• In the 18th century the Ottoman
Empire (Turkey) was in the process
Greeks were the subject
peoples who aspired to regain their
• There were a number of advocates
of Greek nationalism like Korais
Greek pride in
Greek governor of
o their followers founded this kind
of revolutionary society in the
Russian society of Odessa in 1814.
o purpose: emanate Greece from
o Association of Friends
Prince Alexander Ypsilanti
in January 1821,
he led the Greek
revolt in Moldavia.
this revolt was
suppressed by the
was imprisoned in
Austria by order of
but the failure in Moldavia did not
stop the Greek patriots.
April 22, 1821
• Archbishop Germanos, a Greek
prelate-patriot, raised the flag of
revolution in Morea in southern
• The war of Greek Independence
What do you think the Greek War
of Independence shaped the
minds of people?
it awakened the imagination of
lovers of freedom everywhere saw in it
the heroic struggle of gallant people
volunteers from all countries flocked
to the Greek standard.
Lord Byron, contributed his pen and
life for the Greek cause.
• Metternich, in defiance of public opinion
in Europe, refused to aid the Greek
• he regarded the Greeks as “rebels”
• but he could not long check the
avalanche of popular sentiment in favor
of Christian Greece.
• France, England and Russia, supported
the Greek cause.
• their combined fleets destroyed the
Turco-Egyptian navy at the Battle of
• a French army drove the Turks out of Morea.
• the Russians aided by the Serbs, routed the
Turks in the Balkans and marched toward the
• the sultan signed the Treaty of Adrianople in
• This was erected to grant:
¤ independence to Greece
¤ autonomy to Servia, Moldavia and
Wallachia (Danubean Principalities)
¤ Russian consular jurusdiction over
Russian traders in Turkey
The Revolutions of 1830
ö weakened Metternich’s influence
ö these revolutions were directed
against the autocratic rulers
ö in France, Charles X enraged his
subjects by dissolving the Chamber of
Deputies and restricting their
ö The French patriots rose in revolution in
July 1830 and drove him to England.
* was the last Bourbon King of France.
* He abdicated in his favor of his little
grandson, the Count of Chamboard.
* the successful revolutionist ignored the
little count and established a little
monarchy with Louis Philippe (Duke of
Orleans) as king.
* “Orleans Monarchy” (1830-48)
• 1830, in France spread to other
• the Belgians rose against their Dutch
king and proclaimed their
independence in October 1830.
• Belgium was recognized as an
independent state by the London
agreement of 1831 with Leopold of
Saxe-Coburg as constitutional king
started in France 1848, when King Louis
Philippe’s soldiers fired upon
demonstrating students in Paris.
enraged by this atrocity, the people rose
in arms shouting: “Long Live the
frightened Louis Philippe abdicated in
his favor of his grandson, the Count of
The victorious revolutionists established
the Second French Republic (1848-1852)
Magyar leader led the
libertarian struggle against
the Russian czar and
established the Republic of
Hungary which lasted only
for five months.
Beaten in Battle, fled to
The End of Metternich’s Era
• On March 13,1848 Metternich called
out the guards to disperse the rebels,
but they refused.
• The rebels stormed the emperor’s
palace, demanding the dismissal of
• He resigned at his
• March 14. he and his
wife quietly departed for
• his beautiful palace was
sacked and burned by
• His downfall ended the
era in absolutism in
• He failed to destroy the
democratic legacies of
the French Revolution.