very few of the original sketch lines are still visible in this scan. Next, I outline the eyes, nose, and mouth as well as a few sections of highlights and dark shadows. I continue on to the hair, beard, ear, and clothing. As I work, I constantly double check the facial proportions. My favorite method of checking a drawing for problems is to turn it upside down, or hold it in front of a mirror. The outline is finished on my second day of working on this drawing. I’m looking forward to adding the shading!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 4 IF YOU PREFER TO WORK WITH A GRID Always draw grid lines VERY Figure 703 lightly, preferably with an HB pencil. Drawing the contents of one grid square at a time is much simpler than trying to tackle a whole section at once. Constantly refer to my drawing to make sure you are working in the correct squares. Carefully observe the relation- ships between the lines, shapes, and spaces inside each grid square.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 5 Figure 704 SHADING THE BACKGROUND AND HAIR I chose a light source from the upper right for my drawing. In essence, I am drawing a three dimensional series of wooden boards, on which there just happens to be a portrait. A light source from the upper left was chosen by the original artist for this portrait. I don’t plan to change this. Hence, I am working with two distinctively different light sources Before I begin shading, I use a kneaded eraser to lighten the sketch lines. I then add darker outlines to the strands of hair closest to the Figure 705 section in which I plan to work (so they don’t become hidden under the shading. I outline the outer edges of the boards as I go. A 2H pencil works well for the light values, and HB and 2B pencils for the darker areas. My shading is mostly crosshatching with a few random lines to indicate the wood grain under the paint. A touch of blending is added in a few sections just to make sure that my white paper is completely covered.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • The hair is lighter in some 6 places. Note that I am not Figure 706 using graduations; rather I am treating each tiny section as a dab of paint (or a brush stroke). I outline each of these little shapes before I add shading. The strands of hair are generally thicker, lighter in value, and more detailed closer to the face. The background is shaded with crosshatching graduations. All my crosshatching lines are diagonal rather than horizontal and vertical. This is a matter of personal preference and style. The images in this tutorial are fairly self-explanatory, so you’ll find very little text from this point onward. Experiment with different techniques to find a comfortable style for shading the hair before you begin. Remember, this drawing has a LOT of hair, so, if you don’t have an extraordinary attention span, choose a less tedious style of shading. Before you start shading each section, remember to lighten your sketch lines and erase the grid lines (if you used a grid).Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 7 Figure 707 Figure 708 Figure 709 Figure 710Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 8 Figure 711 SHADING THE FACE, BEARD, AND CLOTHING The values used for the beard are very similar to those used for the hair.Figure 712 Figure 713 However, most of the facial values are light (except for the eyes and eyebrows) and the values for the clothing range from very light to very dark. Again, you rely on your visual skills (and Figures 712 to 720) to complete this project. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 9 Figure 714Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 10 Figure 715 Figure 716Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 11 Figure 717 The final steps include: finishing the clothing and background; using a kneaded eraser to clean up a few smudges; and adding a few darker values to a few of the light sections with a 3H pencil.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 12 Figure 718Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 13 Sign your name, and write today’s date on the back of your drawing. Finally give yourself a big hug! BRENDA HODDINOTT As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist (retired), and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including her favorites: graphite and paint. Brenda is the author of Drawing for Dummies (Wiley Publishing, Inc., New York, NY) and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN). She is currently writing two books on classical drawing. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She >Brenda Hoddinott< developed strong drawing and painting skills through self-directed learning. During her twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, various criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. In 2003, Brenda retired from her careers as a forensic artist and teacher to work full time writing books and developing her website (Drawspace.com). This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • the Maltese Brenda Hoddinott W08 ADVANCED: STUDIO SERIES This adorable Maltese (named Wesley) is the proud owner of my wonderful stepdaughter Renée, and her (equally wonderful) husband Dave. Drawing a white subject on white paper is definitely a challenge. This project shows you how a softly rendered background can successfully separate a white subject from white paper.This lesson is divided into the following five sections:  Planning the Drawing  Sketching Proportions  Setting Up for Shading with a Full Range of Values  Completing the Shading  Adding Final Details from Top to BottomYou need various grades of pencils, good quality drawing paper, and erasers. If you plan to useregular pencils instead of mechanical, you also need a pencil sharpener and a sandpaper block. This project is recommended for artists (from age 14 to adult) with advanced drawing skills, as well as students of home schooling, academic, and recreational fine-art educators. 17 PAGES – 38 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Drawspace.com, Halifax, NS, Canada – June, 2010
  • 2PLANNING THE DRAWINGWesley is the proud owner of my wonderful stepdaughter, Renée Percy, and her husband Dave, whocurrently live in Toronto. Adorable Wesley fits perfectly into their busy lives, their home(s), and (onoccasion) a “puppy-purse”. My reference photo is exactly that – a reference (Figure 801). As you can tell, his pose is perfect – but the photo is a little fuzzy. So, I also have a close-up photo of his Figure 801 face (Figure 802) that will be very helpful for studying/drawing/rendering the facial details. Figure 802If you want to draw another long-haired dog (such as a Lhasa Apso or Shih Tzu) you can still followalong with my drawing process, but sketch him (or her) freehand (or with a grid) from your ownphoto.If you have a Maltese (or want to do a portrait of one you know), you can follow my progress as Idraw Wesley. Of course, you’ll need to add a few subtle nuances that differentiate your Maltese fromWesley. For example, maybe your Maltese has fur that curves in different directions or has larger(or smaller) eyes or nose.SKETCHING PROPORTIONSI chose Arches, hot-pressed, 140 lb. watercolor paper. Its softly textured tooth will help keep theshading soft. I begin by lightly and loosely sketching the basic proportions with a 4H lead in a 0.3mm Koh-I-Noor “Rapidomatic” mechanical pencil.I sketched Wesley freehand (without using a grid), and very few of my lightly rendered linesshowed up in the scan (Figure 803). In Figure 804, you can see that I used Photoshop to darken mysketch (so you can clearly see the shading map indicating the directionality of the fur). If you wantto draw Wesley, you can refer to the grid I drew in Photoshop for you. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 3 Figure 803 Figure 804Take note that I’ve used a rulerto very lightly add horizontaland vertical guidelines on hisface, to keep me on the righttrack for correctly renderingthe slight tilt of his head andfacial features. Theseguidelines also ensure that thesymmetry of his face isproperly represented.If you decide to use a grid,remember to draw everythingVERY lightly – preferably withan H pencil. (To refresh yourskills with working with a grid,refer back to beginner lessonsH16: Brandon, and I13:Drawing the contents of one grid square at a time is much simpler than trying to tackle a wholeCuddles.)section at once. To help prevent mixing up the contents of the squares, add letters (from A to F)across the top and bottom to identify the vertical locations of the grid squares. Add numbers (from 1to 10) down the sides to mark the horizontal squares. For example, the upper left square becomesA1, and the lower left grid square is F10. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 4Constantly refer to my grid drawing to make sure you are working in the correct squares. Also,carefully observe the relationships between the lines, shapes, and spaces inside each grid square. Figure 805 SETTING UP FOR SHADING WITH A FULL RANGE OF VALUES To get a realistic visual sense of the range of values I plan to use, I begin with the background, and then move on to the eyes. Without a background, a white Maltese drawn on white paper would end up as two dark eyes and a nose – not my goal! Therefore, I need to add shading to the background to make the white fur (positive space) stand out against the white paper (negative space). I use a 2H lead to outline the strands of fur in the section on the right, and then add a little shading to the background with crosshatching (Figure 805). In the background, I plan to use a motley pattern of randomly rendered values, as well as an overall graduation from medium values (adjacent to the dog) to light values (toward the edges of the paper). Figure 806I add a few, very light hatching linesto the furry ear on the right, andthen move on to the eyes. Figure 807 The first round of shading for the eye is done with a 2H grade of lead (Figure 806). I then add a few slightly darker values and outlines with 2H and HB leads (Figure 807). Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 5I try to keep the crosshatching lines in the background running in the same directions, so thebackground isn’t too distracting. (I used a ruler to add a few faint guidelines before I began.)I continue adding shading tothe eyes with HB and 2Bpencils (Figure 808). Figure 808I also shade in morefur with 4H and2H leads.Figure 809 I erase the guidelines for facial symmetry (Figure 804) in each section, before adding shading. I use 2B and 4B pencils to darken a few sections of the eyes (Figure 809). I may decide to use a 6B in the pupils, but I’ll wait until I’m a little farther along before making up my mind. I use squirkling, and 2H and HB leads to begin shading the texture of the nose. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 6 Soft shading can get dark very easily. Therefore, I take lots of Figure 810 breaks to examine my progress. When a section looks too dark, I gently pat the shading lines with a kneaded eraser. By the way, if you need to completely erase a small section to adjust proportions, use the sharp edge of a vinyl eraser. At this stage, I have established my range of values: white is obviously the lightest, and the pupils of the eyes are the darkest. Figure 811COMPLETINGTHESHADINGThe hard parts aredone! Now, I get toenjoy shading inthe remainder ofthe drawing beforethe adding the finaltouches.Follow along withFigures 810 to 831to watch (or drawalong with) myprogress.As an aside, thescans are notworking as well asI would like; hence,you may noticethat some areslightly darkerthan others. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 7This scan is a little better; at least you cantell that the values are soft. Figure 812At this stage, I have a strong sense ofwhere I want this drawing to go.I’ll begin working fromthe top toward the bottom.I have used lightlyrendered crosshatchingto define the overallshape of the shading in the negativespace (Figure 812).A few curvedhatching lines onthe upper sectionof his head createa little textureand form(Figure 813).Figure 813 The background is rendered with a 2H lead; I rarely apply any pressure – the weight of the pencil alone is strong enough to create the motley shading (Figure 814). I want the background to resemble an out-of- focus photograph. I use blending very sparingly (and most times I use none). In this case, I want the background to be very soft; a small pointed tortillon works well. I blend in the directions of the crosshatching lines and am careful to leave the faint lines on the outer edges. I then use my kneaded eraser (molded to a point) to clean up the individual strands of hair so they become white again. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 8 As an aside, some scans are darker than my Figure 814 drawing; however, this helps you see the lighter values and shading lines. As you have no doubt figured out by now, the dominant light source is from the frontal, upper right. All my crosshatching lines are diagonal rather than horizontal and vertical. This is a matter of personal preference and style. Very subtle variations of values in Figure 815 the background create the illusion that Wesley has some type of plants behind him (Figure 815). Several illustrations in this lesson are shown larger than my drawing to provide you with a close-up view of my progress. For example, Figure 816 is shown as being almost 5.5 inches wide. In fact, this section is only about 3.5 inches wide. Now, I’m closer to finishing the eyes and the fur around them (Figure 816). Figure 816The next step is towork on the earand backgroundon the right. Thisear is closer to thelight source, so itneeds very littleshading. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 9 Figure 817 This gorgeous little guy is Figure 818 finally beginning to look realistic. The photo wasn’t detailed enough to see much of his haircut. I decided to go with the “three-weeks-after- a-haircut” approach (Figure 818), rather than the polished “show-dog” standard. Before I finish his nose and the fur on his muzzle, I add the shadow sections under his chin (Figure 819). Figure 819 Back to the face! I addedFigure 820 more contrast to the facial fur and darkened sections of the nose to enhance the forms (Figures 820 and 821). Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 10 Keep in mind that this background is to help the white fur stand out from the white paper. Figure 821 If you’re drawing a black dog, a background is obviously optional. I add more shading to the background on the left (Figure 822). Figure 822 Figure 823Most of the fur on the chin needsto move backward; his chin isfarther back in space than hisnose.So, I burnished his chin (Figure823) with a 4H lead, except forthe few strands that will be leftwhite (as if catching a little lightfrom the light source). Figure 824 Time to work on Wesley’s body! Before I continue shading his fur, I sketch a few of the prominent strands of fur as a guide for adding values. Figure 823 shows the relatively accurate values of my shading map. I have used Photoshop to darken the sketch lines so you can see them clearly (figure 824). Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 11 Most shadows should not have bright white strands of fur. Rather, they should be a light value. Figure 825 Hence, white fur in shadow sections benefit from a technique called burnishing. Figure 826Figure 827 In simple terms, burnishing is shading an entire section very lightly with a light grade of pencil to remove any remaining white sections. Burnishing also serves to move sections of subjects back into distant space, thereby enhancing the overall illusion of form. Figure 825 shows the left section of Wesley’s body with only medium values and white. Figure 825 shows the same section after burnishing the shadow sections. A few sections of fur are left white. Check out Figure 827 to see my progress so far. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 12 I added a few strands of fur to Figure 828 Figure 829 represent his tail and continued working on the background on the left (Figure 828). To help create the illusion that he is sitting on a solid surface (and not floating), I added horizontal lines to differentiate the surface from the background. I began adding shading to the background on the right (Figure 829). I burnished the lower left section of Wesley with a 2H pencil to help it recede toward the background (Figure 830). Figure 830Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 13 Figure 831 shows my progress thus far. Figure 831 I’ve finished the fur and background on the right, and the surface on which he is sitting. I still have quite a bit of work left on his chest and paws, but first, I want to begin adding final details and fixing a few sections that don’t look quite right. ADDING FINAL DETAILS FROM TOP TO BOTTOM I like to finish off a drawing by working on small sections at a time. I cover the lower section of the drawing with a clean sheet of paper, so only the very top section is visible (Figure 832). I use my kneaded eraser to lighten some sections and add additional details and shading with 2H and HB pencils (Figures 832 to 835). Figure 832Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 14 As I work my way downward, I continuously move the sheet of paper to Figure 833 protect the lower sections of the drawing. I keep my reference photo close by, so I can distinguish the shadow sections from those closer to the light. As you can see in Figure 834, I have burnished the fur on his neck and chest that are in shadow. Figure 834I’m also using avery smallburnishing stumpto soften some ofthe fur in shadowsections.My goal is tocreate the illusionthat some of thisfur is slightly outof focus, therebybringing the eyesof the viewer backto his face.The fur on hischest has manydifferent values,ranging from whitehighlights tomedium values(Figure 835).However, the trick to illustrating light, shadow, and form is to make sure that you have an overallgraduation of values from dark (as on the left) to white (on the right). Figure 835 Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 15 Just for fun, I decided to make the fur on his body, legs, and Figure 836 feet almost as intricate as that on his head (Figures 836 and 837). However, I used less contrast for the shading of the body; I don’t want the viewer’s eye to be distracted from Wesley’s face. Take note that his back leg and tail (on the left) is heavily burnished to create the illusion that these parts of his body are farther back in space than his front legs. Figure 837Finally, my drawing is complete! Figure 838 (on the next page) is same size as the actual drawing. Ifyou were among the few who bravely took on this project (or a similar one), give yourself a pat onthe head and a big round of applause! Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 16 Figure 838Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 17 BRENDA HODDINOTT Self-educated, award-winning artist, forensic artist, and art educator “My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable.”Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developedstrong drawing and painting skills through self-directed learning.During her twenty-five year career as a self-educated, civilian forensic artist, various criminalinvestigation departments employed Brenda’s skills, including the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, andin 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. In2002, Brenda retired as a forensic artist, to devote more time to creating art, building her business,and writing books.In the style of illustrative realism, she paints in oils and acrylics on canvas and linen, and createsdrawings in graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, and conté.Currently, Brenda is a curriculum designer and owner of Drawspace.com; a highly respected fine-artresource for art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout theworld. She is also the manager and owner of Drawspace Publishing (a Canadian publishing companyfor art-related books). In addition, she is the author and illustrator of Drawing for Dummies, TheDrawing, and Drawspace Illustrated Dictionary of Drawing Words and Terms. She is currentlyComplete Idiots Guide to Drawing People Illustrated, Drawspace Guide to Getting Started withwriting and illustrating her fifth book. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • Page |2High contrast: refers to an image that has the darkest values adjacent to the highlights and light values.Low contrast refers to shading with a limited range of values.Original: refers to an artwork (such as a painting or drawing) created by an artist who was the first to bring the workfrom its intellectual conception to its creative conclusion. There can never be more than one original; however,reproductions (such as giclées) can be made by photographing or scanning the original artwork to replicate (or print)copies of the original image.Photos are great models. They don’t need to be fed, have infinite patience, and best ofall they stay perfectly still as you draw. When I work from a photo reference, my goal isto create a completely original drawing simply based on the photo. Not only would I bebored copying a photo exactly as I see it, but I’d feel like a photocopying machine ratherthan an artist.Naturally, you can render a high contrast drawing from a high contrast photo. However,did you know that you can also create a low contrast drawing from the same photo? Mygoal in this lesson is to create a softly rendered portrait based on a high contrast photoof my daughter, Heidi (Figure 901). Many of the dark values will be replaced withgraduations of middle values. If you prefer, find one of your own photos that is similar,and use it to create an original artwork based on the guidelines of this lesson.Before you begin this challenging task, you need to carefully plan your shadingmodifications. The first step is to make sure the photo meets the basic criteria fordrawing a detailed portrait. For example, if you can’t clearly distinguish the white of aneye from the iris or pupil, chances are you won’t be able to do a detailed drawing.Also, make sure thesubject of your photo Figure 901 Figure 902isn’t fuzzy or out offocus. You need a photothat is in sharp focus,well lighted, and highlydetailed.The values of a photocan be adjusted with acomputer imagingprogram (such asPhotoshop). Figures902 and 903demonstrate onemethod of breakingdown the darks andlights into values withPhotoshop. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used forany commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • Page |3 Figure 903 Another method of seeing the shapes of individual values is to squint your eyes slightly as you examine your photo. Now that you know a couple of different ways to find the shapes of values, the next step is to sketch proportions and outline a value map. 1. Outline a drawing space proportionate to your photo. 2. Lightly sketch your subject proportionately correct. In Figure 904, a lightly rendered sketch captures the basic proportions. (This image has been darkened in Photoshop so you can Figure 904 see the sketch lines.) A value map (also called a shading map) takes the guesswork out of where you have to put different values in a drawing. Various aspects of light and shadows assume different shapes. For example, a highlight can be a circle and a shadow can be a crescent shape. The basic process of using a value map entails: a) Visually identifying the locations and shapes of the various values in your photo. b) Lightly sketching their shapes on your line sketch. c) Adding graduated shading. 3. Carefully observe the values in your photo and draw a shading map. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used forany commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • Page |4 Figure 905 Figure 906 As an example, compare the close-up views of the photo (Figure 905) and the value map (Figure 906). I often mark the shapes of the different values with letters highlights (H), medium (M), and dark (D). Anything not marked with a letter is a light Figure 907 value. If you think you can remember which shapes are highlights, medium, or dark values, you may not need to mark them with letters.4. Pat your drawing with a kneaded eraser to lighten your mapping lines. Figure 907 shows the completed drawing with the mapping lines lightened.5. Examine your reference photo closely, and refine your drawing (if needed). Before you begin shading, make sure you know the direction of the dominant light source in your photo. In my photo, the light is coming from the upper right. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • Page |5The step-by-step illustrations in this section speak for themselves. However, if you runinto problems with shading refer to L01 Crosshatching Values, L02 Graduations withCrosshatching, and L03 Crosshatching a Value Map.6. Use light grades of pencils and hatching to add light values. Refer to Figure 908. Light values are mostly on the right, closer to the light source. Again, the illustration is shown darker than the actual drawing. The 4H hatching Figure 908 lines are almost everywhere on the skin (many of the lightest values are not visible in this illustration) with the exception of the center sections of the highlights. Slightly darker shading (with a 2H pencil) is used to enhance the facial forms and shadow sections. Also note that the hatching lines are all diagonal in preparation for adding the crosshatching lines. A freshly- sharpened HB pencil and contour hatching is used to lightly sketch individual strands of hair surrounding the face. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used forany commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • Page |67. Add medium values that graduate from the light sections toward the dark sections. Refer to Figure 909. Work slowly and carefully; crosshatching darkens the values significantly. Leave a perimeter of hatching around the outer edges of each highlight shape so the values will graduate smoothly from the highlights to the light values. Identify the sections that are medium values, and use a 4H pencil to add additional lines (crosshatching) to graduate the values gently from the light values toward and slightly into the medium values. Use a 2H and Figure 909 HB pencils to graduate the values from the medium shapes toward the dark shapes. Check over your graduations carefully before you continue. You can improve the smoothness of a graduation by adding more crosshatching lines (for a darker value) or a kneaded eraser molded to a point or wedge (to lighten values). Use HB and 2B pencils to add darker values to the hair. At this point, the forms of the face, hand, and hair are beginning to look three- dimensional. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used forany commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • Page |78. Add dark shading in the shadow sections of the face, hands, and hair. Dark values accentuate the facial forms by providing contrast. Use an HB to Figure 910 graduate the values from medium to dark in the shadow sections of the skin. Then, graduate a few darker values into the darkest sections with a freshly sharpened 2B pencil. Use HB and 2B pencils to complete the hair, ear, neck, background sections, and the sleeve of her shirt. Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used forany commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • Page |89. Complete your drawing by shading the eyes, lips, and clothing. Refer to Figures 911 and 912. HB and 2B pencils are used to the remainder of the shadow sections. If you’re drawing Heidi, don’t miss her watch. Her eyes and lips are shaded with 4H, 2H, HB, and 2B pencil. Squirkling graduations are used for the irises of her eyes. The highlights in her eyes and on her lips are left white. A 4B pencil is used for the pupils of her eyes. Figure 911 Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used forany commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • Page |9A 4H pencil is used to very slightly darken the highlights on the side of her face inshadow.Put your drawing away for a day, and then with fresh eyes, check everything carefullyand make necessary changes to detailed sections, and adjustments to the graduationsof values. Figure 912 Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used forany commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com