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Metternich

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one of the finest king in history

one of the finest king in history

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  • 1. Causes of Metternich Downfall
  • 2. Introduction • Like all great leaders in history, Metternich, after soaring to the heights of the power and splendor fell. • The Causes of his downfall were as follows:
  • 3. The War of Greek Independence (1821-1829)  The Revolutions of 1830  The Revolution of 1848
  • 4. The War of Greek Independence (1821-1829)
  • 5. • In the 18th century the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) was in the process of disintegration. Greeks were the subject peoples who aspired to regain their lost freedom. • There were a number of advocates of Greek nationalism like Korais and Rhigas.
  • 6. Korais (1748-1833) a patriotic writer who awakened Greek pride in Hellenic Culture and language.
  • 7. Rhigas (1760-1794) the secretary of Prince Alexander Ypsilanti, the Greek governor of Wallachia.
  • 8. Hetairia Philike o their followers founded this kind of revolutionary society in the Russian society of Odessa in 1814. o purpose: emanate Greece from Turkish bondage. o Association of Friends
  • 9. Prince Alexander Ypsilanti in January 1821, he led the Greek revolt in Moldavia. this revolt was suppressed by the Ottoman Turks. the unfortunate libertarian leader, was imprisoned in Austria by order of Metternich.
  • 10.  but the failure in Moldavia did not stop the Greek patriots. April 22, 1821 • Archbishop Germanos, a Greek prelate-patriot, raised the flag of revolution in Morea in southern Greece. • The war of Greek Independence began.
  • 11. What do you think the Greek War of Independence shaped the minds of people?
  • 12.  it awakened the imagination of Christian Europe. lovers of freedom everywhere saw in it the heroic struggle of gallant people for liberty. volunteers from all countries flocked to the Greek standard. Lord Byron, contributed his pen and life for the Greek cause.
  • 13. “rebels” • Metternich, in defiance of public opinion in Europe, refused to aid the Greek patriots. • he regarded the Greeks as “rebels” • but he could not long check the avalanche of popular sentiment in favor of Christian Greece. • France, England and Russia, supported the Greek cause.
  • 14. • their combined fleets destroyed the Turco-Egyptian navy at the Battle of Navarino (1827).
  • 15. • a French army drove the Turks out of Morea. • the Russians aided by the Serbs, routed the Turks in the Balkans and marched toward the Constantinople. • the sultan signed the Treaty of Adrianople in 1829.
  • 16. • This was erected to grant: ¤ independence to Greece ¤ autonomy to Servia, Moldavia and Wallachia (Danubean Principalities) ¤ Russian consular jurusdiction over Russian traders in Turkey
  • 17. The Revolutions of 1830 ö weakened Metternich’s influence ö these revolutions were directed against the autocratic rulers ö in France, Charles X enraged his subjects by dissolving the Chamber of Deputies and restricting their constitutional rights.
  • 18. ö The French patriots rose in revolution in July 1830 and drove him to England. Charles X * was the last Bourbon King of France. * He abdicated in his favor of his little grandson, the Count of Chamboard. * the successful revolutionist ignored the little count and established a little monarchy with Louis Philippe (Duke of Orleans) as king. * “Orleans Monarchy” (1830-48)
  • 19. Louis Philippe Charles X
  • 20. July Revolution
  • 21. • 1830, in France spread to other countries • the Belgians rose against their Dutch king and proclaimed their independence in October 1830. • Belgium was recognized as an independent state by the London agreement of 1831 with Leopold of Saxe-Coburg as constitutional king
  • 22. Leopold of Saxe-Coburg
  • 23. The German states: Hanover Hesse-Cassel Saxony Brunswick followed the example of France and Belgium. They won some constitutional concessions from their rulers.
  • 24. Revolutionary outbreaks also flared up in Italy: Naples Piedmont Modena Parma Papal stated they were unsuccessful because Metternich sent Austrian troops to crush insurrections.
  • 25. • In 1831, the Poles also roles in arms against Russian rule. They fought valiantly, but were defeated by the Russian forces sent by Czar Nicholas I. Czar Nicholas I
  • 26. The Revolutions of 1848
  • 27. started in France 1848, when King Louis Philippe’s soldiers fired upon demonstrating students in Paris.  enraged by this atrocity, the people rose in arms shouting: “Long Live the Republic!”  frightened Louis Philippe abdicated in his favor of his grandson, the Count of Paris. The victorious revolutionists established the Second French Republic (1848-1852)
  • 28. Louis Napoleon Bonaparte, nephew of Napoleon the Great,was elected the the President of the Republic.
  • 29. Louis Kossuth  1848  Magyar leader led the libertarian struggle against the Russian czar and established the Republic of Hungary which lasted only for five months.  Beaten in Battle, fled to US.
  • 30. The End of Metternich’s Era • On March 13,1848 Metternich called out the guards to disperse the rebels, but they refused. • The rebels stormed the emperor’s palace, demanding the dismissal of Prince Metternich.
  • 31. • He resigned at his office. • March 14. he and his wife quietly departed for London. • his beautiful palace was sacked and burned by angry populace. • His downfall ended the era in absolutism in Europe • He failed to destroy the democratic legacies of the French Revolution.