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Motivation presentation

  1. 1. MOTIVATIONGeoff Brown, Gabby Martel, & Dianna Petrie
  2. 2. INTRODUCTIONSometimes we are motivated enough to embark on a 30 minute expedition to DairyQueen for our favourite ice cream, but yet really want to engage in a 30 minute workoutand fail to do so. We want both of these things, so why do we find the time to do one andnot the other? How can we train ourselves and others to make different decisions, andcreate desire strong enough to materialize into action? These are the questions we hopeto answer in this presentation and we hope you will come away with the ability to inspireboth yourself and others.
  3. 3. TABLE OF CONTENTS Section #1 What is Motivation? ―Leadership is, by definition, involving and motivating other Section #2 What Drives Us? people as well as oneself. Leader Section #3 Motivation Influencers competence is about inspiring others to perform at high levels Section #4 Additional Strategies by solving problems and seizing Section #5 Reflection opportunities.‖ (Bateman, 2011, 71) Section #6 References END
  4. 4. WHAT IS MOTIVATION?DefinitionAccording to DuBrin (2011)A ―concept with two widely used meanings: (1) an internal state that leads to effortexpended toward objectives and (2) an activity performed by one person to getanother to accomplish work‖ (p. 346).According to Sandri (2011)―Motivation often is described in terms of direction (the choice of one activity overanother), intensity (how hard an employee tries) and persistence (how long anemployee continues with a behavior, even in the face of obstacles or adversecircumstances)‖ (p. 45). Table of Contents
  5. 5. WHAT DRIVES USIt‘s 3am, a college student has an exam in the morning and she‘s binge drinkingcoffee just to stay awake to accomplish a few more hours of studying.• What drives her to choose studying over sleep?• Why is studying more important than sleep?• Why didn‘t she spend more time studying earlier?Motives can often be quite complex, but understanding our fundamental drives canhelp us understand both ourselves and others, and using this knowledge can help ussteer motivations in the right direction. Table of Contents
  6. 6. WHAT DRIVES US? Types of Motivation - Deci & Ryan, 2000 Amotivation • ―I don‘t want to do this‖ All motivation is not equal.reward/punish me for doing/not External •“Someone will As you read through this slide thinksoaboutto” two Regulation doing this, I want theExtrinsic examples outlined―Someone will praise me forversusI want to do it” Introjection • so far: ice cream this, soMotivation Identification and sleep versus studying. for me to do” a workout, •“I want to do it because it is valuable Which type of motivation do it because it is part of how I define Integration • ―I want to would each choice myself‖ fall under? Intrinsic • ―I do it because I enjoy it‖ Motivation These levels of motivation are listed in order of their perceived locus of causality from external to internal. For many important things we often strive to nurture intrinsic motivation, but this type of motivation by definition is created by the subject and not by external influences. Table of Contents
  7. 7. WHAT DRIVES US Maslow‘s Hierarchy of Needs – Maslow, 1943People will satisfy these needs in theorder of this diagram. Once eachneed is generally satisfied we move Self-on to satisfy the next. Actualization Esteem Need Need • One‘s need to • Self-fulfillment Love/ be viewed by and personal Belonging others as someone with development Needs needs self worth Safety Need • Needs related • Physical safety to one‘s and feeling safe interactions from physical and with othersPhysiological emotional harmNeed• Bodily needs Table of Contents
  8. 8. or maybe weWHAT DRIVES US just don‘t appreciate theExpectancy Theory – Vroom, 1964 end reward enough.This is the belief that… But sometimes we don’t put in the effort. Let‘s Reward Effort Goal think about why we would do you you can and then if you put in effort… that. achieve your goal… will be rewarded. Maybe we don‘t or maybe we feel that we don‘t feel we will can/will achieve be rewarded for the goal… achieving the Table of Contents goal…
  9. 9. MOTIVATION INFLUENCERS• We‘ve now looked at what drives us to do the things we do.• In this next section we will be looking at how we can apply these concepts to consciously drive our own and others‘ motives. Table of Contents
  10. 10. MOTIVATION INFLUENCERS In the nextwedecide what type of motivation we motivation. influence… First let‘s know thatbe discussingextrinsically motivate,want tocut down our choices… Because slides we will we want to strategies for building we can As you read through, think about which types of motivation are being harnessed. Amotivation • ―I don‘t want to do this‖ External • “Someone will reward/punish me for Regulation •“Someone will reward/punish so Ifor doing/not External doing/not doing this, me want to” Regulation doing this, so I want to” • ―Someone will praise me for this, so I Introjection • ―Someone will praise me for this, so I want to do it” IntrojectionExtrinsic want to do it”Motivation Identification •“I want to do it because it is valuable for me to do” • “I want to do it because it is valuable for Identification • ―I want to to do” me do it because it is part of how I define Integration myself‖ • ―I want to do it because it is part of how Integration Intrinsic Motivation I define myself‖ • ―I do it because I enjoy it‖ Table of Contents
  11. 11. MOTIVATION INFLUENCERSAppeal to one‘s motivesEXAMPLES (click blue buttons below)• Tuition reimbursement Recognition and praiseprograms Building good teams salaries that Providing salary or wages wages and• Paid employees cards Provide business to and social Relationship buildinghumanitarian allowsabbaticals for environment A comfortable work provide safe• cause societies Createor supports home and food goal Free foodlifelong or prestige clubs• Create partnerships benefits for for employees Company bbqs, retreats, work-life Health and disability with clubs, Allowing and recognizing nonprofit• organizations Titles, promotions, opportunities mentoring employees and their break balance programs, family rooms.• Match employees for advancement Retirement plans donations to• charitable assistance programs Personal organizations Employeeparking spaces• Employee of the month Self-• Career development Esteem Actualization• Community recognition Need Need Love/ • Self- • One‘s Belonging fulfillment need to be Needs and Safety Need viewed by • Needs others as personal • Physical related to developmen safety and someone Physiological one‘s with self t needs feeling safe interaction Need from physical s with worth • Bodily needs and others emotional Table of Contents harm
  12. 12. MOTIVATION INFLUENCERS Expectancy Theory To summarize, when Develop competence (Bateman, 2011) Relevance (Pierce, Cameron, Banko, • Train and develop others via workshops, case studies, and Effort Goal Reward setting goals and & So, 2003; McShane, 2004) Instrumentality belief (Kover & both on and off the job. challenges that stretch people, Worrell, 2010) • People enjoy the feeling of competence in the things that they do, • Know who you are assigning goals and especially when these things are perceived to be more difficult. • Rewards don‘t need to be tangible. If you put in you can Effort and then you rewards always rewards for, and ensure that these are relevant • Communicate to others that something is important for them to that/those person/people. Build confidence anditself-efficacy (Dubrin, 2011) some meaningful to know because will be useful for them in Goal effort… achieve your will be way. Reward remember Vroom, Value (McShane, 2004; to… goal… rewarded. • Take inventory of personal assets and accomplishments •Improve reward effectiveness (Pierce, Develop competence1 - Link effort to achieving 1964) •Cameron, Banko, & So, 2003; McShane, 2004) Use positive self-talk and avoid negative self-talk • Use positive visual imagery • Ensure rewards are given to the intended levelreward • Set high expectations for yourself and strive for peak performance • Value is equivalent for the perceived ofgoals you can and then you If you put in • performance. by the perceived effort. subtracted Bounce back from setbacks and embarrassments2 - Link goals toeffort… a reward achieve team rewards for interdependentcomes out positive • Use your • Watch out forgoals (Deci &equationbe Make sure your will jobs. Always ensure the consequences. • appropriate unintended goal… are not promotingRyan,practices. Set rewarded. by understanding perceptions. & rewards 2008) Steinmayr, bad 1985; Spinath3 - Ensure the reward is • Working at the optimum level of difficulty facilitates the most motivation. Things too easy are boring, and things to hard areworth the effort discouraging. Table of Contents
  13. 13. ADDITIONAL STRATEGIES DuBrin and BatemanDuBrin (2011): Bateman (2011):• Empowerment • Modeling • Allow those we work with to share the power with the us (i.e. participate in • Modeling this type of competence decision making). yourself and clarifying the• Job Design and Interesting Work boundaries—strategic, ethical, • Although this is intrinsic, we can make the job challenging enough and interesting cultural, and perhaps others— enough, sometimes even having them take over which people should not on jobs that they may not normally do to gain a different perspective. stray.• Positive Reinforcement • Provide reinforcers that promote the behavior that you want from employees.. These must be appropriate rewards and may come in the form of money, promotion or recognition in some form. It‘s important to check culture differences when recognition is given. Table of Contents
  14. 14. ADDITIONAL STRATEGIES Lee and SecretanLee (2007): Secretan (2005):• Celebrate Failure • Build on Others‘ Strengths • Cheerfully fess up when you dont succeed. People • Have them continue to build on what will intuitively realize you have compassion and will they are already doing well and have ask for your opinions. them continue to improve in that area.• Be Persistent • Be a Heartlifter • Dogged determination despite setbacks is always inspiring. When you get up early to work out no • Give compliments and support. matter how tired you are, your loved ones will realize nothing has to hold them back, either. • Start in the Right Place• Give to Others • Instead of harping on their weaknesses • Research shows that women who volunteer are to motivate them start with their happier. When your friends and family see you strengths. being generous with others, theyll want that positive perk for themselves. • Discover People‘s Strengths• Be Humble • What do people believe they are capable • Thank those who helped you succeed and youll of, what is their ‗destiny‘. experience the "Its a Wonderful Life" • Keep Listening phenomenon: When people realize their behavior actually affects you, theyll want to keep it up. Table of Contents
  15. 15. REFLECTION• With these all these strategies in mind think about the following questions. • How can we motivate ourselves to commit to an exercise regime? • How can we motivate students to not leave things to the last minute? • How can we motivate employees and peers to work together to efficiently and effectively complete a project? Table of Contents
  16. 16. REFERENCES IHere are other places you can lookBateman, T. (2011). Beyond charisma: What followers really need from their leaders. Training and Development, 65(6), 70-72.Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determinaton in human behaviour. New York: Plenum.DuBrin, A. (2011). Human Relations for Career and Personal Success: Concepts, Applications, and Skills (9 th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson.DuBrin, A. J., & Geerinck, T. M. (2011). Human relations for career and personal success. (4 th ed.). Toronto, ON: Pearson Canada.Kover, D. J., & Worrell, F. C. (2010). The Influence of Instrumentality Beliefs on Intrinsic Motivation: A Study of High - Achieving Adolescents. Journal Of Advanced Academics, 21(3), 470-498.Lee, H. (2007). Be an inspiration!. Prevention, 59(5), 161.Maslow, A. H. (1943). A Theory of Human Motivation. Psychological Review 50(4): 370-96.McGraw, L., Pickering, M., Ohlson, C., & Hammermeister, J. (2012). The influence of mental skills on motivation and psychosocial characteristics. Military Medicine, 177, 77-84.McShane, S. L. (2004). Canadian organizational behaviour. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Ryerson. Table of Contents
  17. 17. REFERENCES IIHere are other places you can lookPierce, W., Cameron, J., Banko, K. M., & So, S. (2003). Positive effects of rewards and performance standards on intrinsic motivation. Psychological Record, 53(4), 561-578.Ryan, R., & Deci, E. (2000). Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations: Classic definitions and new directions. Contemporary Educational Psychology, (25), 54-67. doi: 10.1006/ceps.1999.1020Sadri, G., Bowen, C. (2011), Meeting employee requirements: Maslow‘s hierarchy of needs is still a reliable guide to motivating staff. Industrial Engineer, 43(10), 44-48.Secretan, L. (2005). Inspiring people to their greatness. Leader to Leader, 2005(36), 11-14.Spinath, B., & Steinmayr, R. (2008). Longitudinal analysis of instrinsic motivation and competence beliefs: Is there a relation over time?. Child Development, 79(5), 1555-1569.Urdan, T., Solek, M., & Schoenfelder, E. (2007). Students perceptions of family influences on their academic motivation: A qualitative analysis. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 12(1), 7 -21.Vroom, V. (1964). Work and motivation. New York, NY: John Wiley. Table of Contents
  18. 18. Module 6 . Group Presentation :Geoff Brown, Gabby Martel & Dianna PetrieEDUC 5346 - Interpersonal Relations in AdministrationNipissing UniversityDr. Barbara MalarczykDue Date: Monday, July 23 rd, 2012