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Avansati t diverse animale

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  • 1. Brenda Hoddinott T-01 ADVANCED: DIVERSE ANIMALSA lovable Soft Coated Wheaton Terrier is the subject of this project, which featuresadvanced drawing techniques for accurately rendering both long and short fur, realistic“puppy dog” eyes, and a shiny textured nose.This project is divided into the following seven sections: Setting Up the Format and Grid Outlining Rosey’s Portrait  Shading a Section of Background  Using Hatching Lines to Draw Fuzzy Ears  Drawing Big Beautiful Brown Eyes  Shading the “Nosey” Of Rosey  Adding Lots of Long Fur to a Face and Chest  Suggested supplies: 2H, HB, 2B, 4B and 6B pencils; vinyl and kneaded erasers; ruler (if you chooseto work with a grid); and smooth hot-pressed watercolor paper (or another good quality paper). Recommended for artists from age 12 to adult with advanced drawing skills, as well as students of home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators 14 PAGES – 18 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Drawspace.com, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2002 (Revised - July, 2009)
  • 2. 2SETTING UP THE FORMAT AND GRIDThis drawing is done from a combination of photos and my memory. However, to help youset up proportions (if you are not yet comfortable drawing freehand), I’ve added a gridformat. You use careful observation of spaces and lines within the individual squares tomeasure for accurate proportions. Illustrations that show the progression of my drawingare fairly self-explanatory; hence, you find very little instructional text.I’ve chosen the size 5 by 7 inches with 1 inch squares, but feel free to do a larger drawingby using 1½ inch or 2 inch squares.1) Draw a rectangular drawing Figure 101 format 5 by 7 inches (or 7½ by 10½ inches, or 10 by 14 inches, if Remember to press lightly with your you want a larger drawing). pencil, because all grid lines and most sketch lines will need to be erased. Pressing too hard can also damage the tooth of the paper.2) Divide your rectangle into 35 equal squares, 5 across by 7 down Use 1 inch squares, if you want your as in Figure 101. final drawing to be 5 by 7 inches or larger squares for a larger drawing.3) Mark numbers along the top and letters down the side.OUTLINING ROSEY’SPORTRAITIn this section you draw a detailed outline of Rosey within your drawing space inpreparation for adding shading.4) Draw the basic outline of the head, ears, and shoulders very lightly with your You can add a few diagonal lines to the grid to help you place everything more HB pencil as in Figure 102. accurately. As you draw, don’t think about what the subject is. Focus on only one square at a time and pretend this one square is the total drawing. Examine the shapes, and negative and positive spaces that define the actual lines and their positions within the perimeter of this one square.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 3. 3 Observe whether the lines are straight, curved or angular. Take note of the directions in which curved lines bend, and the length and angle of straight lines in relation to the sides of this particular square. Also, examine the areas where curved lines meet straight lines before you draw. Figure 102 Make sure you draw your lines VERY lightly, preferably with your HB mechanical pencil. My scanner software has darkened this sketch, so that you are able to see my lines (as in Figure 102), but on the actual drawing, the lines are so light that you can barely see them. Take your time and check your proportions often. For my final drawing, I chose to not include the bottom lip and teeth. So, no need to5) Draw the eyes, mustache and nose (Figure 103). draw them! I’m writing this text after the drawing is complete, so you may find a couple of other minor changes on upcoming pages.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 4. 46) Draw the fur between her Figure 103 eyes (called her “fall” or “mane”), and also the wisps of fur above her nose (Figure 104). Figure 104 SHADING A SECTION OF BACKGROUND Crosshatching is an ideal method of shading backgrounds. The values graduate into one another and seem to recede into distant space. As an aside, I prefer to start my shading in the upper left hand corner, and work my way across and down the page, so I don’t smudge the completed sections as I work.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 5. 57) Erase the grid lines in the sections in which you are working and then redraw Use the edge of your vinyl eraser to erase the lines, and very lightly brush away the the sections of the actual sketch, which were erased. eraser crumbs with a soft paintbrush. Then, use your kneaded eraser to gently pat the paper surface to pick up any remaining eraser crumbs.8) Add graduated shading in the upper left corner. Figure 105 Use a 2B pencil for the darker areas closer to the edges, and a HB for the lighter values. You can add all the background shading now, or add sections as you draw each section of fur (as I did).USING HATCHING LINES TO DRAW FUZZY EARSI have chosen a light source slightly from the left front, so the shading is lighter on the left.In addition, cast shadows need to be added to her neck on the right, and the right side ofher nose. My choice of light source also affects where I place the values in her eyes and onher nose. Refer to Figure 106. Remember to erase your grid lines with either your vinyl or9) Using short hatching lines to represent fuzzy shading on the ear. kneaded eraser before you begin each section of shading. Start with your HB pencil and then use your 2B until you are happy with the texture and values. Examine the various directions of my hatching lines. The fur is lighter in some places with white paper showing clearly. The hatching lines are different lengths and values. A few individual wispy and untidy hairs are rendered with thin lines, to keep the fur looking soft and natural.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 6. 6 Figure 106 10) With your HB pencil, add the light shading on the top of her head and draw the fur on the top half of her Take a moment other ear. and observe how dark the fur on her ears looks, when compared to the top section of her fuzzy head (Figure 107). As with most Soft Coated Wheaton Terriers, Rosey had dark gray ears, and her lower face and beard were a combination of dark gray and black fur. The rest of her Figure 107 fur, from the top of her head back to the tip of her tail was a soft reddish wheaten color. When you draw dark fur, you use mostly dark hatching lines. On the other hand, light fur needs to be rendered with lighter values.11) Continue with the background shading along the top section of your drawing.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 7. 7DRAWING BIG BEAUTIFUL BROWN EYESIn this section, you begin to give personality to Rosey’s face, by drawing her gorgeous eyes. Use a 2B pencil to add dark areas around the eyes.12) Draw the fur around the eye on the left.13) Shade in the iris (on the left), leaving a white spot for the primary highlight and The shading of the iris is darker a light area for the secondary highlight. under the upper eyelid and on the side where the highlight is drawn. Figure 108 14) With your 6B pencil, shade in the sections of the pupil that are really dark. 15) Complete this eye with HB and Don’t forget the shading in the 2B pencils. “white” of the eye. Figure 10916) Continue drawing the fur between her eyes and around her other eye.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 8. 8 Figure 110 17) Draw the fur under and between her eyes and down Observe closely the direction in toward her nose (Figure 110). which the fur grows in this section. 18) Add shading to the lower section of her other ear (on the right). 19) Complete the shading of the other eye (Figure 111). 20) Add the fur around this eye and make her “eyelashes” a By the way, Rosey little darker on both sides. actually had eyebrows and fur over her eyes that looked like Figure 111 eyelashes! 21) Add more shading to the background on both sides (Figure 112). 22) Shade in the fur on her I moved the back. outline of her back (on the right) up closer to her ear. This is the section of fur on her back that needs to be shaded.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 9. 923) Add more Figure 112 fur to her lower ear on the left, to make it look a little longer.24) Finish the background shading.25) Draw the fur on the left, and add more details to her moustache.26) Draw the small section of chest fur on the left (under the Keep the chin). values light.27) Erase the lower section of the nose and redraw it a little higher Yet one more change. I decided the nose was too low on the face. on the face.28) If you drew the mouth, erase it now (Figure 112).SHADING THE “NOSEY” OF ROSEYThe rest of this drawing is done with HB, 2B and 4B pencils. Use your own discretion as towhich pencil you use for each area. Observe closely the direction in which the fur grows ineach section.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 10. 1029) Use Figure 113 squirkling to add the shading to Refer to the nose. Figure 113. Note the areas that are lighter than others.30) With your 2B pencil, add squirkles and dots to represent the texture of a dog’s nose.31) Draw the fur on the left section of her moustache.ADDING LOTS OF LONG FUR TO A FACE AND CHESTBefore you begin the step-by-step instructions in this lesson, closely examine a close-up ofthe completed drawing of the furry texture of her chest, face, mustache and beard.Observe the following as you plan your shading strategy and decide which pencils (HB, 2Bor 4B) you should use for each area:  The hatching lines are all curved.  The fur grows in many different directions.  Some sections of fur overlap others.  The shading of the fur on her chest is darker, closer to her face, because of the cast shadow created by her head.  The tips of the fur on her mane, mustache and beard are quite dark.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 11. 11 Figure 114 32) Add the shading on the upper right under her mane (the long fur growing from the center section of her snout, also called a Refer to Figures 114 muzzle). and 115. 33) Draw more fur on the left side of her chest, watching closely the direction in which it grows (Figure 116). 34) Add her beard under the opening of her mouth. Figure 115Take note of thedark shading usedto define theopening of hermouth and on theends of her beard.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 12. 12 Figure 116 35) Add the rest of the fur to her chest (Figure 117). Note how dark the fur is in the shadow area on her neck and chest, under her face. Figure 11736) Refer to the final drawing (Figure 118) and finish drawing the fur on the right side of her face and beard.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 13. 13 Use your kneaded eraser molded to a narrow wedge, to pull a few lighter areas of beard fur from the dark shading.37) Correct any areas that you’re not happy with and sign your name! Figure 118 In Loving Memory ROSEY (Windyflats Rose Dohmit) December 16, 1998 - December 30, 2000 Died of a genetic illness (PLE) that is very common today in purebred dogs.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 14. 14 As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic BRENDA HODDINOTT artist (retired), and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including her favorites: graphite and paint. Brenda is the author of Drawing for Dummies (Wiley Publishing, Inc., New York, NY) and The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN). She is currently writing two books on classical drawing. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott<Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. Shedeveloped strong drawing and painting skills through self-directed learning.During her twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, variouscriminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including the RoyalCanadian Mounted Police. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from theRoyal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membershipfrom “Forensic Artists International”.In 2003, Brenda retired from her careers as a forensic artist and teacher to work full timewriting books and developing her website (Drawspace.com). This site is respected as aresource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilitiesthroughout the world.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this document belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 15. Brenda HoddinottT-02 ADVANCED: DIVERSE ANIMALSIn this project, you draw a lovable Dalmatian withrealistic eyes and a shiny textured nose, withemphasis on the forms of her fur and individualfeatures, as defined by a dominant light source.Curriculum is designed to enhance skills with: drawing a detailed outline within a complex grid;identifying accurate proportions; planning shading strategies; rendering the forms of a dog’scranial and facial anatomy; and shading graduated values with crosshatching and hatching.A complex grid (optional) helps you to identify the proper placement of the outlines of variousparts of your drawing subject. However, if you are comfortable drawing a complex subjectfreehand, please ignore the references to a grid in this lesson.This project is divided into the following three sections: TIPS FOR WORKING WITH A GRID: You use careful observation of spaces and lines within individual squares to measure for accurate proportions. DRAWING THE OUTLINE: You draw a detailed outline of Shadow within your drawing space in preparation for adding shading. SHADING SHADOW: Hatching is used to add a furry texture, and enhance the three- dimensional forms of the understructures of her head and neck. Crosshatching works well to bring out the texture of her collar. Squirkling provides a realistic texture to her nose.Suggested drawing supplies include 2H, HB, 2B, 4B and 6B pencils, vinyl and kneaded erasers,sandpaper block, ruler (if you choose to work with a grid), and good quality drawing paper. 13 PAGES – 20 ILLUSTRATIONS This lesson is recommended for artists and aspiring artists, from age 12 to adult with good drawing skills, including the shading techniques used for hatching fur. The curriculum of this lesson is easily implemented into instructional programs for home schooling, academic and recreational learning environments. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada - 2007
  • 16. 2TIPS FOR WORKING WITH A GRIDA grid, an invaluable drawing tool to help set up accurate proportions, necessitates carefulobservation of spaces and lines within individual squares. A grid is a framework of vertical andhorizontal reference squares on an image and/or drawing paper, used by artists to either enlargeor reduce the size of the original image. Proportion is the relationship in size of one componentof a drawing to another or others.Keep the following in mind as you work your way through this project: Focus on only one square at a time and pretend this one square is the total drawing. As you draw, don’t think about what the subject is. Focus on the shapes, and negative and positive spaces that define the actual lines. Examine the outlines and their positions within the perimeter of this one square. Note the shape of the spaces on either side of each line. Observe whether the lines are straight, curved or angular. Take note of the directions in which curved lines bend, and the length and angle of straight lines in relation to the sides of this particular square. Take note of the areas where curved lines meet straight lines.Shape refers to the outward outline of a form. Basic shapes include circles, squares and triangles.Negative space refers to the background around and/or behind a drawing subject such as objects,people, or animals. Positive space refers to the space occupied by the drawing subject and/or its(or his or her) various parts. Curved lines are created when a straight line curves (or bends).DRAWING THE OUTLINEThroughout this section you draw a detailed outline of Shadow within a square drawing space inpreparation for adding shading. Drawing space (also called a drawing surface or a drawingformat) is the area in which you render a drawing within a specific perimeter. It can be the shapeof the paper or outlined by any shape you draw, such as a square, rectangle, or circle. Press very lightly with your pencil as you draw the grid lines and outlines (contour lines) of the dog’s head. All grid lines and some outlines will need to be erased later. Pressing too hard can also damage the tooth of the paper. I used an HB mechanical pencil, and only the weight of the pencil itself created the lines. My scanner software has darkened my grid lines and outline so you can see them; in fact, my lines are so faint they are barely visible.Contour lines are created when the shared edges of spaces and/or objects meet. Contour lines candefine complete objects or small sections or details within drawing subjects.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 17. 3 FIGURE 2-01 1. Use a ruler to lightly render a square drawing format. Mine is 7 by 7 inches, but feel free to do a larger drawing by using larger squares. 2. Draw the grid, using numbers along the top and letters down the side. This grid has 49 squares, 7 across by 7 down. The numbers and letters help you keep track of where you are working within the grid. Use a FIGURE 2-02 sandpaper block to keep the point of your pencil freshly sharpened. Take your time, and check your proportions often. If you accidentally draw something in the wrong square, simply erase and redraw it. 3. Draw the basic outline of the head and ears very lightly with your HB pencil.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 18. 4 FIGURE 2-03 4. Draw the outline of the neck and collar. 5. Add the small section of her back that is visible. 6. Draw the inside flaps of her ears. FIGURE 2-04 FIGURE 2-05 Examine the close-up section of an oil painting (by me) in Figure 2-04, and a photograph taken by my daughter, Heidi, in Figure 2-05. Shadow has unusual eyes for a dog; one iris is blue and the other is brown.7. Draw circles as the outlines of the irises of her eyes (Refer to Figure 2-06). The iris of an eye is the large colored circular shape.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 19. 58. Add triangular shapes as the inner corners of her eyes. A very tiny section of the white of the eye is visible within this tiny triangle. The white of the eye (sometimes called the eyeball) is the largest spherical section of the eye that is light in value but not really white.9. Draw her nose and mouth. FIGURE 2-0610. Draw the smallest circles that will be the highlights, the partial circles that indicate the pupils of the eyes, and the details of the collar (refer to Figure 2-07).Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 20. 6A highlight is the brightest area of an object; usually, the section that is closest to the lightsource. The pupil of an eye is the dark circular shape, within the iris, that adjusts its size underdifferent lighting conditions.Light source refers to the direction from which a dominant light originates. In this portrait ofShadow, the light source is from the right front, so the overall shading is lighter on the right.Also, cast shadows will be added to her neck and the side of her nose resulting from this lightsource. A cast shadow is a dark area on a surface, adjacent to where the light is blocked by anobject. This light source will also affect where I place the values in her eyes and on her nose. FIGURE 2-07When you’ve finished drawing the detailed sections, take a moment to check carefully thateverything is in the correct place, and drawn the right size in relation to the grid lines. Erase andmodify any sections you aren’t happy with.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 21. 7SHADING SHADOWThere are many ways to add shading to a drawing. I am right-handed and prefer to start myshading in the upper left hand corner, and work my way across and down the page so as not tosmudge my completed sections. Don’t forget to erase your grid lines before you begin adding shading! Then, redraw all sections of the outline that were accidentally erased. Use the edge of your vinyl eraser to erase the lines and then very lightly brush away the eraser crumbs with a soft paintbrush. After that, use your kneaded eraser to gently pat the paper surface to pick up any remaining eraser crumbs.11. Using a 2B pencil for the darker areas and a HB for the lighter values, add the shading to the left side of the drawing, beginning in the upper left corner. The background is done with hatching. A helpful hint for drawing parallel hatching lines is to use a ruler to lightly draw a few parallel diagonal guidelines before you add shading. FIGURE 2-08 As a right-handed person, my natural hand movement is from the lower left to the upper right. The hatching lines in this background are rendered from the lower right to the upper left, as a left- handed person would naturally be inclined to draw them. Hence, I had to turn my drawing sideways so I could take advantage of my natural hand movement as I added shading to the background.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 22. 8 FIGURE 2-09 12. Add shading to the FIGURE 2-10 ear on the left. The hatching lines curve in various directions. 13. Add shading to the dark shadow sections inside this ear. 14. With your HB pencil, add shading to the top of the head. The hatching lines are curving in various directions around the forms and are different lengths and values.Curved hatching lines are integral to rendering the forms of the cranial and facial bone structures. FIGURE 2-11 Examine the values of this fur, and take note that the white paper is showing through in some sections. Also the overall values are darker on the left.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 23. 915. Draw the spots on the top of the head and add the fur around her eyes.16. Use your 2B pencil to darken some areas around the perimeter of the eyes and some of the spots on the left of the drawing. FIGURE 2-12 17. Shade in the irises and the whites of the eyes. Refer to Figure 2-13. The shading of the irises is darker under the upper eyelid and on the side where the highlight is drawn. Conversely, the side of the iris opposite the highlight is lighter. Leave the highlights white. FIGURE 2-13 FIGURE 2-14 Don’t forget to add shading to the inner corners (the whites). 18. Add more background shading on the top of the drawing 19. With your HB pencil, add middle values to the ear on the right.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 24. 1020. Shade in the FIGURE 2-15 pupils with a 6B pencil.21. Draw the fur between and surrounding her eyes.22. Shade in the middle section of the background on the right. FIGURE 2-16 FIGURE 2-16 23. Add darker shading to her other ear with HB and 2B pencils. The black spots are not as dark on the right as on the left. 24. Draw the fur on the center sections of her face and snout. FIGURE 2-1725. Draw the fuzzy outlines of the fur around her mouth and chin.26. Draw the fur on the left section of her neck under the chin.27. Add shading to this tiny section of her collar.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 25. 1128. Finish the shading on her mouth and chin.29. Add the spotted fur on her neck and back (note the directions in which it grows).30. Finish the background on the right (it becomes darker closer to the bottom).31. Use crosshatching to add shading to her collar. FIGURE 2-18 FIGURE 2-19 32. Use squirkling to add the shading on the nose. 33. With your 2B pencil add lots of dots to represent the texture of a dog’s nose. Take a few minutes to compare your drawing to mine (Figure 2- 23), fix any areas that you’re not happy with, and sign your name!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 26. 12 FIGURE 2-20CHALLENGEThere are only three ways to improve your drawing skills… Practice, practice and more practice!Find a close-up photo of the face of another spotted animal, such as a leopard, giraffe, or cowand draw a realistic, close-up portrait of him or her. Use the shading techniques taught in thisproject. Another challenging option is to draw the close-up view of the face of a giraffe namedDandy in T-04 Advanced: Diverse Animals.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 27. 13Brenda HoddinottAs a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda utilizesdiverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, contécrayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. Brenda HoddinottBiographyBorn in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. Shedeveloped strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning,and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as aself-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments haveemployed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal policedepartments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal CanadianMounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “ForensicArtists International”.Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing andpainting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired andtrained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brendachose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing,drawing, painting, and developing her websites.Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach tocurriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes forstudents of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels andabilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as aresource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughoutthe world.Learn-to-draw booksDrawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is availableon various websites and in major bookstores internationally.The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of theYear Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page bookis available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 28. Brenda HoddinottT-03 ADVANCED: DIVERSE ANIMALSIn this project, you first establish accurate proportions and outline the various shapes and formsof an adorable young owl named Hooter; you then use graduated hatching techniques tocharacterize the various textures and define the forms.This project is divided into the following two sections: PUTTING PROPORTIONS ON PAPER: You examine the structures of a wing and feather, and then sketch the proportions of the owl. While the structures of feathers and wings are very complex, drawing realistic looking birds is not difficult. ADDING SHADING AND TEXTURE: You use hatching to add values to the body to represent the texture of feathers. The hatching lines used to draw feathers are ragged and uneven with lines of various lengths and thicknesses. Finally, you draw the details of the eyes and add a wood texture to the tree branch.Suggested drawing supplies include good quality white drawing paper, kneaded and vinylerasers, and various graphite pencils such as 2H, 2B, HB, 4B, and 6B. 15 PAGES - 23 ILLUSTRATIONSThis project is recommended for artists, aged twelve to ninety-nine, who have good drawingskills, and also for home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada, Revised 2006
  • 29. 2 PUTTING PROPORTIONS ON PAPER While the structures of feathers and wings are very complex, drawing realistic looking birds is not difficult. You begin this project by examining the structures of feathers and a wing, and sketching the proportions of the owl. A basic understanding of the anatomy of a wing and feathers is very helpful if you run into problems trying to accurately render a drawing of a bird. The next two drawings show the basic construction of a feather. The long skinny thing down the center of the feather is called a shaft and the wide end is referred to as a quill. Many years ago writers would dip the quill end (which has a hollow center) into ink, thereby transforming the feather into a pen. ILLUSTRATION 3-01 ILLUSTRATION 3-02 Feathers differ in size and texture depending on where they are located on the bird’s body. The following words describe the various types of feathers: Tiny, soft, and downy feathers are located on his head, chest and feet. Medium-sized, soft, and short feathers, with narrow quills, are generally found on the upper section of the wing. Long and firm, but relatively soft to the touch feathers, with wide quills and noticeable shafts, make up the middle and lower sections of the wings. ILLUSTRATION 3-03 This drawing shows the basic construction of a wing. While I established this schematic for a drawing I was doing of an angel, the basic wing structure is similar to that of various types of birds from a tiny delicate Humming Bird to a magnificent Bald Eagle.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 30. 3 Sketching accurate proportions is the foundation of realistic drawing. Proportion is the relationship in size of one component of a drawing to another or others. If the proportions are off, no amount of beautiful shading or fancy pencil marks can save your drawing. My drawing is tiny (6 by 7 inches), but you may prefer try a larger drawing format such as 9 by 12, or 12 by 14 inches. Drawing format refers to the area of a drawing surface within a specific perimeter, outlined by a shape of any size, such as the page of a sketchbook. ILLUSTRATION 3-04 1) Lightly sketch an egg-shape for the owl’s body, tilted slightly toward the left of your drawing space. Here’s proof that the egg came first! (Grin) Don’t press too hard with your pencil. You need to erase these lines later. Make sure you leave room to later add the owl’s head, the wing to the right, and the feet and tree branch below. ILLUSTRATION 3-05 2) Draw a horizontal oval (the head) that overlaps the body. ILLUSTRATION 3-06 3) Add a wing that extends from the bottom of his head at an angle toward the lower right. Take note of the following: The overall shape of the wing appears to be an upside-down elongated teardrop. The wing seems to point toward the lower right corner with its tip. The wing becomes gradually narrower until it finally ends in a slightly rounded point.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 31. 4 ILLUSTRATION 3-07 4) Draw a V-shape on the face with curved lines at the top of each side of the V. The lower tip of the V- shape will be the beak of the owl and the outward curves extending from the top of each side of the V represent the upper sections of the eyes. 5) Add a small upside-down U-shape above the tip of the beak. Refer to the drawing below. ILLUSTRATION 3-08 6) Sketch a few fluffy feathers under the wing. 7) Add two oval shapes to represent the feet. Observe that the foot on the right appears to be much larger than the other. However, in real life when viewing an owl from the front, both feet would be the same size. In that this foot is closer to the viewer, perspective dictates that it needs to be drawn bigger than the one farther away.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 32. 5 ILLUSTRATION 3-09 8) Outline the owl’s eyes. Note that the eyes appear as partial circles because the inside center section of each is hidden behind the feathers between the eyes. Each is a partial large circle with a smaller circle inside. 9) Add an angular branch of a tree for the owl to sit on. Double check the proportions of your sketch before you begin shading, by visually measuring the shapes of the positive and negative spaces. Observe the lengths, angles, and curves of the various lines which outline the owl and the tree branch. ADDING SHADING AND TEXTURE You begin this section of the project by adding values to the body with hatching lines. You then add the texture of feathers, draw the details of the eyes, and add a realistic wood texture to the tree branch. The hatching lines used to draw feathers are ragged and uneven with lines of various lengths and thicknesses. While some hatching lines are dark and others are light, you still need to maintain an overall difference of values from light to dark. Assume that the light source in this drawing is from the upper left. Subsequently the overall values on the left will be lighter than on the right. Have another look at the drawing of the wing (Illustration 3-03). Observe that the feathers are in layers with the shortest feathers close to the body. The feathers become progressively longer with the thinner, more defined feathers being on the tips of the wing.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 33. 6 10) Lighten your outline by gently patting the lines with your kneaded eraser. 11) Replace the rough sketch lines of the owl’s head, body and feet with ragged fuzzy lines to represent the texture of feathers. 12) Redraw the edges of the tree branch so it looks rugged and uneven. ILLUSTRATION 3-10 Keep in mind that a full range of values gives contrast between the light and the shadow areas. Remember, light affects the placement and value of every section of shading. The light source is from the left in this drawing, so the shading will be a little darker on the right.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 34. 7 13) Add curved hatching lines to the head to represent small, soft feathers. Watch very closely the different directions in which the hatching lines curve. Take your time. The directions in which the hatching lines curve are important, because they help give the illusion of depth to the various forms. ILLUSTRATION 3-11 14) Draw some slightly curved hatching lines on the owl’s breast to represent spots. 15) Outline feathers of different shapes and sizes on the wing. Note that the feathers are considerably shorter in the upper section closer to the head than toward the tips of the wings. 16) Add a few curved hatching lines on the feet to indicate the direction in which the tiny soft feathers grow.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 35. 8 Remember, the hatching lines used for drawing feathers, are several different lengths and values. The edges are not abrupt stops, but rather feathered (or ragged) to give a more realistic appearance. ILLUSTRATION 3-12 17) With your 2H pencil, lightly shade in the feathers on the left and center sections of his feet and lower body. 18) Use your 2B pencil to shade in the medium values, mostly on the right. Remember, the light source is coming from the left. The feathers on the right are darker than on the left. 19) Add the dark values of his feathers on his lower body, his shoulder under his head (on the right), and under his beak and wing with a 2B or 4B pencil. 20) Add another circle around the perimeter of the irises as the rims of the eyes.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 36. 9 ILLUSTRATION 3-13 21) Add shading to the outer rims of the eyes with a 2B. 22) Complete the outlines of the eyes by adding a tiny highlight in the upper left of the eye on the left. Refer to the drawing below. ILLUSTRATION 3-14 23) Use your 6B pencil to shade in the dark values of the pupils. 24) Add a long narrow raggedy section of dark shading to the beak (on the right). ILLUSTRATION 3-15 25) Shade the lower section of each iris with a 2H, and the top sections with an HB. 26) Complete the shading of his beak with squirkles. Leave a long thin highlight in the center, and a light section on the lower right edge of his beak (reflected light).Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 37. 10 ILLUSTRATION 3-16 27) Use very sharp pencils to add more hatching lines to all sections of the head. Use a 2H for light sections and 2B and 4B for the darker areas. Note the darkest shading in the shadow areas, such as the upper part of his eye and on the side of his beak. ILLUSTRATION 3-17 28) Add a few tiny oval shapes throughout the feathers on the upper sections and along the sides of Hooter’s head. This illustration shows a close up view of these tiny ovals. If you want to make a few of them stand out more, simply mold your kneaded eraser to a point and lighten the center sections of each.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 38. 11 29) Use a freshly sharpened pencil and short hatching lines to draw the soft downy feathers on Hooter’s chest and feet. ILLUSTRATION 3-18 Don’t miss the sections of dark values on the upper chest that look like spots. 30) Add shading to the tail feathers. Refer to the drawing below. Tail feathers are large and can be well defined with textured shading. The values of each are very dark on the right and graduate to light. The lightest section of each is on the far left. 31) Add a few angular lines on some of the feathers. ILLUSTRATION 3-19 As you can see by looking closely at my drawing, a few angular lines drawn on each feather completes the shading and emphasizes the fine details.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 39. 12 ILLUSTRATION 3-20 32) Add shading to the feathers on the upper section of the wing. Observe that the shading is lighter closer to the left and gradually becomes darker toward the right. Also take note of the very dark shading on the upper section next to his head. This is caused by the head casting a shadow onto the body.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 40. 13 33) Use various pencils and hatching lines to bring out the texture of the feathers on the upper section of the wing. Note that some sections are left very light to create the illusion that a few of the feathers are very light on the tips. ILLUSTRATION 3-21 34) Add shading to his talons on the ends of his toes. 35) Use a combination of hatching and squirkling to add shading and texture to the branch of the tree. Take note that the shading is lighter toward each end. ILLUSTRATION 3-22Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 41. 14 ILLUSTRATION 3-23 Add final touches if needed. You can make sections of the feathers lighter by patting them with your kneaded eraser. You make areas darker by simply drawing more hatching lines where you need them. Sign your name and put today’s date on the back of your drawing! You have just completed a major project!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 42. 15 BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. Drawing for Dummies is now available in Dutch, Bulgarian, Spanish, French, and German. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site http://www.finearteducation.com or http://www.drawspace.com
  • 43. Brenda Hoddinott T-04 ADVANCED: DIVERSE ANIMALS In this lesson, you first choose one of three compositional options, then outline the proportions and shapes, and finally use graduated hatching to define the three dimensional forms, textures, and patterns of an adorable young giraffe named Dandy. While the understructures of the anatomy of a giraffe are very complex, this project focuses on only the exterior forms and shapes which characterize the primary bone and muscular structures.This project is divided into the following five sections: INTRODUCTION: You can render one, two, or three drawings. You first choose a composition and then follow those steps that apply to each. OUTLINING PROPER PROPORTIONS: You use a ruler to measure and set up a very simple grid, to help you draw the proper proportions of the baby giraffe. SETTING UP FOR SHADING: You sketch the outlines of spots of various shapes and sizes over Dandy’s head, neck, body, and legs. The spots are large on his body, and smaller on his face, tail and legs. SHADING TEXTURES AND SPOTS: You have fun adding shading to the Giraffe to bring out his personality, and the delightful spots and fuzzy texture of his fur. The process of shading Dandy’s face offers opportunities for you to use your creative license to make subtle changes, such as creating your own patterns of spots. COMPLETING THE FINAL DETAILS: You add shading on the end of the tail, lower legs, and hoofs and add a shadow under the giraffe.Suggested drawing supplies include good quality white drawing paper, a ruler, kneaded andvinyl erasers, and various graphite pencils such as 2H, 2B, HB, 4B, and 6B. This project is recommended for artists, aged twelve to ninety-nine, who have good drawing skills, and also for home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. 23 PAGES - 43 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada (Revised 2006)
  • 44. 2 INTRODUCTION In this project, you first choose a composition. Composition is the arrangement of the various facets of your drawing subject within the borders of a drawing space. A strong composition brings the eyes of the viewer to what you consider to be the most important elements in your drawing. By following only those steps that apply to each compositional variation, you can render one, two, or three of the following drawings: In Illustration 04-01, a full view of a giraffe is ideally suited for a medium to large drawing format. The close-up view of the head and long neck of a young giraffe (Illustration 04-02) is somewhat easier to draw than a full view and can be drawn any size. Drawing just the face of the giraffe (Illustration 04-03) offers an opportunity to focus on only his gorgeous face, and is the easiest composition of all to render. ILLUSTRATION 04-01 ILLUSTRATION 04-02 You first establish proportions; then outline the various shapes and forms; and finally use graduated hatching to characterize the texture and pattern of spotted fur. ILLUSTRATION 04-03 Your goal in this exercise is not to render a drawing exactly like mine. Your goal is to do the very best drawing you possibly can. OUTLINING PROPER PROPORTIONS While the understructures of the anatomy of a giraffe are very complex, in this project you focus on only the exterior forms and shapes, which characterize the bone and muscular structures. You begin this section by sketching the proportions of the giraffe. You then draw a neat outline in preparation for shading. The instructions in this section are for the full view of the giraffe. If you are doing one of the closer-up views, please refer to only those sections of the instructions that apply.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 45. 3 Don’t press too hard with your pencils! No matter how careful you are, when you draw with a grid, accidents do happen! If you draw some lines in the wrong grid squares, simply erase that section, redraw the grid lines, and keep on going! Lightly drawn lines are easy to erase! ILLUSTRATION 04-04 1) Set up a rectangular drawing space and divide it into six equal squares. Suggested formats include: 6 by 9 inches (with six 3-inch squares); 8 by 12 inches (with six 4-inch squares; or 10 by 15 inches (with six 5-inch squares). ILLUSTRATION 04-05 2) Sketch the giraffe’s neck and the rear end of his body. A section of this angular U- shape is in each of the top four squares of the grid. The lower section of this shape represents the location of the rear end of his body and the upper section is his neck. When drawing with a grid you may find it easier to draw only the contents of one square at a time. Take your time and draw your outlines VERY slowly and carefully!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 46. 4 ILLUSTRATION 04-06 3) Add an oval-shape to represent the front of his body and front shoulders. Observe that this oval is tilted toward the right. Double check the proportions of each section of your sketch as you go, by visually measuring the shapes of the positive and negative spaces. ILLUSTRATION 04-07 4) Draw a circular shape in the upper right square to identify the placement of the giraffe’s head and face.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 47. 5 ILLUSTRATION 04-08 5) Mark the placement of the rear legs with straight lines. The lines that identify the upper section of the back legs are slightly at an angle. The lines marking the placement of the lower legs are almost vertical. ILLUSTRATION 04-09 6) Sketch the front legs with straight lines that are almost vertical. Draw your outlines slowly and carefully! Pay close attention to the grid lines to make sure you draw the various curved lines in their proper places, and their correct lengths and contours.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 48. 6 7) Lightly sketch the approximate locations of the ears, eyes, and face so as to establish the proportions of the giraffe’s head and face in relation to the size of body. 8) Replace the straight lines that mark the position of the legs with curved lines. ILLUSTRATION 04-10 9) Outline the various shapes of the body and add a few details to the hoofs and legs such as oval shapes to mark the positions of the knees. In the next few steps, you use the proportional guidelines as a foundation to add additional information to your drawing to help bring out the shapes of the giraffe’s face, ears, and snout.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 49. 7 ILLUSTRATION 04-11 10) Refine your initial sketch by lightening the lines with your kneaded eraser and redrawing the face, head, and neck. The following Don’t miss the three drawings angular lines show only the across the top of upper right grid the head and through the centers of the eyes, used as Take note that the guidelines. whole head is tilted Also, the ear on slightly downward and the left is higher to the right. than the other. ILLUSTRATION 04-12 11) Redraw the ears. 12) Add two circles to represent the irises of the eyes. 13) Draw two tiny ovals to indicate the locations of the nostrils. Pay close attention to the lengths, angles, and curves of the various lines which outline the different parts of his head, ears, and face.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 50. 8 ILLUSTRATION 04-13 14) Sketch the various shapes of the ears and head. Add a line inside each ear, to separate the inner and exterior sections. Add the antlers and redraw the top of the head. Draw the upper and lower eyelids on each eye. The outline of the upper eyelid cuts through the iris. The double line of the lower eyelids indicates the thickness of the lids. Add the outline of the snout. Outline the cheeks ILLUSTRATION 04-14 and chin, and add the mouth. 15) Erase the grid lines and use your kneaded eraser to lighten all your sketch lines until you can barely see them. With the rough sketch completed, and everything in its correct place, you now neatly redraw the contours and add additional details. Use the very faint under sketch as a guideline. 16) Add more details to the neck, mane, ears, head, and face. Indicate the texture of the fur along the lower section of the line inside the ears. Refine the outlines of the eyes and add lines to define the shapes of the nose and mouth. Draw a bunch of fuzzy lines to indicate the texture of the mane.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 51. 9 ILLUSTRATION 04-15 17) Refine the sketch of the giraffe’s body and add the details of the tail and hoofs. SETTING UP FOR SHADING In this section you sketch the outlines of spots of various shapes and sizes over Don’t worry about trying to draw your Dandy’s head, neck, spots exactly like mine. However, you body, and legs. should draw big spots where mine are large (as on his body), and smaller spots where mine are small (such as on his face, tail and legs). 18) Very lightly sketch the outlines of small spots on Dandy’s cheeks and the upper section of his neck. Observe that even though the spots are different shapes and sizes, the spaces between each are approximately the same width. ILLUSTRATION 04-16Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 52. 10 ILLUSTRATION 04-17 19) Add spots to his body, legs, tail and neck. Take note of which spots need to be drawn big and which ones are small. 20) Draw guidelines on Dandy’s face and neck to indicate the directions in which his fur grows. Refer to the drawing below. Keep these lines very light! These lines mark the directions in which the hatching lines will need to be drawn when you add the fur. 21) Double check that the eyes are drawn correctly. Note that the eyes appear as partial circles because the upper section of each is hidden under the upper eyelids. ILLUSTRATION 04-18 For a refresher course in spotted- fur-shading skills, try the following before you tackle the shading of Dandy’s spots!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 53. 11 ILLUSTRATION 04-19 22) Outline a few spots and sections of spots within a format of any shape and size, and add guidelines to mark the directional flow of the shading. ILLUSTRATION 04-20 23) Use a 2H pencil to shade in the spots. The light source is from the upper left, so the shading will be a little darker on the lower right. ILLUSTRATION 04-21 24) With a freshly sharpened HB pencil, add more hatching lines to each spot. Note that the spots are lighter in the upper left corner of the drawing space, and become progressively darker toward the lower right. ILLUSTRATION 04-22 25) Use a 2H pencil and hatching lines to add shading to the spaces in between the spots. Observe that this shading is also lighter in the upper left corner of the drawing space and becomes progressively darker toward the lower right. ILLUSTRATION 04-23 26) Use a 2B pencil to add darker hatching lines to the fur in the lower right.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 54. 12 SHADING TEXTURES AND SPOTS In this section of the project you have fun adding shading to the Giraffe to bring out his personality and the delightful spots and fuzzy texture of his fur. The process of shading Dandy’s face offers opportunities for you to use your creative license to make subtle changes, such as creating your own pattern of spots. ILLUSTRATION 04-24 27) Use hatching to add shading to the ears. 28) Follow the guidelines to add shading to the spots on the side of his face. Remember, light affects the placement and value of every section of shading. Also, a full range of values gives contrast between light and shadow areas. ILLUSTRATION 04-25 29) Shade in the dark shadow sections on the right. 30) Add the furry whiskers on his muzzle and chin. 31) Outline tiny circles in the eyes as highlights. The eyes appear as partial circles because the upper section of each is hidden under the upper eyelids.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 55. 13 32) Beginning at the top of his ears, add shading to his ears, head, and face. Remember, the hatching lines used to draw fur are ragged and uneven with lines of various lengths and thicknesses. ILLUSTRATION 04-26 Add shading to the dark tuffs of fur on his antlers with a 2B pencil. Use a 2H for the light shading of the base of his antlers and 2B for the areas in shadow (on the right). Use a 6B pencil to shade the pupils of his eyes. Leave the irises white for now. Add the dark shading under his irises with a 2B. Shade in the forms of his snout, and the darkest sections of his nostrils with a 2B. 33) Use various pencils to complete the shading of his eyes. ILLUSTRATION 04-27 The light sections of the irises are shaded with a 2H pencil. I used 2B and 4B for the sections of the eyes in shadow and for the eyelashes.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 56. 14 ILLUSTRATION 04-28 34) Before you begin working on the neck, check over your shading and touch up any sections you aren’t happy with. 35) Draw guidelines on Dandy’s neck and mane. These lines help you remember the directions in which the hatching lines need to be drawn. ILLUSTRATION 04-29 The hatching lines used to draw the fur on the neck are also ragged and uneven with lines of various lengths and thicknesses. Remember, the light source in this drawing is from the upper left. You still need to maintain an overall contrast of values from light on the left side of the neck to dark on the right. Watch very closely the different directions in which the guidelines curve. Take your time.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 57. 15 ILLUSTRATION 04-30 36) Add shading to the spots on the neck. Remember to graduate the shading according to the light source from the upper left. 37) Use a 2H pencil and hatching lines to add shading to the spaces in between the spots. This shading becomes progressively darker toward the lower right. The values under the chin are quite dark because this area is in shadow. Yet, the edge of the neck on the far right is slightly lighter. This rim of reflected light accentuates the forms of the neck. ILLUSTRATION 04-31 38) Add a section of dark shading to the inner edge of the mane closest to the neck with an HB pencil. 39) Lighten the outline of the fur of the mane along the outer edges by gently patting the lines with your kneaded eraser. Other projects on drawing wild animals, including an adorable young owl, named Hooter, and a zebra named Spot, are available in T-level Advanced: Diverse Animals.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 58. 16 ILLUSTRATION 04-32 40) Complete the shading of the longer fur of the The outer mane. edges of the mane are Use both 2H and HB ragged- pencils, but be careful not looking, with to make this fur as dark as hatching lines the fur on the ends of his of various antlers. lengths. ILLUSTRATION 04-33 The next step is to complete the shading of the spotted fur on Dandy’s body and legs. 41) Draw guidelines within the spots on Dandy’s body and legs to indicate the directions in which his fur grows. 42) Lighten the outlines of the spots by gently patting the lines with your kneaded eraser.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 59. 17 ILLUSTRATION 04-34 43) Use the directional guidelines, and 2H and HB pencils, to shade in the spots with hatching lines. ILLUSTRATION 04-35 44) Add medium values to the spots that are farther away from the light source, with an HB pencil.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 60. 18 ILLUSTRATION 04-36 45) Use a 2H pencil to shade the spaces between the spots in the light sections. 46) Add medium values to the spaces in the shadow sections (use an HB pencil). ILLUSTRATION 04-37 COMPLETING THE FINAL DETAILS In this section you add final details, such as shading on the end of the tail, lower legs, and hoofs and add a shadow under the giraffe. 47) Use a 2B pencil to add dark shading to the long fur on the end of Dandy’s tail.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 61. 19 ILLUSTRATION 04-38 48) Complete the shading on the lower sections of Dandy’s legs with a 2H pencil (for the light areas) and an HB pencil (for the sections in shadow). Check over the shading on the four legs, and make sure that the shading of the two legs that are on the other side of the giraffe, are darker than the two legs closer to the viewer. 49) Add a few small faint spots to the lower sections of his legs. ILLUSTRATION 04-39 50) Use various pencils to complete the shading of his feet and hoofs. Observe the rounded forms on the backs of his feet. Don’t miss the small sections of lighter shading on the hoofs, which defines their forms and help make them look shiny.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 62. 20 ILLUSTRATION 04-40 51) Add a shadow section with hatching lines that are parallel to the bottom edge of your drawing format. Examine the three variations of the completed drawing (Illustrations 04-41 to 04- 43), and add final touches to your drawing if needed. ILLUSTRATION 04-41Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 63. 21 When you practice sketching animals from life, you increase your ability to draw quickly, improve the fluidity of your lines, and sharpen your observation skills. Animals rarely stay still for more than a few seconds at a time, but with lots of practice and patience, sketches become quick and easy to capture. ILLUSTRATION 04-42 Sign your name and put today’s date on the back of your drawing! You have just completed a major project!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 64. 22 ILLUSTRATION 04-43Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 65. 23 BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies: Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People: Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 66. JACK Brenda Hoddinott T-05 ADVANCED: DIVERSE ANIMALS Meet Isaac – a Jack Russell Terrier and proud owner of my friend Rob! In this project, you first set up Isaac’s facial proportions and render a contour drawing. Then, you add texture to his fuzzy face with hatching, and shading to his nose with squirkling.This project is divided into the following six sections: SKETCHING PROPER PROPORTIONS: With a simple grid as a helpful guideline, you draw the various components of Isaac’s face, ears, and neck. OUTLINING FUZZY HEAD SHAPES: The hatching lines you use to draw fur on Isaac are ragged and uneven, and are also various lengths and thicknesses. HATCHING FUZZY FUR ON HIS HEAD AND EARS: In this section, you add the fur texture to the upper section of his head and his ears. SHADING SHINY PUPPY DOG EYES: You begin this section by shading around the rims of the eyes and then proceed on to the pupils and irises. FINISHING THE NOSE AND FACIAL SHADING: In this section you complete Isaac’s face by adding more fur to his face and rendering the texture of his nose. ADDING FINAL DETAILS AND FINISHING TOUCHES: When you are happy with your drawing to this point, you then add final touches and bring Isaac to life.Suggested drawing supplies include good quality white drawing paper, graphite pencils, kneadedand vinyl erasers, and a pencil sharpener. This advanced project is recommended for artists with good drawing skills, from age 12 to adult, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. 25 PAGES – 36 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada –2004 (Revised 2006)
  • 67. -2- SKETCHING PROPER PROPORTIONS Setting up accurate proportions is the foundation of drawing. If the proportions of a dog’s head and face are off, no amount of beautiful shading or fancy pencil marks can save your drawing. In this project, you create a simple grid to help you draw everything in its correct place. Use a 2H or HB pencil to lightly sketch all the components of Isaac’s head and face. ILLUSTRATION 05-01 1. First of all, draw a square any size you wish as your drawing format. 2. Use a ruler to divide the square into four equal smaller squares. 3. Lightly sketch a circle as Isaac’s head. Make sure you leave space on your drawing paper for his snout, ears, and neck. ILLUSTRATION 05-02 4. Add a smaller circle below and to the left of the other circle to indicate the position of his snout. Most of the smaller circle is located in the lower left square. Take note of where this second circle cuts into the first.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 68. -3- ILLUSTRATION 05-03 5. Draw two triangular shapes to mark the locations of his ears. Observe that the ear on the right is lower than the other. The ear on the left is located completely within the upper left square. 6. Sketch two circles to mark the locations of his eyes. Notice that the eye on the left is higher than the other. ILLUSTRATION 05-04 7. Sketch another circle inside his snout to identify the location of his nose. 8. Use curved lines to lightly sketch the outlines of the side of his face, neck, and shoulders. Double check the proportions of each section of your sketch by visually measuring the shapes of the positive and negative spaces. The rough sketch is now complete.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 69. -4- 9. Very lightly sketch parallel angular guidelines to identify the slant of the tops of the ears, the tops and bottoms of the eyes and nose, and the nostrils, and mouth. Remember; don’t press too hard with your pencils. Not only do these areas become impossible to erase or touch up, but they also leave dents in your paper. All the lines you draw now will either need to be completely erased or made fuzzy in the next section. 10. Use a freshly sharpened HB pencil to very lightly outline the shapes of his eyes, upper face, and ears. Draw your outlines slowly and carefully! Pay close attention to the grid lines to make sure you draw the various lines in their proper places. 11. Draw the outline of his nose and add two small curved lines to indicate the nostrils. 12. Mark the location of his mouth with a curved line. 13. Refine the lines that outline the left side of his face and both sides of his neck. 14. Check over the shapes and sizes of the various parts of Isaac in relation to the lines of the square and grid, and fix anything you’re not totally happy with. ILLUSTRATION 05-05 The lines look very dark in this illustration. However, in fact they are so light that I can barely see them. I have made them look darker in a computer program so you can see them.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 70. -5- OUTLINING FUZZY HEAD SHAPES The hatching lines used to draw fur on Isaac are ragged and uneven, and are also various lengths and thicknesses. Some hatching lines are dark and others are light. 15. Before you begin adding fuzzy lines as Isaac’s fur, use your kneaded eraser to lighten your sketch lines until they are so light that you can barely see them. ILLUSTRATION 05-06 16. Use your HB pencil to add curved hatching lines of various lengths and thicknesses to create the texture of fur on the upper sections of Isaac’s head. 17. Use your HB pencil to outline the perimeters of Isaac’s fuzzy ears. ILLUSTRATION 05-07Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 71. -6- 18. With your kneaded eraser, lighten the original sketch lines in and around the eyes. 19. Add the outlines of the strands of fur around the eyes. Try a 2H or HB pencil. The lines used to outline these sections of fur are very ragged and uneven. Note that fur will cover a section of the eye on the left. ILLUSTRATION 05-08 20. Redraw the outlines of the eyes with nice neat lines (I used an HB pencil). Always place a piece of clean paper under your hand as you draw. Each time you work on a new section, remember to move your paper so it’s always under your hand. This prevents you from smudging your drawing, and protects the paper from the oils in your skin. ILLUSTRATION 05-09Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 72. -7- 21. Draw a circular shape inside each eye as the irises. Note that the iris on the right doesn’t quite touch the lower section of the rim of the eye. 22. Add a tiny circle in the upper left section of each iris as the highlight. 23. Sketch yet another circle inside each iris as the pupils. The lines outlining the pupils cut into the edges of the outlines of the highlights. ILLUSTRATION 05-10 ILLUSTRATION 05-11Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 73. -8- 24. Use long curved lines to add a few strands of longer fur between his eyes and above the eye on the right. Watch closely the different directions in which the lines curve. Be careful that the lines are not similar in shape or size or the fur may not appear realistic. 25. Sketch the fur on both sides of his face below his ears. 26. Extend the section of fur that is hiding a section of his eye (on the left) down toward the edge of the snout. Again, pay close attention to the different directions in which the lines curve. ILLUSTRATION 05-12Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 74. -9- ILLUSTRATION 05-13 27. Add the fur around the perimeter of his snout and below his nose. Keep in mind that the edges of the fur are ragged- looking, and the lines are various lengths and thicknesses. ILLUSTRATION 05-14 28. Add the fur on the lower section of his chin. Take your time and pay attention to the different directions in which the lines curve. 29. Sketch in a fuzzy line to the lower section of the mouth.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 75. - 10 - ILLUSTRATION 05-15 30. Use gently curved lines to outline each side of his nose. 31. Use raggedy lines curving in many directions to draw the fur directly above his nose. ILLUSTRATION 05-16 32. Redraw the outline of the nose with nice neat lines. Take note of the shape of the lower part of the nose and the v-shape in the center of the very bottom section.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 76. - 11 - ILLUSTRATION 05-17 33. Add the outlines of the nostrils. Check the location of the horizontal oval shape in the center of his nose. This section needs to be lighter than the rest of the nose to help make it look three dimensional and shiny. 34. Draw the lines along the edges of his neck and shoulders that indicate the various directions in which this fur curves. ILLUSTRATION 05-18Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 77. - 12 - 35. Carefully erase the grid lines and rough sketch lines. 36. Check over your drawing carefully and make sure you are happy with the curved lines which define the outlines of the head, ears, eyes, nose, snout, and fur. ILLUSTRATION 05-19 As you can tell by the locations of the highlights in his eyes, the light source in this drawing is from the upper left. As you add more shading to this drawing, remember that the values need to be lighter on the left than on the right. Remember, light affects the placement and value of every section of shading. Keep in mind that a full range of values gives contrast between the light and the shadow areas. You can achieve different values by using various pencils, and by varying the density of the lines and the pressure used in holding your pencils.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 78. - 13 - HATCHING FUZZY FUR ON HIS HEAD AND EARS At this point, Isaac’s face is completely outlined with lightly shaded fur, and everything is in its correct place. It’s now time to add a few more important details to the upper section of his head and his ears, such as the fur texture and various values. As you draw, constantly compare your drawing to mine and double check your proportions. Pay close attention to the lengths, angles, and curves of the hatching lines. 37. With a 2H pencil, lightly draw several short hatching lines throughout the upper sections of Isaac’s face and ears to map the various directions in which his fur grows. Take your time. Adding shading to the fur becomes much easier when you have established guidelines for hatching the various values. 38. Carefully outline around the wispy fur strands along the edge of his forehead, eye, and upper snout with an HB pencil. 39. Use a combination of 2H, HB, 2B, and 4B pencils and short hatching lines to add shading to the large dark section around Isaac’s eye (on the left), and the small spots on his ears. I personally prefer to work from light to dark. I began by adding more hatching lines to the lightest section of fur above his eye (with a 2H). From there, I added darker shading with a HB around this light section. A 2B works well for the dark values and a 4B is great for the darkest section in shadow under his ear. The smaller spots on the ear on the left (closest to the light source) are added with an HB. I used both an HB and 2B for the spots on the right. ILLUSTRATION 05-20Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 79. - 14 - 40. Complete the lighter shading on the ear on the left (Illustration 05-21). Use 2H and HB pencils and keep in mind that the shading needs to be lighter on this ear than the other because it’s closer to the light source. Note the darker shading along the insides of the edges of the ears, which helps give the illusion of depth to their forms. 41. Outline the edges of the strands of fur on the section of the head close to the ear on the right (Illustration 05-22). 42. Use various pencils to complete the shading of the ear on the right. This ear appears darker than the one on the left because it is farther away from the light source. However, be careful not to make this fur too dark, because, other than the small spots, the fur is actually white. As you render each section of fur, watch very closely the different directions in which the lines curve. Take your time. ILLUSTRATION 05-21 ILLUSTRATION 05-22 43. Add shading to the white fur in the sections of his face in shadow (on the right). Before you begin this shading, first outline the edges of the longer sections of fur above and between his eyes. Keep in mind that even though this white fur is in shadow, the shading needs to be lighter than the section on the left, which in fact a big dark spot.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 80. - 15 - ILLUSTRATION 05-23 SHADING SHINY PUPPY DOG EYES My favorite part of drawing animals is bringing their eyes to life. In this section, you begin by shading around the rims of the eyes and then continue on to the pupils and irises. 44. Add shading to the parts of the eyes around the pupil. Use a freshly sharpened 2B to outline the outer edges of the eye closest to the fur, and the pupil. With an HB, fill in the sections between the outlines with medium values. ILLUSTRATION 05-24Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 81. - 16 - 45. Shade in the irises with an HB pencil (leave the pupils and highlights white for now). 46. Use a Q-tip to gently blend the shading in the irises. 47. Add more hatching lines to the fur between the eyes and below the eye on the left. ILLUSTRATION 05-25 ILLUSTRATION 05-26Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 82. - 17 - 48. With a 2B pencil, add darker shading to the upper sections of the irises and around the outside edges. 49. Mold your kneaded eraser to a point and gently pat a tiny section of each iris (in the lower right) to make it a little lighter. 50. Continue adding more furry shading between the eyes, down toward the nose. ILLUSTRATION 05-27 51. Use a 6B pencil to shade in the pupils of the eyes (leave white sections as highlights). ILLUSTRATION 05-28Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 83. - 18 - FINISHING THE NOSE AND FACIAL SHADING In this section you complete Isaac’s face by adding more fur and texture to his nose. 52. Add more furry details to the lower right section of his face. Use only freshly sharpened pencils for realistic looking fur! Keep in mind that the directions in which the hatching lines curve are important because they help give the illusion of depth to the various forms of the face under the fur. 53. Use 2H and HB pencils to add the longer soft wispy fur on his snout and around his nose. 54. Add dark shading in the shadow sections around his nose and lower face. Try a 2B pencil for the darker fur sections, such as the shadow sections to the right of his nose. The fur above his nose becomes progressively darker as it grows closer to his nose. Also don’t miss the little wisps of fur that curl in various directions onto the upper section of his nose. ILLUSTRATION 05-29Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 84. - 19 - ILLUSTRATION 05-30 55. Add shading with squirkles all over the nose (try a 2H pencil). 56. Use an HB pencil to add shading to the fur around the lower section of the nose. Note that the shading between the nose and mouth is quite dark. 57. Add dark shading to the sections of the mouth in shadow. ILLUSTRATION 05-31 58. Fill in the nostril sections with a 4B pencil. 59. Add more shading to the fur that is very close to the nose in the shadow sections (use 2B and 4B pencils). 60. Use a 2B pencil to add more dark sections in between the strands of fur in the mouth area.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 85. - 20 - ILLUSTRATION 05-32 61. Use HB, 2B, and 4B pencils to add a combination of dots and squirkle lines to the nose. Take note of the sections that are darker than others. 62. Outline the raggedy strands of fur around the lower section of Isaac’s face in preparation for shading his neck. Refer to Illustration 05-33. ILLUSTRATION 05-33Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 86. - 21 - ADDING FINAL DETAILS AND FINISHING TOUCHES In this section, you first take a few minutes and check over the various sections of his ears, eyes, face, nose, and mouth. When you are happy with your drawing to this point, you then add final touches and bring Isaac to life. 63. Beginning at the top of his ears, compare your drawing to mine and make any changes you feel are important. To make a section darker simply add more hatching lines. To lighten a section, pat it very gently and carefully with a kneaded eraser that is molded to a wedge shape. ILLUSTRATION 05-34Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 87. - 22 - 64. Add more shading to the lower section of his face (beard), neck, and shoulders. Take note of the dark shading under his chin which is in the cast shadow of his head. Also observe that the overall shading becomes progressively darker toward the lower right. ILLUSTRATION 05-35 65. Complete the shading on his neck and upper body with 2H and HB pencils and curved hatching lines (refer to the drawing on the next page).Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 88. - 23 - 66. Sign your name, put today’s date on the back of your drawing, and put a big smile on your face!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 89. - 24 - BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 90. (Water Flea) Brenda Hoddinott T-06 ADVANCED: DIVERSE ANIMALSIn this project, you draw an unusual microscopic animal commonly referred to as a water flea.As with many advanced projects, both verbal instructions and visual steps may seem complex, asit is assumed that you already have strong drawing skills. However, you may be able tosuccessfully complete this project with only basic skills if you have completed most of thelessons in the beginner sections.This project consists of the following three sections: STRUCTURAL INSIGHTS INTO DAPHNIA: The main part of a water flea’s body is enclosed in a kind of transparent shell. Viewing one through a microscope is really cool, because you can watch the heart beating, and pumping blood throughout its tiny body. I have marked the names of the major parts of a water flea’s body on an illustration to help you understand its basic anatomy as you draw. SKETCHING THE PROPORTIONS OF THE BODY: you lightly sketch the various parts of the water flea’s body proportionately correct. ADDING SHADING AND FINAL DETAILS: With various pencils, and hatching, crosshatching, and squirkling, you add final details as you add a full range of values to the interior and exterior forms of the water flea’s transparent body.Suggested drawing supplies for this project include: good quality white drawing paper, graphitepencils, kneaded and vinyl erasers, your favorite blending tools, a pencil sharpener, and asandpaper block. 6 PAGES – 7 ILLUSTRATIONS Recommended for artists from age 12 to adult, and fine art educators in home school, academic and recreational environments. Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2005 (Revised 2006)
  • 91. 2 STRUCTURAL INSIGHTS INTO DAPHNIA The main part of a water flea’s body is enclosed in a transparent shell, which allows you to see its internal organs. Viewing one through a microscope is really cool, because you can watch the heart beating, and pumping blood throughout its tiny body. I have marked the names of the major parts of a water flea’s body on the following illustration: ILLUSTRATION 06-01 SKETCHING THE PROPORTIONS OF THE BODY In this section, you lightly sketch the various parts of the water flea’s body proportionately correct. Keep the rough sketch really light, so it can be easily erased. 1) Outline the major parts of the body with an HB pencil. ILLUSTRATION 06-02Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 92. 3 This strange little animal (many are less than 1mm long) is an imposter in that it really isn’t a flea at all! Daphnia thrive in ponds and lakes all over the world, and move through their watery surroundings with a fast hopping movement, similar to that of a flea; hence, the nickname of water flea! ILLUSTRATION 06-03 2) Add the four antennae, the eye, and the gut. 3) Lighten your sketch lines by patting them with a kneaded eraser. ILLUSTRATION 06-04 4) Redraw the water flea with thin neat lines. Use a freshly sharpened pencil to outline the additional body parts. Refer to Illustrations 06-01 and 06-04. Don’t forget the individual sections of the antennae, the heart, the brood pouch with eggs inside, and the foot with claws.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 93. 4 ADDING SHADING AND FINAL DETAILS Use whichever pencils you prefer to achieve a full range of values from light to very dark. The intricate details and shading are rendered with a combination of hatching, crosshatching, and squirkling, and are blended in various places to appear smooth. ILLUSTRATION 06-05 5) Add light and middle values throughout the various sections, by using different shading techniques. ILLUSTRATION 06-06 6) Add texture to sections of the eggs, gut, and heart with squirkles. 7) Darken the shading in some sections as shown. 8) Gently blend some values with a blending tool that is appropriate for the size of your drawing. 9) Use a very sharp pencil to lightly add the intricate details of the antennae.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 94. 5 Delicacies in the diet of Daphnia include bacteria and very tiny algae. On the other hand, these tiny animals often become lunch for small fish, even though their crusty exteriors make them rather difficult and unpleasant to swallow. ILLUSTRATION 06-07 10) Complete the drawing by adding the detailed sections of the head, the lower part of the body, the eye, and the foot and claw. Check over your drawing carefully and make changes to any sections you aren’t happy with. The eggs of Daphnia are incubated in a brood pouch and their babies are born live. Should you have an opportunity to examine a water flea under a microscope, you’ll discover a truly breathtakingly beautiful tiny animal.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 95. 6 BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 96. A ZEBRA NAMEDBrenda HoddinottT-07 ADVANCED: A ZEBRA NAMED SPOTIn this project, you focus on capturingSpot’s striped pattern and the textures of hereyes, nose, ears, mane, and fur whilerendering the basic exterior forms andshapes which characterize simple bone andmuscular structures.Suggested drawing supplies include good qualitywhite drawing paper, graphite pencils, kneadedand vinyl erasers, and a pencil sharpener.The instructions are divided into the following three sections: SKETCHING PROPER PROPORTIONS: You sketch the proportions of the zebra’s head and neck. SNOUT, STRIPES, AND MORE STRIPES: You use your observation skills to outline Spot’s snout, mouth, and stripes in preparation for adding shading. SHADING TEXTURES AND STRIPES: Numerous illustrations show you how to render the delightful stripes and fuzzy texture of Spot’s fur, and the textures of her eyes, nose, ears, and mane. This advanced project is recommended for artists with good drawing skills, from age 12 to adult, as well as home schooling, academic and recreational fine art educators. 33 PAGES – 51 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – 2005 (Revised 2006)
  • 97. 2 SKETCHING PROPER PROPORTIONS In this section you sketch the proportions of the zebra’s head and neck. While the understructures of an anatomically correct zebra are very complex, this caricature of a baby zebra is kept simple. 1) Draw an egg-shape as the large upper section of the head. Use an HB pencil and sketch very lightly! Leave lots of space on your drawing paper, above and below the egg-shape, to add the ears, snout, and neck. 2) Add a U-shape below the head as his snout. Constantly double check the proportions of each section of your sketch as you go, by visually measuring the shapes and spaces, and their relationships to one another. ILLUSTRATION 07-01 ILLUSTRATION 07-02 Don’t press too hard with your pencils! No matter how careful you are, you may need to erase and modify various lines. Lightly drawn lines are easy to erase!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 98. 3 ILLUSTRATION 07-03 3) Sketch triangular shapes to mark the locations of the eyes. The eyes are located approximately halfway between the top and bottom of the egg-shape. ILLUSTRATION 07-04 4) Sketch two upside-down U-shapes as the ears. Take note that the U-shapes of the ears are slightly larger than the muzzle-shape. As the old saying goes, “There’s safety in numbers”! Herds of zebras often merge together to become one larger family, sometimes with several hundred members. When zebras cluster together into a single huge mass of stripes, it’s almost impossible for predators to see where one animal begins and another ends. Hence, all members are safer.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 99. 4 ILLUSTRATION 07-05 5) Sketch an oval inside each ear. 6) Add a slightly curved line along the right side of the ear on the left. 7) Sketch the section of his mane in between his ears with a fuzzy outline. 8) Add a slightly curved line on the right to mark the location of the upper edge of his neck. 9) Use a fuzzy outline to mark the location of the mane. Zebras live together in stable, close- knit herds, in which adult females are the leaders and adult males are the protectors of the family. Zebras are very sociable animals, and their bold stripes allow them to be easily spotted by other zebras, so as to easily make new friends.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 100. 5 OUTLINING EARS, FACE, MANE, AND NECK In this section you outline all parts of the zebra with either neat lines or fuzzy outlines. What I call a “fuzzy outline” is actually a type of hatching. When you look at outline drawings (or contour drawings) of many animals from a distance, the perimeter appears to be one raggedy line. In fact, when you look closely, you can see that some of the edges of the fur are made up of numerous curved hatching lines that are ragged, and of various lengths and thicknesses. ILLUSTRATION 07-06 ILLUSTRATION 07-07 To show you what I mean, examine this contour drawing of a dog and the close-up views of the hatching lines which make up parts of his outlines. ILLUSTRATION 07-08 ILLUSTRATION 07-09Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 101. 6 10) Lighten all your sketch lines by patting them with your kneaded eraser. 11) Redraw the upper section of the head including the ears and mane, with either neat lines or fuzzy outlines as shown in the following four illustrations. ILLUSTRATION 07-10 ILLUSTRATION 07-11Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 102. 7 ILLUSTRATION 07-12 ILLUSTRATION 07-13Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 103. 8 ILLUSTRATION 07-14 In recent years, severe droughts in East Africa have harshly affected the natural habitats of zebras, and subsequently caused high mortality rates. 12) Outline the sides of Spot’s face, paying special attention to the sections where the eyes are located. Take your time and draw your outlines very slowly and carefully!Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 104. 9 ILLUSTRATION 07-15 When drawing an oval, circle, or partial circle, rotate your paper and examine the shape from different perspectives. Look at its reflection in a mirror to help locate problem areas. 13) Add the outlines of the zebra’s eyes. Check that both eyes are approximately the same size, and located along the same horizontal plane.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 105. 10 ILLUSTRATION 07-16 1) Upper Eyelid: the fold of skin above the eyeball that opens and closes 2) Highlight: a tiny bright spot where light bounces off the shiny surface of the eye 3) Pupil: the dark circle inside the iris 4) Iris: the big circular shape of the eye that varies in value from very light to very dark 5) White of the Eye: the visible section of the eyeball, that is light in value. 6) Inner Corner: the small section of the eye in the inside corner 7) Lower Eyelid: the smaller fold of skin below the eyeball 14) Outline the upper eyelids, the inner corners, the whites, the irises, and the edges of the lower eyelids. The irises appear as partial circles because the upper sections are under the upper eyelids. ILLUSTRATION 07-17 15) Sketch tiny circles as the highlights of the eyes, and add the pupils inside the irises. ILLUSTRATION 07-18Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 106. 11 SNOUT, STRIPES, AND MORE STRIPES In this section, text instructions are kept to a minimum. You use your observation skills to outline Spot’s snout, mouth, and stripes in preparation for adding shading. ILLUSTRATION 07-19 ILLUSTRATION 07-20 ILLUSTRATION 07-21 16) Add stripes to Spot’s face with thin neat lines. Begin with a triangular shape in the middle of Spot’s forehead and add another smaller triangle inside. Then add a spot in the center, and you’ll understand how Spot got her name! Continue adding stripes. The directions in which the lines curve are very important because they indicate the major forms of the anatomical understructures.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 107. 12 Don’t worry about trying to draw your stripes exactly like mine. However, pay close attention to the various directions in which the outlines of the stripes curve. Also, you should draw large stripes where mine are large (as on her body), and smaller spots where mine are small (such as on her forehead). ILLUSTRATION 07-22 The striped patterns of zebras, especially on the shoulders, vary from one animal to another, making individual animals easier to identify within large herds. For example, a young foal can find her mother by searching for her familiar patterns. The distinctive patterns also help researchers to identify and track specific zebras throughout long-term studies.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 108. 13 ILLUSTRATION 07-23Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 109. 14 ILLUSTRATION 07-24Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 110. 15 ILLUSTRATION 07-25 17) Add a more detailed outer edge to the mane with raggedy hatching lines. 18) Outline the stripes on Spot’s mane with curved lines. The lower right sections of the mane are farther away from Spot’s head. Hence, as per the basic rules of perspective, the stripes in this section are slightly smaller. 19) Outline the perimeter of Spot’s snout and the lower edge of her mouth. The directions in which the lines curve are important, because they help give the illusion of form to the various sections of the zebra’s face, head, and neck.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 111. 16 20) Use gently curved lines to begin outlining the stripes of her neck and chest. 21) Add Spot’s nostrils and the opening to her mouth. ILLUSTRATION 07-26 ILLUSTRATION 07-27 22) Continue outlining stripes as in Illustrations 07-28 and 07-29.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 112. 17 ILLUSTRATION 07-28Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 113. 18 ILLUSTRATION 07-29 23) Check over your outline and touch up any sections you aren’t happy with. 24) Pat you entire drawing with your kneaded eraser to lighten all your sketch lines.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 114. 19 SHADING TEXTURES AND STRIPES In this section, numerous illustrations show you how to draw the delightful stripes and fuzzy texture of Spot’s fur, and the textures of her eyes, nose, ears, and mane. Light affects the placement and value of every section of shading, which in turn helps define the basic exterior forms and shapes which characterize her bone and muscular structures. Remember, different values are created by: Varying the density of the lines you draw. Density refers to whether the individual hatching lines are close together or far apart. Varying the pressure used in holding your pencils. For light lines you press very lightly with your pencil. Press harder with your pencil to make darker lines. Using different grades of pencils from 2H to 6B. ILLUSTRATION 07-30 Examine this illustration of the completed drawing. Take note that the light source is from the upper left, so the shading is darker on the lower right and in the sections that are in shadow. A zebra has both black and white stripes. Black stripes are shaded with values that range from middle to dark. Light to medium values are used to represent white stripes. Also, keep in mind that a broad range of values gives contrast between the sections that are close to the light source and those that are in shadow. For example, the values used for the black stripes in the shadow areas are quite dark. In contrast, the sections of black stripes that are closer to the light source are much lighter in value. The hatching lines used to draw fur are ragged and uneven with lines of various lengths.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 115. 20 ILLUSTRATION 07-31 25) Use a 2H pencil to add light values to identify Spot’s black stripes. These hatching lines identify the stripes that need to be shaded with dark values, and also map out the directions in which the fur grows. Hence, take your time and constantly refer to my drawing as a guideline. Always place a piece of clean paper under your hand as you draw. Each time you work on a new section, remember to move your paper so it’s always under your hand. This prevents you from smudging the drawing, and protects the paper from the oils in your skin.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 116. 21 26) Use raggedy hatching lines and various pencils to add shading to the black stripes on Spot’s face as in Illustration 07-32. Black stripes are best rendered with soft pencils from 2B to 4B. The values are darker on the right and lower right. Yet, the edge of the face on the far right is slightly lighter. This rim of reflected light helps accentuate the three-dimensional forms. ILLUSTRATION 07-32 27) Outline the side of the face on the right with a freshly sharpened 2B pencil. ILLUSTRATION 07-33 Illustration 07-33 shows a close-up of the raggedy hatching lines that make up the white and black stripes.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 117. 22 28) Add shading to the white stripes with raggedy hatching lines. Pencils from 2H to 2B are ideal for shading white stripes. ILLUSTRATION 07-34Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 118. 23 ILLUSTRATION 07-35 29) Add shading to the small tuff of mane in the very front (in between Spot’s ears). ILLUSTRATION 07-36 The section of the mane in the very front (as in Illustration 07-35), is blended into the stripes of the upper forehead with hatching lines. ILLUSTRATION 07-37 Long raggedy hatching lines, behind the front tuff of the mane, are shaded very dark (see Illustration 07- 36). The section of the mane on the far left is lighter in value than the corresponding section on the right side, which is in shadow (refer to Illustration 07- 37).Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 119. 24 30) Use a full range of values from very light to almost black to add shading to the upper eyelids, eyelashes, irises, pupils, whites of the eyes, and lower eyelids. Remember, the light source is from the upper right. The upper eyelid crease is very dark and the values graduate lighter toward the lower edge of the upper eyelid. Outline the irises, highlights and the corners of the eyes. Add shading to the lower eyelid. ILLUSTRATION 07-38 Draw the eyelashes with a very sharp pencil. Make sure they are darker closer to the upper eyelid. ILLUSTRATION 07-39 Medium values are added to the various parts of the eye. Note the sections that are lighter than others. ILLUSTRATION 07-40 With dark values, the eyes come to life. The highlight of the eye on the right is shaded lightly rather than left white.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 120. 25 ILLUSTRATION 07-41 31) Add shading to the lower section of Spot’s face, her snout, nostrils, and mouth. The fur is very short in these sections; hence, short hatching lines work best. The sections that are light in value help give the illusion of form. ILLUSTRATION 07-42 32) Add shading to Spot’s ears (Illustrations 07-43 to 07-46). You can leave the highlighted strands of fur white, and work with the negative space around them and/or use a kneaded eraser shaped to a wedge to pull out individual strands. To make individual strands appear a little thinner, use a very light (2H), freshly sharpened pencil to outline the edges. Be very careful not to make the outlines too dark or the fur no longer looks soft and natural.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 121. 26 ILLUSTRATION 07-43 ILLUSTRATION 07-44 ILLUSTRATION 07-45 ILLUSTRATION 07-46Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 122. 27 Burchells zebras, now extinct, lived in South Africa until th the early 20 century. They had no stripes on their hindquarters, and were reddish- yellow with black stripes instead of white with black stripes. Sadly, this subspecies was over-hunted until finally none were left. The very last Burchells zebra on earth lived in the Berlin zoo until it died in 1918. ILLUSTRATION 07-47 33) Refer to Illustrations 07-47and 07-48 to complete the shading of her mane, neck, and shoulders. The directions in which the stripes curve on her body create the illusion of three dimensional forms. Also note that the stripes of her mane line up with those on her body. The overall shading is very dark in the shadow sections closest to her face. At the same time, the shading fades out toward the outer edges so as to not detract from her gorgeous face.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 123. 28 ILLUSTRATION 07-48Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 124. 29 34) Beginning at the top of her ears, check over your shading and touch up any sections you aren’t happy with (refer to Illustrations 07-49 to 07-51). 35) Erase any fingerprints, or smudges with your kneaded eraser molded to a point (or a sharp edge of your vinyl eraser). ILLUSTRATION 07-49 If you enjoy drawing stripes on a zebra, you may also enjoy drawing spots on a giraffe (T-04 Dandy) or a Dalmatian (T-02 Shadow). Check out the advanced section of http://www.drawspace.comCopyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 125. 30 Take note of the modifications I made to Spot’s snout by adding more contrast, and making small changes to the shape of her nostrils. ILLUSTRATION 07-50 When you practice sketching animals from life, you increase your ability to draw quickly, improve the fluidity of your lines, and sharpen your observation skills. Animals rarely stay still for more than a few seconds at a time, but with lots of practice and patience, sketches become quick and easy to capture.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 126. 31 ILLUSTRATION 07-51Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 127. 32 BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott andmay not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail: bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web site: http://www.drawspace.com or http://www.finearteducation.com
  • 128. TO BEE OR NOT TOBrenda HoddinottT-08 ADVANCED: DIVERSE ANIMALSThe detailed drawing of a bee in this project provides artists with an opportunity to enhancevarious skills, such as drawing several different textures. Several tidbits of information aboutbees are offered in sections titled “Bee Informed”.Suggested drawing supplies include good quality white drawing paper, graphite pencils, kneadedand vinyl erasers, and a pencil sharpener. This project is recommended for fine art educators andartists from age 12 to adult with good drawing skills.This project is divided into the following three sections: BEE BODY PARTS AND BASIC PROPORTIONS: Following a brief introduction to the terminology used for the parts of a bee’s body, you lightly sketch the major sections in a proportionately correct manner. This project relies completely on freehand drawing without the help of drawing tools such as a grid. OUTLINING THE INTRICATE SHAPES OF A BEE: Text instructions are limited in this section. Rather, you rely on fine tuning your visual skills to outline the fine intricacies of the bee, by closely examining large step-by-step illustrations. SHADING BEE FORMS AND TEXTURES: In this section you gather your pencils and prepare to add several different types of shading to the various parts of the bee. A full range of values and carefully placed shading graduations, fool the observers eye into seeing the three-dimensional under forms of the head, eyes, thorax, abdomen, and legs. 16 PAGES – 24 ILLUSTRATIONS Published by Hoddinott Fine Art Publishers, Halifax, NS, Canada – Revised 2006
  • 129. -2- BEE BODY PARTS AND BASIC PROPORTIONS Following a brief introduction to the terminology used for the parts of a bee’s body, you lightly sketch the major sections in a proportionately correct manner. This project relies completely on freehand drawing without the help of drawing tools such as a grid. ILLUSTRATION 08-01 The parts of a bee’s body include: 1. Antennas 2. Head 3. Compound Eyes 4. Thorax 5. Wings 6. Abdomen 7. Front Legs 8. Middle Legs 9. Hind Legs 10. Stinger As you draw, pay close attention to the lengths, angles, and curves of the various lines which outline the bee’s different parts. Constantly double check the proportions of your sketch as you work your way through this project, and modify if needed. ILLUSTRATION 08-02 1) Sketch a thin egg shape as the head. Use an HB pencil, and keep your lines light so they can be easily erased. 2) Draw a long thin wing. 3) Draw the thorax as a large circular shape that appears to be behind the head and wing.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 130. -3- ILLUSTRATION 08-03 4) Draw a vertical oval on the head as the eye. A bee’s compound eyes allow it to see in many directions at once. 5) Lightly sketch the outline of the bee’s second wing. Take note of where the outline begins on the upper thorax and ends on the upper side of the larger wing. In fact, both of the bee’s wings are the same size; however, a section of the second wing is hidden behind the thorax. As well, in that the second wing is farther away than the first, it appears smaller because it is drawn in perspective to the other. ILLUSTRATION 08-04 6) Sketch the bee’s abdomen. Take note of the U-shape that represents the outline of the abdomen. Observe where the outline begins on the lower section of the thorax and ends on the lower edge of the closer wing.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 131. -4- ILLUSTRATION 08-05 7) Lightly sketch the three legs on the frontal side of the bee. 8) Add the bee’s two antennas to the front of the head. 9) Add the tiny section of the back leg that is visible under the abdomen. 10) Erase the lines of the head, thorax, and abdomen that are inside the outlines of the legs. 11) Pat the entire drawing with your kneaded eraser until you can barely see the lines. ILLUSTRATION 08-06Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 132. -5- OUTLINING THE INTRICATE SHAPES OF A BEE Text instructions are very limited in this section; rather, you rely on fine tuning your visual skills to outline the fine intricacies of the bee, by closely examining large step-by-step illustrations. ILLUSTRATION 08-07 12) Outline the upper sections of the three legs closer to the viewer. ILLUSTRATION 08-08 13) Add the outlines of the head, eye, and antennas. A bee navigates by using the ultraviolet light of the sun, even on cloudy days.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 133. -6- ILLUSTRATION 08-09 14) Outline the wing that is closer to the viewer. ILLUSTRATION 08-10 15) Add the circular outline of the thorax.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 134. -7- ILLUSTRATION 08-11 16) Outline the second wing. ILLUSTRATION 08-12 17) Outline the upper two sections of the abdomen.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 135. -8- ILLUSTRATION 08-13 18) Outline the shapes of the small visible sections of the distant three legs. ILLUSTRATION 08-14 19) Add the two center sections of the abdomen. 20) Add the lower sections of the six legs.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 136. -9- ILLUSTRATION 08-13 21) Outline the two lower sections of the abdomen and add the stinger. 22) Erase the initial sketch lines. 23) Pat the entire drawing with a kneaded eraser until all the lines are very light. ILLUSTRATION 08-14Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 137. - 10 - SHADING BEE FORMS AND TEXTURES Gather your pencils and prepare to add several different types of shading to the various parts of the bee. A full range of values and carefully placed shading graduations, fool the observers eye into seeing the three-dimensional under forms of the head, eyes, thorax, abdomen, and legs. ILLUSTRATION 08-15 24) Outline the head and thorax with fuzzy lines of various lengths that curve in different directions. 25) Outline the highlight of the eye as a tiny oval-shape. 26) Add a crescent shape of light shading to mark the location of the shadow section of the eye. ILLUSTRATION 08-16 27) Use curved hatching lines to add values to the various sections of the abdomen. As you continue shading, keep in mind that the upper half of each section will remain light and the lower sections will become darker. You create different values by: Varying the density (placing lines either far apart or close together) of the individual hatching lines. Varying the pressure used in holding various pencils. Using different grades of pencils, from hard to soft, to help with the different values.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 138. - 11 - ILLUSTRATION 08-17 Three types of bees live together in a honeybee colony. The queen bee is a fertile female. Drones are male bees. Worker bees are infertile females. ILLUSTRATION 08-18 28) With curved hatching lines and a full range of values, add a furry texture to the head and thorax. 29) Draw dark curved diagonal lines in the eye. 30) Add shading to the eye and antennas. 31) Outline the legs with neat thin lines.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 139. - 12 - ILLUSTRATION 08-19 32) Use a full range of values from very light to almost black to assist in shading the various sections of the abdomen. In reality, the abdomen of a bee is striped, with yellow along the upper half of each section, and black in the lower halves. Your goal with shading is to use lighter values for the yellow stripes than for the black. ILLUSTRATION 08-20 Today, honey is considered by many individuals as simply a delightful food, especially yummy on a peanut butter sandwich. However, throughout the centuries, honey has also been used as a topical dressing for wounds, an embalming fluid, and a fermented beverage.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 140. - 13 - 33) Identify and outline the highlights on each of the six legs. 34) Add shading with a full range of values to each section of each leg. 35) With numerous dots and marks, add the motley texture to the legs. 36) Add a darker outline around each of the three legs that are closer to the viewer, and very dark shading to their shadow sections. The three legs in the distance are shaded lighter than the others. The farther away objects are, the lighter in value they should be drawn. ILLUSTRATION 08-21 ILLUSTRATION 08-22 37) Add a section of shading on the wing that follows the perceived shape of the upper thorax and abdomen. The wing of a bee is see-through, which means that the body is faintly visible behind it.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 141. - 14 - 38) Add shading to the wings with a combination of dots and squirkles so as to create a lightly shaded delicate pattern. ILLUSTRATION 08-23 ILLUSTRATION 08-24 The origin of the term “honeymoon” has been traced to the honey of a bee. In ancient times, a fermented beverage made from honey, was consumed in large quantities for a month following Norse wedding celebrations.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 142. - 15 - BRENDA HODDINOTT - BIOGRAPHY As a self-educated teacher, visual artist, portraitist, forensic artist, and illustrator, Brenda Hoddinott utilizes diverse art media including graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, conté crayon, and oil paints. My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also becomes enjoyable. >Brenda Hoddinott< Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong technical competencies with a personal commitment to self directed learning, and the aid of assorted “Learn to Draw” books. During Brenda’s twenty-five year career as a self-educated civilian forensic artist, numerous criminal investigation departments have employed Brenda’s skills, including Royal Canadian Mounted Police and municipal police departments. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from “Forensic Artists International”. Her home-based art career included graphic design, and teaching recreational drawing and painting classes. As supervisor of her community’s recreational art department, Brenda hired and trained teachers, and designed curriculum for several children’s art programs. In 1998, Brenda chose to end her eighteen-year career as an art educator in order to devote more time to writing, drawing, painting, and developing her websites. Drawspace http://www.drawspace.com incorporates her unique style and innovative approach to curriculum development. This site offers downloadable and printable drawing classes for students of all abilities from the age of eight through adult. Students of all ages, levels and abilities have praised the simple step-by-step instructional approach. This site is respected as a resource for fine art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world. LEARN-TO-DRAW BOOKS BY BRENDA HODDINOTT Drawing for Dummies (2003): Wiley Publishing, Inc., New, York, NY, this 336 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally. The Complete Idiot’s Guide to Drawing People (2004): Winner of the Alpha-Penguin Book of the Year Award 2004, Alpha - Pearson Education – Macmillan, Indianapolis, IN, this 360 page book is available on various websites and in major bookstores internationally.Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail bhoddinott@hoddinott.com Web sites http://www.finearteducation.com and http://www.drawspace.com
  • 143.      the“Rottiepitbea”Brenda HoddinottT09 ADVANCED: DIVERSE ANIMALSMeet Katie – my sweet, lovable, mixed‐breed dog whose pedigree includes Rottweiler and pit bull (and probably beagle). We adopted Katie from our local SPCA (Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals) when she  was 2 years old . Today, (despite the horrors  of her previous situation), she is very happy, and has the waggiest tail and the biggest smile you can imagine.  In this project, I show you a somewhat different approach to using a grid, as well as how to fade out a drawing by graduating the shading to white around the lower sections of your work. If you want to draw your own pet or another dog you can still follow along with my drawing process, but set up a grid using your own photo. This lesson is divided into the following four sections:   Planning the Drawing   Getting Started with Ears and Eyes   Detailing a Nose and Shading Fur   Shading a Mouth, Tongue, Teeth, Collar, and Lots More Fur You need various grades of pencils, good‐quality drawing paper, and erasers. If you plan to use regular pencils instead of mechanical, you also need a pencil sharpener and a sandpaper block.  This project is recommended for artists (from age 14 to adult) with advanced drawing skills, as well as students of home schooling, academic, and recreational fine-art educators. 15 PAGES – 29 ILLUSTRATIONS   Published by Drawspace.com, Halifax, NS, Canada – July, 2010
  • 144. 2 PLANNING THE DRAWINGMy reference photo (Figure 901) is not as detailed as I would like, but nevertheless it is more than adequate for creating a drawing. If I need to see additional details, I need only call Katie’s name and she appears beside me – more than happy to pose. My first task was to turn the colored photo into a grayscale (Figure 902) so the range of values is more obvious. (This is very easy to do with any photo editing software, such as Adobe Photoshop.)   Figure 901 Figure 902              My favorite method for establishing proportions (when I have a good photo) is to use a grid. If you want to draw your own pet or another dog, you can still follow along with my drawing process, but set up a grid using your own photo. To draw Katie, use the grid in Figure 903.  There are many ways to render accurate proportions with a grid. If you have followed along with all my lessons so far, I plan to begin (as usual) in the upper left corner of my drawing paper; slowly work my way toward the right, and then down to the lower right corner. However, to add a twist –  instead of doing an outline of the entire drawing before I begin to add shading, I plan to draw outlines in only a few grid squares at a time, adding shading before moving on to the next few squares to repeat the process. Working in this manner challenges you to visualize the range of values in each small section, rather than the whole photo at once. A quick hint, though – pure white and the darkest values are reserved for Katie’s eyes (the primary focal point). I chose an acid‐fee, heavy weight, Bristol paper with a vellum surface; its slightly textured tooth will allow me to add as much detail as I want without the crisp lines blending together. Naturally, the drawing will become less detailed toward the edges to allow the viewer’s eye to focus on her face.  I used Koh‐I‐Noor “Rapidomatic” mechanical pencils and Staedtler wood‐encased pencils. I used a 4H 0.3 mm lead to draw the grid lines and Katie’s outline. Shading was added with 4H, 2H, and HB 0.3 mm leads; HB and 2B 0.5 mm leads; and 4B and 6B regular wooden pencils.  Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 145. 3 GETTING STARTED WITH EARS AND EYESMy first goal is to draw her ears and the top of her head; then the fur around her eyes, and finally the eyes. (Refer to the gridded photo in Figure 903 that I created in Photoshop.)   Figure 903                              Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 146. 4 1. Use a ruler to measure and draw a grid on your photo with a ballpoint pen, or if you are  drawing Katie, print a high‐ quality image of page 3.  2. Draw a corresponding grid on your drawing paper, and add numbers to the top (and  bottom, if you wish) and letters down a side (or both sides).   Refer to Figure 904.   Figure 904   By the way,  don’t forget to  add  corresponding  numbers and  letters to the  photo as well.  I chose 1‐inch  grid squares the  same size as in  my photo  (Figure 903).   My paper (9 by  12 inches) is  slightly larger  than my  drawing, so I  have lots of  room around  the perimeter of  the dog (in case  I decide to  someday have it  framed).   Figure 904 is  smaller than my  actual drawing.  The original has  be re‐sized and  darkened in  Photoshop so  you can see the  tiny outlined  section you  draw in the next  step.  Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 147. 5 3. Outline the grid contents in squares B2, B3, C2, C3, D1, D2, and E1.  Refer to Figure 905. I’ve added diagonal guidelines to my grids to increase accuracy.   Figure 905 Drawing the contents of one grid  square at a time is much simpler  than trying to tackle a whole  section at once. Constantly refer to  the photo to make sure you are  working in the correct squares.   The process of outlining and  adding shading used in Steps 4  through 8 is the same as you need  to use for the rest of the drawing.  4. Erase the grid lines and  lighten the outlines with a  kneaded eraser in squares  B1 and B2.   5. Replace the outlines with  furry lines that indicate the  directions in which the fur  grows.  Use a 4H pencil, and refer to  Figure 906 for a close‐up  “after” view of square B3.  6. Add light and medium values  with hatching, using 2H and  HB pencils (Figure 907).   Figure 906 Figure 907          Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 148. 6 7. Use very sharp leads (in mechanical pencils) or freshly sharpened regular pencils to add  the texture of the fur.   You may need to re‐sharpen your pencil point on a sandpaper block after each few small  strokes of fur.   Figure 909 Refer to Figure 908 (the same size as my  drawing) to see how the fur looks. You can  tell how thin the lines actually are! Figure  909 shows an enlarged version, so you can  better see how I drew the fur.   Figure 908 Also keep in mind  that this may not be  the final shading.  When the drawing is  almost finished, I  plan to revisit all my  shading and make  minor adjustments  (if needed). 8. Continue adding shading to the fur on the top of her head and ears with hatching and 2H,  HB, and 2B pencils (Refer to Figures 910 to 915).  Occasionally, I will show you an actual size illustration (such as Figure 910) in addition to an  enlarged image (Figure 911). Some images are cropped to show only the most recent additions.  If your fur is beginning to look raggedy, chances are that you are drawing too quickly, or your  pencils need to be sharpened more frequently.   Figure 910 Burnish the sections of dark fur with a light grade of  pencil to get rid of the white sections. Burnishing  refers to the process using a light grade of pencil to fill  in entire sections of shading to even out the values.    Figure 911   Continue to examine your photo frequently. Scrutinize the overall anatomical structures that need to be identified by using various values. (Also keep in mind the light source, which in this case comes from the upper right).  Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 149. 7   Figure 912Remember to erase your grid lines in each section before you begin shading.     Figure 913     Light and medium  values can get too  dark very easily.  Therefore, take lots  of breaks to examine  your progress.   If a section looks too  dark, gently pat the  shading lines with a  kneaded eraser  molded into a thin  wedge.   Figure 914   By the way, if you need to  completely erase a small section  to adjust proportions, use the  sharp edge of a vinyl eraser.  At this stage, I have a strong  sense of where I want this  drawing to go. Hence, I’ll begin  working from the top toward  the bottom.   I have established my range of  values in between white  (obviously the lightest possible  “value”), and the darkest gray  (reserved for the pupils of the  eyes). I increased the contrast  in Figure 915 so you can better  examine the range of graduated  values of the fur.  Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 150. 8   Figure 915                            Figure 916  9. Add  shading to  Katie’s  eyes.  (Refer to  Figures  916 and  917).    Figure 917  Use several grades of pencils (or leads) from 2H to a 6B.      Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 151. 9  Figure 918 DETAILING A NOSE AND SHADING FUR The hard parts are done! Now, I get to enjoy shading in  the remainder of the drawing before the adding final  touches.   10. Add shading to Katie’s nose and the fur around  her nose. (Refer to Figures 918 and 920.)  Squirkling works well for shading her nose!          Figure 919             Figure 920                  11. Use various grades of  pencils from 2H to 2B  to add shading to the  muzzle, and the side  and back of her head.  Refer to Figures 921  and 922.   Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 152. 10    Figure 921                               Pay very close attention to the directions in which the fur curves along the understructures of her  head. Capturing believable anatomical forms is much more important than beautiful shading.    Figure 922                             Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 153. 11 SHADING A MOUTH, Figure 923TONGUE, TEETH,COLLAR, AND LOTSMORE FURShading her mouth looks harder than it really is. Just take your time, and change the grades of your pencil often. 12. Use pencils from 2H to  4B to add shading to  her mouth, and the  sections around her  mouth.   Everything that needs to  be shiny (such as her  tongue) should have a  solid base of shading  before you blend (I use  crosshatching).     Figure 924                                 Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 154. 12  Refer to Figures 923 to 926.  Figure 925 In addition to her tongue,  her teeth, gums, and “lips”  need to be blended after  you add shading.   Make sure you  don’t over blend –  easy does it!  Some darker  values may  need to be  added again  after the  first round  of blending.                       Figure 926                        Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 155. 13  Figure 92713. Use pencils from  2H to 2B to add  shading to her  collar and the rest  of her fur.  Refer to Figures 927  and 928.  Use smoothly  rendered  graduations to fade  out the fur and  sections of the collar  around the lower  sides and bottom  edges.   A 2H pencil works  well to graduate the  fur into the white of  the paper.      Figure 928      This gorgeous little girl is  finally beginning to look  realistic.    A few final touches (mostly  burnishing medium and dark  values) complete my drawing.  Figure 929 (on the next page)  is the same size as my actual  completed drawing.   If you were among the few  who bravely took on this  project (or a similar one), give  yourself a pat on the head and  a big round of applause!        Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 156. 14    Figure 929                                                Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com
  • 157. 15  BRENDA HODDINOTT Self-educated forensic artist, author, art educator, and award-winning artist   “My philosophy on teaching art is to focus primarily on the enjoyment  aspects while gently introducing the technical and academic. Hence, in  creating a passion for the subject matter, the quest for knowledge also  becomes enjoyable.”  Born in St. John’s, Newfoundland, Brenda grew up in the small town of Corner Brook. She developed strong drawing and painting skills through self‐directed learning. During her twenty‐five year career as a self‐educated, civilian forensic artist, various criminal investigation departments employed Brenda’s skills, including the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. In 1992, Brenda was honored with a commendation from the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, and in 1994, she was awarded a Certificate of Membership from Forensic Artists International.  In 2002, Brenda retired as a forensic artist to devote more time to creating art, building her business, and writing books.  In the style of illustrative realism, she paints in oils and acrylics on canvas and linen, and creates drawings in graphite, technical pen, colored pencil, chalk pastel, charcoal, and conté. Currently, Brenda is a curriculum designer and owner of Drawspace.com; a highly respected fine‐art resource for art educators, home schooling programs, and educational facilities throughout the world.  She is also the manager and owner of Drawspace Publishing (a Canadian publishing company for art‐related books). In addition, she is the author and illustrator of Drawing for Dummies, The Complete Idiots Guide to Drawing People Illustrated, Drawspace Guide to Getting Started with Drawing, and Drawspace Illustrated Dictionary of Drawing Words and Terms.  She is currently writing and illustrating her fifth book.     Copyright to all articles, images, text, projects, lessons and exercises within this drawing class belong to Brenda Hoddinott and may not be reproduced or used for any commercial purposes whatsoever without the written permission of Brenda Hoddinott. E-mail brenda@drawspace.com Web site http://www.drawspace.com