2009 Influenza


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2009 Influenza

  1. 1. The Flu – circa 2009 <ul><li>BIOL161 – SPECIAL LECTURE
  2. 2. A family is a unit composed not only of children but of men, women, an occasional animal, and the common cold.
  3. 3. – Ogden Nash
  4. 4. http://www.cdc.gov/flu </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.who.int
  5. 5. http://www.pandemicflu.gov/ </li><ul><li>Or, http://flu.gov !! </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Avian and Swine Flu!
  7. 7. 1918 Spanish Flu Epidemic
  8. 8. International co-circulation of 2009 H1N1 and seasonal influenza (As of November 6, 2009)
  9. 10. Doctors Visits
  10. 11. Human infections <ul><li>1918 deaths </li><ul><li>675,000 (USA)
  11. 12. 50 Million (World) </li></ul><li>1957 deaths </li><ul><li>70,000 deaths
  12. 13. 1-2 Million (World) </li></ul><li>1968 deaths </li><ul><li>34,000 (USA)
  13. 14. 700,000 (World) </li></ul><li>2005 </li><ul><li>34,000 deaths (USA)
  14. 15. 114,000 hospitalized </li></ul><li>2009 (Aug. 30 to Oct. 31) </li><ul><li>672 deaths (H1N1 only)
  15. 16. 17,838 hospitalized (H1N1 only) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Influenza A Virion <ul><li>Approx. 100 nm d. </li><ul><li>Contained in a lipid bilayer (derived from the plasma membrane of its host) </li><ul><li>~500 molecules of hemagglutinin
  17. 18. ~100 molecules of neuraminidase
  18. 19. 8 pieces of RNA
  19. 20. many copies of a nucleoprotein
  20. 21. several molecules of the three subunits of its RNA polymerase
  21. 22. Other proteins </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 23. Avian Influenza <ul><li>type A influenza viruses </li><ul><li>hemagglutinin [HA] </li><ul><li>16 different HA subtypes </li></ul><li>neuraminidase [NA] proteins </li><ul><li>9 different NA subtypes </li></ul></ul><li>There are only three known A subtypes of human flu viruses </li><ul><li>H1N1, H1N2, and H3N2 </li></ul><li>Avian Influenza A (H5N1) virus </li><ul><li>also called “H5N1 virus” </li></ul></ul>
  23. 24. Human infections <ul><li>1918 deaths </li><ul><li>675,000 (USA)
  24. 25. 50 Million (World) </li></ul><li>1957 deaths </li><ul><li>70,000 deaths
  25. 26. 1-2 Million (World) </li></ul><li>1968 deaths </li><ul><li>34,000 (USA)
  26. 27. 700,000 (World) </li></ul><li>2005 </li><ul><li>34,000 deaths (USA)
  27. 28. 114,000 hospitalized </li></ul><li>2009 (Aug. 30 to Oct. 31) </li><ul><li>672 deaths (H1N1 only)
  28. 29. 17,838 hospitalized (H1N1 only) </li></ul></ul>
  29. 30. How influenza infects cells
  30. 31. Birds get the flu <ul><li>Only viruses of the H5 and H7 subtypes are known to cause the highly pathogenic form of the disease.
  31. 32. However, not all viruses of the H5 and H7 subtypes are highly pathogenic and not all will cause severe disease in poultry.
  32. 33. In fact, not all species respond the same way to all viruses! </li></ul>
  33. 34. How does it hurt birds?
  34. 35. Influenza virulence factors Strains of the H5N1 influenza A virus that are virulent in mammals, including mice and humans, have alterations in the sequences of any of three viral proteins hemagglutinin (HA), the viral polymerase protein PB2, and the nonstructural protein NS1. Influenza A virus has 8 genomic RNA strands and 10 proteins, as shown. CREDIT: P. HUEY/SCIENCE ( Science Magazine > 17 March 2006 > Krug , pp. 1562 - 1563)
  35. 36. Vaccination – Flu Shots
  36. 37. Target groups for vaccination <ul><li>Pregnant women,
  37. 38. People who live with or provide care for infants younger than 6 months (e.g., parents, siblings, and day care providers),
  38. 39. Health care and emergency medical services personnel,
  39. 40. People 6 months through 24 years of age (especially those with higher risk for influenza-related complications like children younger than 5 years and those who have high risk medical conditions), and,
  40. 41. People 25 years through 64 years of age who have certain medical conditions that put them at higher risk for influenza-related complications. </li></ul>
  41. 42. How are vaccines made? <ul><li>Inactivated or &quot;killed&quot; vaccines </li><ul><li>A chemical called formalin is used to kill the disease causing organism, but it still retain the antigen that triggers the body's immune response to create antibodies. Examples of this type of vaccine include the typhoid vaccine and the poliomyelitis vaccine. </li></ul><li>Acellular vaccines </li><ul><li>These vaccines use only the antigenic portion of the pathogen, such as its capsule, flagella, or protein cell wall. The Haemophilus influenzae B (HIB) vaccine is an example of an acellular vaccine. Since these vaccines don't produce a very strong immune response, they require a &quot;booster&quot; shot later on.. </li></ul><li>Attenuated vaccine </li><ul><li>This type uses a weakened form or the live disease causing organism and creates the strongest immune response. Examples of attenuated vaccines include the one for measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR). Immunity lasts a lifetime. </li></ul><li>Toxoid vaccine </li><ul><li>The diphtheria and tetanus vaccines are examples of this type of immunization. They are made by using the toxin produced by the pathogen and then reducing its harmful affects with an aluminum salt. Toxoids require periodic booster shots. </li></ul><li>Mimics </li><ul><li>The vaccine for deadly smallpox was created this way by using the similar, but far less virulent, cowpox. In this instance, the immune response to the similar organism is enough to provide immunity. </li></ul><li>Subunit vaccines </li><ul><li>This recombinant DNA technology method of vaccine creation uses the genes of the pathogen that code for the parts of the organism that produce the strongest immune response. The genes are inserted into bacteria or yeast, which mass produce the desired proteins. These pathogenic but non-disease causing molecules can then be isolated, purified and used to produce the vaccine. The Hepatitis B vaccine is created this way. </li></ul></ul>
  42. 43. 2009 H1N1 'special' vaccine <ul><li>H1N1 &quot;flu shot&quot; </li><ul><li>An inactivated vaccine (containing killed virus) that is given with a needle, usually in the arm. </li><ul><li>The flu shot is approved for use in people 6 months of age and older, including healthy people, people with chronic medical conditions and pregnant women.
  43. 44. The same manufacturers who produce seasonal flu shots are producing 2009 H1N1 flu shots for use in the United States this season.
  44. 45. The 2009 H1N1 flu shot is being made in the same way that the seasonal flu shot is made. </li></ul></ul><li>H1N1 nasal spray flu vaccine </li><ul><li>This vaccine is made with live, weakened viruses that do not cause the flu (sometimes called LAIV for &quot;live attenuated influenza vaccine&quot;). </li><ul><li>LAIV is approved for use in healthy * people 2 years to 49 years of age who are not pregnant.
  45. 46. The nasal spray vaccine for use in the United States is being made by MedImmune, the same company that makes the seasonal nasal spray vaccine called “FluMist®.”
  46. 47. The 2009 H1N1 nasal spray vaccine is being made in the same way as the seasonal nasal spray vaccine. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  47. 48. Neuraminidase inhibition (Tamiflu© )
  48. 49. Pay no attention (to the man behind the screen ... ) <ul><li>http://www.avoidbirdflu.com/
  49. 50. http://www.masks-for-bird-flu.com/symptoms.html
  50. 51. http://www.survivetheflu.com/nanomask.html
  51. 52. http://www.healthiernews.net/ppc/avianflu.cfm?kw=XVVEA029
  52. 53. http://www.youmustprepare.com/?hop=dazzler </li></ul>