Degraded GPS Signal Measurements


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Degraded GPS Signal Measurements

  1. 1. Degraded GPS Signal Measurements With A Stand-Alone High Sensitivity Receiver G. MacGougan, G. Lachapelle, R. Klukas, K. Siu, Department of Geomatics Engineering L. Garin, J. Shewfelt, G. Cox, SiRF Technology Inc. Superieure des Telecommunications, France and BS in BIOGRAPHIES physics from Paris VI University. Glenn MacGougan is a MSc. student in the Department Geoffrey F. Cox holds a B.A. degree in Geology and of Geomatics Engineering, University of Calgary. In Chemistry at the University of Maine and a MEng. in 2000 he completed a BSc. in Geomatics Engineering at Geomatics Engineering from the University of Calgary. the same institution. He has previous experience in GPS From 1996 to 2000, he worked in various areas of GPS. related R&D at NovAtel Inc. and Trimble Navigation. He Mr. Cox joined SiRF Technology, Inc. in the fall of 2000 expects to complete his MSc in September 2002. as a Senior Applications Engineer. Dr. Gérard Lachapelle is Professor and Head of the John L. Shewfelt received a B.Sc. in Electrical Department of Geomatics Engineering, University of Engineering from the University of California Santa Calgary. He has been involved with GPS developments Barbara in 1981. He has since been involved in the and applications since 1980. More information on site design, development, test and integration of advanced avionics and guidance systems . In 2000, he joined SiRF Dr. Richard Klukas is an Assistant Professor in the Technology Inc. as Applications Engineering Manager to facilitate the integration of GPS technology into Department of Geomatics Engineering at the University embedded products and platforms. of Calgary. He holds BSc and MSc degrees in Electrical Engineering and a PhD in Geomatics Engineering, all from the University of Calgary. His research interests include all aspects of wireless location. ABSTRACT Lap Kee Siu is a BSc. student of Electrical Engineering The use of GPS for personal location using cellular at the University of Calgary. He currently works as an telephones or other devices requires signal measurements internship student in the Department of Geomatics under both outdoor and indoor situations. The outdoor Engineering. He expects to complete his BSc. in May environment may range from clear to shaded/blocked 2003. signal measurements. The indoor environment may range for single floor wooden constructions to high-rise Lionel J. Garin, Lead GPS Architect, SiRF Technology buildings and underground facilities. Inc., has over 20 years of experience in GPS and communications fields. Previous to that, he worked at In this paper, a high sensitivity receiver that operates in Ashtech, SAGEM and Dassault Electronique. He is the unaided stand-alone mode is tested under a range of inventor of the quot;Enhanced Strobe Correlatorquot; code and shaded signal environments, ranging from residential carrier multipath mitigation technology. He holds an outdoor areas to urban canyons to residential houses. The MSEE equivalent degree in digital communications measurement analysis is performed in both the sciences and systems control theory from Ecole Nationale observation and position domains. The results show that the receiver tested can yield measurements with C/N0 Presented at ION National Technical Meeting, San Diego, 28-30 January 2002.
  2. 2. degradations in excess of 20dB-Hz, as compared to line- degradation. Two identical HS SiRF units were used. The of-sight measurements. Position results are a function of receivers are shown in Figure 1. Table 1 outlines the the geometry of the remaining satellites, which in turn is a major similarities and differences between the SiRF function of the environment. standard and high sensitivity (HS) receivers. The receivers use the same basic hardware architecture; however, the integrations times used are significantly different, as the high sensitivity receiver uses long periods INTRODUCTION of non-coherent integration. In addition, the Kalman GPS signal deterioration occurs through signal masking filters used in the receivers are different. The filter caused by natural (e.g. foliage) and man-made (e.g. differences become evident in the position domain buildings) obstructions, ionospheric scintillation, Doppler analysis. All receivers used herein output raw shift, multipath, jamming, evil waveforms, and receiver measurements. These were recorded for subsequent and antenna effects. The impact of anyone of the above analysis. can result in partial to total loss of signal tracking and/or tracking errors, depending on the severity of the effect and the receiver tracking characteristics. These effects are evident in a receiver's measure of the carrier to noise density ratio C/N0 . Tracking errors, especially if undetected by the receiver firmware, can result in large position errors. Partial loss of tracking results in geometry degradation, which in turn affects position accuracy. The L1 C/A Code repeats every millisecond. This can be used advantageously by the GPS receiver in that the signal can be integrated for extended periods in order to obtain a higher signal to noise ratio. Chansarkar & Garin (2000) describes the use of GPS signals at very low power levels using long dwell times. In terms of unaided GPS, this integration can be performed coherently for up to 20ms. The maximum coherent integration time is due to the navigation bit boundaries. Furthermore, non-coherent Figure 1: Receivers Used During Testing integration, which is basically integration of the squared signal, can be performed for long periods of time relative Table 1: Comparison of Standard and High Sensitivity to the coherent integration interval. Using the full SiRF Receivers coherent interval and long non-coherent integration times, weak signal tracking in degraded environments is possible. Prior investigations into the use of low power GPS signals using long dwell times have been performed by Peterson et al. (1997), Moeglein & Krasner (1998), Garin et al (1999), and van Diggelen & Abraham (2001). Testing at the University of Calgary focussed on the use of long integration times for the stand-alone case that is no network aiding. There is a strong need to characterize unaided receiver performance under GPS signal deterioration to extend the use of GPS to a range of new applications. ANALYSIS CONVENTIONS The following colour convention was used when RECEIVER DESCRIPTION comparing the results from the different receivers. The The receiver type under test is a high sensitivity (HS) OEM4 receiver results are plotted in red, the standard unaided SiRF receiver unit. For comparison purpose, a SiRF results in green and the HS SiRF receiver results in standard model SiRF receiver and a NovAtel OEM4 blue and purple, respectively. In the figures shown in this receiver are added. The latter is not expected to perform paper, the test warm-up period data is often shown in grey well under signal degradation as its firmware is optimized or in a faded colour scheme. This data is not included in for high accuracy performance but is used to show the the test statistics. range of performance now possible under signal Presented at ION National Technical Meeting, San Diego, 28-30 January 2002.
  3. 3. Some figures show the testing period data only but from A test was designed, based on MacGougan et al. (2001), multiple test runs. This data is not contiguous in time but using the simulator to assess the tracking threshold of the is presented in a continuous fashion to better display the four test receivers. A constellation based on the real similarities and differences between test runs. Black almanac for GPS week 1148 was used to produce vertical lines delineate the different test runs. simulated GPS signals. A 20 minutes warm-up period with undegraded signal tracking ensured that all receivers In figures displaying the calculated fix density values for had enough time to lock on all eight simulated satellites. the receivers, an overlaid light blue dot is used to indicate All the satellites used the same signal power, which was 2D fix versus 3D fix. lowered from +10dB to -20dB relative channel power in 0.5 dB steps. A five-minute period with the lowest power level possible (-20dB) finished off the test. The set-up for GPS SIMULATION TESTING - TRACKING this test is shown in Figure 3. THRESHOLD TEST In recent years, advances in simulation technology have contributed to the development of state-of-the-art hardware GPS simulators. Spirent Communications Inc. makes the STR-4760 GPS simulator. The simulator is described thoroughly in GSS, 2000. The simulation unit, shown in Figure 2, used by the University of Calgary, consists of a control computer (shown on the left) and two 16 channel L1 or 8 channel L1/L2 hardware simulator boxes (shown on the right). GPS signals are often attenuated by propagation through different mediums (atmosphere, foliage, buildings, etc). This results in an effective decrease in the carrier strength component of C/N0 . In addition, broadband sources of RF interference also decrease C/N0 by increasing the ambient noise density. The simulator allows real-time control of ± the signal level ( 20dB with respect to –160dBW) for each satellite corresponding to one channel of signal Figure 3: Tracking Threshold Test Set-up output. This power level is referred to as the relative channel power for the simulator as used in this paper. The The tracking results, in terms of the average C/N0 , for all signal level can be set equally and varied by the same satellites tracked, and the associated simulator relative amount for all channels. The C/N0 threshold for tracking channel power are shown in Figure 4. The OEM4 weak signals can be determined by lowering the signal receiver tracks to about –9dB relative channel power. The level slowly until the receiver is no longer able to track standard SiRF receiver does not fare much better as it the satellite. tracks down to -10dB relative channel power. The tracking ability of the HS SiRF receivers is at or better than the -20dB relative channel power. The number of satellites tracked and the associated simulator relative channel power is shown in Figure 5. The NovAtel and standard SiRF receivers lose almost all satellites simultaneously while the high sensitivity receivers lose only 3 satellites gradually. The 3D error in position for each receiver and the associated simulator relative channel power is shown in Figure 6. Strong correlation between low signal levels and higher position error is evident. However, the HS receivers are still able to provide position output; the five satellites that they track provide a good geometry. Figure 2: Spirent (GSS) STR-4760 Simulator Presented at ION National Technical Meeting, San Diego, 28-30 January 2002.
  4. 4. Figure 4: Signal Power Levels During Simulator Tracking Threshold Test Figure 6: 3D Position Error During Simulator Tracking Threshold Test FIELD TESTS The aim of the field tests was to take the high sensitivity receivers into increasingly difficult environments in terms of GPS signal tracking. Thus, testing was first performed under signal masking conditions and fast fading due to roadside trees and foliage. Subsequent testing took place under more severe signal masking and multipath conditions in downtown Vancouver, B.C, Canada and Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Finally, testing inside two types of residential garages was performed to assess conditions with no line of sight on any of the satellites. FIELD TEST SET-UP AND DESCRIPTION Figure 5: Number of Satellites Tracked During Simulator Tracking Threshold Test The test set-up used for the base station is shown in Figure 7. A high performance antenna, namely the NovAtel 600 model, was mounted at a surveyed location with a clear view of the sky. The test set-up used for the rover receivers is depicted in Figure 8. The rover receivers were always initialized under open sky conditions for a 20-minute period. Test statistics only refer to the data after this warm-up period. The receivers are tested in parallel using a common antenna (NovAtel 600 model) or an inline low noise amplifier or LNA in the case of the simulation test. An LNA (also part of the antenna) acts to set the signal Presented at ION National Technical Meeting, San Diego, 28-30 January 2002.
  5. 5. conditions (i.e. noise floor) to very similar values in each vehicle, when sufficient satellite coverage was available receiver (Van Dierendonck, 1995). In order to ensure to update the INS with an accuracy level to be described valid comparison, the signal conditions experienced by later. The antenna was mounted on the roof of the vehicle each receiver must be very similar. In real conditions, this approximately one metre above the INS. In the case of the is achieved by splitting the signal from a common active garage tests, the reference positions inside the garage antenna. In simulation mode, this is achieved with the use were measured by extending the GPS position of a nearby of an LNA prior to the signal splitter. point using a standard survey method. FIELD TEST MEASURES The analysis of results of the field-testing focuses on the observation and position domains. Position domain analysis is performed by comparison of the test receiver’s positions with positions derived from carrier phase differential GPS/INS using NovAtel's Black Diamond system when available. Comparison is only undertaken when the position errors estimated by the GPS/INS system are better than 5 m in latitude and longitude and 10 in height, at the 1 sigma level. This ensures that the ensuing derived statistics are meaningful. Analysis focuses on the receiver output position for the Figure 7: Field Test - Base Station Set-up SiRF model receivers. The NovAtel OEM4 receiver is used to collect raw data for post mission analysis. This raw data is used in a least squares position solution using height constraints (when the geometric dilution of precision, GDOP, exceeds 5.0). This was done in order to compare the 2D fix capability of the SiRF receivers with that derived from a geodetic quality r eceiver. The SiRF receivers employ a Kalman filtering and the software to process the OEM4 data does not. The effects of the Kalman filter will be noticeable during comparison of kinematic testing periods with fewer instantaneous outliers evident. The focus of the analysis in the position domain is on horizontal and vertical errors. Vertical performance is expected to be poor due to degraded geometry and the typically poor performance of GPS in terms of height. Errors are computed by subtracting the reference values from the true values. Signal quality, fading, availability, and dilution of Figure 8: Field Test - Rover Set-up precision (DOP) are also be analyzed. Signal fading is calculated by the difference of the C/N0 measurements The modes of field-testing include: between like model receivers at the rover and base • stations in order to eliminate receiver C/N0 estimation Vehicular testing in a residential area of Calgary biases. HDOP is assessed based on the receiver output with foliage beside and overhanging much of the HDOP for the SiRF receivers and the computed value road based on satellites tracked for the OEM4 receiver. • Vehicular testing in downtown Calgary and The measurement output of a GPS receiver typically Vancouver includes pseudorange, Doppler, and carrier phase • Static test inside a wooden frame garage and a observations. The L1 pseudorange is the primary concrete wall garage. measurement used in single point positioning and thus is the focus of the measurement domain analysis. By constraining the positions of the receiver to known The vehicular tests have speeds of up to 50 km/h. A reference positions, an assessment of the errors in the carrier phase differential GPS/INS system was used to pseudoranges can be made from the residuals of the constrained least-squares solution. C3 NAVG2TM, a provide the reference data for the positions of the test Presented at ION National Technical Meeting, San Diego, 28-30 January 2002.
  6. 6. software package developed at the University of Calgary, the estimated accuracy was better than 5 m in latitude and is capable of this type of analysis . longitude and 10 m in height. Fix density is also a useful measure of a receiver’s capabilities in an environment with signal masking and multipath. Fix density values can be determined directly from the SiRF receiver output and from the processing of the OEM4 data. However, a more pessimistic test measure was used in the comparison of the receivers. The 2D fix density was calculated based on the number of satellites used in epoch-to-epoch solutions during the test period. If three satellites were used in a solution, a 2D fix was assumed. Similarly, a 3D fix was assumed when four or more satellites were present. Fix density is thus the percentage of epochs with valid fixes based on a 1 Hz data rate for the entire test period. This measure is pessimistic as it is possible to obtain a 2D fix with two satellites used in solution by using filtering, clock coasting and height fixing (e.g., Lachapelle et al.,1997).In summary the following measures are used: Observation Domain: • Residuals: as estimated from a least squares solution constrained to known rover positions • Fading: C/N0 (base) – C/N0 (rover) using like type receivers • HDOP: Horizontal Dilution of Precision • Number of satellites used in solution Position Domain: Figure 9: Vehicular Test in Residential Area • 2D Fix Density: percentage of epochs with 3 The number of satellites used in the position solutions for satellites used in solution the receivers for all three test-runs is shown in Figure 10. • 3D Fix Density: percentage of epochs with 4 or The associated fix densities for each receiver are shown in more satellites used in solution Figure 11. The results indicate that satellite availability is improved for the high sensitivity receivers, as they are • 2D Error and height error. capable of 3D fix during most of the test runs. The OEM4 reverts to 2D fix more frequently. RESIDENTIAL TESTING UNDER TREES AND FOLIAGE A common problem for many GPS receivers is the fast fading and tracking problems induced by trees and roadside foliage. A vehicular data set was thus collected in a residential area of Calgary with foliage beside and overhanging much of the road. This environment is shown in Figure 9. One to three level houses with trees lining the roadside characterize this older area of Calgary known as Mount Royal. Three test runs were performed on September 27, 2001 beginning at approximately 16:10:00, 16:50:00, and 17:35:00 UTC time. Unfortunately, the standard model SiRF receiver was not available during these test runs and is not included in the analysis. There were also problems with the GPS/INS processing for test 1 so a differential code solution using Figure 10: Residential Test - Number of Satellites OEM4 receivers was used during the limited epochs when Used In Solutions Presented at ION National Technical Meeting, San Diego, 28-30 January 2002.
  7. 7. The 2D errors for all three test runs and associated statistics are shown in Figure 12. The associated HDOP values are shown in Figure 13. The height errors during the test runs are shown in Figure 14. More geometry degradation is present due to fewer satellite observations available for the OEM4 receiver. In addition, more instantaneous outliers are present in the results from the OEM4 receiver due to the use of unfiltered epoch-by- epoch processing. The use of a Kalman filter for periods with very poor geometry and a lack of quality observations would reduce these outliers significantly, as it has for the case of the SiRF receivers. Figure 13: Residential Test - HDOPs Figure 11: Residential Test - Fix Density Values Figure 14: Residential Test - Height Errors The run-to-run trajectories (based on the receivers’ output) for the two HS SiRF receivers are very similar and that for one receiver is shown in Figure 15. The NovAtel OEM4 receiver run-to-run trajectory is shown in Figure 16. The instantaneous outliers in the OEM4 derived positions are also evident in this figure. Figure 12: Residential Test - 2D Position Errors Presented at ION National Technical Meeting, San Diego, 28-30 January 2002.
  8. 8. Figure 17: Residential Test – Correlation Between Fading and Pseudorange Residuals for PRN 11 Figure 15: Residential Test - HS66 Run-To-Run Horizontal Positions URBAN CANYON TESTING The challenges for satellite-based navigation posed by the downtown environment of many cities are numerous. Large buildings tend to mask much of the sky and induce large multipath and fading errors. The general problem with using GPS in urban canyons translates into a lack of satellite availability. However, high sensitivity GPS receivers may be able to track the degraded signals of satellites that are typically masked. This may be by tracking a multipath signal or the combination of the weakened direct signal and multipath signals. The addition of these degraded observations could allow position determination when otherwise impossible by standard means. In order to address the capabilities of the HS SiRF receivers in urban canyons, tests were performed in downtown Calgary and Vancouver. Both cities have Figure 16: Residential Test - OEM4 Run-To-Run concentrations of tall buildings. Horizontal Positions In terms of signal fading and residuals, a low elevation DOWNTOWN VANCOUVER satellite, rising from 15° to 24°, was investigated during run 2. Figure 17 shows the absolute value of the residuals Testing took place on October 13th and 14th , 2001, with for PRN 11 along with the corresponding calculated five test runs and two test runs, respectively. The test fading values for one of the HS receivers. Not only are trajectory used for all runs is shown in Figure 18 along fast fading effects observable but also a strong correlation with some pictures of the testing environment. Each test exists between the fading and the residual values. lasted approximately 30 minutes, following a twenty- minute warm-up period under clear sky conditions. Presented at ION National Technical Meeting, San Diego, 28-30 January 2002.
  9. 9. Figure 18: Vancouver Test Trajectory The number of satellites used in the position solutions for the receivers for all seven test-runs are shown in Figure 19. The associated fix densities for each receiver are shown in Figure 20. The results indicate that the Figure 19: Vancouver Test - Number of Satellites availability is again improved for the HS receivers, as Tracked they are capable of 3D fix for 91.9% and 93.6% of the test runs. The standard SiRF receiver and the OEM4 unit both revert to 2D fix more often with 11.2% and 15.2% 2D fixes respectively versus 1.2% and 1.0% 2D fixes for the high sensitivity receivers. The 2D errors for all seven test runs and associated statistics are shown in Figure 21. Major outliers are present for all four receivers. In order to better understand the performance of the receivers, outliers larger than three standard deviations (3 ) were removed and the statistics were recomputed. These results are shown in Figure 22. The use of degraded measurements combined with HS filtering effects leads to large errors and poor performance in this environment. The associated HDOP values are shown in Figure 23. The improvement in HDOP for the HS receivers is again evident; although, this is not clearly reflected in the 2D position error statistics. In terms of vertical position errors, the performance of the receivers is shown in Figure 24 along with corresponding statistics. These results emphasize the need for proper filtering of the observations in the position solution. Observations are useful only when weighted appropriately. Figure 20: Vancouver Test - Fix Density Values Presented at ION National Technical Meeting, San Diego, 28-30 January 2002.
  10. 10. Figure 21: Vancouver Test - 2D Position Errors Figure 23: Vancouver Tests - HDOPs Figure 24: Vancouver Test - Height Errors Figure 22: Vancouver Test - 2D Position Errors With Outliers Removed DOWNTOWN CALGARY Three successive tests were conducted in downtown Calgary on September 27th . No reference position system was used to provide a truth trajectory. However the trajectory used is along straight East-West and North- South streets and good accuracy performance can easily be derived from plotting the test positions on an existing map. Also, fix density information and the number of satellites used in the solutions still provides useful information in term of solution availability. These results are shown in Figure 25 and Figure 26, respectively, Presented at ION National Technical Meeting, San Diego, 28-30 January 2002.
  11. 11. followed by Figure 27 depicting the HDOP during the test runs. The results indicate that availability is again improved for the HS SiRF receivers. The standard model SiRF receiver and the OEM4 unit both revert to 2D fix more often. Figure 28, Figure 29, Figure 30, and Figure 31 show the run-to-run trajectories for the HS receivers, the standard model receiver, and the OEM4 receiver, respectively. The estimated HS receiver trajectory degradation is likely due to internal filtering problems. Figure 27: Calgary Test - HDOPs Figure 25: Calgary Test - Fix Density Values Figure 28: Calgary Test HS66 SiRF Unit Run-To-Run Horizontal Positions Figure 26: Calgary Test - Number of Satellites Tracked Presented at ION National Technical Meeting, San Diego, 28-30 January 2002.
  12. 12. Figure 29: Calgary Test - HS14 SiRF Unit Run-To- Run Horizontal Positions Figure 32: Wood Frame and Concrete Wall Garage Test Environments The test in the concrete garage with the door closed began with a 20-minute warm-up period followed by a test- Figure 30: Calgary Test - ST30 SiRF Unit Run-To- duration of 60 minutes. The antenna was moved from a Run Horizontal Positions surveyed point outside the garage to a surveyed point inside the garage and the door was closed. The warm-up period for the following figures will be shown using faded colours. The number of satellites tracked by the receivers is shown in Figure 33. The associated fix density values are then shown in Figure 34. The results clearly indicate the failure of the standard GPS receivers to track signals inside while the HS receivers maintain usable observations of five to eight satellites during the test. In addition, the fix density values indicate 3D availability for 99 percent of the test period. The 2D errors for the receivers tested are shown in Figure 35 along with associated statistics. The HDOP values for HS14 are shown in Figure 36 along with the number of satellites used in the solutions. There is no significant degradation of HDOP for the HS receivers. For a more Figure 31: Calgary Test - OEM4 Unit Run-To-Run intuitive representation of the horizontal errors a scatter Horizontal Positions plot of the horizontal position is shown in Figure 37. INDOOR TESTING By taking a GPS receiver inside, the direct line-of-sight component of the signals relied upon for effective navigation is compromised. Attenuation of the direct signal propagating through various types of materials is expected as well as increased error due to multipath. Testing was performed in two different types of residential garages as shown in Figure 32. A wood frame garage and then a garage with concrete walls located under a living room were tested with and without the garage door closed. For the purposes of this paper, the worst-case results corresponding to the concrete structured garage with the door closed are presented. Presented at ION National Technical Meeting, San Diego, 28-30 January 2002.
  13. 13. Figure 35: Concrete Garage Test - 2D Errors Figure 33: Concrete Garage Test - Number of Satellites Tracked Figure 36: Concrete Garage Test - HDOPs Figure 34: Concrete Garage Test - Fix Density Values Figure 37: Concrete Garage Test - HS14 Horizontal Positions Presented at ION National Technical Meeting, San Diego, 28-30 January 2002.
  14. 14. Stephen, J., and G. L achapelle (2001). Development and Testing of a GPS-Augmented Multi-Sensor Vehicle CONCLUSIONS Navigation System. The Journal of Navigation, Royal Institute of Navigation, 54, 297-319. The use of high sensitivity GPS receivers in unaided stand-alone mode results in higher availability of MacGougan, G., G. Lachapelle, M. E. Cannon, J. Gee, observations in residential areas, urban canyons, and and M. Vinnins (2001) GPS Signal Degradation some indoor environments. 3D Position fixes were Analysis Using a Simulator. Proceedings of the obtained more frequently with the HS receivers than the Institute of Navigation ION Annual Meeting-2001 standard receivers tested under foliage and in urban (June 10-13, 2001, Albuquerque, New Mexico). canyons. In the indoor environment tested, the standard receivers could not operate while the high sensitivity unit Moeglein, M. and N. Krasner (1998) An Introduction to could still provide positions with accuracy better than SnapTrack Server-Aided GPS Technology. Proceedings 50m. The tracking threshold of the high sensitivity of the Institute of Navigation ION GPS-98 (September receivers was tested using a GPS hardware simulator and 15-18, 1998, Nashville, Tennessee), 333–342. found to be at least 9 to 10dB lower than the standard Peterson, B., D. Bruckner, and S. Heye (1997) mode GPS receivers tested. The ability to provide Measureing GPS Signals Indoors. Proceedings of the pseudorange measurements and positions, when otherwise Institute of Navigation ION GPS-97 (September 16-19, impossible using standard tracking, has clear advantages 1997, Kansas City, Missouri), 615–624. for users in terms of availability. In general, better DOP results from more usable observations. However, position van Diggelen, F. and C. Abraham (2001) Indoor GPS, degradation due to increased noise and multipath on the The No-Chip Challange. GPS World , 12(9), 50–58. measured pseudoranges results from the use of degraded Van Dierendonck, A. J. (1995), GPS Receivers, Global observations. More work remains to be done to improve Positioning Systems: Theory and Applications, Vol I, position reliability. In a vehicular case, the use of ed. B.W. Parkinson and J.J. Spilker Jr. (1996), additional sensors, such a low cost rate gyro, will more American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, than likely improve availability and reliability (e.g. Washington DC, pp. 344. Stephen & Lachapelle 2001). Indoor, the use of MEMS accelerometers and miniature direction finding sensors is Presented by G. MacGougan at ION National Technical likely to be necessary to improve these characteristics. Meeting, San Diego, 28-30 January 2002. The tests conducted herein dealt only with satellite reacquisition in degraded environments. Acquisition in such an environment is more difficult and requires specific tests. REFERENCES Chansarkar, M. and L. J. Garin (2000) Acquisition of GPS Signals at Very Low Signal to Noise Ratio. Proceedings of the Institute of Navigation ION National Technical Meeting-2000 (January 26-28, 2000, Anaheim, California), 731–737. Garin, L. J., M. Chansarkar, S. Miocinovic, C. Norman, and D. Hilgenberg (1999) Wireless Assisted GPS-SiRF Architecture and Field Test Results. Proceedings of the Institute of Navigation ION GPS-99 (September 14-17, 1999, Nashville, Tennessee), 489–497. GSS, (2000), “STR Series Multichannel Satellite Navigation Simulator – Reference Manual”, Global Simulation Systems, doc. # DGP00032AAC, Issue 10- 00, April 2000. Lachapelle, G., S. Ryan, M. Petovello, and J. Stephen (1997) Augmentation of GPS/GLONASS For Vehicular Navigation Under Signal Masking. Proceedings of the Institute of Navigation ION GPS-97, 1511–1519. Presented at ION National Technical Meeting, San Diego, 28-30 January 2002.