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  • 1. LIGHT BEYOND THE Brenda HoddinottV-01 ADVANCED: NATURE & STILL LIFEUsing both geometric and atmospheric perspectives, you create a three-dimensional space withina forest. Emphasis is also placed on several techniques for rendering textured values.The rendering of textures, and geometric and aerial perspectives, focus on the following: Texture is defined with various tools and shading techniques which illustrate the surface details of the trees and ground foliage. Geometric perspective is applied to create the illusion that the closer trees are larger than those farther away. Also, the bases of each tree seem to recede into the distance by drawing each, from foreground to background, progressively higher within the drawing space. Atmospheric (sometimes called aerial) perspective is utilized by illustrating the components of the atmosphere, such as tiny particles of dust, pollen, or droplets of moisture. The trees in the foreground are more detailed and have brighter highlights and darker shadows than the ones farther away. Trees which are far away appear lighter in value and less detailed because of the presence of more atmospheric components between them and the viewer.Suggested drawing supplies include 2H, HB, 2B, 4B and 6B pencils (but a complete set from 6Hto 8B would be advantageous), vinyl and kneaded erasers, and 90 lb. cold pressed (heavilytextured) watercolor paper. This lesson is recommended for artists with strong drawing skills, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators of advanced students. 14 PAGES – 25 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2002 (Revised 2006)
  • 2. 2 PLANNING THE COMPOSITION Fourteen trees create the illusion of depth in this drawing. Assume that all the trees in this drawing are, in reality, approximately the same size. However, in viewing them within the rules of geometric perspective, they will be drawn various sizes. Compare the following two illustrations to gain further insights into the process of creating this drawing. To help identify which trees are closer to you, each one is numbered, thereby establishing a guide for shading. ILLUSTRATION 01-01 Tree number 1 is closest to the viewer and number 14 is the farthest away. Each tree is drawn progressively darker from the distant ground toward the foreground, until you get to number 1, which is the darkest of all Conversely, the higher numbered trees have more light values. . ILLUSTRATION 01-02 The trees with low numbers are more detailed and have brighter highlights and darker shadows. The light source in this drawing is from behind and to the right. The shadow side of each tree is shaded slightly darker on the left. PLANTING THE TREES WITHIN A DRAWING FORMAT In the first few steps of this project, before you begin shading, you draw the outlines of all fourteen trees. Remember to draw the base of each tree a little higher as the numbers get higher. Also, the trees should become progressively smaller, as the numbers become higher.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 3. 3 1. Outline a drawing format that is proportionately the same as mine. My drawing is 4 by 6.5 inches. Other options include 6 by 9.75 inches or 8 by 13 inches. 2. Draw the outlines of the three trees closest to the viewer. Tree 1, the largest tree, is the focal point of this drawing. Observe its location to the right of the center of your drawing space. Its base is close to the bottom of the drawing space. Tree 2, the second largest tree, is sketched close to the left edge of the drawing space, and is smaller than the first tree. Its base is slightly higher than tree 1. Tree 3, the third largest tree, is located on the right side of the drawing space. The base is a little higher than tree 2. ILLUSTRATION 01-03 3. Outline trees 4, 5, and 6. Trees that are in front of others sometimes overlap trees behind them, providing an obvious clue that one is in front of the other. Note how tree 4 appears to be in front of tree 6. Also, trees appear smaller the farther they are away from you. Conversely, the closer they are to you, the larger they look. Tree 4 is not as wide as 1, 2 or 3, and has a base higher within the drawing format. Tree 5 is sketched slightly to the left of 3. Tree 6 is slightly behind 4, so you only need to indicate its right side and base.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 4. 4 ILLUSTRATION 01-04 4. Sketch trees 7, 8, and 9. Tree 7 is very slightly to the left of 1. Tree 8 is to the left of Tree 7 (with a space in between them). Tree 9 has a higher base than 8, and has only one vertical line to create the illusion that it’s behind 7. ILLUSTRATION 1-05Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 5. 5 ILLUSTRATION 01-06 5. Add trees 10 and 13 to the left of 7, 8, and 9. Keep in mind that the trees are drawn progressively higher in the drawing space as each number gets higher, and each is a little smaller as the numbers get higher. 6. Draw the outlines of trees 11 and 14 (to the right of 1). ILLUSTRATION 01-07 7. Draw tree 12 on the far left of your drawing space (refer to the illustration on the next page). 8. Compare your drawing to mine and make any changes you want. Check the bases of all fourteen trees, beginning with tree number 1 (the largest tree), and working your way back to number 14 (the smallest tree). Make sure each base is drawn slightly higher than the last.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 6. 6 ILLUSTRATION 01-08 CREATING DIVERSE TEXTURES This section offers suggestions for rendering the various textures in this project. ILLUSTRATION 01-09 The tooth of heavily textured watercolor paper can help create many of the textures of the trees and foliage! Hold your pencil sideways and use a gentle circular motion as you add the shading. Don’t press too hard with your pencil! The gorgeous texture of this paper can be easily flattened. Please be careful! ILLUSTRATION 01-10 Remember to leave more white paper showing through, on the lighter sides of the trees.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 7. 7 If you have a full set of pencils, use them to their full advantage, to draw many different values without damaging the tooth of the paper. Refer to the following chart to help you choose pencils for each value in this drawing: ILLUSTRATION 01-11 6H 5H 4H 3H 2H H F HB B 2B 3B 4B 5B 6B 7B 8B ILLUSTRATION 01-12 Squirkling is a fun way to render various textures, including trees, plants, and ground foliage. Leave lots of the white of your paper showing through for the lighter values by making your squirkle lines lighter and farther apart. In the darker values, the lines are darker and closer together. ILLUSTRATION 01-13 Take note of the wide range of values used for drawing the texture of the ground foliages. ADDING DEPTH AND TEXTURE TO A FOREST In this section you add the shading that creates the illusion of numerous textures within a perceived three-dimensional space 9. Shade in the sections behind the smaller trees, graduating from white at the top to darker values towards the bottom. Note that the shading only goes down as far as the base of the background trees.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 8. 8 10. Shade in trees 11, 12, 13, and 14. ILLUSTRATION 01-14 ILLUSTRATION 01-15 11. Shade in trees 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10. Refer to the illustrations 01-15 to 01-18 (on the next page). Note that each tree is darker on the left, Keep in mind that the lower the numbers become, the darker the shading needs to be. 12. Use a combination of hatching and squirkles to draw the texture of the distant ground foliage. Also, add a little darker shading to the bases of the trees.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 9. 9 ILLUSTRATION 01-16 ILLUSTRATION 01-17 ILLUSTRATION 01-18Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 10. 10 13. Finish the shading of all the trees except the big one in the very front. Use whatever pencils work best for you, and refer to illustrations 01-19 to 01-21, as you add the following:  More textured shading at the base of the trees (to look like ground plants).  More contrast to the trunks of the trees.  A few small branches (growing downward) in the upper sections of some of the trees in both the background and foreground. ILLUSTRATION 01-19Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 11. 11 ILLUSTRATION 01-20 ILLUSTRATION 01-21 14. Use various pencils and a full range of values to finish the largest tree. Refer to the following four illustrations. 15. Add darker values with very dark pencils to the shadow side. 16. Add more high contrast, textured shading to look like ground plants in the foreground. ILLUSTRATION 01-22Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 12. 12 ILLUSTRATION 01-23Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 13. 13 ILLUSTRATION 01-24 17. Check over your drawing and make any adjustments needed. Then sign your name and go hug a tree!  ILLUSTRATION 01-25Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 14. 14 BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 15. PHOTOREALISM:Brenda HoddinottV-02 ADVANCED: NATURE AND STILL LIFEArtists can take their skills beyond simply outlining andfilling in values, by learning how to draw without lines.In the real world, very few objects have actual linesdefining their forms. Rather, contrasting values identifythe edges of the object’s parts according to the lightsand darks created by the dominant light source.In this lesson, you render a drawing of a tiny section ofan object, by focusing on values and forms, rather thanlines and shapes. Even outlining the basic proportionsbefore adding shading is a no-no.You need 2H (very good for light values), HB (great for middle values), and 2B (works well fordark values) mechanical pencils, good quality drawing paper, and erasers. If you plan to useregular wood pencils instead of mechanical, you also need a pencil sharpener and a sandpaperblock.This lesson is divided into the following three sections: THE PROCESS OF SHADING WITH SQUIRKLES: I discuss the process of using only shading, rather than a combination of lines and shading, to draw a tiny section of an object. SHADING SQUIRKLE GRADUATIONS STEP-BY-STEP: In three steps, you draw a small section of the object, with light, medium, and dark graduations, by layering darker values on top of light values. RENDERING SHADING WITHOUT OUTLINES: You complete the drawing by relying on only your visual skills; other than a few tips, text instructions are kept to a bare minimum.This lesson is recommended for artists with a lot of patience and/or strong drawing skills, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators of advanced students. 10 PAGES – 16 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada - 2006
  • 16. 2 THE PROCESS OF SHADING WITH SQUIRKLES In this section, I discuss the process of using only shading, rather than a combination of lines and shading, to draw a tiny section of an object. The light source is from above and slightly to the left. By the way, can you identify this object (you receive more clues at the end of the lesson)? ILLUSTRATION 02-01 ILLUSTRATION 02-02 No lines separate (or outline) the many different sections of the object, in either the reference photo or the completed drawing. Rather, contrasting values define the edges of the object’s parts. The process used to render the drawing in this lesson, focuses on values and forms rather than lines and shapes. Even outlining the basic proportions before adding shading, is a no-no. 2H (very good for light values), HB (great for middle values), and 2B (works well for dark values) mechanical pencils can create a full range of values when you vary the density of the shading lines and the pressure used in holding the pencils. The process of adding values from light to dark is demonstrated in the following three sequential drawings of the upper left section of the photo. ILLUSTRATION 02-03 ILLUSTRATION 02-04 ILLUSTRATION 02-05 1. Light values 2. Medium values 3. Dark values are added with are added with are added with a 2H pencil a HB pencil a 2B pencilCopyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 17. 3 SHADING SQUIRKLE GRADUATIONS STEP-BY-STEP Squirkling is a method of shading in which randomly drawn, overlapping curved lines create textured values. I chose this name based on the process of morphing squiggles with circles to create shading. Many of my students from the past two decades are very familiar with this word! ILLUSTRATION 02-06 To prepare you for using this drawing technique on your own (in the next section), three steps take you through the process of actually rendering the light, medium, and dark graduations, as shown in the upper left corner section of the reference photo (page 2). 1. Use squirkling graduations and a 2H pencil to render the light values. Squirkling lines cut across themselves in many places, creating lots of different shapes. Also, the less pressure you apply to the pencil, the lighter the values become. In my lightest shading, only the weight of the pencil itself makes the very faint values. By varying the density (drawing the lines either far apart or close together) of the lines, you can achieve many different values. Light values with squirkles tend to have noticeable curved lines with lots of white space showing. In darker values, the lines are drawn more closely together, filling in most of the paper with the texture of squirkles.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 18. 4 ILLUSTRATION 02-07 2. Use a HB pencil to add medium values to sections that need to be darker. You create medium values by layering more squirkles over some sections of light values. Make sure you leave lots of light values, as in the photo. Very little white paper is showing in the darker sections. ILLUSTRATION 02-08 3. Examine the reference photo closely and add dark values where indicated. Many more lines make up dark squirkling values, and the lines are much closer together. No white paper is visible in the darkest of the dark values. Squirkles are fantastic for adding shading to detailed figure drawings and portraits. Squirkling, especially when finely rendered, produces an infinite range of values and a highly realistic skin texture.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 19. 5 RENDERING SHADING WITHOUT OUTLINES In this section you complete the drawing by relying on only your visual skills; Other than a few tips, text instructions are kept to a bare minimum. ILLUSTRATION 02-09 4. Refer to the reference photo and the following nine illustrations, to guide you through the process of completing your drawing. I’ve taken a little artistic license with the triangular thingy, by rounding its corners a little more than in the photo. As you complete each section, continuously go back over your drawing and adjust the values. ILLUSTRATION 02-10 To make a section lighter, pat the squirkles gently with a kneaded eraser that is molded to a point. To make a section darker, simply add more squirkles and/or use a darker pencil.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 20. 6 ILLUSTRATION 02-11 ILLUSTRATION 02-12 If you are using regular pencils, make sure you sharpen the point of the pencil with a sharpener and/or sandpaper block after each tiny section of shading is added.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 21. 7 As you work, focus on the broad range of values that exists in between the darks and lights. Very light and very dark values are fairly easy to achieve. The real challenge is creating graduations of medium values (refer to the graduation of medium values on the left). ILLUSTRATION 02-13Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 22. 8 ILLUSTRATION 02-14 ILLUSTRATION 02-15 Refer to the final drawing on the next page and make changes to any sections of your drawing with which you are not happy. As you can tell, I also took a little artistic license with the circular form by adding a tiny rim of reflected light on the lower edge; hence the illusion of depth is enhanced. The more technical skills you acquire, the better your drawings become. You feel more confident to use your creativity to make changes and adjustments to your drawings. Try this same technique to draw another object (or small section of an object) from either a photo or life.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 23. 9 ILLUSTRATION 02-16Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 24. 10 These three photos solve the mystery of identifying the object in the drawing. BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 25. PHOTOREALISTICBrenda HoddinottV-03 ADVANCED: NATURE AND STILL LIFEIn this project featuring a detailed drawing of a dagger rendered from aphotograph, artists use contrasting values to identify its forms, textures andpatterns according to the lights and darks created by the dominant light source.This lesson is divided into the following three sections: BEFORE THE DRAWING BEGINS: I briefly discuss the processes of taking reference photos, and choosing a composition. FROM PHOTO TO DRAWING PAPER: The goal of the initial sketch is to put the dagger on the paper proportionately correct. You stretch your visual skills as you follow along with drawings that illustrate each important stage. SHADE IN THE BLADE AND GUARD: From this perspective, the blade is farther away from the viewer than the handle. Hence, the shading of the blade needs less contrast in values than the handle, which is the focal point. The handle sections are drawn with more intricate details than the blade. ADD THE PATTERN AND SHINY TEXTURE TO THE GRIP: You create a shiny texture and an intricate pattern with a full range of values, by progressively layering medium and dark hatching and/or crosshatching over some sections of lighter values. ADD SHINE TO THE POMMEL: You complete the drawing by shading the end of the handle. Light values are added before the medium and dark.You need 2H (light values), HB (middle values), and 2B (dark values) mechanical pencils, goodquality drawing paper, and erasers. If you plan to use regular wood pencils instead ofmechanical, you also need a pencil sharpener and a sandpaper block.This lesson is recommended for artists with a lot of patience and/or strong drawing skills, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators of advanced students. 11 PAGES – 23 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada - 2006
  • 26. 2 BEFORE THE DRAWING BEGINS In this section, I briefly discuss the process of taking reference photos, choosing a composition, and enhancing the primary photo in Adobe Photoshop. To take a photo of the dagger, I first placed it on a flat surface in front of a brightly lit window. I took several photos from various angles, and downloaded them to my computer. After examining them closely, I finally settled on this one. However, I wasn’t thrilled with the idea of drawing the dagger from this angle, so I rotated the photo in Adobe Photoshop until I was happy with the composition. I also changed the image to black and white instead of color, so the individual values were easier to distinguish. I then digitally erased the background and enhanced the contrast, to make the pattern on the handle stand out more. Using photos as references is rarely as reliable as drawing from actual objects. However, if you have no choice, make sure you take lots and lots of photos from every conceivable angle. Also, take numerous close- ups of the more intricate parts of your subject, so you won’t be left guessing which parts connect to what and how! As an aside, my fascination with medieval history motivated a friend to give me this wonderful replica of an old dagger. Ever since I removed the gift wrap, I’ve wanted to try to capture its fascinating forms, textures and pattern in a drawing.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 27. 3 FROM PHOTO TO DRAWING PAPER Set up your drawing supplies, make sure you have good lighting, and get comfortable. In this lesson you need to stretch your visual skills to their limit, and follow along with drawings that illustrate each important stage. However, just so you don’t feel totally abandoned, I do offer a few tidbits of information and suggestions along the way. The goal of the initial sketch is to put the dagger on the paper proportionately correct. The lines need to be sketched so faintly that you can barely see them. When you are happy with your sketch, begin adding more details and refining the outlines of the various parts of the dagger (refer to the drawings on the next page). Remember to keep the outlines very light so they will eventually blend into the shading.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 28. 4 The guard section of the handle of a dagger (also called a hand- guard) is the section between the handle grip and the blade, and is designed to prevent the hand from slipping toward the blade. The grip is the cylindrical section that is held to safely control the dagger. The pommel is on the end of the handle and is often distinctively shaped, giving the dagger its charm and status. SHADE IN THE BLADE AND GUARD From this perspective, the blade is farther away from the viewer than the handle. Hence, the shading of the blade needs less contrast in values than the handle, which is the focal point. The guard is drawn with more intricate details than the blade.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 29. 5 A 2H pencil and hatching lines work well to add light values to the blade. Light values are added along the edges of the triangular-shaped form of the blade to enhance the illusion of three dimensions. A highlight, on the section of the blade close to the guard, is left white. Hatching lines become crosshatching and the texture of the blade becomes smoother. In preparation for adding shading to the hand guard section of the handle, a shading map is lightly sketched, based on the different values I see in the reference photo.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 30. 6 The process of adding values to the hand guard is demonstrated in the following three drawings. 2H (light values), HB (middle values), and 2B (dark values) mechanical pencils are sequentially layered to create a full range of values. I also vary the density of the shading lines and the pressure used in holding the pencils. The shading process focuses on values and forms rather than lines and shapes. Very few lines separate (or outline) the many different parts of the dagger, in either the reference photo or the drawing. Rather, contrasting values help define the edges of the hand guard to visually separate it from the blade.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 31. 7 ADD THE PATTERN AND SHINY TEXTURE TO THE GRIP The hatching lines run along the contours of each individual form of the grip. You create medium values by layering hatching or crosshatching lines over some sections of light values. Make sure you leave lots of light values close to the highlights on the grip. The cast shadow and the pattern on the grip are shaded with an HB pencil. As you work, continuously go back over your drawing and adjust the values. To make a section lighter, pat the shading lines gently with a kneaded eraser that is molded to a point. To make a section darker, simply add more shading lines and/or use a darker pencil.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 32. 8 If you are using regular pencils, make sure you sharpen the point of the pencil with a sharpener and/or sandpaper block after each tiny section of shading is added. The outline of the shape of the cast shadow is very similar to that of the upper edge of the handle. Light and medium values are added to the cast shadow with crosshatching. As you work, focus on the broad range of values that exists in between the darks and lights. Very light and very dark values are fairly easy to achieve. The real challenge is creating graduations of medium values.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 33. 9 The dark values of the cast shadow graduate from very dark close to the dagger, to slightly lighter farther away. Many more curved lines make up the striped pattern in the darker sections of the grip than in the lighter areas. No white paper is visible in the darkest of the dark values. Very little white paper is showing through in the sections with light and medium values, except for the highlights of course, which are left completely white.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 34. 10 ADD SHINE TO THE POMMEL In this section, you complete the drawing by shading the end of the handle. Light values are added before the medium and dark. Compare the final drawing to the photo (below) and make changes to any sections of your drawing with which you are not happy. I took a little artistic license by lightening some sections of the dagger that are hidden in the shadows of the photo; hence the illusion of depth is enhanced. As you develop stronger technical skills, you feel more confident to make changes and adjustments to your drawings.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 35. 11 Try this same technique to draw another object (or small section of an object) from either a photo or life. BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 36. Brenda HoddinottV-04 ADVANCED: NATURE & STILL LIFEIn this project, you use graduated hatching to definethe three dimensional forms and the fuzzy texture ofan adorable teddy bear. The little model for thisproject was incredibly cooperative. He stayed verystill, didn’t talk my ear off, and didn’t require anycoffee breaks!This project is divided into the following four parts: OUTLINING BASIC PROPORTIONS: You lightly sketch the proportions of the various shapes that make up Teddy Tink. OUTLINING A CUTE FACE AND FUZZY BODY: You draw Tink’s ears and facial features, and outline his fuzzy body with furry hatching lines. ADDING LIGHT AND MIDDLE VALUES WITH HATCHING: You use graduated hatching to render the light and middle values of fuzzy fur on Teddy Tink, that bring out the forms of the various parts of his body. SHINY EYES AND A THREE DIMENSIONAL NOSE: You add shading to create the illusion of shiny three-dimensional eyes, and a big realistic teddy bear nose.Suggested drawing supplies include good quality white drawing paper, various graphite pencilsincluding 2H, HB, 2B, 4B, and 6B, kneaded and vinyl erasers, and a pencil sharpener. 12 PAGES – 24 ILLUSTRATIONS This lesson is recommended for artists and aspiring artists, from age 12 to adult with good drawing skills, including the shading techniques used for hatching fur. The curriculum of this lesson is easily implemented into instructional programs for home schooling, academic and recreational learning environments. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada - 2007
  • 37. -2-OUTLINING BASIC PROPORTIONSIn this section, I demonstrate the process of lightly sketching the proportions of the variousshapes that make up Teddy Tink.Sketch (noun) is a simple drawing that captures the integral aspects of a subject quickly andefficiently; (verb) refers to the process of rendering a sketch. Proportion is the relationship insize of one component of a drawing to another or others. FIGURE 4-011. Lightly sketch an oval shape for the body, slightly over to the right of your drawing space. Make sure you leave room to later add his head, arms and legs. Don’t press too hard with your pencil. You may want to erase these sketch lines later.2. Draw a circle for his head. Notice that the circle overlaps the body. At this stage, Teddy Tink looks like a snowman with one ball of snow on top of a larger oval shaped one. FIGURE 4-02 3. Add a curved line across his head. This curved line is simply a guideline for marking the positions of the tops of his eyes, FIGURE 4-03 and will be erased later. It extends from the left and upward, and then curves downward until it touches the lower right section of the face. 4. Add another curved line from the first back to the top of his head.This line meets the first curved line at a point closer to the leftthan the right. It merely serves as a guideline to identify thecenter of his face, which is turned a little toward the left, andwill need to be erased later.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 38. -3- FIGURE 4-04 5. Draw a “light bulb” shape as his snout. This shape also identifies the tops of his eyes. 6. Draw his left arm. The wider section at the bottom is one of his paws. 7. Draw his other arm. FIGURE 4-05 This arm is a little smaller than his left. 8. Draw the tiny section of his right leg that is showing and add the bottoms of his feet. His feet are almost directly under FIGURE 4-06 each of his arms. 9. Erase the outlines of the body that are inside the outlines of his arms and feet. 10. Replace the single curved line at the bottom of his tummy with two smaller curved lines. A reminder that Teddy Tink is a stuffed toy; the center of these two curved lines marks the location of the seam that will run downward from his neck to the bottom of his tummy. 11. Add a line down the center of his body, with a curve where his tummy will be.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 39. -4-OUTLINING A CUTE FACE AND FUZZY BODYIn this section you draw Tink’s ears and facial features, and outline his fuzzy body with furryhatching lines. FIGURE 4-0712. Add his ears and outline his eyes. His small ears are drawn as curved lines. His head is tilted; hence, the ear on the left seems smaller and higher that the other. His eyes are resting on either side of the top of his snout. FIGURE 4-08 13. Draw his nose. His nose is a little to the left of the center of his snout. FIGURE 4-09 14. Add a short curved line connecting the bottom of his nose to the bottom of his snout. 15. Add seams to his FIGURE 4-10 forehead with curved lines (Figure 4-09). These seam lines also provide the illusion of eyebrows. FIGURE 4-11 16. Erase the two guidelines that marked the locations of the center of his forehead and the upper sections of the eyes.17. Check your proportions carefully and adjust any sections you don’t like. Break the subject down into shapes and visually measure how the various parts relate to one another.18. Lightly pat all your lines with your kneaded eraser to make them lighter.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 40. -5-19. Use a freshly sharpened pencil and thin neat lines FIGURE 4-12 to redraw the nose and eyes.20. Draw “fuzzy” lines (lines that look like fur) around all edges except the nose and eyes. These fuzzy lines are different lengths and curve in many different directions. Don’t forget to draw curved fuzzy lines for his eyebrows. Remember, don’t simply trace over the rough sketch lines. Rather, take this opportunity to refine the various shapes of the bear. For example, FIGURE 4-13 take note of the accentuated angle of the inside of the arm on the right; the arm now looks like it is bent rather than straight. FIGURE 4-14 At this point, you can choose to either leave the rough sketch lines as they are or use your kneaded eraser to erase them. (As you can see, I erased mine.) If you leave them, most will be covered with shading anyway.21. Draw the pads on the bottoms of his feet with smooth lines. Now you have a detailed line drawing; next, you will shade his fur.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 41. -6-ADDING LIGHT AND MIDDLE VALUES WITH HATCHINGIn this section, I demonstrate the hatching, of the light and middle values of fuzzy fur, on TeddyTink that bring out the forms of the various parts of his body. Hatching is a series of lines (calleda set) drawn closely together to give the illusion of values. The hatching lines used for drawingfur, are several different lengths and values. The edges are not abrupt stops, but rather feathered(or ragged) to give a more realistic appearance. If you have very little hatching experience, or if your hatching skills have become a little rusty, try your hand at the exercises and projects in F-LEVEL BEGINNER: HATCHING.The light source is from the left in this drawing, so the shading will be a little darker on the right.Light source refers to the direction from which a dominant light originates. Remember, lightaffects the placement and value of every section of shading. Also, keep in mind that a full rangeof values gives contrast between the light and the shadow areas.22. Beginning at the top of his head, use your 2H pencil, to add light values to his fur. Refer to Figures 4-15 and 4-16. Make sure the hatching lines are curved rather than straight. Watch very closely the different directions in which the hatching lines curve. Take your time. The directions, in which the fur seems to curve, are important, because this helps give the illusion of depth to the bear’s form. Many sections of shading used to depict forms need values that smoothly graduate into one another. Graduated shading is a continuous progression of graduated values from dark to light or from light to dark.23. Use HB and 2B pencils to add middle values to cast shadows, and sections that receive less light (mostly on the right). FIGURE 4-15Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 42. -7-Remember to leave sections of light shading, as reflected light, along some of the edges on theright, such as the lower right section of his cheek, and the lower right edge of his snout.Reflected light is a faint FIGURE 4-16rim of light reflected orbounced back on anobject (especiallynoticeable on a sphere)from the surfaces close toand around the object. RememberThe darkest of the to keepmiddle values are your pencilrendered with a 2B pointpencil. sharpened.Don’t miss the Sandpapershadow sections blocks orunder his nose, finesnout, and arms, sandpaperand on his left are ideal.shoulder underhis head.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 43. -8-SHINY EYES AND A THREE DIMENSIONAL NOSEIn this section, you add shading to create the illusion of shiny three-dimensional eyes, and a bigrealistic teddy bear nose. FIGURE 4-1724. Map in the details of his eyes by outlining the pupil and the highlight, inside the iris. The largest circles of his eyes are the irises. The dark circles in the centers of the irises are the pupils. The tiny white circles are the highlights.25. Map out the locations of the highlight and the darkest shadow section of the nose. FIGURE 4-18 26. Use a 2H pencil to add light values to the irises. 27. Add shading guidelines to the nose to identify the directions the hatching lines will take. 28. Shade in the lower section of each iris with your HB, and the top sections with your 4B. 29. Use your 6B pencil to shade the pupil. FIGURE 4-1930. Shade in his nose. Leave a small oval section white (highlight). Lighter values (use a 2H) are around the highlight on the upper left. The tiny glow on the lower right edge of his nose is the reflected light. You need to leave this section as a light value. Use an HB for the medium values and a 2B to add the darker shading.31. Use 2B and 4B to darken the shading of the cast shadow below and to the right of his nose.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 44. -9-32. Add the dark FIGURE 4-20 shading of his fur around his eyes. Take note that this shading graduates lighter up toward the center of his forehead, and is what gives him such an endearing facial expression.33. Enhance the overall contrast by adding dark values to a few small sections of the fur on his head, body, and feet with 2B and 4B pencils.34. Draw in the shadows below him with horizontal hatching lines (Figures 4-22 and 4-23). FIGURE 4-21Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 45. - 10 - FIGURE 4-22 FIGURE 4-2335. Add final touches if needed. You can make areas lighter by patting them with your kneaded eraser. You can make sections of the fur darker by simply drawing more hatching lines in between others. Sign your name and put today’s date on the back of your drawing!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 46. - 11 - FIGURE 4-24CHALLENGEFind a stuffed animal with lots of fur, and draw a realistic, close-up portrait of him or her fromlife. Set up a light source from either the right or left before you begin. Use the shadingtechniques taught in this project to render the fur, eyes, face, and cast shadow.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 47. - 12 -Brenda HoddinottAs a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda utilizesdiverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, contécrayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gentlyintroducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. Brenda HoddinottBiographyBorn in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. Shedeveloped strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning,and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as aself-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments haveemployed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal policedepartments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal CanadianMounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “ForensicArtists International”.Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing andpainting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired andtrained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brendachose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing,drawing, painting, and developing her websites.Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach tocurriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes forstudents of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels andabilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as aresource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughoutthe world.Learn-to-draw booksDrawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is availableon various websites and in major bookstores internationally.The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of theYear Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page bookis available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 48. Brenda HoddinottV-06 ADVANCED:NATURE AND STILL LIFESquirkling works perfectly forrendering diverse highly realisticdrawing subjects, including manyfound in nature as well as severalmade by humans.In this heavily illustrated lesson, you render a detailed drawing of an old weathered tree with afocus on textures and forms. Contrasting values define the many overlapping branches accordingto the lights and darks created by the dominant light source.This project is divided into two sections: OUTLINING OVERLAPPING BRANCHES: You lightly sketch the outlines of the major branches of the tree, and refine the sketch by adding detailed branches that overlap others. The goal is to prepare a contour drawing to serve as a guideline for adding shading. SHADING WITH SQUIRKLES: Squirkling lends itself perfectly to a broad range of textures and diverse subjects. The shading of this tree is rendered with squirkles of various sizes from very large to tiny.You need 2H, HB, and 2B pencils, good quality drawing paper, and erasers. If you plan to useregular wood pencils instead of mechanical, you also need a pencil sharpener and a sandpaperblock.This lesson is recommended for artists with a lot of patience and/or strong drawing skills, as well as students of home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. 13 PAGES – 39 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Publishing for Drawspace.com, Halifax, NS, Canada - 2008
  • 49. 2OUTLINING OVERLAPPING BRANCHES Figure 601In this section, you lightly sketch the outlines of the majorbranches of an old tree, and refine the sketch by adding detailedbranches that overlap others. The goal is to prepare a contourdrawing to serve as a guideline for adding shading.1. Use a 2H pencil to sketch the largest branches that make up the core of the tree. Refer to Figures 601 and 602. Press very lightly with your pencil. My sketches are much lighter than they appear here. I have darkened them in Photoshop so you can see them clearly. Figure 602 2. Take your time and outline the various parts of the tree with neat lines. Refer to Figures 603 to 614. I used a 2H mechanical pencil and again, kept my lines very light. The branches of this very old tree are bumpy and uneven. Make sure your outlines illustrate this quality.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 50. 3 Figure 603 Figure 604 Several illustrations in this section show close up views of the most intricate parts of the tree. Figure 605 Figure 606 Naked branches of many old trees tend reveal a beautiful skeleton that curves and twists in many different directions.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 51. 4 Figure 607 The gnarled, twisted and weather-beaten branches of this contorted old tree capture a glimpse into an often underappreciated, but exquisite phenomenon of nature. Figure 608 Figure 609 Figure 610 To the dull mind, nature is leaden; to the illumined mind the whole world burns and sparkles with light. >Ralph Waldo Emerson<Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 52. 5 Figure 611 Figure 613 Figure 612 Figure 614Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 53. 6 Figure 615 3. Use your kneaded eraser to lighten your drawing until the lines are very faint. Refer to figure 615. This image is barely visible digitally and may not show up well when printed. SHADING WITH SQUIRKLES Squirkling lends itself perfectly to a broad range of textures and diverse subjects. For example, compare the loosely rendered sketch of a tree in Figure 616 to the photorealistic close up section of a portable telephone in Figure 617. Both drawings are rendered with squirkles. Figure 616 My drawing is rendered with Figure 617 mechanical pencils. 2H (very good for light values), HB (great for middle values), and 2B (works well for dark values) pencils can create a full range of values when you vary the size and density of the squirkling lines and the pressure used in holding the pencils. Figure 618I began on the left, and for themost part, worked my way towardthe right. Figure 618 shows the tinysection on the far left where Ibegan adding shading. (Figure 619shows a close-up of this section.)Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 54. 74. Use squirkling to add light, medium, and dark values to the old tree. Refer to Figures 619 to 639. The light source is from the upper left; hence the overall values are darker on the right and lower right. Figure 619By varying thedensity (drawing the Figure 620lines either far apartor close together) ofthe lines, you canachieve manydifferent textures.Light values with squirkles tend to havenoticeable curved lines with lots of whitespace showing. Figure 621 In darker values, the lines are drawn more closely together, filling in most of the paper with the texture of squirkles. Figure 622 Figure 623 Remember, the less pressure you apply to the pencil, the lighter the values become. In my lightest shading, only the weight of the pencil itself makes the very faint values.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 55. 8 Figure 624 Figure 625 Figure 626 Figure 627Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 56. 9It is not so much for its beauty that the Figure 628forest makes a claim upon mens hearts, as for that subtle something, that quality of air that emanates from old trees, that so wonderfully changes and renews a weary spirit. >Robert Louis Stevenson< Figure 629Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 57. 10As you complete each section, Figure 630continuously go back over your drawingand adjust the values and check forbranches you may have missed.Human subtlety will neverdevise an invention morebeautiful, more simple, ormore direct than doesNature, because in herinventions, nothing islacking and nothing issuperfluous.>Leonardo da Vinci< Figure 631 Figure 632 The tree which moves some to tears of joy is in the eyes of others only a green thing that stands in the way. Some see nature all ridicule and deformity . . . and some scarce see nature at all. But to the eyes of the man of imagination, nature is imagination itself. >William Blake<Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 58. 11 Figure 633 Figure 634 Figure 636 Figure 635Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 59. 12 Figure 637 The final branch added to this tree is alive and thriving with healthy leaves. Refer to Figure 639. Figure 638 Figure 639 Complete the shading of the tree. Check over your drawing carefully and adjust the values as needed. CHALLENGE Bring a camera with you the next time you are in a heavily wooded area. Take pictures of old trees from different angles – some close-up and some from a distance. Use your photos as references to render a detailed drawing of an old tree, using the drawing processes and techniques used in this project.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 60. 13BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHYAs a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, BrendaHoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalkpastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott<Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. Shedeveloped strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning,and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as aself-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments haveemployed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal policedepartments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal CanadianMounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “ForensicArtists International”.Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing andpainting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired andtrained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brendachose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing,drawing, painting, and developing her websites.Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach tocurriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes forstudents of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels andabilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as aresource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughoutthe world.LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 61. Brenda HoddinottV-07 ADVANCED: NATURE ANDSTILL LIFEThis advanced lesson has very few textinstructions; rather, a series of illustrationstakes you through the process of drawing adelicate sunflower. The overall values arelow in contrast to depict the lights anddarks created by the natural soft lighting ofan overcast day.This project is divided into two sections: OUTLINING A SUNFLOWER AND ITS LEAVES: You follow along with a series of illustrations to create a line drawing of a sunflower. The goal is to prepare a detailed contour drawing to serve as guidelines for adding shading. ADDING SHADING WITH CROSSHATCHING: Illustrations guide you through the process of adding shading to a sunflower and its leaves with crosshatching. The light source is from the upper right on a cloudy day; hence, the shadows are soft.You need 2H, HB, and 2B pencils, good quality drawing paper, and erasers. If you plan to useregular wood pencils instead of mechanical, you also need a pencil sharpener and a sandpaperblock. My drawing is rendered with mechanical pencils; 2H (very good for light values), HB(great for middle values), and 2B (works well for dark values). 11 PAGES – 15 ILLUSTRATIONS This lesson is recommended for artists with advanced drawing skills and a lot of patience, as well as advanced students of home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. Published by Hoddinott Publishing for Drawspace.com, Halifax, NS, Canada - 2008
  • 62. 2 Figure 701 OUTLINING A SUNFLOWER AND ITS LEAVES In this section, you follow along with a series of illustrations to create a line drawing of a sunflower. Use a 2H pencil and keep your lines very faint. The goal is to prepare a detailed contour drawing to serve as guidelines for adding shading. Figure 702My sketches are much lighter thanthey appear here. I have darkened themin Photoshop so you can see themclearly. Figure 703 The scientific name of the sunflower, Helianthus, is derived from two words; Helios referring to the sun and Anthos, meaning flower.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 63. 3 Figure 704 When a sunflower is in the bud stage, its face usually follows the movement of the sun, from the east in the morning, to west in the evening. Overnight, it turns to face the east as it awaits the morning sun. Figure 705Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 64. 4 Figure 706 Check over your line drawing carefully and make changes to anything you are not happy with. Use a kneaded eraser to lighten the outlines in preparation for shading.ADDING SHADING WITH CROSSHATCHINGIn this section, illustrations guide you through the process of adding shading to a sunflower andits leaves with crosshatching.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 65. 5My drawing is rendered with mechanical pencils; 2H (very good for light values), HB (great formiddle values), and 2B (works well for dark values). The light source is from the upper right ona cloudy day; hence, the shadows are soft. I began shading on the left, and for the most part,worked my way toward the right. Figures 707 and 708 show the tiny section on the far left whereI began adding shading. Before you begin shading, use a ruler Figure 707 to draw a rectangular drawing space around the sunflower (Figure 707). Make sure your shading extends to this line in case you decide to frame your drawing. By the way, Figure 707 is much darker than the actual drawing. Light values have very few crosshatching lines with lots of white space showing. In darker values, the lines are drawn more closely together, filling in most of the paper with crosshatching. Figure 708Floating rafts of sunflowershelped clean contaminated water after the 1986 accident at the Chernobylnuclear plant in the former Soviet Union. Sunflowers’ roots can remove radioactivity by drawingthe contaminants from the water.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 66. 6 Figure 709 Remember, the less pressure you apply to the pencil, the lighter the values become. In my lightest shading, only the weight of the pencil itself makes the very faint values. As you complete each section, continuously go back over your drawing and adjust the values and check for petals, leaves, or sections that you may have missed. The earliest known sunflowers can be traced back to North and South America. Indigenous peoples planted sunflowers as a food crop for many centuries. The seeds were eventually exported to countries all over the world. Even today, farmers plant and harvest sunflowers for their nutritious seeds and rich oils. Figure 710Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 67. 7 Figure 711 In fact, the sunflower is not one flower, but rather a cluster of up to 2000 tiny flowers growing together. You can see these flowers by examining the perimeter of the sunflower head with a powerful magnifying glass. Figure 712Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 68. 8 Figure 713 In rare cases, sunflower heads have been known to reach more than 30 inches in diameter. In Ontario, Canada, sunflowers have grown to heights of 25 feet. Figure 714An image of the sunflower was used by the Incas as their Sun God.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 69. 9 Figure 715 The sunflower is the state flower of Kansas. Complete the shading of your sunflower. Check over your drawing carefully and adjust the values as needed. Refer to the final drawing in Figure 717. Figure 716 The stems ofsunflowers were used to fill lifejackets long before modern day materials were invented.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 70. 10 Figure 717Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 71. 11BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHYAs a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, BrendaHoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalkpastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott<Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. Shedeveloped strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning,and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as aself-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments haveemployed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal policedepartments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal CanadianMounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “ForensicArtists International”.Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing andpainting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired andtrained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brendachose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing,drawing, painting, and developing her websites.Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach tocurriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes forstudents of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels andabilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as aresource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughoutthe world.LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 72. Shiny Leather By Cindy Wider Art educator, art curricula designer, award-winning gallery- represented artist, and author of Paint in Your Pyjamas V08 ADVANCED: NATURE & STILL LIFE The primary goal of this lesson is to achieve the illusion of a pair of realistic three-dimensional boots on a flat surface (your page) whilst also indicating their shiny texture. Curriculum is designed to refine your perception skills, build mental stamina, patience and tenacity whilst further developing your eye, mind, and hand coordination.This project is divided into the following four sections: INTRODUCTION: This lesson begins with a simple construction drawing. Step-by-step instructions show you how to gradually build a fully shaded three-dimensional image. OUTLINING A PAIR OF BOOTS: You accurately measure and draw the outlines of a pair of boots with help from a simple grid. MAPPING VALUES: You outline the shapes of the various tones as a value map, to help you when shading. ADDING SHADING: You use HB, 2B, and 4B pencils to add shading to create the illusion of shiny, three-dimensional boots. 10 PAGES – 11 ILLUSTRATIONS This lesson is recommended for artists with good drawing skills, as well as students of home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. Published by Hoddinott Publishing for Drawspace.com, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2008
  • 73. -2- INTRODUCTION This lesson begins with a simple construction drawing and grid method combined; step-by-step instructions show you how to gradually build up this drawing into a fully shaded three- dimensional image. Curriculum is designed to refine your perception skills, build mental stamina, patience and tenacity whilst further developing your eye, mind, hand coordination. As you work, you need to concentrate on achieving a Figure 801 scomplex structure of angles, shapes, contours and tones. Refer to the reference photo in figure 801. One of the major challenges you face is learning how to separate the areas that are highlighted and those that are in shadow. The primary goal is to achieve the illusion of a pair of realistic three- dimensional boots on a flat surface (your page) whilst also indicating the shiny texture. You need the following supplies (or reasonable substitutes): Pencil sharpener Hard plastic (or vinyl) eraser Putty (or kneaded) eraser HB, 2B and 4B grades of graphite pencils Fine sandpaper or a sandpaper block Soft, dry, and clean mopping brush for clearing away eraser crumbs Glad bake or scrap paper (to place under your hand and protect your drawing surface from smudges) Inexpensive A4 bond paper (or printer paper) for early stages of drawing Good quality smooth drawing paper (watercolor paper is okay too, but it is important to use a smooth paper so that you achieve a soft texture on your boots) Ruler (clear plastic – not colored) Masking tape or ordinary sticky tape (for transferring your image) A smooth drawing desk to work on (any indentations on the surface beneath will affect your drawing by making marks or indentations)Copyright to all intellectual property, articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Cindy Wider and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposeswhatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider. Copyright to this lesson in its current format belongs to Hoddinott Publishing, and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider (E-mail cindy@stuartcindy.com) and Brenda Hoddinott (E-mail brenda@drawspace.com) Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 74. -3- OUTLINING A PAIR OF BOOTS In this section you accurately measure and draw the outlines of a pair of boots with help from a simple grid. Use plain bond paper for this initial drawing; at the end of the next section, you transfer the image to better quality paper. 1) Draw a square any size (mine is 16cm by 16cm) and divide it into four smaller squares. It may help to indicate a half way mark on all four sides of each of your squares. 2) Draw a simple construction drawing of the boots inside your grid (see Figure 802). Make sure you compare the angles to the sides of your grid. Figure 802 TIP! When you draw angle lines or curved lines, it helps to say to yourself… this curve is curving (slanted) towards the door, this one is curving (slanted) towards the window etc. In other words, relate the direction of the curves (angles) to the position of furniture and objects in your room. 3) Draw the outline drawing in Figure 803 over the top of the previous construction drawing. Use your index finger as a guide, resting on this drawing as you draw along, it will help you from losing your place. Go slowly and think about whether the curve is convex or concave (curving in or out.) 4) Erase the initial construction drawing from underneath.Copyright to all intellectual property, articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Cindy Wider and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposeswhatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider. Copyright to this lesson in its current format belongs to Hoddinott Publishing, and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider (E-mail cindy@stuartcindy.com) and Brenda Hoddinott (E-mail brenda@drawspace.com) Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 75. -4- 5) Transfer your outline to a sheet of good quality paper. Do not transfer the grid lines to the new paper. Using the graphite transfer technique, make sure you only rub the back of your drawing with a HB pencil so your outline is very light. Figure 803 TIP! To transfer an image to new paper refer to Lesson J04 Intermediate: Transferring an Image In Figure 804, you can see the faint outline of the boots created by the transfer. Only the boots are transferred, so no grid lines are visible to spoil the shading. Figure 804 MAPPING VALUES In this section, you outline the shapes of the various tones as a value map, to help you when shading. 6) Lightly outline the shapes of the various tones created by the shadows and highlights. Refer to Figures 805 to 808. To help you see the different tones, a small reference photo is beside each step.Copyright to all intellectual property, articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Cindy Wider and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposeswhatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider. Copyright to this lesson in its current format belongs to Hoddinott Publishing, and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider (E-mail cindy@stuartcindy.com) and Brenda Hoddinott (E-mail brenda@drawspace.com) Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 76. -5- Figure 805A Figure 805B You can use both my drawing and the reference photo. Another option is to use only the photo or only my drawing. Figure 806A Make sure you can identify which shapes need to be shaded with light tones, and which need to be dark. Figure 806BCopyright to all intellectual property, articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Cindy Wider and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposeswhatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider. Copyright to this lesson in its current format belongs to Hoddinott Publishing, and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider (E-mail cindy@stuartcindy.com) and Brenda Hoddinott (E-mail brenda@drawspace.com) Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 77. -6- Figure 807B Figure 807A TIP! Refer to Lesson G06 Beginner: Creating a Value Scale before you begin adding shading to your drawing. ADDING SHADING In this section, you use HB, 2B, and 4B pencils to add shading to create the illusion of shiny, three dimensional boots. Figure 808 7) Draw a six- level value scale at the top of your page as a reference for shading.Copyright to all intellectual property, articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Cindy Wider and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposeswhatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider. Copyright to this lesson in its current format belongs to Hoddinott Publishing, and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider (E-mail cindy@stuartcindy.com) and Brenda Hoddinott (E-mail brenda@drawspace.com) Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 78. -7- TIP! When using a photograph as a reference guide, always remember not to draw every single detail you see, instead indicate what you see and leave some information to the viewer’s imagination. As a general rule, include most major shapes and forms as accurately as you can and always consider your composition first and foremost. In other words as you are doing a realistic drawing you may notice that the photo seems a bit dull and evenly grey, you can give your artwork more interest by choosing to lighten some of those areas or darken them to suit the composition so long as it doesn’t affect the form too much. Figure 809A 8) Using your HB pencil, shade the light and medium tones. Begin the first layer of shading, gradually working your way down one boot at a time. Refer to Figures 809 and 810. Shade only your levels 2, 3 and 4 using your HB pencil and putty eraser (leave the white of your page blank for the level 1 tones. Use your putty eraser to refine the white sections and keep them clean. A high gloss texture involves depicting an undulating surface of patterns that rise up gradually in some areas and sharply in others. You need to draw a complex Figure 809B combination of soft and hard edges within the shadow shapes to achieve this undulating appearance. You also need to apply the correct levels of light and shade to successfully depict a convincingly realistic image of the shiny black leather boots. TIP! When shading three-dimensional objects, always remember that the shapes of the shadows and highlights are equally as important as the shape of the object.Copyright to all intellectual property, articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Cindy Wider and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposeswhatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider. Copyright to this lesson in its current format belongs to Hoddinott Publishing, and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider (E-mail cindy@stuartcindy.com) and Brenda Hoddinott (E-mail brenda@drawspace.com) Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 79. -8- Figure 810B Figure 810A 9) Use various pencils to complete the shading of the boots. Refer to Figure 811 on the next page. Using your 2B pencil, gradually darken and refine all areas, concentrating on introducing your level 5 tones. Refine by lightening some areas and darkening others, continually using your putty eraser as needed to keep your drawing neat and to retain the level one highlight shapes. Concentrate on achieving the different levels of light and shade making sure that you place them correctly. Use a delicate shading technique and swap your pencils when necessary to avoid your page becoming too glossy. Use small circular motions, to help you achieve a smooth look. Introduce level six tones. Use your 4B pencil and press quite firmly. Remember, level one is to be left as the white of your page.Copyright to all intellectual property, articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Cindy Wider and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposeswhatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider. Copyright to this lesson in its current format belongs to Hoddinott Publishing, and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider (E-mail cindy@stuartcindy.com) and Brenda Hoddinott (E-mail brenda@drawspace.com) Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 80. -9- Figure 811A 10) Touch up any sections of shading with which you are not completely happy. Use the photo in Figure 811A as a reminder of where to darken or lighten your drawing as needed. Figure 811BCopyright to all intellectual property, articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Cindy Wider and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposeswhatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider. Copyright to this lesson in its current format belongs to Hoddinott Publishing, and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider (E-mail cindy@stuartcindy.com) and Brenda Hoddinott (E-mail brenda@drawspace.com) Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 81. - 10 - Drawspace.com is proud to introduce Cindy Wider Art educator, art curricula designer, award-winning gallery- represented artist, and author of Paint in Your Pyjamas Cindy Wider currently resides in Noosa on the Sunshine Coast of Queensland, Australia with her husband Stuart, and daughters Isha and Sumaya. Art philosophy I believe that almost everyone has the natural gifts needed for learning to draw and paint, and that art has the ability to heal and help us to reach our full human potential. Art is the missing language that can bridge the gap in communication when words are not enough. It is my life purpose to share my love of art, through inspiring and motivating others to realize their natural gifts for drawing and painting. My passion for helping others to learn to draw and paint comes from the joy and excitement I experience through the process of creating art and my desire to share that feeling! I stumbled upon my natural gifts for art at the age of 23years and wished I had known about it sooner. Professional accomplishments After ten years of serious art study Cindy went on to become one of her community’s leading artists with her artworks gracing the walls of many of the major hotels, corporate boardrooms and private homes as well as selling overseas. She began tutoring at the local Technical and Further Education College in 1988 and then went on to establish the largest on-going private art tuition school in Port Lincoln, then several years later in Noosa Queensland. For many years Cindy worked as a part time freelance illustrator for the internationally renowned rubber stamp company, ‘Annaleey crafts.’ In 2005, along with her husband Stuart she was commissioned by the Microsoft Corporation to produce an original artwork for their Sydney headquarters, and limited edition prints for the annual corporate gift to their business associates. You can view Cindy’s paintings at: http://www.thecoopergallery.com.au/wider/wider.htm Paint in Your Pyjamas Have you been asking yourself, "Who am I and what do I really want out of life?” Perhaps youve been selflessly dedicating all your energy to your children or partner to help them fulfill their dreams and goals. Maybe youre working hard just to earn a living. But now you feel the time has come to do something for yourself. If so, this book is just for you... You can buy Cindy’s book, ‘Paint in Your Pyjamas – every Woman’s guide to finding your life purpose through art’ at: http://www.paintinyourpyjamas.com/Copyright to all intellectual property, articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Cindy Wider and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposeswhatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider. Copyright to this lesson in its current format belongs to Hoddinott Publishing, and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider (E-mail cindy@stuartcindy.com) and Brenda Hoddinott (E-mail brenda@drawspace.com) Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 82. By Cindy Wider Art educator, art curricula designer, award-winning gallery- represented artist, and author of Paint in Your Pyjamas V10 ADVANCED: NATURE & STILL LIFEThis lesson takes you step-by-step through the process of drawing a realistic three-dimensionalceramic urn. Curriculum is designed to refine your perception skills, build mental stamina,patience and tenacity whilst further developing your eye, mind, hand coordination.Prerequisites for this project include: E05 The Magic Ellipse (Cindy Wider) J04 Transferring an Image (Cindy Wider) K02 Drawing an Ellipse (Brenda Hoddinott) G06 Creating a Value Scale (Cindy Wider)This project is divided into the following four sections: OUTLINING AN URN: You accurately measure and draw the outlines of an urn. ADDING THE PATTERNS: You use perspective to accurately place the designs around the urn. MAPPING VALUES: You outline the shapes of the various tones as a value map, to help you when shading. ADDING SHADING: You follow along with step-by-step instructions to gradually build up this drawing into a fully shaded three- dimensional image. 10 PAGES – 18 ILLUSTRATIONS This lesson is recommended for artists with good drawing skills, as well as students of home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. Published by Hoddinott Publishing for Drawspace.com, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2008
  • 83. -2- Figure 1001 OUTLINING AN URN In this section you accurately measure and draw the outlines of an urn. Figure 1001 shows a photograph of the urn on which this project is based. The measurements in Figure 1002 represent the full height of the urn from the top of the first ellipse, to the front base of the urn. 1. Use a ruler to draw a vertical line. 2. Measure and then mark dots at the points shown in Figure 1002. 3. Measure and draw horizontal lines along the divisions. Refer to Figure 1003. Make sure you line up the horizontal lines so that they are all centered along the vertical line.Figure 1002 Figure 1003Copyright to all intellectual property, articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Cindy Wider and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposeswhatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider. Copyright to this lesson in its current format belongs to Hoddinott Publishing, and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider (E-mail cindy@stuartcindy.com) and Brenda Hoddinott (E-mail brenda@drawspace.com) Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 84. -3- Figure 1004 4. Draw the ellipses using the measurements as guidelines. Refer to Figure 1004. A successfully drawn ellipse has no flat edges or pointed corners whatsoever. Take notice that all parts of the ellipses have not been drawn (except for the top one); this is to avoid confusion. Instead, just draw the front edges of each ellipse (the parts that will remain visible in your final drawing.) It is very important to place the ends onto your ellipses first, when you are not Figure 1005 drawing the entire ellipse, as this helps avoid pointed ends. 5. Add the outside edges on to complete the construction drawing. Refer to Figure 1005. 6. Complete the outline drawing. Refer to Figure 1006 on the next page. 7. Erase your guide lines in preparation for adding the patterns.Copyright to all intellectual property, articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Cindy Wider and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposeswhatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider. Copyright to this lesson in its current format belongs to Hoddinott Publishing, and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider (E-mail cindy@stuartcindy.com) and Brenda Hoddinott (E-mail brenda@drawspace.com) Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 85. -4- Figure 1006 DRAWING PATTERNS ON THE URN To draw patterns onto a circular object in correct perspective, you simply draw a half-circle with the same diameter of the ellipse on the object and place it just above the object. The diameter of the ellipse on the urn is 13cm. This half circle is then evenly divided to form guide lines for the pattern. Follow step-by-step instructions to place the pattern on the little urn you have just drawn. Figure 1007 8. Draw a horizontal line (the diameter line at 13cm long) exactly centered and about 9cm above the urn. Refer to Figure 1007. 9. Draw a vertical line down from the center of the line you have just drawn, measuring 6.5cm to form a right angle.Copyright to all intellectual property, articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Cindy Wider and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposeswhatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider. Copyright to this lesson in its current format belongs to Hoddinott Publishing, and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider (E-mail cindy@stuartcindy.com) and Brenda Hoddinott (E-mail brenda@drawspace.com) Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 86. -5- 10. Draw two diagonal lines each Figure 1008 measuring 6.5cm long, on either side of the vertical line at an angle of approximately forty-five degrees. Refer to figure 1008. This places them at about half way between the horizontal line and the vertical line. 11. Use these lines as a guide to then outline your half-circle shape. 12. Using your ruler, divide this half circle into 3cm intervals. Begin your 3cm divisions here. These Start your first division, just off- divisions become a guide for the next step. centre at the bottom of the half circle and continue dividing on either side. 13. Use the 3cm divisions as a guide from which to draw vertical lines. Refer to figure 1009. These vertical lines touch the ellipse on the urn at intervals that can be used as guide lines to place the looped-pattern in perfect perspective. See the looped-pattern Figure 1009 in photograph of the urn in Figure 1001.) 14. Draw a line through the center of each of these divisions to use as a guide for the maximum height of each individual curve.Copyright to all intellectual property, articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Cindy Wider and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposeswhatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider. Copyright to this lesson in its current format belongs to Hoddinott Publishing, and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider (E-mail cindy@stuartcindy.com) and Brenda Hoddinott (E-mail brenda@drawspace.com) Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 87. -6- 15. Draw in the small curves using Figure 1010 the lines you just drew as a guide. Refer to Figure 1010. 16. Use the first pattern as a guide and refer to the photograph or the drawing below to draw on the other details. Refer to Figure 1011. Figure 1011 MAPPING VALUES In this section you transfer your drawing to good paper and prepare a map for shading. 17. Transfer your drawing to good quality paper. Refer to Figure 1012. Figure 1012 18. Softly draw the shadow and highlight shapes on the urn. Refer to the photograph and drawing on the next page (Figure 1013 and 1014).Copyright to all intellectual property, articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Cindy Wider and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposeswhatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider. Copyright to this lesson in its current format belongs to Hoddinott Publishing, and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider (E-mail cindy@stuartcindy.com) and Brenda Hoddinott (E-mail brenda@drawspace.com) Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 88. -7- Figure 1013 Figure 1014 ADDING SHADING In this section you finish your drawing by adding shading. 19. Draw a value scale at the top of your paper and begin your first layer of shading. Refer to Figure 1015 and 1016. Only shade your level 2, 3 and 4 tones to begin.Copyright to all intellectual property, articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Cindy Wider and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposeswhatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider. Copyright to this lesson in its current format belongs to Hoddinott Publishing, and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider (E-mail cindy@stuartcindy.com) and Brenda Hoddinott (E-mail brenda@drawspace.com) Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 89. -8- Figure 1015 Use your HB and 2B pencils as needed and remember not to build up too heavily with your HB as it will create a glossy film that will repel further pencil shading. Make sure you maintain the highlight shapes as the white of your page by continually erasing the areas with your putty eraser to keep them neat. Figure 1016Copyright to all intellectual property, articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Cindy Wider and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposeswhatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider. Copyright to this lesson in its current format belongs to Hoddinott Publishing, and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider (E-mail cindy@stuartcindy.com) and Brenda Hoddinott (E-mail brenda@drawspace.com) Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 90. -9- Figure 1017 20. Apply the final layer of shading using your 4B pencil to darken the level 5 and 6 tones. Remember to squint so that you can easily see the variety of tones Check over your drawing carefully and change anything you’re not happy with. Then, give yourself a big hug! Figure 1018Copyright to all intellectual property, articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Cindy Wider and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposeswhatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider. Copyright to this lesson in its current format belongs to Hoddinott Publishing, and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider (E-mail cindy@stuartcindy.com) and Brenda Hoddinott (E-mail brenda@drawspace.com) Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 91. - 10 - Drawspace.com is proud to introduce Cindy Wider Art educator, art curricula designer, award-winning gallery- represented artist, and author of Paint in Your Pyjamas Cindy Wider currently resides in Noosa on the Sunshine Coast of Queensland, Australia with her husband Stuart, and daughters Isha and Sumaya. Art philosophy I believe that almost everyone has the natural gifts needed for learning to draw and paint, and that art has the ability to heal and help us to reach our full human potential. Art is the missing language that can bridge the gap in communication when words are not enough. It is my life purpose to share my love of art, through inspiring and motivating others to realize their natural gifts for drawing and painting. My passion for helping others to learn to draw and paint comes from the joy and excitement I experience through the process of creating art and my desire to share that feeling! I stumbled upon my natural gifts for art at the age of 23years and wished I had known about it sooner. Professional accomplishments After ten years of serious art study Cindy went on to become one of her community’s leading artists with her artworks gracing the walls of many of the major hotels, corporate boardrooms and private homes as well as selling overseas. She began tutoring at the local Technical and Further Education College in 1988 and then went on to establish the largest on-going private art tuition school in Port Lincoln, then several years later in Noosa Queensland. For many years Cindy worked as a part time freelance illustrator for the internationally renowned rubber stamp company, ‘Annaleey crafts.’ In 2005, along with her husband Stuart she was commissioned by the Microsoft Corporation to produce an original artwork for their Sydney headquarters, and limited edition prints for the annual corporate gift to their business associates. You can view Cindy’s paintings at: http://www.thecoopergallery.com.au/wider/wider.htm Paint in Your Pyjamas Have you been asking yourself, "Who am I and what do I really want out of life?” Perhaps youve been selflessly dedicating all your energy to your children or partner to help them fulfill their dreams and goals. Maybe youre working hard just to earn a living. But now you feel the time has come to do something for yourself. If so, this book is just for you... You can buy Cindy’s book, ‘Paint in Your Pyjamas – every Woman’s guide to finding your life purpose through art’ at: http://www.paintinyourpyjamas.com/Copyright to all intellectual property, articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Cindy Wider and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposeswhatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider. Copyright to this lesson in its current format belongs to Hoddinott Publishing, and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Cindy Wider (E-mail cindy@stuartcindy.com) and Brenda Hoddinott (E-mail brenda@drawspace.com) Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 92. MEDIEVALBrenda HoddinottV-11 ADVANCED: NATURE AND STILL LIFEIn this project, featuring a detailed drawing of anarrowhead, you use six different drawing techniques tocapture its forms and textures according to the lightsand darks created by a light source. BEFORE THE DRAWING: I placed an arrowheadThis lesson is divided into the following four sections: in front of me with a light shining on it from the upper right. BRING AN OUTLINE TO THE PAPER: The goal of the initial outline is to render the shape of the arrow proportionately correct. SHADE IN THE FORMS: You imagine a light source from the frontal right and add shading accordingly. ADD TEXTURE: You finish off the drawing by adding texture to make the arrowhead look old.You need various grades of pencils, good quality drawing paper, and erasers. If you plan touse regular wood pencils instead of mechanical, you also need a pencil sharpener and asandpaper block. This lesson is recommended for artists with experience in shading with various techniques, as well as students of home schooling, academic, and recreational fine art educators. 8 PAGES – 20 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Publishing for Drawspace.com, Halifax, NS, Canada - 2009
  • 93. 2 My partner John, and my grandson Brandon, are recreational archers with an avid BEFORE THE DRAWING fascination with medieval archery. John recently purchased a few high quality replicas of medieval arrows to add to some arrows he was making. When I saw them, naturally, my first thoughts went to trying to find a way to capture their form and texture in a drawing. I decided to work from life rather than take photos. I placed an arrowhead in front of me with a light shining on it from the upper right. I rendered the forms by closely observing the light values and shadows. To draw the more intricate details, I held the arrow in my hand as I drew. Using photos as references is rarely as reliable as drawing from actual objects. However, if you have no choice, make sure you take lots and lots of photos from every conceivable angle. Also, take numerous close-ups of the more intricate parts of your subject, so you won’t be left guessing which parts connect to what and how! In this lesson, you need to stretch your visual skills to their limit, and BRING AN OUTLINE TO THE PAPER Figure 1103 follow along with drawings that illustrate each important stage. However, just so you don’t feel totally abandoned, I do offer a few tidbits of information and suggestions along the way. The goal of the initial outline is to render the shape of the arrow proportionately correct. The lines need to be sketched very lightly. Oh and if you are wondering, yes, I did use a ruler! Symmetry was important, so I drew a straight line down the Figure 1102 center of my page before I began. My Figure 1102 symmetry line is so faint that it didn’t show up on the scan. 1. Use an HB Figure 1101 pencil and press very lightly to outline the Take your arrowhead. time and follow along with Figures 1101 to 1105.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 94. When you are happy with your contour 3 drawing, outline more details such as the Figure 1104 Figure 1105 ridge down the center of the upper section (Figure 1105). I also outlined the shapes of some sections of shading. In this section, you imagine a light source SHADE IN THE FORMS from the frontal right and add shading accordingly. Figure 1106 2. Add shading to the arrowhead to bring out its three dimensional Take your time forms. and follow along with Figures 1106 to 1113. Up to now, I have used an HB pencil. I plan to use 2H for the lightest values of shading and slowly build the darker values with HB and 2B. I use a 2H pencil to add a Figure 1107 few light values with diagonal hatching lines (Figure 1106). Medium values are added with a freshly sharpened HB pencil (Figures 1107 and 1108). Still with an HB, I cross over the hatching to make some sections even darker (Figure 1109).Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 95. I use a facial 4 tissue to slightly Figure 1108 Figure 1109 Figure 1110 blend the values (Figure 1110). I cleaned up the edges all around the arrowhead with a kneaded eraser. Figure 1112 Figure 1111 Add dark values sparingly to various sections to make the forms stand out. I used a 2B pencil and crosshatching. Refer to Figures 1111 to 1113.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 96. 5 Figure 1113 ADD TEXTURE You finish off the drawing by adding texture to make the arrowhead look old. Texture is added with a combination of:  Hatching  Crosshatching  Squirkling  Adding dots (stippling)  Lightening tiny sections with a kneaded eraser  Blending sections as needed 3. Add texture to the arrowhead using a combination Examine my drawings (Figures 1114 to 1120) very of drawing techniques closely and draw what you see. Take your time! The most important tool at this point is your vision. Several close-up views are offered so you can tell what techniques are used in each section. If you are using regular Figure 1114 pencils, make sure you sharpen the point of the pencil with a sharpener and/or sandpaper block after each section of shading is added. As you work, continuously go back over your drawing and adjust the values and textures. To make sections lighter, pat the shading lines gently with a kneaded eraser. To make a section darker, simply add more textured shading.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 97. Many artists prefer to not draw borders 6 around the contours of their subjects. On the Figure 1115 other hand, other artists (like me) prefer to outline their subjects with lines. I have added a very thin line around this arrowhead with a 2H pencil. Feel free to leave it out if you wish. Figure 1116 Figure 1117 Figure 1118 As you work, focus on the broad range of values that exist in between the darks and lights. Very light and very dark values are fairly easy to achieve. The real challenge is creating medium values.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 98. 7 Figure 1119 Figure 1120 The dark values of the cast shadow graduate from very dark close to the arrowhead to lighter farther away. Advice to take away from this project is to stay away from highlights when you want to capture dull, weathered-looking metal surfaces. The surface of this arrowhead is not only dull but also uneven and dented as a result of being made with primitive metalworking tools. Sign your name, and write today’s date on the back of your drawing. Finally give yourself a big hug!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 99. 8 BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT  Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.  The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com