Few things about energy part3


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Facts and figures about energy : resource, production, main issues.

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Few things about energy part3

  1. 1. Guillaume FERY May 2010 Few things I know about « Energy » Part 3 : oil, solar, nuclear & co Details for each type of energy
  2. 2. Petrol (oil) <ul><li>Well known from ages (China) </li></ul><ul><li>but really « discovered » in Titusville (pennsylvania) in 1856 </li></ul><ul><li>Adapoted during WW1 with tanks and trucks </li></ul><ul><li>Today, petrol 36% of total consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Stock ? Depends on technology and long term demand </li></ul><ul><li>80% of the discovered stock is located in 15 countries </li></ul><ul><li>15 countries covered 52% of the world's production en 2002 and almost 80% in 2017 </li></ul>Guillaume FERY – May 2010 p
  3. 3. Natural gas <ul><li>Closely connected to oil, technicaly (prospection) </li></ul><ul><li>Gas versus oil </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transport more expensive : 7x </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less energy in 1T of gas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gas = about 22% of world's consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Stock ? Around 60 years of consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Russia + Iran + Irak = 56% </li></ul>Guillaume FERY – May 2010 p
  4. 4. Coal <ul><li>Closely linked to industrial revolution XXVIII : coal + steel + steam. Mainly used for power and heating. </li></ul><ul><li>Coal & history = difficult exploitation and sad stories (accidents) </li></ul><ul><li>Coal = 25% of world's energy consumption </li></ul><ul><ul><li>China & south africa = 75% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>India = 39% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stock = 166 years of todya's consuption </li></ul><ul><li>Geostrategy : 80% of stock in 6 countries </li></ul><ul><ul><li>USA 27% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia 17% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>China 13% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Australia 9% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South Africa 5% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BUT, coal has a VERY bad effect on CO2 emissions and despite it is cheap, it causes major externalities. Taking into account climate change could modify energy mix </li></ul>Guillaume FERY – May 2010 p
  5. 5. Bituminous sands <ul><li>Part of « non conventional » oil </li></ul><ul><li>Big technological & environmental issue for exploration and exploitation </li></ul><ul><li>Major locations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Canada : Athabasca </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Venezuela : Orenoque </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What about economical aspect ? Complex and expensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Weak yield & productivity compared to classic drill (10 Mbarils/day in Saudia Arabia and no more than 2MBarils in Canada) </li></ul><ul><li>Sustainability issue because of the mining and extracting technics </li></ul>Guillaume FERY – May 2010 p
  6. 6. Uranium <ul><li>Big stocks, well spread all over the world (less geostrategy aspects – compared to fossile energy) </li></ul><ul><li>Major producers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Canada </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Australie </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kazakhstan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Niger </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Russia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Major stocks: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Australia 26% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kazakhstan 17% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Canada 12,5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USA 10 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South Africa 9% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brazil 6% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uranium is the based for nuclear combustible </li></ul>Guillaume FERY – May 2010 p
  7. 7. Nuclear <ul><li>439 nuclear power plants in the world </li></ul><ul><li>16% of world's electricty produced by nuclear plants </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prototypes in 60s and 60s (generation 1 and 2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>70s : generation 3 : 80% of installed plants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>90s : less popular. Cheap oil, fear of accidents (remember 3miles Island and Tchernobil) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No new US plant since 1979 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>20s : new entrants : china, india, finland </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cost (capex) : 1500 to 3000 euro/KWH </li></ul><ul><li>Major companies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>areva+misubishi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hitachi+GE </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>toshiba+westinghouse </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Big issues : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radioactive waste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>End of plant lifecycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>++ : low GhG emission low </li></ul></ul>Guillaume FERY – May 2010 p
  8. 8. About renewable <ul><li>It is all about flow and not stock </li></ul><ul><li>Renewable energies are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biomass </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hydraulic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>geothermal power </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In Brazil : biomass + hydraulic = 45% of final energy consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Most developed renewable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biomass = 11% of world's primary energy production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hydraulic = 2% of world's primary energy production </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Policy framework is essential in the development of renewable </li></ul><ul><li>Business models may influence deeply the use </li></ul><ul><li>Renewable have very little impact in CO2 emissions compared to hydrocarbures. So, what about internalisez extranilities to copare real costs ? </li></ul>Guillaume FERY – May 2010 p
  9. 9. SOLAR <ul><li>Solar to heat water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A passive and efficient way to capture (and stock) energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Savings from 30 to 70% </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>installed appliances: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>China #1 with 75% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Europe 15% (Germany, Greece) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Solar to produce electricity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor yields : around 18% (research : up to 40%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Still expensive (10x traditionnal technologies) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biggest producers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Japan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Germany </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>USA </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Influence of policy framework (price of solar energy) </li></ul><ul><li>Big issues : environmental stakes and climate change mitigation could lead to massive adoption of solar technologies & approaches </li></ul>Guillaume FERY – May 2010 p
  10. 10. Hydraulic <ul><li>From rivers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two approaches : reservoir with turbine or turbine in a permanent water flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good operational costs but efficiency can depend on water flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental & social impact : a source of conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><li>From the oceans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Canada, UK, France or Argentina have « tide-powered plants » </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capture calories from the sea is also a way to explore </li></ul></ul>Guillaume FERY – May 2010 p
  11. 11. Geothermal power <ul><li>Capture the heat in the earth's crust </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hight temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>History : first in Italy 1904 used to produce electricity with steamed water </li></ul><ul><li>Big issues : environmental stakes and climate change mitigation could lead to massive adoption of geothermal technologies & approaches </li></ul>Guillaume FERY – May 2010 p
  12. 12. Wind Power <ul><li>The wind mills where even known at the crusades </li></ul><ul><li>Usefull to mill wheat, pump water and produce electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent on wind (= produce alternatively) </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent on policy framework and price of green energy </li></ul><ul><li>Controversy : birds, noise, visual aspects </li></ul><ul><li>How to synchronise wind energy production and peak of consumption ? </li></ul><ul><li>Big issues : environmental stakes and climate change mitigation could lead to massive adoption of wind technologies & approaches </li></ul>Guillaume FERY – May 2010 p
  13. 13. Biomass / wood <ul><li>Biomass is the most used renewable energy in the world </li></ul><ul><li>11% of the final energy use </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly wood : directly for heating, cooking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agro-fuels </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But wood calorific potential is low : only 10 to 18 megaJoules/kg (Coal : 28MJ/kg) </li></ul><ul><li>Negative Impacts: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>on deforestation as 2 billion people have no other energy to cook </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On women/children behaviour : hours spent to collect wood vs education, agriculture, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trends : the use of wood (as pellets) with new generation boilers (hight output technology) </li></ul>Guillaume FERY – May 2010 p
  14. 14. Biomass / agrofuels <ul><li>Two main chains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bioethanol (in substitution of gasoline) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiesel (in substitution of diesel) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BIOETHANOL: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>extracted from sugar cane, wheat, beetroot, maize </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>FlexFuel engines make cars use alternatively gasoline or bioethanol. 80% of new vehicules now in Brazil. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BIODIESEL: extracted from rapeseed oil. Incorporated up to 5% in diesel </li></ul><ul><li>Trends: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agricultural lobbies act to develop these two chains </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Question marks remain on environmetal impacts (deforestation, pesticides) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competition for land use : Fuels versus Food </li></ul></ul>Guillaume FERY – May 2010 p
  15. 15. Hydrogen <ul><li>Could it be the solution for the XXI Century ? </li></ul><ul><li>Not mature </li></ul><ul><li>Long term approach </li></ul>Guillaume FERY – May 2010 p
  16. 16. <ul><li>http://www.hydrogenenergy.com </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.solarenergy.org/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.nucleartourist.com/basics/why.htm </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the facts and figures here come from a French book Edition QUE SAIS-JE ? « 100 mots pour l'énergie » Jean-Marie CHEVALIER 2008 </li></ul>LINKS and BOOKS Guillaume FERY – May 2010 p
  17. 17. <ul><li>Guillaume FERY </li></ul><ul><li>http://uk.linkedin.com/in/gfery </li></ul><ul><li>http://orignal.blogspirit.com/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://twitter.com/gfery </li></ul>Follow me !