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# NFI - Industrial Pneumatics

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Brief Content:

1) Basic of Pneumatic
2) History of Pneumatic
3) Components of Pneumatic
4) Air Distribution System
5) Air Consuming System
6) Pneumatic Valves & Cylinders
7) Pneumatic Circuits
8) Electro- Pneumatic Circuits

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### NFI - Industrial Pneumatics

1. 1. Training on Industrial Pneumatics NFI – Industrial Automation & CAD Training Academy nfi
2. 2. What Does Pneumatics means? Comes from Greek Word: “Pneumatikos “ means Wind or breathe Pneumatics is movement by compressed Air www.nfiautomation.org nfi
3. 3. Pneumatics in Day to Day Life It is put to a wide variety of uses such as dentists drills, automatic doors, brakes on lorries and hammer drills used at roadwork's. www.nfiautomation.org
4. 4. Who Discovered the Idea of Pneumatics? German Physicist & Engineer – Otto von Guericke (1602-1686) 17th Century www.nfiautomation.org nfi
5. 5. Magdeburg Hemispheres Who Discovered the Idea of Pneumatics? www.nfiautomation.org nfi
6. 6. Who Discovered the Idea of Pneumatics? Magdeburg Hemispheres www.nfiautomation.org
7. 7. Force & Pressure Illustration of pressure varying with temperature. Pressure-temperature law www.nfiautomation.org
8. 8. Boyle’s law or Boyle–Mariotte law the absolute pressure and volume of a given mass of confined gas are inversely proportional, if the temperature remains unchanged within a closed system. Thus, it states that the product of pressure and volume is a constant for a given mass of confined gas as long as the temperature is constant pV= k Pressure = Voltage Volume = Capacitance Flow rate = Current Flow Restrictions = Resistance www.nfiautomation.org
9. 9. Typical Units of Pressure The SI unit for pressure is the Pascal (Pa), equal to one newton per square meter (N/m2 or kg·m−1·s−2). www.nfiautomation.org
10. 10. Typical Units of Air Flow CFM = Cubic feet per minute Cubic meter per hour = M*M*M/Hour Litres per minutes = l/min www.nfiautomation.org
11. 11. Basic Pneumatic System How Bike Pump Works? www.nfiautomation.org
12. 12. Basic Industrial Pneumatic System www.nfiautomation.org
13. 13. Basic Industrial Pneumatic System Electrical Motor IT ACTIVATEWHEN PRESSUREIS ABOVECRACKINGPRESSURE Pneumatic Pressure Source Pressure Relief Valve 2 Double-Acting Cylinder Gas-loaded Accum ulator w ith separator 0.00 Bar Pressure Indicator Exhaust Compressor With Left Shaft/Variable Solenoid www.nfiautomation.org
14. 14. Two Sections of Pneumatic System 1. Air Production & Distribution System 2. Air Consuming System www.nfiautomation.org
15. 15. Components of Air Production System 1. Compressor 2. Electric Motor 3. Pressure Switch 4. Check Valve 5. Tank 6. Pressure gauge 7. Auto Drain 8. Safety Valve 9. Air Dryer 10. Line Filter www.nfiautomation.org
16. 16. Compressor 1. Reciprocating Type – Piston & Diaphragm 2. Rotary - Vane & Screw Type Converts mechanical energy into pneumatic energy www.nfiautomation.org
17. 17. Compressor 1. Reciprocating Type – Piston & Diaphragm Converts mechanical energy into pneumatic energy Single Stage Two Stage www.nfiautomation.org
18. 18. Compressor 1. Reciprocating Type – Piston & Diaphragm Converts mechanical energy into pneumatic energy Diaphragm Inlet Outlet Inlet Outlet Crank www.nfiautomation.org
19. 19. Compressor 1. Rotary - Vane & Screw Type Converts mechanical energy into pneumatic energy Eccentrically mounted rotor www.nfiautomation.org
20. 20. Compressor 1. Rotary - Vane & Screw Type Converts mechanical energy into pneumatic energy Helical Screws rotating Opposite to each other www.nfiautomation.org
21. 21. Compressor Ratings Typical factors determining nature of compressor Displaced Volume or Displacement = Q (l /min) or (l/rev) Nominal Speed = in rpm Maximum Pressure = in Bar or psi Tank Capacity = in litres Maximum Flow = l/min or l/sec Fixed Type Variable Type www.nfiautomation.org
22. 22. Components of Air Production System 1. Compressor 2. Electric Motor 3. Pressure Switch 4. Check Valve 5. Tank 6. Pressure gauge 7. Auto Drain 8. Safety Valve 9. Air Dryer 10. Line Filter For Auto Cut off at required Pressure www.nfiautomation.org
23. 23. Components of Air Production System For Auto Cut off at required Pressure www.nfiautomation.org
24. 24. Components of Air Production System 1. Compressor 2. Electric Motor 3. Pressure Switch 4. Check Valve 5. Tank 6. Pressure gauge 7. Auto Drain 8. Safety Valve 9. Air Dryer 10. Line Filter www.nfiautomation.org
25. 25. Components of Air Production System Check Valve Check Valve Spring Loaded www.nfiautomation.org
26. 26. Components of Air Production System 1. Compressor 2. Electric Motor 3. Pressure Switch 4. Check Valve 5. Tank 6. Pressure gauge 7. Auto Drain 8. Safety Valve 9. Air Dryer 10. Line Filter www.nfiautomation.org
27. 27. Components of Air Production System 1. Compressor 2. Electric Motor 3. Pressure Switch 4. Check Valve 5. Tank 6. Pressure gauge 7. Auto Drain 8. Safety Valve 9. Air Dryer 10. Line Filter 0.00 Bar To measure Inlet & Outlet Pressure www.nfiautomation.org
28. 28. Components of Air Production System 1. Compressor 2. Electric Motor 3. Pressure Switch 4. Check Valve 5. Tank 6. Pressure gauge 7. Auto Drain 8. Safety Valve 9. Air Dryer 10. Line Filter www.nfiautomation.org
29. 29. Components of Air Production System 1. Compressor 2. Electric Motor 3. Pressure Switch 4. Check Valve 5. Tank 6. Pressure gauge 7. Auto Drain 8. Safety Valve 9. Air Dryer 10. Line Filter To remove water inside the Compressor www.nfiautomation.org
30. 30. Components of Air Production System 1. Compressor 2. Electric Motor 3. Pressure Switch 4. Check Valve 5. Tank 6. Pressure gauge 7. Auto Drain 8. Safety Valve 9. Air Dryer 10. Line Filter www.nfiautomation.org
31. 31. Components of Air Production System 1. Compressor 2. Electric Motor 3. Pressure Switch 4. Check Valve 5. Tank 6. Pressure gauge 7. Auto Drain 8. Safety Valve 9. Air Dryer 10. Line Filter Pressure Relief Valve www.nfiautomation.org
32. 32. Components of Air Production System 1. Compressor 2. Electric Motor 3. Pressure Switch 4. Check Valve 5. Tank 6. Pressure gauge 7. Auto Drain 8. Safety Valve 9. Air Dryer 10. Line Filter www.nfiautomation.org
33. 33. Components of Air Production System Drying agent such as Dehydrated chalk or Magnesium chloride It reacts with moisture (in air) to form solution which is drained from the bottom www.nfiautomation.org
34. 34. Components of Air Production System 1. Compressor 2. Electric Motor 3. Pressure Switch 4. Check Valve 5. Tank 6. Pressure gauge 7. Auto Drain 8. Safety Valve 9. Air Dryer 10. Line Filter www.nfiautomation.org
35. 35. Components of Air Production System to remove contamination, oil vapors from the compressor and water from the air www.nfiautomation.org
36. 36. Components of Air Production System Combining All the components together 0.00 Bar Pressure Indicator Electrical Motor Pneumatic Pressure Source Air Dryer Filter Lubricator Cooler www.nfiautomation.org
37. 37. Two Sections of Pneumatic System 1. Air Production & Distribution System 2. Air Consuming System www.nfiautomation.org
38. 38. Two Sections of Pneumatic System 1. Air Production & Distribution System 2. Air Consuming System Elements of Air Consuming System 1. Actuators – Pneumatic Cylinders 2. Valves – Directional Control Valves (DCV) www.nfiautomation.org
39. 39. Air Consuming Section Actuators – Pneumatic Cylinders Used to produce linear motion Single Acting Cylinder www.nfiautomation.org
40. 40. Air Consuming Section Actuators – Pneumatic Cylinders Used to produce linear motion Single Acting Cylinder Single-Acting Cylinder With Spring Return Single-Acting Cylinder With Spring Extend www.nfiautomation.org
41. 41. Air Consuming Section Actuators – Pneumatic Cylinders Used to produce linear motion Double Acting Cylinder www.nfiautomation.org
42. 42. Air Consuming Section Actuators – Pneumatic Cylinders Used to produce linear motion Double Acting Cylinder www.nfiautomation.org
43. 43. Air Consuming Section Actuators – Pneumatic Cylinders Used to produce linear motion ble-Acting 2-Cushion Cylinder On large cylinders, the shock forces can be absorbed by an air cushion that decelerates the piston over the last portion of the stroke Double Acting Cylinder with Cushion www.nfiautomation.org
44. 44. Air Consuming Section Actuators – Pneumatic Cylinders Used to produce linear motion A double ended piston rod makes a cylinder stronger against side load, as it has two bearings at the widest distance possible. This type of cylinder is often mounted with rods fixed and the cylinder itself moving to displace a part. Double Acting Double Rod Cylinder Double-Acting Double-Rod Cylinder www.nfiautomation.org
45. 45. Air Consuming Section Actuators – Other types of Cylinders Used to produce rotary/linear motion Rotary Actuator- Vane Type Rodless Cylinder www.nfiautomation.org
46. 46. Piston Force Dependant on the air pressure, the cylinder diameter, and the frictional resistance of the sealing components. Fth = A . p Fth = Theoretical piston force in N. A = Useful piston area in cm². p = Operation pressure in kPa. Fn = Effective piston force in Newton (N) FR = frictional force (3-20%) in Newton (N) Fn = A. p – (FR+FF) Single Acting Cyl. Fn = A. p – FR Double Acting Cyl. www.nfiautomation.org
47. 47. Two Sections of Pneumatic System 1. Air Production & Distribution System 2. Air Consuming System Elements of Air Consuming System 1. Actuators – Pneumatic Cylinders 2. Valves – Directional Control Valves (DCV) www.nfiautomation.org
48. 48. Valves – Directional Control Valves (DCV) 1. Allowing the passage of air and directing it to particular air lines 2. Canceling air signals as required by blocking their passage and / or 3. Relieving the air to atmosphere. www.nfiautomation.org
49. 49. 3/2– Directional Control Valves (DCV) ? 3/2 Spring return Valve NC ? 3/2 Spring return Valve NO www.nfiautomation.org
50. 50. 5/2– Directional Control Valves (DCV) 5/2 Spring return Valve NC 5/2 Spring return Valve NO ? ? www.nfiautomation.org
51. 51. 5/3– Directional Control Valves (DCV) ?? To stop the cylinder in between 5/3 Double Button Spring Return Valve 0.00 Bar www.nfiautomation.org
52. 52. Pneumatics Exercises www.nfiautomation.org 1) Draw a pneumatic circuit to actuate two Single Acting Spring Return cylinder with one 3/2 Valve 2) Draw a pneumatic circuit to actuate Double acting Cylinder with 5/2 Valve ? ?
53. 53. Flow Control Valves: Throttle Valve To control the flow Fixed Throttle Valve Variable Throttle Valve Non Return Throttle Valve Variable Non Return Throttle Valve www.nfiautomation.org
54. 54. Flow Control Valves: Check Valve The check valve allows oil flow in one direction and blocks it in the opposite direction. Check Valve Spring Loaded Check Valve Pilot to Open Check Valve Pilot to Close Check Valve www.nfiautomation.org
55. 55. Shut off Valves The shut-off valve can isolate 2 distinct lines in an hydraulic circuit Shut off Valve Normally Open www.nfiautomation.org
56. 56. Vacuum Generator To generate vacuum Inlet Exhaust Vacuum Pressure Vacuum Cup www.nfiautomation.org
57. 57. Pneumatics Flow Lines & Connections Silencer Pneumatic Pressure Source Pneumatic Exhaust Pneumatic T Connector Pneumatic other Fittings Pneumatic Pipes www.nfiautomation.org
58. 58. Electro- Pneumatics www.nfiautomation.org Including Electronics/Electrical Circuits in Pneumatics Circuit to control automatically – typically referred to DCV
59. 59. Electro- Pneumatics www.nfiautomation.org Including Electronics/Electrical Circuits in Pneumatics Circuit to control automatically – typically referred to DCV Solenoid ? Solenoid Ratings: 24 VDC, 220 VAC
60. 60. Pneumatics Exercises www.nfiautomation.org 1) Draw an Electro- pneumatic circuit to actuate Single acting cylinder with 3/2 solenoid valve actuated by Toggle switch 2) Draw a pneumatic circuit to actuate & latch Double acting Cylinder with 5/3 Spring return Solenoid Valve ? ?
61. 61. Pneumatics Applications www.nfiautomation.org
62. 62. Pneumatics Applications – Pick & Place Robotic Arm driven by PLC www.nfiautomation.org
63. 63. Festo Pneumatics Applications www.nfiautomation.org
64. 64. FREE PLC Course: - “Learn PLC in a DAY” Automation Knowledge Base www.nfiautomation.org
65. 65. rajvir@nfiautomation.org 9988808455 thank you nfi