CzechoslovakiaSocialist RepublicČeskoslovenskásocialistická republika
Official Names1918 - 1920: Republic ofCzechoslovakia (abbreviated RČS)/Czecho-Slovak State or Czecho-Slovakia/Czechoslovakia.1920 - 1938: Czechoslovak Republic (ČSR), orCzechoslovakia.1938 - 1939: Czecho-Slovak Republic, orCzecho-Slovakia.1945 - 1960: Czechoslovak Republic (ČSR), orCzechoslovakia.
Official Names1960 - 1990: Czechoslovak SocialistRepublic (ČSSR), or Czechoslovakia.April 1990: Czechoslovak FederalRepublic (Czech version) and Czecho-Slovak Federative Republic (Slovak version).The country subsequently became the Czechand Slovak Federal Republic ČSFR, orČeskoslovensko (Czech version) and Česko-Slovensko (Slovak version).
InformationMotto"Pravda vítězí" (Czech)"Truth prevails―.Constitution= 9 May 1948Czech and Slovak Federal Republicestablished= March 1989Capital: PragueLanguage: Czech and SlovakGovernment: Single-party Marxist-Leninistfederal republicCurrency :Czechoslovak koruna
InformationThe Czechoslovak SocialistRepublic (Czech/Slovak: Československásocialistická republika) was the official nameof Czechoslovakia from 1960 until shortly afterthe Velvet Revolution in 1989. It wasa Soviet satellite state of theEastern Bloc.Following the coup détat of February 1948,when the Communist Party ofCzechoslovakia seized power with the backingof the Soviet Union, the country was declareda peoples republic after the Ninth-of-MayConstitution became effective.
The traditional name Československárepublika (Czechoslovak Republic) waschanged on 11 July 1960 followingimplementation of the 1960 Constitution ofCzechoslovakia as a symbol of the "final victoryof socialism" in the country, and remained sountil the Velvet Revolution in Czechoslovakia.It is a sovereign state in CentralEurope which existed from October 1918, whenit declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until 1992.Information
From 1939 to 1945, the state did not defacto exist because of its forced division andpartial incorporation into Nazi Germany, buttheCzechoslovak government-in-exile operated independently during thisperiod.1 January 1993,Czechoslovakia peacefully split intothe Czech Republic and Slovakia.Information
Basic CharacteristicsForm of state:1918 - 1938: A democratic republic.1938 - 1939: After annexation of Sudetenlandby Germany in 1938, the region gradually turnedinto a state with loosened connections among theCzech, Slovak, and Ruthenian parts1939 - 1945: The region split intothe Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia andthe Slovak Republic. A government-in-exilecontinued to exist in London, supported by theUnited Kingdom, United States and its Allies;after German invasion of Russia, it was alsorecognised by the USSR.
Basic Characteristics1946 - 1948: The country was governedby a coalition governmentwithCommunist ministers, with the primeminister and the minister ofinterior.Carpathian Ruthenia was cededto the USSR.1948 - 1989: The country becamea communist state with acentrally planned economy. In 1960, thecountry officially became asocialistrepublic.
Basic Characteristics1969 - 1990: The federal republicconsisted of the Czech SocialistRepublic and the Slovak SocialistRepublic.1990 - 1992: The federal democraticrepublic consisted of the CzechRepublic and the Slovak Republic.
TopographyThe country was of generally irregular terrain. Thewestern area was part of north-central Europeanuplands. The eastern region was composed ofnorthern reaches of CarpathianMountains and Danube River basin lands.ClimateThe weather was predominantly continental, butvaried from the moderate temperature of WesternEurope in the west, to more severe weatherof Eastern Europe and the western Soviet Unionin the east.
FormationBefore the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia, in1943, Czechoslovakian leader in exile EdvardBeneš agreed to Soviet leader Joseph Stalinsdemands for unconditional agreement with Sovietforeign policy and the Beneš decrees.While Beneš was not a Moscow cadre andseveral domestic reforms of other Eastern Bloccountries were not part Beneš plan,Stalin did not object because the plan includedproperty expropriation and he was satisfied withthe relative strength of communists inCzechoslovakia compared to other Eastern Bloccountries.
In April 1945, the Third Republic was formed,led by a National Front of six parties. Becauseof the Communist Party of Czechoslovakiasstrength (they held 114 of 300 seats) andBeneš loyalty, the Kremlin did not requireBloc politics or "reliable" cadres inCzechoslovakian power positions, and theexecutive and legislative branches retainedtheir traditional structures.The Communists were the big winners inthe 1946 elections--one of only two freeelections ever held in the Soviet bloc.
Klement Gottwald, leader of the KSČ,became Prime Minister ofCzechoslovakia.the Soviet Union was disappointedthat the government failed to eliminate"bourgeois" influence in the army,expropriate industrialists and largelandowners and eliminate partiesoutside of the "National Front―.
in September 1947, RudolfSlánský returned to Prague with a plan forthe final seizure of power,including the StBs elimination of partyenemies and purging of dissidentsOn 25 February 1948, Beneš, fearful of civilwar and Soviet intervention, capitulated andappointed a Communist-dominatedgovernment who was sworn in two dayslater.
Foreign Minister Jan Masaryk, theonly prominent minister still left whowasnt either a Communist or fellowtraveler, was found dead two weekslater.On 30 May, a single list of candidatesfrom the National Front—now anorganization dominated by theCommunists—was elected to theNational Assembly.
After passage of the Ninth-of-MayConstitution on 9 June 1948, thecountry became a Peoples Republicuntil 1960.On 11 July 1960, the 1960Constitution of Czechoslovakia waspromulgated, changing the name ofthe country from the "CzechoslovakRepublic" to the "CzechoslovakSocialist Republic".
Eastern Bloc refers to the former communist states of Centraland Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union andthe countries of the Warsaw Pact. States of the Eastern Bloc Peoples Republic of Hungary Peoples Republic of Poland Czechoslovak Socialist Republic Romanian Peoples Republic /Socialist Republic of Romania German Democratic Republic (East Germany) Peoples Republic of Albania (to 1961) Peoples Republic of Bulgaria Federal Peoples Republic ofYugoslavia (to 1948)
HistoryCzechoslovakia was characterized by theabsence of democracy andcompetitiveness with the WesternEuropean nations as part of the Cold War.In the religious sphere, atheism wasofficially promoted and taught. In 1969, thecountry became a federation of the CzechSocialist Republic and Slovak SocialistRepublic.
Under the federation, social and economicinequities between the Czech and Slovakhalves of the state were largely eliminated.the centralized political control by theCommunist Party severely limited the effectsof federalization.1970s saw the rise ofthe dissident movement in Czechoslovakia,represented (among others) by Václav Havel.The movement sought greater politicalparticipation and expression in the face ofofficial disapproval.
In late 1989, the country became ademocratic country again throughthe Velvet Revolution.In 1992, the federal parliamentdecided to dissolve the country intothe Czech Republic and Slovakia as of1 January 1993.
Velvet Revolution orGentle Revolutionwas a non-violentrevolution in Czechoslovakia that took placefrom November 17 to December 29, 1989.Dominated by student and other populardemonstrations against the one-partygovernment of the Communist Party ofCzechoslovakia, it saw to the collapse of thepartys control of the country, and thesubsequent conversion fromCzech socialism to parliamentary republic.
Administrative divisions1960–1992: 10 regions[kraje], Prague, and (since1970) Bratislava; divided in 109–114districts [okresy]; the kraje wereabolished temporarily in Slovakia in1969–1970 and for many functionssince 1991 in Czechoslovakia;two republics Czech SocialistRepublic and Slovak Socialist Republicwere established in 1969.
PoliticsThe Communist Party ofCzechoslovakia (KSČ) led initially by FirstSecretary Klement Gottwald, held amonopoly on politics.Following the 1948 Tito-Stalin split andthe Berlin Blockade, increased party purgesoccurred throughout the Eastern Bloc,including a purge of 550,000 party membersof the KSČ, which comprised 30% of itsmembers .Approximately 130,000 peoplewere sent to prisons, labor camps and mines.
Antonín Novotny servedas First Secretary of the KSČfrom 1953 to 1968Gustáv Husák was elected firstsecretary of KSČ in 1969(changed to general secretaryin 1971) and president ofCzechoslovakia in 1975
Other parties and organizationsexisted but functioned in subordinateroles to KSČ. All political parties, aswell as numerous mass organizations,were grouped under the umbrella ofNational Front of the CzechoslovakSocialist Republic.Human rights activists and religiousactivists were severely repressed.
Economya centrally planned command economy withlinks controlled by the communist party,similar to theSoviet Union.Large metallurgical industry, but wasdependent on imports for iron andnonferrous ores.Like the rest of the Eastern Bloc, producergoods were favored over consumer goods,causing consumer goods to be lacking inquantity and quality.
Investments made in industry did notyield the results expected, andconsumption of energy and rawmaterials was excessive.Czechoslovak leaders themselvesdecried the economys failure tomodernize with sufficient speed.
Industry: Extractive and manufacturingindustries dominated sector. Majorbranches included machinery, chemicals,food processing, metallurgy, and textiles.Industry was wasteful of energy, materials,and labor and slow to upgrade technology,but was a source of high-quality machineryand arms for other communist countries.Agriculture: Minor sector butsupplied bulk of food needs.Dependent on large imports ofgrains (mainly for livestock feed)in years of adverse weather.Meat production constrained byshortage of feed, but high percapita consumption of meat.
55% was machinery,14% fuels and materials, and16% manufactured consumergoods.Imports at estimatedUS$17.9 billion in 1985, of which41% was fuels and materials, 33%machinery, and 12% agriculturaland forestry products. In 1986,about 80% of foreign trade waswith communist countries.The exchange rate onthe black market wasaround Kcs 30 perUS$1, and this ratebecame the officialone once thecurrency becameconvertible in theearly 1990s.
Fiscal Year: Calendar year.Fiscal Policy: State almost exclusiveowner of means of production.Revenues from state enterprisesprimary source of revenues followedby turnover tax.Large budget expenditures on socialprograms, subsidies, and investments.Budget usually balanced or smallsurplus.
Resource BaseAfter World War II, the country wasshort on energy, relying on importedcrude oil and natural gas from theSoviet Union, domestic brown coal,and nuclear and hydroelectric energy.Energy constraints were a majorfactor in 1980s.
ReligionIn 1991:Roman Catholics 46.4%,Evangelic Lutheran 5.3%,Atheist 29.5%, n/a 16.7%,but there were huge differencesbetween the 2 constituent republics.
Health, social welfare and housingAfter World War II:free health care was available to all citizensNational health planning emphasizedpreventive medicinefactory and local health-care centerssupplemented hospitals and other inpatientinstitutionsSubstantial improvement in rural health carein 1960s and 1970s.
Mass mediaThe mass media in Czechoslovakia was controlled bythe Communist Party of Czechoslovakia (KSČ). Privateownership of any publication or agency of the mass mediawas generally forbidden.
International agreements andmembershipCouncil for Mutual EconomicAssistance (Comecon)Warsaw Pact,United Nationits specialized agenciesNon-Aligned Movement; signatoryof conference on Security andCooperation in Europe.
Warsaw PactAPRIL 1985, the general secretaries of thecommunist and workers parties of the SovietUnion, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, the GermanDemocratic Republic (East Germany), Hungary,Poland, and Romania gathered in Warsaw to signa protocol extending the effective term of the1955 Treaty on Friendship, Cooperation, andMutual Assistance, which originally establishedthe Soviet-led political-military alliance inEastern Europe.Their action ensured will remain part of theinternational political and military landscapewell into the future.
PRAGUE, Czechoslovakia—Warsaw Pactinvasion Prague, Aug. 21, 1968.
Historical Sites From Napoleonic battlefields tomedieval castles, grand monumentsto touching memorials, the HistoricSites in Czech Republic tell the storyof a land with a diverse history.
The Prague Castleis the largestmedieval castlecomplex.Today, it is listed inthe Guinness Bookof World Recordsfor being one of theworld’s biggestcastles.
AusterlitzBattlefield was thesite of the Battle ofAusterlitz, alsoknown as theBattle of the ThreeEmperors, whichtook place on 2December 1805and saw NapoleonBonaparte’s armydecisively defeatthe combinedforces of theRussian andAustrian empires.
Lobkowicz Palace(Lobkowiczkypalac) is one of themuseums ofPrague Castle andalmost certainlyone of its mostpopular sites.It is named afterthe affluent andinfluentialLobkowicz family,to whomLobkowicz Palacepassed not longafter it was built inthe mid-sixteenthcentury.
Charles Bridge (KarluvMost) is an iconicbridge in Prague thatcrosses the riverVltava.Bridge began duringthe reign of Charles IVin 1357 to replace theJudita Bridge whichhad been damaged by aflood in 1342. known as―Stone Bridge‖ was theonly means the ofcrossing the river, avital connectionbetween Prague Castleand the Old Town and atrade route.
The CommunismMuseum (MuzeumKomunismu) of Pragueshowcases the historyof what wasCzechoslovakia - andparticularly Prague -under the communistregime from 1948 to1989.
Koniggratz Battlefieldand the Chlum Museumcommemorate the 1866Battle of Königgrätzbetween Prussia andAustria.The decisive encounterof the war, the Battle ofKöniggrätz, or battle ofHradec Králové, sawPrussian forces defeatthose of the AustrianEmpire, inflictingsignificant casualtieson the Austrian army.This momentousPrussian victory helpedpave the way for futureGerman unification.
The Old Jewish Cemetery in Prague isthe final resting place of many leadingfigures of the city’s Jewish community.
The AstronomicalClock at PragueOld Town Hallwas made byMikuláš of Kadaňand ProfessorJan Šindel in1410, with thecalendar dial andgothicdecorationspresumed tohave been addednear the end ofthe century.
St George’s Basilica is a tenth century church richwith Baroque, Romanesque and Bohemianarchitectural elements located in the Prague Castlecomplex. Toriginally built in 920 AD by Prince VratislavI, St George’s Basilica only retains the foundationsfrom this period.
St NicholasChurch inPrague was aJesuit churchbuilt between1673 and 1752to replace thethirteenthcentury Parishof St Nicholas.
TheresienstadtConcentration Camp inTerezin in the CzechRepublic was a Naziconcentration campduring theHolocaust.Originallyknown as TerezinFortress built in theeighteenth century toprotect Prague from thepossibility of invasion byPrussia. It then became aprison in the 1880’sbefore being taken overduring the Nazioccupation of the thenCzechoslovakia in WorldWar Two.
Wenceslas Square (Vaclavske Namesti) is a shoppingboulevard in the centre of Prague which haswitnessed centuries of historical events.Established as a horse market and in fact named―Horse Market‖ or ―Koňský trh‖ in the fourteenthcentury during the reign of King Charles IV
The Old-NewSynagogue inPrague isEurope’s oldestsynagogue to stillhold servicestoday.Built inapproximately1270, it wasinitially called the―New Shul‖ (shulmeaningsynagogue), todistinguish it fromothers in the city
Thank You so Much forlistening!Reporter: Tipan, GeromeMikhail C. BSED III
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