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Bioenergy in Brazil and the USA - an overvivew

  1. 1. UNL – ARS-USDA & Fulbright Association Final Report Bioenergy and Biofuels Chair Jose Geraldo Eugenio de Franca Lincoln, NE, USA – Aug 04 to Dec 14 2012. Acknowledgments Thanks to the Fulbright Association. It is an honor and a privilege to be part of thisinstitution as a Fulbright Fellow. Dr. Luiz Valcov, Mrs. Rejania Araujo, Mrs. Giselle Melo andMrs. Camila Olimpio, I thank you for all the support since the application and throughout theprogram at UNL. I would like to express my thanks to Dr. Emidio Cantidio de Oliveira, who first advisedme to apply for the Fulbright Fellowship Chair in Bioenergy and Biofuels at the University ofNebraska-Lincoln. My gratitude should be shown to Dr. Marcelino Granja, the Secretary of Science andTechnology of the State of Pernambuco; Dr. Frederico Montenegro, the General Director ofITEP, and Dr. Julio Zoe de Brito, the General Director of IPA for their full support on myrequest to spend the 2012 Fall at the UNL. For the Itep colleagues with whom I am in direct contact, Sonia Valéria, who got thehelmet, Cristiane, Maria do Carmo, Eden, Marcos, Osmar, Elaine, Aníbal, Toinho, AntonioFerreira, I thank you very much for getting the things moving in my absence. At Washington, DC, thanks to Mr. Jake Silva from IIE for providing the travelarrangements and the due support from the Institute during the program. At ARS-USDA Lincoln due to the hospitality from Dr. Kenneth Vogel, Dr. Rob Mitchelland the scientific team on bioenergy, Mr. Robert Harrison, my roommate at Lincoln-ARSheadquarters, and Donna Martin, Amber Isenbart, Alvin Harding, Courtney Woods, CheriMarshal, John Toy, Patrick O’Neill, Steve Masterson, Patrick Callahan, Nathan Palmer, AaronSaathoff, Ben Fann, Suanne Kallis and Bill Bickmeir, I felt at home and could dedicate thisperiod for learning a bit more about the bioenergy research, technology and business activitiesbeing carried out in the USA and Brazil and in the world as a whole. I thank all of Thanking youfor this familiar environment. 1
  2. 2. With Dr. Vogel I had an incomparable opportunity to discuss agronomy, breeding and tolearn from his vast experience on American Agriculture about the efforts that are being made inthe USA in order to have cultivated feedstuff options for the second generation ethanol, andother hydrocarbons and byproducts. I hope that will not take a long time to witness thoseaccomplishments been applied in a large scale industrial initiative. With the ARS I felt back onmy dearly original professional activity: Plant Breeding. Even for few moments it was pleasantto handle plants, panicles, flowers, and more than anything to be updated with the switchchgrass,indiangrass, big bluestem grass, and the sorghum programs at Lincoln. I would express my gratitude to Dr. Ron Yoder, and his team, Murd Holland and ZanetaHahn. Dr. Yoder has been quite patient with me on discussing the path and opportunities toenhance the level of collaboration between the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, and the Brazilianschools, support agencies and research institutions, particularly on how to use in the best way theprogram Science without Borders Program in order to attend the priorities set up by thegovernments of Brazil and the USA in the last few years. I am in debt with all the professors and staff from UNL as well as with the friends fromthe Partners of the Americas, Lincoln chapter and the Brazilian community for the special timespent with us and the thorough support.. Introduction The USA and Brazil are the two countries which have most invested in developing abiofuel industry in the last decades, especially in the case of ethanol. The pathways followed byeach country were distinct. While Brazil has the sugarcane as one of this most important cashcrop, and produces sugar and alcohol since the XVI century, the USA has based its production inconverting corn starch to ethanol, except for few industrial plants which operate with sugarcanein the Southern states. Therefore for the first generation ethanol, Brazil leaded its efforts in modernizing itssugarcane industry and industrial infrastructure, since the 70’s while the USA was able to createa modern industrial complex of ethanol production based on corn grain since the last decade. At the moment the USA and Brazil are in a crossroad on ethanol production. In the USAthe limits established by its legislation towards the corn starch ethanol were reached while in thecase of Brazil the economic crisis and the evolution of sugar prices, the increased in use haveresulted in a default for its industry in producing enough biofuels for its demand at an acceptableprice for the consumer. Altogether with the environmental and climate change realities and commitments,independently from the oil and gas prices, and from the recent developments on thetechnological upgrade for the industry through fracking, horizontal drilling, discoveries of newreserves of natural and shale gas, in case of the USA; and the Pre-salt oil reserves in Brazil the 2
  3. 3. second generation biofuels will be a reality, and soon a few countries, among them the USA,Brazil, China, Italy, and Canada will have the domain of this technology. The chair on bioenergy and biofuel established by the University of Nebraska-Lincolnand the Fulbright Association may be recognized as a strategic initiative from both institutionsattending the USA and Brazil agreements enacted by both countries since President Bush andPresident Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva in 2007 and confirmed by President Obama and PresidentDilma Roussef in 2011. It aims to bring together the scientific community of both countries onbioenergy and biofuels in order to speed up the bioenergy and biofuels technologicaldevelopment. The University of Nebraska-Lincoln has chosen Brazil as one strategic country for itsforeign program and this decision has to be translated in joint initiatives between the UNL andthe Brazilian institutions, Appendix 1. The Fulbright fellowship, together with the Sciencewithout Borders Program, and the support from Capes, CNPq, FAPESP and other scientificBrazilian Agencies may be the backbone to support a durable program with that nation. As for this I feel compelled in presenting a suggestion for this program on the area ofBioenergy and Biofuels, as well as some hints on other technological areas that during my stay Iconsider relevant for relevant cooperative efforts.. Proposed Research Program in Bioenergy and Biofuels for the USA and Brazil There is a need for a research, development, teaching, technology transfer and innovationprogram to be carried out by the USA and Brazil during the next decade on advanced biofuels.The first generation ethanol has succeeded and constitutes in a drastic change in the agriculturaland energy environment in the last decade. Now the circumstances are ready for the next bigstep: the second generation liquid fuels, cogeneration and byproducts. It is clear that this goalwill be easier achieved if among all the nations, Brazil and the USA, as the most interestedcountries in this business may work together. Those are the areas we consider ready dependingon issues as intellectual property and technology transfer. I. Agronomy Sugarcane and Corn . Abiotic stresses – cold, heat and drought The drought on the American Middle West in 2012 was a clear example of the need forgenetic genotypes in corn that are able to tolerate less water and higher temperature. The job wasdone in the USA due to the introduction of specific genes in the corn breeding programs whichpermitted the availability to the growers of hybrids that certainly were not available ten yearsago. It means that the efforts on gene identification and data mining as well as on thedevelopment of transgenic materials will be a clear demand from now on in order to answer the 3
  4. 4. climate change scenarios predicted ahead. In some way the same can be applied to sugar cane,either in case of high as well as low temperatures. . Lignocellulose material – content and quality Since the corn stalk or the sugarcane bagasse, tops and leaves will be used forcogeneration, ethanol or hydrocarbon production, and knowing that one of the limiting effects isthe conversion, either biochemical, chemical or physical, there will be a need for the breedingprograms aim specific traits on lignocellulosic arrangements which will be able to proceedthrough conversion and fermentation with higher energetic efficiency. . Water use efficiency Despite the gains witnessed with the use of irrigation techniques and water deficit andanalysis predictability, there will many more to be done for crops such as corn, soybean,sorghum, sugarcane and the dedicated grasses and forest species that are being used forbioenergy production. . Transportation and logistics Due to the bulky, fluffy, low density material characteristics of the corn stalk it is notbeen easy to get it to the plant. It is hard to see a sound economic advantage in transporting thematerial from an area with a radio superior to 32 km (20 miles). On the other hand, despite thehigher density for the sugarcane tops, the leaves are as most as dense as the corn stalks,therefore, event for the sugar and distillery mills R&D efforts have to be invested on packing,pelleting and transportation of those feedstuffs. Sweet Sorghum The sweet sorghum is the number one candidate crop to fulfill the intermediate stagebetween the first and the second generation ethanol either in Brazil or in the USA. The resultsthat have been obtained in Brazil in 2011/2012 have shown that this crop can be a real option tocomplement the distillery operation for one to two months. During the last planting season thefield yields reached 60 t.ha-1, while the industrial yield was 40 l.t-1 of cane crushed. Therefore2,400 l.ha-1 (600 gal.ha-1) was produced in 125 days. Considering that with sugarcane the ethanoloutput per hectare is 7,000 l, in average, the demonstration trials that with additional investmentin R&D the crop will become a real player in the first and second generation ethanol productioneither in the sugarcane or in the corn-starch producing systems. In the Central and South regions of Brazil a sugarcane and distillery operates for 8 to 9months, while in the Brazilian Northeast from 6 to 7 months. The capital cost is higher enough tojustify the extension of use for 30 to 60 days per year. 4
  5. 5. The sweet sorghum will be processed by the end of the sugarcane harvest. There will be anumber of reason for this crop to be considered as this technology bridge: a. Totally mechanized,which allows the use of farm equipment for corn and other cereals; b. A short cycle crop, beingable to be harvested between 120 and 130 days after planting; c. Mechanical harvesting - Thisoperation may use the same harvesters used in the sugarcane plantation; d. Compatible industrialoperation – It does not need any change in the plant with additional equipment for crashing orduring fermentation; d. Bagasse and co-products utilization -The sorghum bagasse can generateenergy, to be sold as feedstuff, for the paper industry or for the composite industry as it has beendone with the sugarcane bagasse; end e. Water use efficiency in biomass production – Sorghummay be grown in areas of the distillery or sugarcane mill that are not advisable for sugarcaneproduction due to the rainfall deficit. The trait or set of traits listed above may constitute the main topics for a joint program. . Total biomass production and quality . Juice and fermentable sugar contents . Lodging tolerance . Photoperiod response . Leaf diseases and stem borer resistance C4 Grasses – Switchgrass, Napier grass (model crops) The switchgrass research program at Lincoln, leaded by the ARS team is recognized asamong the top plant bioenergy programs in the nation. It is not by chance that the breedingresearch at Lincoln started in 1936, directed for forage use, and around 20 years ago, also as aspecies with a bioenergy option. The results that have been obtained in this program, on areas such as agronomy, cropsystem, breeding, seed production, adaptability, quality analysis have been remarkable. Despitethe fact that some universities and research institutions have sent a number of scientists andprofessionals for UNL and particularly to the ARS-USDA Lincoln, it seems that the interactionbetween the United States and Brazil should be more robust by this time. The Brazilian institutions are known for the very effective forage breeding and managingprogram they have been conducted in the Cerrado’s region, with species from the GenusBrachiaria, Pennisetum and Pannicum, among few other. However it is important to state thatno Brazilian institution has accomplished what has been done with the program conducted by Dr.Kenneth Vogel and his team in terms of biomass production and sustainability towards theenergy use for any grass specie in particular. 5
  6. 6. In term of warm-season grasses the topics below may be considered as strategic for futureengagement from both parts, as follows. . Resilience . Total biomass production and quality . Carbon sequestration . Life cycle analysis For the following research themes it will suggested that a further and deep evaluationfrom the UNL faculty and staff and from the ARS-USDA Lincoln may take place in order toidentify partners in the USA, in order to present to the Brazilian institutions a framework of acomprehensive program. II. Biotechnology and Biochemistry Sucrose . Yeast strains tolerant to high temperature . Yeast strains tolerant to high ethanol content in the beer Starch . Yeast strains tolerant to high temperature . Yeast strains tolerant to high ethanol content in the beer . Modified starch molecules Lignocellulose . Designing enzymes to convert C5 sugars . Lignin use . NIRS analysis . Identification and use of specific bioenergy applied traits III. Environmental Issues Climate Change . GHG emissions 6
  7. 7. . Carbon sequestration . Water use efficiency in biomass production . Water use efficiency in industrial activities Life Cycle Analysis . Net energy ratio . Reduction in use of agrochemicals . Biological N fixation in grasses . P and K bioremediation Mechanization . Mechanical harvesting . Soil compaction . Transportation of leafs and topsIV. Industrial Demands Liquid Fuels . Sugar extraction . Enzymatic conversion . Lignin use . Hydrocarbons Energy . Electricity . Thermal conversion . Biogas Byproducts . Bio plastics . New materials 7
  8. 8. . Conclusions and Recommendations for the Suggested Program There will be a huge scope for an interactive RD & Innovation program to be consideredincluding private companies involved with liquid fuels, energy and byproducts. ConsideringAgronomy research, the warm-season grasses and sorghum programs may be the flag ship for ajoint effort that includes CTBE, Embrapa, Petrobras, and a number of Brazilian public andprivate universities, as related in the list attached to this report. Besides Bioenergy and Biofuels I would list a set of strategic areas to furtherimplementation, as follows.. Complimentary Areas for Technological Cooperation 1. Fulbright fellowship on Bioenergy and Biofuels in Brazil for American Scientists - It will be advisable that the Fulbright Association with any Brazilian scientific agency may offer a chair on the subject enabling the American scientific community to get acquainted with what has been done in Brazil during the last decades. 2. Corn Breeding and Production – I will recommend strongly that the Brazilians institutions leading with plant breeding will study and apply the genetic modification aiming the development of parental lines and hybrids tolerant to water stress and biotic stresses. The drought occurred in the American Plains during the 2012 summer and the yields obtained with corn under those severe conditions talks by itself. There will be no time to lose if the Brazilian farmers have to keep the pace with the Americans on corn production. 3. Ogallala and Guarani Aquifers – The institutions and farmers from Nebraska have a long history on handling the water of Ogallala Aquifer for irrigation and other purposes. It seems that since the Guarani Aquifer, which spreads out in Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay, with risks of the depletion of the water content and its contamination due to the intense use of pesticides, there has been the right time to build up an research and technology transfer program between the University of Nebraska- Lincoln and institutions from those three South American countries. 4. The National Drought Mitigation Center – UNL IANR - - This center should be one of the most important initiative to be shared between the UNL and some Brazilians institutions specialized on weather forecast and climate analysis in the Northeast Region of the country in Particular. I will advise strong commitment from ITEP in the State of Pernambuco and FUCEME in the State of Ceara to interact with the National Drought Mitigation Center staff in order to have a joint program on dealing with droughts in the USA and Brazil. 5. Engineering Teaching, R&D and Consulting – Mechanical, Civil, Electrical, Computer, Biosystem among others – The last decade has witnessed a stabilization of the Brazilian economy and a surge of investments in many areas such as oil and gas, naval industry, electric transmission, mining, urban infrastructure, among others. The Brazilian 8
  9. 9. government has launched an ambitious infrastructure program, the PAC – AccelerationGrowth Program, aiming to rebuild or construct new roads, ports, airports, with emphasison the support of the countryside production of agriculture and mineral commodities andthe national and international trade initiatives. Among the limitation it was detected thatone of the striking limitations was the lack of high qualified professionals to attend thoseefforts. Today the central government together with the state and private schools anduniversities are working hard on how can enhance the engineering teaching quality andthe domain on new technologies applied in different fields. Those are areas that UNL,and in some cases with other American Universities and Research and Innovationinstitutions may take part in this effort. 9
  10. 10. . Technical and Cultural Activities during the Fellowship Program at UNL. Articles 1. Revista Opinioes – Setor Sucroenergetico – Uma Nova Arquitetura – Jul – Ago 2012 – 2. Preface for the Book: Manual de Praticas de Laboratoriais: Um guia para a pesquisa – Oct 3 2012. Reviews of Articles and Projects 1. Research proposal - Genetic Improvement of Sorghum for Non-grain Energy Uses - Aug 16 2012 2. RMP - Revista dos Mestrados Profissionais de Pernambuco – Proposta de Licitacao Sustentavel a Fundacao Joaquim Nabuco 3. RMP – Revista dos Mestrados Profissioais de Pernambuco – Perfil Administrativo do Governo Lula: Percepcao dos graduandos em administracao publica na Universidade Federal de Pernambuco – Campus Agreste 4. RMP – Revista dos Mestrados Profissionais de Pernambuco – Politicas de Recursos Hidricos o Brasil: As politicas publicas municipais de preservacao dos rios Ipojuca, Capibaribe e Ipanema, em Pernambuco. Seminar Delivered 1. UNL-IANR and ARS-USDA – East Union – Nov 28 2012 – 11:00 – Bioenergy and Biofuel Development in Brazil and the USA: A Path to Cooperation – Presentation attached 2. Graintek 2012 – Moscow, Russia – Nov 12 2012 – Bioeconomy in Brazil: State of the art and perspectives. Seminars Attended 1. Aug 16 2012 - Keim Hall - r 150 – 14:30 – Dr. Mike Francki – The wheat pre-breeding innovation pipeline at DAFWA: Delivering research products for desirable traits in commercial breeding 2. Aug 23 2012 – Keim Hall – r 120 – 15:30 – Dr. Mahdi Aoda – Crop Production in Iraq and water scarcity: Challenges and prospective solutions 3. Sep 05 2012 – Biotech/Life Sciences – r 103 – 16:00 – Dr. Brian A. Larkins – Associate Vice-Chancellor for Life Sciences UNL – Maize endosperm: A system to investigate complex biological process 4. Sep 10 2012 – Center for Grassland Studies – EUC – 15:00 – Dr. Rob Mitchell – USDA/ARS/UNL - Improved Grasses for Perennial Pasture 10
  11. 11. 5. Sep 11 2012 – Hardin Hall Auditorium – r 107, 16:00 – Dr. Anthony (Tony) Michaels – Private Equity - Taking Agricultural and Sustainability6. Sep 12 2012 – Hardin Hall Auditorium – r 107 – 15:30 – Dr. John Gammon – Earth & atmosphere sciences & biological sciences, University of Alberta, Canada - Sensing our multicolored world – Plant pigments as functional indicators7. Sep 19 2012 – Hardin Hall Auditorium – r 107 – 15:30 – Dr. Elizabeth Anderson – Florida International University – Balancing Freshwater Needs of Humans and Ecosystems in East Africa8. Sep 20 2012 – Keim Hall – r 150 – 16:00 – Dr. James Stack – KSU – Plant Biosecurity in a changing world9. Sep 24 2012 – Hardin Hall Auditorium – r 107 – 15:00 – Mr. Ron Binz – Utility and energy policy contractor – Energy Choices for 21st Century10. Sep 26 2012 – Hardin Hall Auditorium – r 107 – 15:30 – Art Zygielbaum, Tim Arkebauer, Betty Walter-Shea – UNL – Remote Sensing, Water Stress, and Things that go Bump in the Night11. Sep 27 2012 – Char Building – r 116 – 15:00 – Clayton Yeutter – Former Secretary of Agriculture of U.S. and former Trade Representative of U.S., and UNL Professor – Recent Developments in International Agri-food Markets12. Sep 28 2012 – Keim Hall – r 150 – 15:30 – Humberto Blanco – Professor of Soil Management UNL – Crop Residue Management and Soil Quality13. Sep 28 2012 – Lied Center – Main Hall – 19:30 - Four former agricultural secretaries – U.S. Sen. Mike Johanns, Clayton Yeutter, John Block and Dan Glickman – discussed "The Land-Grant Mission of 2012 – Transforming Agriculture for the 2050 World."14. Oct 01 2012 – Center of Grassland Studies – EUC – 15:00 - Gerry Steinauer, Nebraska Game and Parks - "Using Fire and Tree Thinning to Manage Missouri River Oak Woodlands"15. Oct 02 2012 – Hardin Hall Auditorium – 19:00 - Mike Hayes, Mark Svoboda and Kelly Smith, all of the National Drought Mitigation Center – School of Natural Resources Seminar – Tracking the 2012 Drought: Nebraska and beyond16. Oct 04 2012 – Keim Hall, r 150, 11:00 - Carrie A. Knot – USDA-ARS Sorghum Geneticist Position Seminar17. Oct 05 2012 – Keim Hall, r 150, 15:30 – Agronomy Seminar – Sagoewa Maradosa – Buffalo grass performance great in the drought, but still suffering18. Oct 09 2012 – Keim Hall, r 150, 11:00 – Soon O. Park – USDA-ARS Sorghum Geneticist Position Seminar19. Oct 11 2012 – Keim Hall, r 150, 11:00 – Melinda Yearka – USDA-ARS Sorghum Geneticist Position Seminar20. Oct 25 2012 – Keim Hall, r 150, 15:30 - Baoguo Li – Associate Dean, College of Resources & Environmental Sciences, China Agricultural University - Crop water use and water productivity in China – Agronomy and Horticulture Fall 2012 Seminar 11
  12. 12. 21. Oct 25 2012 – Embassy Suites Ball Room, 1040 P Street – Daniel Hillel – World Food Prize Laureate 2012 - Managing our Scarce Water in a Changing Climate - Robert B. Daugherty Water for Food Institute UNL 22. Oct 28 2012 – 15:00 - UNL EU - Grassland Studies Seminar – Can Production Agriculture and Conservation of Biodiversity Co-exist on Great Plains Rangelands - David Engle - Regents Professor and Director of the Water Research and Extension Center, Oklahoma State University 23. Oct 30 2012 - Entomology Lecture – UNL EU – 16:00 - "Pest Control Innovations at BASF Specialty Products and Career Opportunities" Bob Davis, BASF 24. Oct 30 2012 - Natural Resources Seminar – Hardin Hall UNL, 5 130 – Oct 30 2012 – "The Biodiversity of Nebraska Within the Great Plains" by Paul Johnsgard and Mary Bomberger Brown 25. Nov 01 2012 – UNL Lecturer – Nebraska Union UNL Auditorium – Oct 30 2012 – 15:30 - "The Joy of Applied Science While Feeding the World," – P. Stephen Baenzeger – Professor UNL 26. Nov 01 2012 - The G.E. Hendricks Symposium- Nebraska Union Auditorium - "The Politics of Food in North Korea," - Rhoda Howard-Hassmann - Canada Research Chair in International Human Rights at Ontarios Wilfrid Laurier University 27. Nov 26 2012 – 15:00 - UNL EU - Grassland Studies Seminar - Twenty Years of the Nebraska Environmental Trust Preserving, Protection and Restoring Nebraskas - Mark Brohman - Executive Director, Nebraska Environmental Trust 28. Nov 27 2012 – 13:00 – Keim Hall – r 150 – MSc Thesis – Environmental Trigger in Winter Annual Weed Emergence Management to Reduce Soybean Cyst Nematode Reproduction on Winter Annual Weed Hosts – Rodrigo Werle 29. Nov 30 2012 – 15:30 – Keim Hall – r 150 – Agronomy Seminar – Gene flow, herbicide- resistant weeds, crop volunteers and much more ... – Amint Jhala – UNL – Department of Agronomy and Horticulture 30. Dec 03 2012 – 15:00 – Grassland Seminar – UNL East Union – Potential Effects of Corn Stover Grazing on Soil Properties – Brien Wienhold – ARS-USDA Lincoln 31. Dec 14.2012 – 15:30 – Department of Agronomy Seminar – Keim Hall 150 – Corn Production in Crina – Dr. Shaowun Li – Institute of Crop Science - CAAS. Technical Events attended 1. The CenUSA Annual Summit - Lincoln, NE – Aug 7-9 2012 2. UNL – ARDC – Public Schedules – Ithaca, NE – Aug 28 2012 3. Graintek 2012 – Moscow, Russia – Nov 12-13 2012 – Bioeconomy in Brazil: State of the art and perspectives – Presentation attached 12
  13. 13. . Technical Visits 1. Texas A&M University – College Station, TX, USA – Oct 15 – Oct 19 2012AgendaSunday – Nov 1414:00 – 16:00 - Dr. Lloyd Rooney and MaxineMonday – Oct 1508:30 – 09:30 - Dr. Roger Norton - N E Borlaug Institute of International Agriculture - TexasA&M09:30 – 10:30 – Dr. Roger Norton, Dr. Alan Sam e Dr. Mark Hussey – College of Agricultureand Life Sciences – Texas A&M12:00 – 12:30 – Dr. Bill Rooney – Soil and Crop Sciences Department – Sorghum BreedingTuesday – Oct 1611:00 – 13:00 - Dr. David Baltensperger – Head of the Soil & Crop Sciences - Texas A&M Soil& Crop Sciences Depart14:30 – 15:30 – Mrs. Vi Cook – International Programs - Bizzel Hall West – r 361Wednesday – Oct 1709:00 – 10:00 – Dr. Esther Rodriguez, Dr. Jorge DeLeon and Mr. Bharani – IDIS – Texas A&M12:00 – 14:00 - Dr. Jorge Alvarado - ENTC - Texas A&M University15:00 – 16:00 – Dr. Eduardo Gildin – Petroleum Engineering – Texas A&M University19:30 – 21:00 – Nair and John EdwardsThursday – Oct 18 07:30 – 17:30 - Houston - Nasa & other places19:00 – 21:00 - Dr. Marcel AmstaldenFriday – Oct 1912:00 – 14:00 - Dr. Ulisses Braga-Neto – Electrical Engineering – Texas A&M University19:00 – 21:00 – Dr. Roger NortonSaturday – Oct 2006:45 - Leaving to Lincoln. References ConsultedA. A. Boateng, K. B. Hicks and K. P. Vogel. Pyrolysis of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum)harvested at several stages of maturity. J. of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis. 2006. v. 75, 66-64Adam J. Liska and Richard K. Perrin. Indirect land use, emissions in the life cycle of biofuels.Biofuels, Byproducts & Biorefineries. 2009. V.3, 318-328 13
  14. 14. Adam Liska and Kenneth G. Cassmann. Towards standardization of life cycle metrics forbiofuels: greenhouse gas emissions mitigation and net energy yield. Journal of BiobasedMaterials. 2008. v. 2, 187-203Adam Liska and Richard Perrin. Securing foreign oil: A case for including military operations inthe climate change impacts. Environment. 2010. Jul-Aug, 52:4, 9-22Adam Liska; Haishun S. Yong; Virgil R. Brenner; Terry J. Klopfenstein; Daniel T. Walters;Galen E. Erickson and Kenneth G. Cassman. Improvement in life cycle energy efficiency andgreen gas emissions of corn ethanol. Journal of Industrial Ecology. DOI. 10.1111/j.1530-9290.2008.105.xAggide Gorgatti Netto and Levon Yeganiantz. Embrapa’s Food-Feed-Bio-Energy ProductionSystems: A joint government-industry research venture. Brasilia, Embrapa – DDM, 1982, 32pAmory Lovins. A farewell to fossil fuels. Answering the energy challenge. Foreign Affairs.2012. Mar-AprAviva Glaser and Patt Glick. Growing Risk – Addressing the invasive potential of bioenergyfeedstocks. NWF – National Wilde Life FederationBP Statistical Review of World Energy. June 2012. S. Dien; Gautham Sarath; Jeffrey F. Pedersen; Scott E. Sattler; Han Chen; Deanna L.Funnel-Harris, Nancy N. Nichols and Michael H. Cotta. Improved sugar conversion and ethanolyield for forage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) L. Moench) lines with reduced lignin contents.Bioenergy Res. 2009. v. 2, 153-164Bruce S. Dien; Hans-Joachim G. Jung; Kenneth P. Vogel; Michael D. Casler; Jo Ann F. S.Lamb; Loren Iten; Robert B. Mitchell and Gautham Sarath. Chemical composition and responseto dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification of alfalfa, reed canarygrass andswitchgrass. Biomass & Bioenergy – doi.: 10.1016/j.biombioe.2006.02.04C. S. Wortmann; A. J. Liska; R. B. Ferguson, D.J. Lyon; R. N. Klein and I. Dweikat . Drylandperformance of sweet sorghum and grain crops for biofuel in Nebraska. Agronomy J. v02. Is 1,2010, 319-326Caitin S. Byrt; Christopher P. L. Grof and Robert T. Furbank. C4 plants as biofuel feedstocks:optimizing biomass production and feedstock quality from a lignocellulosic perspective. Journalof Integrated Plant Biology. 2011. v. 53, n 2, 120-135Cyro G. Teixeira; Jose G. Jardine; Gilberto Nicolella and Margarida H. Zaroni. Invluencia daepoca de corte sobre o teor de acucares de colmos de sorgo sacarino. Pesquisa AgropecuariaBrasileira. Sept 1999. v. 34, n. 9, 1601-1606 14
  15. 15. Daniel F. Amaral and Emerson Caraiola Kross. Requisitos de sustentabilidade no comerciointernacional de biocombustiveis: barreiras tecnicas ou exigencies pertinentes?. Politica Externa.2012. v. 21. N. 2, 115-132Deepak R. Keshwani and Jay J. Cheng. Switchgrass for bioethanol and other value-addedapplications. A review. Bioresource Technology. 2009. v. 100, 1515-1523E. Talamini and H. Dewes. The macro-environment for liquid biofuels in Brazilian science andpublic policies. Science and Public Policy. 2012, 39, 13-29Emmanuel D. Dutra; Adauto G. Barbosa Neto; Romulo Simoes C. Menezes and Marcus A deMelo Jr. Producao de etanol a partir do suco do colmo de diferentes cultivares de sorgo sacarinoem Pernambuco. XVIII Simposio Nacional de Bioprocessos. Caxias do Sul, RS, 24 a 27 de julhode 2011EPE. Cenarios para exportacao de etanol para os EUA. MME. 2010. v. 03, p 14European Commission – Communication on Innovation for Sustainable Growth – A bioenergyfor Europe. 2012. Brussels, 51 pEuropean Commission. Directive of the European Parliament and of the Council. Amendingdirective 98/70/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council relating to the quality of petroland diesel fuels and amending Council directive 93/12/EC. Aug 2012FAO BEFSCI. Impacts of bioenergy on food security. Guidance for assessment and response ofnational and project levels. 2012. 56 pFrank Alex Feltus and Joshua P. Vandenbrink. Bioenergy grass feedstock: current options andprospects for trait improvement using emerging genetic, genomic, and systems biology toolkits.Biotechnology for Biofuels. ISSN 1754-6834, Article type: review. Submission date: 11 may2012. Acceptance date: 5 October 2012. Publication date: 2 November 2012. 40 p.Gautham Sarath; Bruce S. Dien; Aaron J. Saathoff; Kenneth P. Vogel; Robert B. Mitchell andHan Chen. Ethanol yield and cell wall properties in divergently bred switchgrass genotypes.Bioresource Technology. 2011. v.102, 9579-9585Gautham Sarath; Robert B. Mitchell; Scott Stadler; Deanne Funnel-Harris; Jeffrey F. Pederson,Robert GrayBosh and Ken P. Vogel. Opportunities and roadblocks in utilizing forages and smallgrains for liquid biofuels. J. Industrial Biology and Biotechnology. 2008. 35. 343-354German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina. Statement: Bioenergy – Chances and Limits. 2012.118 pH. G. Jung; Buxton, D. R. Buxton, R. D. Hatfield and J. Ralph. (Editors). 1993.ASA/CSSA/SSSA, 659 p 15
  16. 16. Hal Bernton; William Kovarik and Scott Sklar. The Forbidden Fuel: A history of power alcohol.2010. Bison Books. New edition. University of Nebraska Press – Lincoln and London, 274 pHans-Joachim G. Jung; Deborah, A. Smach and Gautham Sarath. Review: Modifying crops toincrease cell wall digestibility. Plant Science. 2012. N 185-186, 65-77Jane A. Longdale; C4 cycles: Past, present and future research on C4 Photosynthesis. The PlantCell. Nov 2011. v. 23, 3879-3892Jeff Siegle; Chris Nelder and Nick Hedge. Investing in Renewable Energy: making money ongreen chip stocks. 2008. 257 pJoao Natalle Neto. A Saga do Alcool. Novo Seculo. 2005, 343 pJose N. Tabosa; Marta M. A. Do Nascimento; Odemar V. dos Reis; Ana R. B. Brito; Jose A.Tavares and Ivan Ferraz. Producao de biomassa e eficiencia de uso de agua de cultivares desorgo no semiarido de Pernambuco e mdois estagios de colheita. XXVIII Congresso Nacional deMilho e Sorgo. 2010. Goiania, GO, ABMS CD ROMJoseph DiPardo. Energy Information Administration/ Outlook for Biomass Ethanol Productionand Demand. 1998. 14 p.Kenneth P. Vogel; Bruce S. Dien; Hans G. Jung; Michael Casler; Steven D. Masterson andRobert, M. Mitchell. Quantifying actual and theoretical ethanol yields for switchgrass usingNIRS analysis. Bioenergy Research. 2011. 4:96-110 - DOI10.1007/12155-010-9104-4Kenneth G. Cassman and Adam Liska. Food and fuel for all: realistic or foolish? DigitalCommons – UNL. Agronomy Faculty Publications. 2007. 6-27Kenneth P. Vogel; M. R. Schemer and R. B. Mitchell. Plant adaptation regions: Ecological andclimate classification of plant materials. Rangeland Ecol. Management. May 2005. v. 58, 315-318Kenneth S. Deffeys. Hubert’s Peak – The impending world oil shortage. 2003. PrincetonUniversity Press, 208 pM. A. Liebig; M. R. Schmer; K. P. Vogel and R. B. Mitchell. Soil Carbon storage by switchgrassgrown for bioenergy. Bioenergy Research. Published online. 2008. DOI 10.1007/s 12155-008-9019-5M. R. Schmer; K. P. Vogel; R. B. Mitchell and R. K. Perrin. Net energy of cellulosic ethanolfrom switchgrass. PNAS. Jan 2008. V 15, n 2, 464-469M. R. Schmer; M. A. Liebig; K. P. Vogel and R. B. Mitchell. Field-scale property changes underswitchgrass managed for bioenergy. GCB Bioenergy. 2011. v. 3, 439-448 16
  17. 17. Marcos Troyjo. BRIC: Strategies to compete. Columbia University J. of Public Politics andSociety. 2012. v. XXIII, n. I, Spring, 4-10Oxfam. The hunger grains., Sep 2012, 33 pPamela P. Peralta-Yashya, Fuzhong-Zhang; Stephen B. del Cardayre and Jay D. Keasling.Microbial engineering for the production of advanced biofuels. Nature. 2012 Apr. v. 488, n. 16,320-328Paul Stevens. The shale gas revolution: Developments and changes. Energy, Environment andResources. Aug 2012. EERG BB, 2012, v. 04R. Braun; B. Drosg; G. Bachmann; W. WeiS and r. Kirchmayr. Recent developments ofbioenergy recovery through fermentation, Ch. 2. Microbes at Work (ed. H. Insam et al). 2010.Spring Verlag Berlin HeidelbergRichard D. Perrin; Kenneth P. Vogel; Marty Schemer and Robert B. Mitchell. Switchgrass costof production: Data from on-farm trial, 2001-2005. UNL Faculty Publications: AgricultureEconomics. Agriculture Economics Department. 2008. 15 pRobert B. Mitchell; Kenneth P. Vogel and Daniel R. Uden. Biofuels. The feasibility ofswitchgrass for biofuel production. Biofuels. 2012, v. 31, n 1, 47-59Roger Samson; Sudhagar Mori; Robert Boddey; Shahab Sokhonsonj; Diego Quesada; SegundoUrquiaga; Veronica Reis and Claudio Ho Lem. The potential of C4 perennial grasses fordeveloping a global BIOHEAT industry. Critical Review in Plant Sciences. 2005. v. 24, 461-495Rogerio Cerqueira Leite. Bioetanol combustivel: uma oportunidade para o Brasil. CGEE. 2009.536 pRonald F. Follet; Kenneth P. Vogel; Gary E. Varvel; Robert Mitchell and John Kimble. SoilCarbon sequestration by switchgrass and no-till maize grown for bioenergy. Bioenergy Research.Published online. May 04 2012. DOI 10.1007/s 12155-012-9198Rosamond L. Naylor; Adam J. Liska; Marschal B. Burke; Walter P. Falcon; Joanne G. Grakelland Scott D. Roz. The ripple effect. Environment. 2007. v49, n9, 30-43Santos, M. C. S.; Tabosa, J. N.; Mello, A. C. L. and Santos, M. V. F. Comportamento de clonesde Pennisetum submetidos a periodos de restricao hidrica controlada. Arch. Zootc. 2011. v. 60,n. 229, 31-39Scott E. Stadler; Deanna L. Funnel-Harris and Jeffrey F. Petersen. Efficacy of singular andstacked brown midrib 6 and 12 in the modification of lignocellulose and grain chemistry. v. 58,3611-3616 17
  18. 18. Sean Higs. Poverty: Does Brazil’s conditional cash transfer program have a rural bias?.Columbia University J. of Politics and Society. 2012. v. XXIII, n. I, Spring, 88-125Seth C. Murray; Arun Sharma; William L. Rooney; Patricia E. Klein; John E. Mullet; Sharon E.Mitchell and Stephen Krasovich. Genetic improvement of sorghum as a biofuel feedstock: I.QTL for stem sugar and grain nonstructural carbohydrates. Crop Science. 2008. V48, Nov-Dec,2165-2179Shin-ichi Tsuruta; Masumi Ebina; Makoto Kobayashi; Taiichiro Mattori, and TakayoshiTerauchi. Analysis of genetic diversity in the bioenergy plant Erianthus arundinaceus (Poacea:Andropogoneae) using amplified fragments length polymorphism markers. Grassland Science.2012. v. 58, 174-177Stephen R. Decker; Romand Brunecky; Melvin P. Tuckel; Michael E. Himmel and Michael J.Selig. Highthroughput screening techniques for biomass conversion. Bioenergy Res. 2009. v. 2,179-192Susan Nuanpeng; Lakkana Laopaiboon; Penjit Srinophakum; Preekamol Klanrit; Prasit Jaisil andPattan Laopaiboon. Ethanol production from sweet sorghum juice under very high gravityconditions: Batch repeated-batch and scale up fermentation. Eletronic Journal of Biotechnology.Jan 2011. v. 14, n. 1, Valparaiso, Chile, Versao ISSN 0717-3458, 7 pTaiichiro Hattori and Shingenori Morita. Enerngy crops for sustainable bioethanol production.Which, where and how? Plat Prod. Sci. 2010. v. 13, n. 3, 221-234Virgil Bremer; Adam Liska; Terry J. Klopfenstein; Galen E. Erickson; Haishun S. Yang; D.Waters; K. Cassmann. Emissions savings in the corn ethanol life cycle from feeding co-productsto livestock. J. Environ. Qual. 2010. v.39, 472-482Vishnu Menen and Mala Rao. Trends in bioconversion of lignocellulose: biofuels, platformchemicals and biorefinary concept. Progress in Energy and Combustion Science. 2008, v. 38,522-550W. J. Ortz; K. M. Holtman and J. N. Suber. Agriculture chemistry and bioenergy. Journal ofAgricultural and Food Chemistry. 2008. v. 56, 3892-3899Ye Sun and Jianyang Cheng. Review paper: Hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials for ethanolproduction. Bioresource Technology. 2012. v. 83, 1-11Yongqing Ma, Yu an, Junfeng Shui and Zhaojun Sun. Adaptability evaluation of switchgrass(Panicum virgatum L) cultivars on the Loess Plateau of China. Plant Science. 2011. v. 181, 638-643 18
  19. 19. Yuelian Mao; Anthony C. Yannarell; Sarah C. Davis and Rodrick I. Mackie. Impact of differentbioenergy crops on N-cycling bacterial and archaed communities in soil. EnvironmentalMicrobiology. 2012. Doi.: 10.11/j. 1462-2920.2012.02844. Cultural Activities I would like to praise the UNL Hixson-Lied College of Fine and Performing ArtsProgram. It enabled us to be exposed to a beautiful agenda of cultural activities during our stay atLincoln as listed below. The moments at the Lied Center, the Kimball Hall, the Mary RiepmaRoss Center, and the Cathedral were marvelous and unforgettable. This subject, as for me, is aplus for any student, professor or scientist who would like to come to Lincoln. Besides thescientific and teaching activities one may be exposed to the finest of art and culture. I and myfamily enjoyed it very much indeed.01. Sep 18 2012 – 19:30 – Hixson-Lied Concert Series – Kimball Recital Hall - The ChiaraString Quartet and Guest Skyros Quartet02. Sep 20 2012 – 19:30 – UNL School of Music – Kimball Recital Hall – Guest ArtistKrassimira Jordan, Piano03. Sep 21 2012 - 20:00 – Sheldon Friends of Chamber Music – Sheldon Museum of Art –Hyeyung Julie Yoon, Soyeon Kate Lee & Gregory Beaver04. Sep 25 2012 – 19:30 – UNL School of Arts – Faculty Recital – Kimball Recital Hall - KarenBecker, Cello – Ann Chang, Piano, Christopher Marks, Harpsichord05. Sep 20 2012 – 15:00 – UNL School of Arts – Kimball Recital Hall - Faculty Recital - UNLFaculty Jazz Group06. Sep 30 2012 – 19:30 – Lincoln Symphony Orchestra – Lied Center Auditorium – GuestArtist Sarah Buechner07. Oct 02 – 19:35 – Mary Riepma Ross Center – Sacrifice – Chinese Film Festival – Directedby Kaige Chen08. Oct 03 2012 – 19:30 – UNL School of Arts – Kimball Recital Hall - UNL Wind Ensemble –Carolyn Barber – Conductor09. Oct 09 2012 – 19:30 – UNL School of Music – Kimball Recital Hall - Mystery and Madness– University Singers – Peter A. Eklund – Conductor10. Oct 21 2012 – 19:30 – Marcus Theatre - Lincoln – Movie: Alex Cross 19
  20. 20. 11. Nov 02 2012 – 19:30 – UNL the Hixson-Lied College of Fine & Performing Arts – UNLOpera – Kimball Recital Hall – O Pioneers! - music.unl.edu12. Nov 03 2012 - 15:00 – UNL School of Music - Kimball Recital Hall – Singer’s Contest13. Nov 03 2012 – 19:00 – UNL School of Arts – Lied Center Auditorium – The 20thAnniversary 2012 Sing Around Nebraska Honor Choir14. Nov 04 2012 – 18:45 – Marcus Theatre – Lincoln Movie: Flight – Denzel Washington15. Nov 07 2012 – 19:30 – UNL School of Arts – Lied Center Auditorium- Compagnie deDanse: Jene-Rene Delsoin – Haiti16. Nov 09 2012 – 19:30 – Lied Center Auditorium – Lincoln Symphonic Orchestra – (Selva andUlysses)17. Nov13 2012 – 19:30 – UNL School of Arts – Lied Center Auditorium - Vienna boys Choir –Wiener Sangerknaben – (Selva and Ulysses)18. Nov 17 2012 – 18:30 – Nebraska Union Auditorium – Chinese Movie: Hero19. Nov 19 2012 – 19:30 – UNL School of Music – Hixson-Lied Concert Series – KimballRecital Hall - The Chiara String Quartet – Rebecca Fisher, Hyeyung Julie Yoon, Jonah Sirota,Gregory Beaver20. Nov 22 2012 – 19:15 - Mary Riepma Ross Center – Movie: The Sessions - Directed By: BenLewin -With: John Hawkes, Helen Hunt, William H. Macy, Moon Bloodgood, Annika Marks,Adam Arkin, Blake Lindsley, Jarrod Bailey, Robin Weigert, W. Earl Brown21. Nov 23 2012 – 16:45 – Mary Riepma Ross Center – Movie talk: Cave of Forgoten Dreams –Cauvet Caves – France22. Nov 24 2012 – 18:45 – Marcus Theatre – Lincoln – Directed by Steve Spielberg – DanielDay Lewis23. Nov 25 2012 – 16:00 – First-Plymouth Church – Abendmusik – Messiah and CoronationAnthems by George Frideric Handel24. Nov 27 2012 – 19:30 – UNL School of Music – the Hixson-Lied College of Fine andPerforming Arts – Kimball Recital Hall – Diane Barger, clarinet, with Kate Butler, mezzosoprano; Mark Clinton, piano; Lori Falcone, accordion; Rebecca Fischer, violin and JeffreyMcCray, bassoon. McAllister Madness – The Clarinet Music of Scott McAllister – A LectureRecital25. Nov 29 2012 – 19:30 – UNL School of Music – The Hixson-Lied College of Fine andPerforming Arts – Kimball Recital Hall - The Percussion Ensemble – Meditations – Anthony M.Falcone, conductor; Al Rometo, associate conductor, with John Bailey, flute, UNL Senior DanceEnsemble, Susan Levine, director and choreographer 20
  21. 21. 26. Dec 01 2012 – 19:30 – UNL -The Johnny Carson School of Theatre and Film and Theatrix –The Temple 3rd floor - Melancholy Play, by Sarah Ruhl, directed by Joshua Waterstone27. Dec 02 2012 – 19:30 – Lied Center Auditorium – Lincoln Symphony Orchestra – Deck theHalls28. Dec 03 2012 – 19:30 – UNL School of Music – Kimball Recital Hall – Large BrassEnsembles – Alan Mattingly, Craig Fuller and Scott Anderson – directors29. Dec 04 2012 – 19:30 – UNL School of Music – Kimball Recital Hall – UNL Jazz Ensemblesin Concert! Featuring guest artist-in-residence Clay Jenkins, trumpet30. Dec 05 2012 – 19:30 – UNL School of Music – Kimball Recital Hall – UNL Wind Ensemble– Carolyn Barber, conductor31. Dec 06 2012 – 19:30 – UNL School of Music – UNL Symphony Orchestra – ‘French-andRussian-Connections’32. Dec 09 2012 – 15:00 – UNL School of Music – Big Red Singers, Rocktavo and Vocal Jazz33. Dec 12 2012 – 19:30 – Mary Riepma Ross Center – Movie: Price Check34. Dec 13 2012 – 19:30 – Nebraska Wesleyan University Theatre – McDonald Theatre - TheComplete Works of Christmas (Abridged)35. Dec 15. 2012 – 14:00 – Lincoln Midwest Ballet Company - Lied Center Auditorium – TheNutcracker at Lied 21
  22. 22. Appendix 1Brazilian Universities to be addressed by the UNL as priority for a joint research, teaching andinnovation program on science and technology - 2012-2014Brazilian State/town University webpage Rector Colleges to be Region addressedNorth PA – Belem Federal Carlos Edilson de Engineering University of Almeida Maneschy – and Agricultue Pará reitor@ufpa.brNorth AC – Rio Federal Olinda Batista Assmar – Engineering Branco University of and Agriculture AcreNortheast CE - Federal Jesualdo Pereira Farias – Engineering Fortaleza University of and Agriculture CearáNortheast CE - State University José Jackson Coelho Engineering Fortaleza of Ceará SampaioNortheast PE - Recife Federal Anisio Brasileiro – Engineering University of PernambucoNortheast PE - Recife State University Carlos Calado – Engineeering of Pernambuco and ArchitectureNortheast PE - Recife Agricultural Maria Jose Sena – Agriculture Federal University of PernambucoNortheast BA - Federal Dora Leal Rosa Engineering, Salvador University of Architecture Bahia and AgricultureMidwest MT - Federal Maria Lúcia Cavalli Engineering Cuiaba University of Neder and Agriculture Mato GrossoMidwest MS – Federal Celia Maria Silva Correia Engineering Campo University of Oliveira – and Agriculture Grande Mato Grosso do SulMidwest DF - University of Ivan Marques de Toledo Engineering, Brasilia Brasilia Camargo – Architecture and AgricultureSoutheast MG - Federal Clelio Campolina Diniz – Engineering, Vicosa University of Architecture Minas Gerais and AgricultureSoutheast MG - Federal José Roberto Soares Engineeering Lavras University of Scolforo – and Agriculture Lavras reitoria@reitoria.ufla.brSoutheast SP – Sao University of Joao Grandino Rodas Engineering, Paulo and São Paulo Architecture Piracicaba and AgricultureSoutheast SP – Sao State University Julio Cesar Durigan – Engineering Paulo and of São Paulo and Agricultue Botucatu 22
  23. 23. Southeast SP – Sao Federal Targino de Araujo Filho – Engineering Carlos University of São CarlosSouth PR - State University Julio Santiago Prates Engineering, Curitiba of Maringá Filho Architecture and AgricultureSouth PR - Federal Zaki Akel Sobrinho - Engineering Maringa University of and Agriculture ParanáSouth RS – Porto Federal Carlos Alexandre Neto - Engineeering, Alegre University of Architecture Rio Grande do and Agriculture SulSouth RS - Pelotas Federal Antonio Cesar Gonçalves Engineering University of Borges and Agriculture PelotasDec 15 2012Jose Geraldo Eugenio de FrancaSuperintendende de Pesquisa e Pos-graduacao do, 23
  24. 24. Bioenergy and Biofuel Industry in the USA and Brazil – Path to cooperation Geraldo Eugenio de Franca Fulbright Association UNL – IANR & ARS-USDA ITEP – The Technology Institute of Pernambuco Lincoln, NE – Nov 28 2012 Acknowledgments• Brazil • USA• ITEP – The Technology • UNL – IANR – Dr. Ron Yoder Institute of Pernambuco – Dr. Frederico Montenegro • ARS-USDA Lincoln – Dr. Ken• IPA – The Agriculture Vogel and ARS team Research Institute of PE – Dr. Julio Zoe• Fulbright Association – Dr. • IIE – International Institute Luiz Valcov of Education – Mr. Jake Silva 24
  25. 25. Summary. Bioenergy policies in Brazil. The sugarcane and the ethanol industry. The second generation ethanol and other hydrocarbons. Biological and industrial R&D demands. The cooperation between Brazil and the USA Biofuels World Map 25
  26. 26. Bioenergy Policies in Brazil - A brief account• 1931 – 5% mixture of ethanol in gasoline• 1966 – 25% is the allowable mixture• 1975 – Brazilian Alcohol National Program – Proalcool• 1979 – Proalcool – Second phase - Iran-Iraq war – Crude prices jumped from US$ 14.00 to US$ 30.00/barrel• 1983 – Brazilian Energy Nation Program – Biodiesel research – Univ. Fed. of Parana Bioenergy Policies in Brazil - A brief account• 2002 - Ethanol – gasoline mixtures ranges from 20 to 25%• 2003 – Automobile industry launches the ‘flex-fuel’ vehicle – (ethanol – gasoline)• 2005 – Law 10097 – Biodiesel legislation and National Agrienergy Plan• 2010 – The Brazilian National Laboratory of Bioethanol – CTBE inaugurated• 2010 – Embrapa’s National Agrienergy Research Center 26
  27. 27. 27
  28. 28. Sugarcane acreage in Brazil – million hectares Gráfico 1 - Evolução da área de cana 8,0 7,0 6,0 Milhões de Hectares 5,0 4,0 3,0 2,0 1,0 0,0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Soca Reformada Expansão Em reforma Fonte: Elaboração EPE a partir de INPE [20] Sugarcane production in Brazil – million tonnes Gráfico 2– Histórico anual de produção de cana 700 622,6 627,3 600 565,8 500Milhões de toneladas 400 300 254,9 200 100 0 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Fonte: EPE com base em MAPA [26] 28
  29. 29. Sugarcane primary energy – 1 ton1/3 juice: ethanol and sugar – 608 x 109 kcal 153 kg sugar or 90 l ethanol1/3 bagasse: vapour and electricity – 598 x 109 kcal1/3 leafs and tops - 512 x 109 kcalTotal 1,718 x 10 9 kcal1 crude barrel 1,386x 10 9 kcal Sugarcane geography in Brazil 29
  30. 30. Brazilian ethanol supply Gráfico 3 – Oferta de etanol 30,0 28,0 26,1 25,0 23,0 19,9 19,1 Milhões de m³ 20,0 14,3 15,0 11,5 10,0 8,0 8,7 6,5 7,0 5,0 5,0 0,0 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Anidro Hidratado Etanol Total Fonte: Elaboração EPE a partir de MAPA [30] Flex-fuels vehicles sales in Brazil – 2003 - 2011 Veículos Flex Fuel Participação nas vendas de veículos leves - em milhões de unidades 3.5 100% 87.2% 88.2% 86.4% 85.6% 90% 3.0 83.1% 78.1% 2.9 80% 2.8 2.5 2.7 70% 2.3 60% 2.0Millions 50.2% 2.0 50% 1.5 40% 1.4 1.0 30% 21.6% 0.8 20% 0.5 3.7% 10% 0.0 0.3 - 0% 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Vendas de veículos flex Participação de veículos flex nas vendas de veículos leves Source: EPE 2012 30
  31. 31. Brazilian ethanol production and oil priceFonte: BP e EPE USA RFS Program requirements 31
  32. 32. Ethanol Production in the USA and Brazil Projected ethanol importation from the USA Gráfico 7 – Projeções de Importação – Estados Unidos 3,0 2,6 2,5 2,3 2,2 2,0 2,0 1,7Bilhõe s de litros 1,6 1,6 1,5 1,5 1,4 1,3 1,0 0,5 0,0 200 8 200 9 2010 2011 2012 20 13 20 14 20 15 20 16 20 17 Fonte: elaboração EPE a partir de EIA [19]. 32
  33. 33. USA and Brazil R&D collaborative program Environmental Agronomy issues Priority areasBiochemistry and Industrial issues Biotechnology Agronomy - R&D demands Sugarcane and Corn • Abiotic stresses – cold, heat, drought • Lignocellulose material - content and quality • Water use efficiency • Transportation logistics Sweet Sorghum • Total biomass production and quality • Juice and fermentable sugars content • Lodging tolerance • Photoperiod response • Leaf diseases resistance C4 Grasses – Switchgrass, Napier grass • Resilience • Total biomass production and quality • Carbon sequestration • Life cycle analysis 33
  34. 34. Biotechnology and Biochemistry – R&DSucrose Starch Lignocellulose• Yeast strains tolerant • Yeast strains tolerant • Designing enzymes to high temperature to high temperature for conversion – C5• Yeast strains tolerant • Yeast strains tolerant • Lignin use to high ethanol to high ethanol content in the beer content in the beer • NIRS analysis • Modified starch • Identification and use molecules of specific traits Environmental issuesClimate Change Life Cycle Analysis Mechanization• GHG emissions • Net energy ratio • Harvesting• Carbon sequestration • Reduction in use of • Soil compaction agrochemicals• Water use efficiency in biomass production • Transportation of • Biological N fixation leafs and tops• WUE in industrial • P and K activities bioremediation 34
  35. 35. Industrial demandsLiquid fuels Energy Byproducts• Sugar extraction • Electricity • Bio-plastics• Enzymatic conversion • Thermal conversion • New materials• Lignin use • Biogas• Hydrocarbons USA and Brazil – Mechanisms of cooperation 2007 – Agreement - President Bush and President Lula da Silva . Bioenergy, ethanol, joint projects 2011 – MOU on Scientific Cooperation - President Barak Obama and President Dilma Roussef • Agriculture, health, aerospace engineering, bioenergy 2011 – The Science without Borders Program • Brazil is sending 100,000 students abroad in 4 years • 75,000 students with public funds. • 18,000 selected. Around 4,000 to the USA 35
  36. 36. PhD and MSc students graduated – 1998 - 2011Source: MCTI 2012 Fulbright Association – UNL & ARS-USDA Thanking you! Geraldo Eugenio 36