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What every Adult needs to know about Strength Training

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  • Photo courtesy of www.obesityinamerica.org
  • Re-measurement is crucial to the individual’s success. Weight loss will result in decreased RMR and re-measurement will allow you and the individual to adjust nutrition and exercise programs to prevent weight loss plateau and frustration.

What every Adult needs to know about Strength Training What every Adult needs to know about Strength Training Presentation Transcript

  • Role of Strength Exercise in Weight Loss and Wellness Workable Programs that Work Well Wayne L. Westcott, Ph.D., CSCS
  • Current Conditions in America
    • Obesity
    • Diet
    • Exercise
  •  
  • Consideration
    • 70 % of Americans Are Overweight
    • Diets Don’t Work (50 % diet)
    • Exercise Does Work ( 5 % exercise)
    Photo courtesy of www.obesityinamerica.org
  • American Psychologist Journal of the American Psychological Association April 2007 62: 220-233 Medicare’s Search For Effective Obesity Treatments: Diets Are Not The Answer “ In sum, there is little support for the notion that diets lead to lasting weight loss or health benefits.” “ It appears that dieters who manage to sustain a weight loss are the rare exception.” “ We suggest that future research focus on exercise as a treatment for obesity.”
  • Medicine and Science In Sports and Exercise Journal of the American College of Sports Medicine 40: 181-188 January 2008
    • Physical Activity in the United States Measured By
    • Accelerometer
    • Percentage of population attaining 30 minutes of moderate
    • intensity activity (3 METS – walking 2.5 MPH) 5 days per
    • week.
    • Ages 16 – 19 years 5.6%
    • Ages 20 – 59 years 3.5%
    • Ages 60 + years 2.4%
    • (5,000 participants)
  • Circulation Journal of the American Heart Association August 2007 116: 1081-1093
    • Physical Activity and Public Health: Updated Recommendation for Adults From the American College of Sports Medicine and the American Heart Association .
    • Aerobic Activity: *30 minutes – 5 days/week
    • moderate intensity exercise (walking)
    • * 20 minutes – 3 days/week
    • vigorous intensity exercise (jogging)
    • Strength Activity: 8-10 exercises – 2 days/week
    • 8-12 repetitions to fatigue
  • Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise Irving et al. 40:1863-1872 November 2008 Effect of Exercise Training Intensity on Abdominal Visceral Fat and Body Composition Obese Women (400 kcal/session for 16 weeks) Low-Intensity Endurance Exercise: No change TAF, SAF, or VAF High-Intensity Endurance Exercise: Significant reduction in TAF, SAF, & VAF
  • Medicine and Science In Sports and Exercise Journal of the American College of Sports Medicine Marzolini et al. 40:1557 – 1564 September 2008
    • Aerobic and Resistance Training in Coronary Disease
    • Single versus Multiple Sets
    • Training Program (N=53; 29 Wk) Aerobic Capacity
    • Endurance Only (5 days) +11%
    • Endurance (3days) & Strength (2 days) +16%
    • ------------------------------------------------------------------
    • Endurance & Strength Significantly greater muscle mass
    • Significantly greater muscle strength
    • Similar strength gains 1 set & 3 sets
  • Physiological Aspects of the Fat-Gain Process
  • Consideration
    • Three Point
    • Problem
    • Too little muscle
    • Too low metabolic rate
    • Too much fat
  • Consideration
    • American adults experience gradual decrease in muscle tissue .
    • Approximately 5 to 7-pound muscle loss per decade.
    • Forbes 1976
    • Evans & Rosenberg 1992
    5-7 lbs Muscle
  • Consideration
    • American adults experience gradual decrease in resting metabolism .
    • Approximately 2 to 4-percent metabolic reduction per decade.
    • Keyes et al. 1973
    • Evans & Rosenberg 1992
    2-4% RMR
  • Consideration
    • Weight gain
    • underestimates
    • fat gain by up to
    • 50% due to unrecognized
    • muscle loss.
  • Nutrition Action Health Letter July/August 2009 Women’s Bodyweight David Kessler – Commissioner, U.S. Food and Drug Administration Year Age Group Average Weight 1960 20 - 29 years 128 lbs 2000 20 – 29 years 157 lbs 1960 40 - 49 years 140 lbs 2000 40 – 49 years 169 lbs
  • Consideration
    • Steps To Fat Gain
    • Less muscle tissue
    • Lower resting metabolism
    • Fewer calories used
    • More calories stored in fat
    • cells
  • Reversing the Fat-Gain Factors
  • Consideration
    • Dieting Alone – Limited Results
    • Reduces muscle (undesirable)
    • Reduces metabolism (undesirable)
    • Reduces fat (desirable)
      • 25% of weight loss is muscle Ballor & Poehlman 1994
      • 95% of dieters regain weight Brehm & Keller 1990
  • Weight Loss and the Effect on RMR RMR can change significantly during a weight management program and there are no individual characteristics to predict when and how much RMR will change. The standard deviation in each reference point is + 300 Kcals. Alexander, H.A. et al. (2002) Efficacy of a Resting Metabolic Rate Based Energy Balance Prescription in a Weight Management Program Obesity Research, Presented at Nutrition Week Conference
    • RMR reduction is due to:
    • Decreased Body Weight
    • Decreased Muscle Mass
    • Reduced Calorie Intake
    250 Subjects, University of Colorado 170 180 190 200 1450 1475 1500 1525 1550 1575 1600 1625 1650 Weight (lbs) 196 192 190 188 184 179 Measured RMR 1628 1586 1568 1539 1530 1503 Start 1 Week 2 Week 4 Week 8 Week 12 Week Pounds Calories per day
  • Consideration
    • Endurance Exercise Alone –
    • Limited Results
    • Does not replace muscle (undesirable)
    • Does not increase resting
    • metabolism
    • (undesirable)
    • Reduces fat (desirable)
    • Improves cardiovascular fitness
    • (desirable)
  • Consideration
    • Strength Exercise Alone –
    • Good Results
    • Replaces muscle (desirable)
    • Recharges metabolism (desirable)
    • Reduces fat (desirable)
    • Improves musculoskeletal fitness (desirable)
  • Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research Hackney et al. 22:1602-1609 September 2008 Resting Energy Expenditure After Full Body Resistance Training 8 Exercises X 8 sets x 6 Reps Average % Increase in REE 72 Hours Post Exercise Untrained Subjects 9% (9% - 9% - 9%) Trained Subjects 8% (4% - 10% - 8%)
  • Strength Training & Resting Energy Expenditure Study Subjects Protocol Time REE Campbell ‘94 Untrained M/F Low Vol. 12 Wks +7% Pratley ’94 Untrained M Low Vol. 16 Wks +8% Van Etten ’97 Untrained M Mod Vol. 18 Wks +9% Hunter ’00 Untrained M/F Mod Vol. 26 Wks +7% Melby “93 Trained M High Vol. 1 Day +7% Hackney ’08 Untrained M High Vol. 3 Days +9% Hackney ’08 Trained M High Vol. 3 Days +8%
  • American Journal of Health Promotion July 2009 Impact of 100 fewer calories per day: * Eliminate over 71 million cases of overweight & obesity * Save 58 billion dollars annually Regular strength training increases resting energy expenditure more than 100 calories everyday!
  • Strength Training Increases Fat Burn Ormsbee, MJ et al. 2007 (J of Appl Physiol, 102:1762-1772) Fat metabolism and acute resistance exercise Subjects: 8 strength trained males in mid 20s Session: 6 exercises; 3 sets x 10 reps Results: 40 minutes post-exercise *resting energy expenditure +10% *fat oxidation +105% Resistance training increases adipose tissue lipolysis during (78%) and after (75%) the exercise session.
  • Consideration
    • Primary health/fitness benefit of
    • strength training:
    • Concurrently increases muscle mass and resting
    • metabolism and decreases fat mass, thereby
    • reversing these effects of sedentary aging.
  • Consideration
    • Strength training effects on body
    • composition are relative to entry
    • level percent body fat.
    • 1132 Men and Women (21-80 years)
    • Body composition changes based on entry
    • level percent body fat quintiles .
    • South Shore YMCA Study #1
  • South Shore YMCA Keeping Fit Program
    • Body Composition Changes Based on Entry Percent Fat
    Fat Weight Change Lean Weight Change % Fat Fat Wt Lean Wt Categories Change Change (lbs) (lbs )
  • Study: Over Half of Americans on Chronic Medicines In the year 2007, a study by Medco Health Solutions Inc. found that for the first time more than ½ of insured Americans take medication for chronic health problems. Drugs that lower blood pressure and cholesterol - problems linked with heart disease, obesity and diabetes were the most commonly prescribed.
  • Strength Training Benefits Fitness for a Lifetime
    • Avoid Muscle Loss:
    • Average American loses 5-7 pounds
    • of muscle per decade.
    • (Forbes 1976, Evans 1992)
    Strength Training Benefits
    • Avoid Metabolic Rate Reduction :
    • Average American reduces metabolism
    • 2-4 percent per decade.
    • (Keyes 1973, Evans 1992)
    Strength Training Benefits
    • Increase Muscle Mass:
    • Average adult adds 3 pounds of muscle after
    • 10 to 12 weeks of strength exercise.
    • (Westcott 1996, 2006)
    Strength Training Benefits
    • Increase Metabolic Rate:
    • Average adult increases resting metabolic
    • rate 7 percent after 10 to 12 weeks of
    • strength exercise
    • (Campbell 1994, Pratley 1994)
    Strength Training Benefits
    • Reduce Body Fat:
    • Average adult loses 4 pounds of fat
    • after 10 to 12 weeks of strength
    • exercise.
    • (Campbell 1994)
    Strength Training Benefits
    • Summary of Campbell Study:
    • 12 Weeks of strength exercise
    • Add 3 pounds fat-free weight
    • Lose 4 pounds fat weight
    • Increase resting metabolic rate 7 percent
    • Increase daily calorie use 15 percent
    • (+200 calories/day)
    Strength Training Benefits
  • Strength Training Benefits
    • Other health related benefits of
    • strength training:
    • Reduced risk of weight gain.
    • Mason et al. MSSE , 39 (1): 38-43, 2007
    • Reduced risk of metabolic-syndrome
    • Wijndaele et al. MSSE , 39 (2):233-240, 2007
    • Reduced risk of cardiovascular disease
    • Braith and Stewart. Circulation , 113: 2642-2650, 2006
    • Increase Physical Capacity
    Strength Training Benefits
  •  
  • South Shore YMCA
    • Keeping Fit Program
  • 1995 ACSM Exercise Guidelines
    • Cardiovascular Endurance:
          • 20-60 Minutes Aerobic Activity
          • 60-90 Percent of Max Heart Rate
          • Minimum 3 Days/Week
  • 1995 ACSM Exercise Guidelines
    • Muscular Strength:
      • 1 Set/Exercise
      • 8-12 Reps/Set
      • 8-10 Exercises for Major Muscles
      • Minimum 2 Days/Week
  • South Shore YMCA Fitness Program
      • 10 Weeks
      • 2-3 Days/Week - T-Th or MWF
      • 20 Minutes Endurance - Treadmill or Cycle
      • 20 Minutes Strength - 10 Weightstack Machines
      • Small Classes - 2 Instructors & 6 Participants
      • Endurance Exercise Specifics
            • 3 Minutes Warm-up
            • 3 Minutes Cool-Down
            • 15 Minutes Steady State
            • 70-80 Percent Max Heart Rate
            • 13-15 RPE on Borg Effort-Scale
    South Shore YMCA Fitness Program
  • South Shore YMCA Fitness Program
    • Strength Training Specifics:
      • Leg Extension
      • Leg Curl
      • Double Chest
      • Pullover
      • Lateral Raise
      • * 1 Set/Exercise
      • * 8-12 Reps/Set
      • * 6 Seconds/Rep (2 Secs Positive, 4 Secs Negative)
      • Biceps Curl
      • Triceps Extension
      • Abdominal Curl
      • Low Back Extension
      • Neck Flex/Ext
      • Participants
      • 1644 Men and Women
      • (21- 80 Years)
      • 892 Trained 2 x Week
      • (Mean Age – 56)
      • 752 Trained 3 x Week
      • (Mean Age – 51)
    South Shore YMCA Fitness Program
      • Results:
      • 8 Years (1996-2004)
      • 92 Percent Completion Rate (All Subjects)
      • 83 Percent Attendance Rate (2 x Week)
      • 80 Percent Attendance Rate (3 x Week)
      • 95 Percent Satisfaction Rate (All Subjects)
    South Shore YMCA Fitness Program
      • Results By Frequency
    South Shore YMCA Fitness Program 2 x Wk 3 x Wk All Body Weight (lb.) -0.1 -1.3 -0.6 Percent Weight (%) -1.9 * -2.2 * -2.0 * Fat Weight (lb.) -3.2 * -4.4 * -3.7 * Lean Weight (lb.) +3.1 * +3.1 * +3.1 * Systolic BP (mmHg) -3.1 * -4.6 * -3.8 * Diastolic BP (mmHg) -1.4 * -2.2 * -1.8 * *sig (P<.05)
      • Results By Gender
    South Shore YMCA Fitness Program Females Males Percent Fat (%.) -1.8 * -2.8 * Fat Weight (lb.) -3.0 * -5.9 * Lean Weight (lb.) +2.6 * +4.6 * *sig (P<.05)
      • Results By Age
    South Shore YMCA Fitness Program Lean Weight 21-44 Years +2.5 lbs. 45-54 Years +3.1 lbs. 55-64 Years +2.9 lbs. 65-80 Years +3.2 lbs. (No significant difference by age)
      • Summary:
      • 10 Weeks Training (1644 Subjects)
          • 2.0% Reduction in Percent Fat
          • 3.7 lb. Fat Loss
          • 3.1 lb. Lean (Muscle) Gain
          • 3.8 mmHg Systolic BP Decrease
          • 1.8 mmHg Diastolic BP Decrease
          • Over 90% Completion Rate
          • Over 80% Attendance Rate
          • Over 95% Satisfaction Rate
    South Shore YMCA Fitness Program
      • Conclusion
      • Based on results of 1644 adults who completed our 10-week introductory exercise program, the 1995 ACSM Minimum Requirement Exercise Guidelines are highly effective for improving body composition and resting blood pressure in previously sedentary men and women.
    South Shore YMCA Fitness Program
      • Recommendation
      • 1995 ACSM Exercise Guidelines are appropriate for beginners
          • Simple
          • Time-Efficient
          • Practical
          • Effective
    South Shore YMCA Fitness Program
  • International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism Arciero et al. 16:373-392 (2006)
    • Increased Dietary Protein and Combined High
    • Intensity Aerobic and Resistance Exercise Improves
    • Body Fat Distribution and Cardiovascular Risk Factors
    • Significantly greater changes than standard aerobic exercise and
    • food guide pyramid diet:
    • *percent body fat (-16% vs -7%)
    • *abdominal fat (-16% vs -8%)
    • *total cholesterol (-14% vs NC)
    • *LDL cholesterol (-21% vs NC)
    • *systolic blood pressure (-6% vs NC)
  • Protein Supplementation & Strength Training
  • Strength & Endurance Study 6-Month w/wo Protein Supplement Subjects: 46 men & women (mean age = 59 years) Exercise: 11 weightstack machines 20 minutes walking or cycling ACSM training guidelines Treatment: 24 subjects post-exercise protein shake (25 g pro; 37 g carb; 250 calories) 22 subjects no supplement
  • Strength & Endurance Study 6-Month w/wo Protein Supplement * Significantly different from no supplement group Group Results Protein Supplement No Supplement Percent Fat (%) -4.0 -2.8 Lean Weight (lbs) +5.5 +3.9 Fat Weight (lbs) -9.0* -4.9
  • Strength & Endurance Study 6-Month w/wo Protein Supplement * Significant improvement (p< 0.05) Overall Results 1 st 3 Months 2 nd 3 Months 6 Months Percent Fat (%) -1.6* -1.8* -3.4* Lean Weight (lbs) +2.2* +2.5* +4.7* Fat Weight (lbs) -3.3* -3.7* -7.0*
  • Strength & Endurance Study 6-Month w/wo Protein Supplement
    • Observations
    • * Body composition changes for all subjects were similar
    • over the successive 3 month training periods
          • About 2 ½ pounds lean weight gain each period
          • About 3 ½ pounds fat weight loss each period
    • * Body composition changes for protein supplement
    • subjects were greater than those for no-supplement
    • subjects
          • About 40 percent greater lean weight gain
          • About 80 percent greater fat weight loss
  • Protein-Carb Supplementation American College of Sports Medicine “ Just after exercise, the protein-building processes of muscle cells are especially receptive to amino acids.” “ Muscle cells are especially efficient in absorbing carbohydrates from the blood just after exercise.” Dr. Mark Tarnopolsky, M.D. New York Times.com June 2008
  • Nutrition Action Health Letter Vol. 34/No.3 (2007) “ We’ve found that older men and women who consume no more protein than the RDA can stay healthy, but they’ll continue to lose muscle, even if they’re doing strength training. Our studies showed that people from their 50s into their 80s who were exercising their muscles needed at least 25 percent more protein than the RDA level just to maintain their muscle mass. And to gain muscle tissue, they needed to consume 50 percent more protein than the RDA level.” Dr. Wayne Campbell
  • Strength Conditioning Pyramid Functional training exercises Free-weight exercises Machine exercises
  • Level 1 Exercise - Machines Machine Sets x reps 1. Leg press 1 x 8-12 2. Chest press 1 x 8-12 3. Seated row 1 x 8-12 4. Incline press 1 x 8-12 5. Pulldown 1 x 8-12 6. Shoulder press 1 x 8-12 7. Abdominal curl 1 x 8-12 8. Low back extension 1 x 8-12
  • Level 2 Exercises – Free-weights Free-weight Sets x reps 1. Dumbbell squat 2 x 6-10 2. Barbell bench press 2 x 6-10 3. Dumbbell bent row 2 x 6-10 4. Barbell incline press 2 x 6-10 5. Pulldown 2 x 6-10 6. Dumbbell shoulder press 2 x 6-10 7. Dumbbell standing bicep curl 2 x 6-10 8. Dumbbell standing triceps extension 2 x 6-10
  • Level 3 Exercises – Medicine Balls Medicine Ball Set x reps 1. Med Ball squat/front raise 1 x 8-12 2. Med Ball rotational knee lift 1 x 8-12 3. Med Ball torso rotation 1 x 8-12 4. Med Ball over/under exchange 1 x 8-12 5. Med Ball (power) front step/low throw 2 x 6-10 6. Med Ball (power) front step/high throw 2 x 6-10 7. Med Ball (power) underhand throw 2 x 6-10 8. Med Ball (power) side step/lateral throw 2 x 6-10