CO2 moleculeMore energy needed – CO2 emissions = Nuclears comeback ?
New electric needs. electric car, train, etc. : Fossil energy : consequences ofEx: Nissan Leaf shortage (peak oil) Is the grid compatible Biofuel : a good idea gone bad ? with intermitent green supply ?
Nuclears future in the UK 19 existing plantsFacts & figures generating about 18% of UKs electricity 18 closed by 2023 8 nominated sites 4 new plants to be built +9 early steps projectsCost of decommissioning : £50 billionsReplacement of the existing capacity alone £20 billions A GPB100 billionGrid and others projectSourcesEnergy Trends Dpt of Energy & Climate Change UKNuclear industry associationManaging the Nuclear Legacy report
Developing a new nuclear site isAround £ 2 billions or ... 7 Airbus A380 100,000 MINIs 100 high speed trains 200 miles of motorways
Can nuclear power be competitive in the UK ? Investment + operations + maintenance + uranium supply + waste management + dismantling – CO2 permits
Current and future Regulation Interaction with Public / private stakeholders
Manage andanticipate thewhole projectlifecycle Source Zicon and World Nuclear association
Mapping the key challenges Mid term Waste management Energy Energy 2.0 independence +smart grid R&D Education Public Nuclear Acceptance Skills training Low Carbon EconomyGeneral Business/private Implementationresponsability actions Decomissionning Policies, Market reforms & Strengthen regulation Financing Supply chain Short term
« If we fail to develop new nuclear plants in the UK, wewill see a rise in energy costs.(…) This country needsnuclear. We are there to bring a solution to the problem.»Vincent de RivazEDF ENERGY - CEOThe Sunday MailFebruary 14th, 2011 Time for action … lets do it !
Today we are talking about nuclear development in the ukand various implications involved with this trend
But really, what are we talking about ?Here is how I how see the issueNuclear power is ...To me, there are several ways to analyse the rebornof nuclear power and to analyse the challenges toface with developing a new site.(règle de 3) : I see 3 level of challenges•Strategic,•Operational•intangibleBut to begin with, lets come back to the roots of thisnuclears comeback
Globally, Talking about ENERGYTHIS IS THE KEY CHALLENGE !At least for the next few decades, there are only a few realisticoptions for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from electricitygeneration:•We can :•‡increase efficiency in electricity generation and use;•‡expand use of renewable energy sources•‡capture carbon dioxide emissions at fossil-fueled (especiallycoal) electric•‡increase use of nuclear power.
Here are the trends and the factsBuofuel and the competition with landuse.
Can we afford to do nothing ?3 major risks :•The black out•The rise of the energy prices (cf fuel) and lack of energyindependence•Climate change and CO2 impact (use of coal and gas)
Thats is why, new nuclear development is clearly an option. What is the current situation in the UK ?
But Talking about new sites is talking about big money !Who is going to pay for that ?
A challenge is to Make nuclear market attractive forprivate investorsIn most deregulated markets nuclear power is not now costcompetitive with COAL or GAS....but what about carbon issue.Emissions permit can make Nuclear competitive
The regulatory challengeNecessary reforms include a minimum price for carbonpermits and so-called capacity payments to low-carbongeneratorsMarket reformConsultation processGlobal standards for safetyLink with the authorities & regulatorsEX: UK Atomic Energy Authority
ANOTHER CHALLENGE IN A long term project DEVELOPING A NEW SITE itself : (2011/2018) 7 years PROJECT MANAGEMENT Nuclear Fuel Embrace From cradle to grave management • Design / technology (EPR, etc.) •Mining •Manufacturing and components •Conversion, • Supply chain and logistics Enrichment and Fuel • Engineering support Fabrication •Electricity Generation Effects of delays •Used Fuel HR aspects on the construction site Management •Waste ManagementABOUT THE DELIVERY •DecommissioningStrenghthen the UK nuclear industry •Transportsupply chain:•BAE Systems, Doosan Power Systems =>Manage transition•Rolls-Royce, Westinghouse on the existing sites•AREVA
In public opinions Nuclear = fearsOn a technical point of view (risk) or ethical protest(future generation, etc.)Some of us remeber Tchernobil 25 years ago.Recently EDF admitted failures in franceShort terms : operations (nuclear leakage)Long term : waste & disposalNGO protestRecently (14fev)NIA challenges WWF and Greenpeace subsidy claim
Who is OK to have a nuclear plant in his hown area ?(NIMBY)NB : In some cases, the site already existsDifference between areas of consumtions and areas ofproduction = protests and tensionsDeveloping a new site = local problemsImage risks,Impact for the property valueCommunicationPeople involvementConnections with NGOs
Last but not least, the knowledge & skills challengeSKILLSCivil engineeringMaintenanceR&DTechnologicalPlanning, project managementYoung people : are the specialities very attractive at school ?Scientific careersNuclear specialistsCf initiatives such as nuclear skills passport by Nuclear associationEXAMPLE :In France AREVA is hiring 5 000 technicians and engineers.Universities only graduate 350 nuclear engineers every year !
AS A CONCLUSIONI wrote this matrix to summarize the keychallenges involved in developing a new nuclearsite in the UK
To end this presentation, lets listen to what EDF EnergyCEO Vincent de RIVAZ said last week-end in thenewspaper