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Industrial automation

Industrial automation






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    Industrial automation Industrial automation Presentation Transcript

    • Understanding Industrial Automation
    • Automation (ancient Greek: = self dictated), roboticization or industrial automation or numerical control is the use of control systems such as computers to control industrial machinery and processes, replacing human operators. In the scope of industrialization, it is a step beyond mechanization. Whereas mechanization provided human operators with machinery to assist them with the physical requirements of work, automation greatly reduces the need for human sensory and mental requirements as well. Automation plays an increasingly important role in the global economy and in daily experience. Engineers strive to combine automated devices with mathematical and organizational tools to create complex systems for a rapidly expanding range of applications and human activities. There are still many jobs which are in no immediate danger of automation. No device has been invented which can match the [[Eye|human eye] for accuracy and precision in many tasks; nor the human ear. Even the admittedly handicapped human is able to identify and distinguish among far more scents than any automated device. Human pattern recognition, language recognition, and language production ability is well beyond anything currently envisioned by automation engineers. Automation
    • Specialised computers, referred to as programmable logic controllers (PLCs), are frequently used to synchronize the flow of inputs from (physical) sensors and events with the flow of outputs to actuators and events. This leads to precisely controlled actions that permit a tight control of almost any industrial process. Human-machine interfaces (HMI) or computer human interfaces (CHI), formerly known as man-machine interfaces, are usually employed to communicate with PLCs and other computers, such as entering and monitoring temperatures or pressures for further automated control or emergency response. Service personnel who monitor and control these interfaces are often referred to as stationary engineers. Another form of automation involving computers is test automation, where computer-controlled automated test equipment is programmed to simulate human testers in manually testing an application. This is often accomplished by using test automation tools to generate special scripts (written as computer programs) that direct the automated test equipment in exactly what to do in order to accomplish the tests Finally, the last form of automation is software-automation, where a computer by means of macro recorder software records the sequence of user actions (mouse and keyboard) as a macro for playback at a later time. Automation
    • Current emphases in automation Currently, for manufacturing companies, the purpose of automation has shifted from increasing productivity and reducing costs, to broader issues, such as increasing quality and flexibility in the manufacturing process. The old focus on using automation simply to increase productivity and reduce costs was seen to be short-sighted, because it is also necessary to provide a skilled workforce who can make repairs and manage the machinery. Moreover, the initial costs of automation were high and often could not be recovered by the time entirely new manufacturing processes replaced the old. (Japan's "robot junkyards" were once world famous in the manufacturing industry.) Automation is now often applied primarily to increase quality in the manufacturing process, where automation can increase quality substantially. For example, automobile and truck pistons used to be installed into engines manually. This is rapidly being transitioned to automated machine installation, because the error rate for manual installment was around 1-1.5%, but has been reduced to 0.00001% with automation. Hazardous operations, such as oil refining, the manufacturing of industrial chemicals, and all forms of metal working, were always early contenders for automation. Another major shift in automation is the increased emphasis on flexibility and convertibility in the manufacturing process. Manufacturers are increasingly demanding the ability to easily switch from manufacturing Product A to manufacturing Product B without having to completely rebuild the production lines.
    • Safety issues of automation One safety issue with automation is that while it is often viewed as a way to minimize human error in a system, increasing the degree and levels of automation also increases the consequences of error. For example, The Three Mile Island nuclear event was largely due to over-reliance on "automated safety" systems. Unfortunately, in the event, the designers had never anticipated the actual failure mode which occurred, so both the "automated safety" systems and their human overseers were innundated with vast amounts of largely irrelevant information. With automation we have machines designed by (fallible) people with high levels of expertise, which operate at speeds well beyond human ability to react, being operated by people with relatively more limited education (or other failings, as in the Bhopal disaster). Ultimately, with increasing levels of automation over ever larger domains of activities, when something goes wrong the consequences rapidly approach the catastrophic. This is true for all complex systems however, and one of the major goals of safety engineering for nuclear reactors, for example, is to make safety mechanisms as simple and as foolproof as possible
    • Automation Tools Different types of automation tools exists: ANN - Artificial neural network DCS - Distributed Control System HMI - Human Machine Interface LIMS - Laboratory Information Management System MES - Manufacturing Execution System PAC - Programmable automation controller PLC - Programmable Logic Controller SCADA - Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition Simulation
    • What is Embedded System ?
      • Embedded System
      • Devices which are Connected, high performance computing systems designed for dedicated use
      • They have a lot of constraints in terms of resources and mostly time Critical. They are often powered by a RTOS either homegrown or commercial
      PDA’s Cell Phones DVD Player Cable Modem Digital Camera Missiles Space Crafts Fire Alarms Test & Mesuring Instruments Robots
    • Embedded System = Computer Inside a Product PDA’s Cell Phones DVD Player Cable Modem Digital Camera Missiles Space Crafts Fire Alarms Test & Mesuring Instruments Robots
      • What is not a Embedded Device
      • A Desktop computer
        • Its is a general purpose system used for many applications like accounting, word-processing, internet, games etc.
        • Thus the operating system used therein is designed to cater all these applications.
      • Embedded System
      • An embedded system
        • uses a μ Processor / controller to perform some function
        • but is not used (nor perceived) as a computer
      • Software is used for features and flexibility
      • Hardware is used for performance
      • Typical characteristics
        • performs a single function or a set of functions
        • it is part of a larger (controlled) system
        • cost and reliability are often the most significant aspects
    • Typical Layout Of Embedded System
    • Types OF Embedded Systems
      • Stand Alone System
        • Typical μ P / μ C based system.
        • Specs of the μ P / μ C depend on the requirement of that application .
      • Real Time Embedded System
        • Systems have to respond in a defined timeframe otherwise a catastrophe may arise
        • e.g. flight control, railway signaling, medical devices, process control.
        • Normally Use Real Time Operating System (RTOS) which guarantee you a response within a given time frame.
        • Examples of RTOS – Linux-RT, Win-CE, Qnx etc…
    • Types OF Embedded Systems Networked Embedded System The world is getting networked. Increasingly we see & hear about devices with connectivity. With internet getting popular there is an increasing number of network appliances available in the market . e.g. A patient monitoring system in a hospital, Security systems in a bank connected to the Police dept
    • Embedded System Design Considerations
      • Small Size, Low Weight
        • Hand-held electronics
        • Transportation applications – weight costs money
      • Low Power
        • Battery power for 8+hours (laptops often last only 2 hours)
        • Limited cooling may limit power even if AC power available
      • Harsh environment
        • Power fluctuations, RF interference, lightning
        • Heat, vibration, shock
        • Water, corrosion, physical abuse
      • Safety-critical operation
        • Must function correctly
        • Loss of property and life in case of malfunction
      • Extremely cost sensitivity
    • Operating System OS is a collection of system programs that together control the operation of the system. Operating systems provide a software platform on top of which other programs, called application programs run. Operating system thus becomes an easy interface to program the application than a raw hardware OS allows programs / users to share the hardware resources in a fair and efficient manner. Your choice of operating system, therefore, determines to a great extent the applications you need to design or run
    • Software Layout Of Embedded System
    • Operating systems
      • Operating System…
        • Initialize the hardware
        • Provide easy access to onboard peripherals
        • Manage, schedule & control different tasks
        • Handle errors & maintain the system integrity
      • Knowledge of the internals of an OS is essential to achieve efficiency in
        • building software applications
        • deciding upon a computing platform
    • Operating systems
      • Types Of Operating Systems
        • Single User Operating Systems
        • Multi User Operating systems
        • Multiprocessing
        • Multitasking
        • Multithreading
        • Real Time.
    • Operating System Types
      • Single User Operating Systems
        • An OS which only one user can work at any given time
        • If another user needs access to the system, he must wait till the current user finishes what he is doing and leaves
        • e.g. Dos, Windows
    • Operating System Types
      • Multi User Operating systems
        • More than one users can access the system simultaneously.
        • Access to the system is normally provided via a network. The users access it remotely using a terminal or other devices
        • e.g. Windows-2000 / XP Server, Unix, Linux, Novel Netware
    • Operating Systems Types
      • Multiprocessing OS
        • Ability to run many programs concurrently
        • There are multiple CPUs in these types of system & the OS runs different processes allocates resources to different CPU’s for the processes to be executed at the given time
        • e.g. DEC VAX, VMS, MACRO-32
        • Normally not used for Embedded Systems
    • Operating Systems Types
      • Multitasking OS
        • Multitasking is similar to Multiprocessing
        • Multitasking is normally referred to when only one CPU is involved
        • OS switches from one program to another so quickly that it gives the appearance of executing all of the programs at the same time
        • e.g. Windows, Linux, Win-CE, …
    • Operating Systems Types
      • Multithreading OS
        • Ability of an operating system to execute different parts of a program, called threads, simultaneously
        • This Feature is now available in most of the new operating systems
    • Operating System Types
      • Real Time OS
        • Correctness of the computations not only depends upon the logical correctness of the computation but also upon the time at which the result is produced
        • Real-time systems are used in areas where time criticality is an important factor
          • Systems have to respond in a defined timeframe otherwise a catastrophe may arise
          • e.g. flight control, railway signaling, medical devices, process control.
    • The Boot Process..
      • An intelligent system when powered up will first go to the first memory location.
      • The memory location has a program which will initialize the hardware & then the bootstrap loader runs a small program to load the kernel of the operating system into its memory to start its function.
      • Depending on the number of OS you have, the bootloader loads the OS mentioned their in usually after giving the user options available
      • The selected OS is then loaded into the RAM. In case there is only one OS it will be treated as default & will be loaded into the system
    • assembly language
      • An is a low-level language for programming microcontollers. It implements a symbolic representation of the numeric machine codes and other constants needed to program a particular CPU architecture. This representation is usually defined by the hardware manufacturer, and is based on abbreviations (called mnemonics ) that help the programmer remember individual instructions, registers , etc.
      • Assembly languages were first developed in the 1950s, However, by the 1980s (1990s on small computers), their use had largely been supplanted by high-level languages , in the search for improved programming productivity . Today, assembly language is used primarily for direct hardware manipulation, or to address critical performance issues. Typical uses are device drivers , low-level embedded systems , and real-time systems.
      • A utility program called an assembler , is used to translate assembly language statements into the target computer's machine code. The assembler performs a more or less isomorphic translation (a one-to-one mapping) from mnemonic statements into machine instructions and data. (This is in contrast with high-level languages , in which a single statement generally results in many machine instructions. A compiler , analogous to an assembler, is used to translate high-level language statements into machine code; or an interpreter executes statements directly.)
    • Win –CE (Consumer Electronics)
    • Win –CE (Consumer Electronics)
        • Screen: 2.0-inch TFT LCD, 24-bit
        • Audio: mp3, wma
        • Camera: 1.2M pixel
        • Bluetooth
        • IrDA
        • USB device
        • miniSD
      • H/W platform (OMAP 1611)
    • Paradigm Shift in Embedded Computing Platform uP without OS uP or RISC + RTOS RISC SoC + Open Embedded Platform OS RISC + Open and Powerful Platform OS PC Post PC Local Control Computing Centric Platform Application Oriented Embedded Platform Volume base Basic Functional Embedded Controller
    • What is Microcontroller ?
      • Microcontroller includes a CPU, RAM, ROM, I/O ports , and timers, because they are designed to execute only a single specific task to control a single system, they are much smaller and simplified so that they can include all the functions required on a single chip.
      • A microcontroller differs from a microprocessor, which is a general-purpose chip that is used to create a multi-function computer or device and requires multiple chips to handle various tasks. A microcontroller is meant to be more self-contained and independent, and functions as a tiny, dedicated computer.
    • Microcontroller MCS-51 Architecture
    • Program Memory
      • The logical separation of program and data memory allows the data memory to be accessed by 8-bit addresses, which can be quickly stored and manipulated by an 8-bit CPU.
      • There can be up to 64k bytes of program memory. In the 89s51, the lowest 4k bytes of program are on-chip
      • After reset, the CPU begins execution from location 0000H.
    • Program Memory
      • Each interrupt is assigned a fixed location in Program Memory. The interrupt causes the CPU to jump to that location, where it commences execution of the service routine. External Interrupt 0, for example, is assigned to location 0003H. If External Interrupt 0 is going to be used, its service routine must begin at location 0003H. If the interrupt is not going to be used, its service location is available as general purpose Program Memory.
    • Data Memory
    • Special Function Register
    • Special Function Register
      • Accumulator ACC is the Accumulator register. The mnemonics for Accumulator-Specific instructions, however, refer to the Accumulator simply as A. B Register The B register is used during multiply and divide operations. For other instructions it can be treated as another scratch pad register.
      • Program Status Word The PSW register contains program status information
      • Stack Pointer The Stack Pointer register is 8 bits wide. It is incremented before data is stored during PUSH and CALL executions. While the stack may reside anywhere in on-chip RAM, the Stack Pointer is initialized to 07H after a reset. This causes the stack to begin at locations 08H.
    • Special Function Register
      • Data Pointer DPTR consists of a high byte (DPH) and a low byte (DPL). Its intended function is to hold a 16-bit address. It may be manipulated as a 16-bit register or as two independent 8-bit registers. Ports 0 to 3 P0, P1, P2, and P3, Writing a one to a bit of a port SFR (P0, P1, P2, or P3) causes the corresponding port output pin to switch high. Writing a zero causes the port output pin to switch low. When used as an input, the external state of a port pin will be held in the port SFR
    • Special Function Register
      • Serial Data Buffer two separate registers, a transmit buffer and a receive buffer. When data is moved to SBUF, it goes to the transmit buffer and is held for serial transmission. (Moving a byte to SBUF is what initiates the transmission.) When data is moved from SBUF, it comes from the receive buffer.
      • Timer Registers Register pairs (TH0, TL0), and (TH1, TL1) are the 16-bit Counting registers for Timer/Counters 0 and 1, respectively.
      • Control Register Special Function Registers IP, IE, TMOD, TCON, SCON, and PCON contain control and status bits for the interrupt system, the Timer/Counters, and the serial port. They are described in later sections.
    • Addressing Mode
      • An "addressing mode" refers to how you are addressing a given memory location.
      • Immediate Addressing MOV A,#20h
      • Direct Addressing MOV A,30h
      • Indirect Addressing MOV A,@R0
      • External Direct MOVX A,@DPTR
      • Code Indirect MOVC A,@A+DPTR
    • Immediate Addressing
      • Immediate addressing is so-named because the value to be stored in memory immediately follows the operation code in memory. That is to say, the instruction itself dictates what value will be stored in memory. For example,
      • org 00h
      • start: MOV A,#20h ; put constant 20 into Acc end
    • Direct Addressing
      • Direct addressing is so-named because the value to be stored in memory is obtained by directly retrieving it from another memory location. For example:
      • Org0h Start:Mov70h,# 1;put constant 1 into RAM 70h Mov A,70h ;copy RAM 70 content into Acc Mov A,#0 ; put constant 0 into Acc Mov 90h,A ;copy Acc content into RAM 90h end
    • Instruction Set
      • Arithmetic Instructions
      • Add, Sub, Div, Mul, Inc, Dec
      • Data Transfer Instructions
      • Mov A,<src>,Mov <dest>,A Mov <dest>, <src>Mov DPTR,#data16Push <src>Pop <src>Xch A,<byte>Xchd A,@Ri
      • Logical Instructions Boolean operations (AND, OR, Exclusive OR, NOT)
    • Making a LED Blink
      • Step 1st
    • Making a LED Blink
      • Step 2nd org 0h start: Clr P0.0 ; send '0' to P0.0 call delay ; call delay time Setb P0.0 ; send '1' to P0.0 call delay ; call delay time sjmp start ; loop forever to start ;============================================= ;subroutine delay created to rise delay time ;============================================= delay: mov R1,#255 del1: mov R2,#255 del2: djnz R2,del2 djnz R1,del1 ret end
    • Making a LED Blink
      • Step 3rd Save your assembly program above, and name it with LED1.asm (for example) Compile the program that you have been save by using MIDE-51, see the software instruction. Step 4th Download your hex file ( LED1.hex ) into the microcontroller by using Microcontroller ATMEL ISP software, see the instruction. After download this hex file you'll see the action of the LED
    • Timer/ Counter
      • The MCS-51 has two 16 bit Timer/ Counter register. Timer 0 and Timer 1. Both can be configured to operate either as timers or event counters
    • Timer Mode Control (TMOD) Reg.   TIMER 1 TIMER 0 GATE C/T M1 M0 GATE C/T M1 M0 GATE Gating control when set. Timer/ Counter X is enabled only while INTx pin is high and TRx control pin is set C/T Timer or Counter Selector cleared for Timer operation (input from internal system clock) and set for counter operation (input from Tx input pin) M1 M0 Operating 0 0 8048 Timer, TLx serves as 5 bit prescaler 0 1 16 bit Timer/Counter THx and TLx are cascaded, there is no prescaler 1 0 8 bit auto reaload Timer/ Counter THx holds a value which is tobe reloaded into TLx each time it overflows 1 1 (Timer 0) TL0 is an 8 bit Timer/ Counter controlled by the standard timer 0 control bits (Timer 1) Timer/ Counter 1 stopped
    • Timer Control ( TCON ) Register BIT SYMBOL FUNCTION TCON.7 TF1 Timer 1 overflow flag. Set by hardware on Timer/Counter overflow. Cleared by hardware when processor vector to interrupt routine, or clearing the bit in software. TCON.6 TR1 Timer 1 Run control bit . Set/ cleared by software to turn Timer/ Counter on/off TCON.5 TF0 Timer 0 overflow flag. Set by hardware on Timer/Counter overflow. Cleared by hardware when processor vector to interrupt routine, or clearing the bit in software. TCON.4 TR0 Timer 1 Run control bit . Set/ cleared by software to turn Timer/ Counter on/off TCON.3 IE1 Interrupt 1 Edge flag. Set by hardware when external interrupt edge detected. Cleared when interrupt processed. TCON.2 IT1 Interrupt 1 type control bit. Set/ cleared by software to specify falling edge/ low level triggered external interrupts TCON.1 IE0 Interrupt 0 Edge flag. Set by hardware when external interrupt edge detected. Cleared when interrupt processed. TCON.0 IT0 Interrupt 0 type control bit. Set/ cleared by software to specify falling edge/ low level triggered external interrupts
    • Timer Mode 1 : 16 bit Counter
      • Generate pulse by using Timer 1 mode 1
      • Org 0h Start: Setb P0.0 ;P0.0 = 1 call Delay ;call delay time Clr P0.0 ;P0.0 = 0 Sjmp Start ;Looping Forever
      • Delay: Mov R0,#0 ;R0 = 0 Mov TMOD,#00010000b ;mode 1, Timer 1
      • Load: Mov TH1, #0D8h ;TH1 = D8h Mov TL1, #0F0h ; TL1 = F0h Setb TR1 ; TR1 = 1, Start Running OFlow: JNB TF1, OFlow ; jump to OFlow if TF1 =0 Inc R0 ; R0 = R0+1 CJNE R0,#50,Load Ret
      • End
    • Serial Interface
      • The Full Duplex serial port receive and transmit registers are both accessed at Special Function Register SBUF. Writing to SBUF loads the transmit register, and reading SBUF accesses a physically separate receive register.
    • LED On-Off Serially- RS232
    • Interrupt
      • Source Priority Within Level 1. IE0 (highest) 2. TF0 3. IE1 4. TF1 5. RI+TI (lowest)
    • Interrupt Enable Register ( IE ) BIT SYMBOL FUNCTION IE.7 EA Disables all interrupts. If EA=0, no interrupt will be acknowledged. If EA=1, each interrupt source is individually enabled or disabled by setting or clearing its enable bit. IE.6 - - IE.5 - - IE.4 ES Enables or disables the Serial Port interrupt. If ES=0, the Serial Port interrupt is disabled. IE.3 ET1 Enables or disables the Timer 1 Overflow interrupt. If ET1=0, the Timer 1 interrupt is disabled. IE.2 EX1 Enables or disables External Interrupt 1. If EX1=0, External interrupt 1 is disabled. IE.1 ET0 Enables or disables the Timer 0 Overflow interrupt. If ET0=0, the Timer 0 interrupt is disabled. IE.0 EX0 Enables or disables External interrupt 0. If EX0=0, External interrupt 0 is disabled.
    • Interrupt Priority Register (IP) BIT SYMBOL FUNCTION IP.7 - - IP.6 - - IP.5 - - IP.4 PS Defines the Serial Port interrupt priority level. PS=1 programs it to the higher priority level. IP.3 PT1 Defines the Timer 1 interrupt priority level. PT1=1 programs it to the higher priority level. IP.2 PX1 Defines the External Interrupt 1 priority level. PX1=1 programs it to the higher priority level. IP.1 PT0 Enables or disables the Timer 0 interrupt priority level. PT0=1 programs it to the higher priority level. IP.0 PX0 Defines the External Interrupt 0 priority level. PX0=1 programs it to the higher priority level.
    • All in One: Microcontrollers
    • Thanks Question Please