POLITICAL PARTIES OF AUSTRALIA By Grace Zhou, Leila Cao and Gabriela Fabri
What is a political party? <ul><li>A political party is an organisation that has been set up to gain political power within government. They present candidates with the intent of their being elected in a federal, provincial, territorial or municipal election. </li></ul>
History of the Labor party… <ul><li>The Australian Labor Party (ALP), is Australia’s oldest political party. The ALP is the only party to have survived since the early 1900s. The party was first formed in 1891 supposedly by a group of farmers in Queensland, due to the beginnings of the trade union movements in the 1880s. The increasing numbers of trade workers in the mines and in the bush began to demand a voice in Australia and the Labor party’s support grew. The first success of the Labor party was in June-July 1981, where the Labor Electoral League won 35 of 141 seats in the Assembly winning a balance of power between the free trade and protectionist parties. In the 1893 election in Queensland, Labor won 16 of the 72 seats in the Assembly. In December 1899, the Queensland Labor Party was led by Anderson Dawson, who made history by forming the first elected Labor Government in the world even without the majority of parliament. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1904 Chris Watson became the first Labor Prime Minister in Australia and in the world. Andrew Fisher, replaced him in 1908 and in the federal election of 1910, Fisher and the Labor party became Australia’s first federal majority government, holding Australia’s first senate majority and became the world’s first Labor majority government. </li></ul>
Former Labor Prime Ministers… <ul><li>Since 1910 there have been 9 Labor Prime Ministers of Australia: </li></ul><ul><li>Chris Watson in 1904, </li></ul><ul><li>Andrew Fisher in 1908 </li></ul><ul><li>Billy Hughes in 1915, </li></ul><ul><li>James Scullin in 1929 </li></ul><ul><li>John Curtin in 1941 </li></ul><ul><li>Ben Chifley in 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>Gough Whitlam in 1972 </li></ul><ul><li>Bob Hawke in 1983 </li></ul><ul><li>Paul Keating in 1991 </li></ul><ul><li>Kevin Rudd in 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Julia Gillard in 2010. </li></ul>
Ideology of the Labour party... <ul><li>During the early 1900s, Labor has supported high tariffs and low tariffs, conscription, pacifism, White Australia and multiculturalism, nationalism and privatisation and isolationism and internationalism. Their views and ideologies have changed as time has progressed. The modern Labor party is commonly described as a social democratic party and has been largely influenced by trade unions and workers throughout the years. In the course of history four main ideologies have come out through their policies namely socialism, liberalism, pragmatism and ‘laborism’. </li></ul>
<ul><li>By Grace Zhou, Gabriela Fabri and Leila Cao </li></ul>The Liberal Party
History of the Liberal Party… <ul><li>The Liberal Party of Australia was formed on October 16 th , 1944 after the first conference held in Canberra. The three-day meeting was held near Parliament House and called by the Leader of the Opposition at the time, Sir Robert Menzies. 80 politicians from 18 non-Labor parties united to oppose Labor’s beliefs and policies and provide the Australian people with an alternative government. </li></ul><ul><li>The Liberal Party comprised of various conservative political parties, predominantly the United Australia Party but also included the Australian Women’s National League and the Young Nationalists. The new Liberal Party was first elected to federal government in 1949 and Menzies continued to rule Australia for 17 years until he retired in 1966, becoming Australia’s longest serving Prime Minister. </li></ul>
Former Liberal Prime Ministers… <ul><li>1949 – 1966: Sir Robert Menzies </li></ul><ul><li>1966 – 1967: Harold Holt </li></ul><ul><li>1968 – 1971: Sir John Gorton </li></ul><ul><li>1971 – 1972: Sir William McMahon </li></ul><ul><li>1975 – 1983: Malcolm Fraser </li></ul><ul><li>1996 – 2007: John Howard </li></ul><ul><li>The Liberal Party has developed into the most successful post-war party. </li></ul>
Ideology… <ul><li>Conservative liberalism (centre right) </li></ul><ul><li>Greater freedoms, rights and choices for citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Individual ownership of private properties, organisations and businesses </li></ul><ul><li>Support for the market economy </li></ul><ul><li>Encouragement for personal profit, wealth and employment </li></ul><ul><li>Achieving high standards of health, education and trade </li></ul><ul><li>Creating a sustainable environment </li></ul><ul><li>Strict law and order policies </li></ul><ul><li>Freedom of speech and a democratic government </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining world peace and relationships with other nations </li></ul>
The Green movement emerged from many environmental campaigns in Tasmania. This movement held many campaigns including trying to prevent the flooding of Lake Pedder and preventing the construction of the Franklin Dam in Tasmania. The Green gained their first federal parliamentary representative, Josephine Vallentine in 1984, and by the 2001 elections, a green representative was elected as a Senator for Tasmania. In 2002, the Greens won a House of Representatives seat – Michael Organ-finally defining the Green movement as more than just a single-issue environmental party. After the 2001 elections, the Green party was seen as the third most popular party in Australia, with votes rising due to the growing global environmental awareness. The Green History
<ul><li>Ecological Sustainability </li></ul><ul><li>Limiting the levels of pollution in the atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Seeking a way to build the economy on green principles rather than short-term self interests </li></ul><ul><li>Taking care of our resources and saving them </li></ul><ul><li>Grassroots Participatory democracy </li></ul><ul><li>- The Greens involve members to help make key decisions and motivate people to make a difference </li></ul><ul><li>Social Justice </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on eliminating extreme inequality in Australia and across the world </li></ul><ul><li>Alleviation of poverty should be the priority </li></ul><ul><li>Trying to solve many crimes, discrimination, disease and poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Peace and non-violence </li></ul><ul><li>Australia’s foreign policy should be based on dialogue, diplomacy and cooperation </li></ul><ul><li>Preventing counter violence </li></ul><ul><li>Managing connections locally, nationally and internationally </li></ul>The Green Ideology
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