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Five directions for volunteer management research
 

Five directions for volunteer management research

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    Five directions for volunteer management research Five directions for volunteer management research Presentation Transcript

    • Motivational profile, role identity and volunteer embeddedness Gerry Treuren and Natalie Potter AOM symposium, San Antonio, August 16
    • Growing challenges for volunteer managers Recruiting and retaining the right volunteers
    • HRM and OB offers new approaches to volunteer attraction and retention
    • 1. Message-matching-based approach to recruitment and retention
      • First proposed by Clary et al. 1994, 1998
      • Argued that the motivational emphasis of the recruitment message attracted volunteers with the same motivational orientation
      • The more congruent the recruitment message is with potential volunteer motivation, the higher the intention to volunteer
    • If the message-matching approach is well-founded…
      • Organisations can design better strategies for recruiting preferred motivational types
      • Can be expanded to include motivationally appropriate retention strategies
    • Limits to the current research
      • Only tested using student samples
      • Has only looked at intention to volunteer, not actual volunteering
      • This approach hinges on getting volunteer motivation right
    • A message-matching research program
    • 2. The Associative-Supportive motivation
      • Treuren (2009) proposed the Associative-Supportive motivation based on studies of event and sport volunteering
      • Associative-Supportive motivation: Volunteer has a strong attachment to the organisation or activity. They participate to (i) be involved and (ii) to ensure its success.
    • Some evidence for the Associative-Supportive motivation
      • Strong qualitative and descriptive evidence in event and sport volunteering
      • Clary et al (1998) Volunteer Functions Inventory + A-S factor structure works:
        • Sport event volunteers (N=207)
        • Health-based volunteering (N=203)
    • Implications of the Associative-Supportive motivation for recruitment and retention
      • Enables better recruitment and retention strategies:
        • Recognition of A-S motivation enables more accurate description of volunteer motivation
        • Enables better targeted message-matching
    • Research Questions
    • 3. Recognition of volunteer profiles
      • Kiviniemi et al (2002) highlighted the multiple motivations of volunteers
        • Promise of identifying generic volunteer types
      • Identifying generic volunteer types will assist message-matching approaches, and thus lead to better recruitment and retention
    • Current volunteer profile research
      • Sparked several papers that used cluster analysis and latent class analysis techniques to identify generic volunteer types
      • Current research is inductive and sample specific: use of a variety of scales prevents the identification of generic types
      • No testing of approach
    • An example of volunteer profiling
      • Cluster analysis of motivations of 588 event volunteers drawn from 5 organisations
      • 6 distinct types of volunteers
        • Three varieties of enthusiasts
        • Two varieties of reluctant volunteers
        • One variety of instrumentalists
    •  
    • Research Questions
    • 4. Role Identity of volunteers
      • Volunteer role identity is that aspect of self-concept that sees ‘volunteering’ as part of their identity and personality
        • ‘ I am a volunteer at ----’
      • This belief about self can influence volunteer behaviours and expectations
    • Role Identity of volunteers
      • Role identity is negligible at first – people typically volunteer initially for other reasons
      • RI emerges soon after commencement
      • As people continue to volunteer, they develop a sense of themselves as ‘volunteers’
        • This identity consolidates their volunteering involvement
    • Volunteer Role Identity and tenure Unclear – how RI develops over time Volunteering starts
    • Organisational benefits of managed Role Identity
      • Research has pointed to the importance of volunteer role identity – RI positively correlated with:
        • organisational commitment
        • ‘ employee’ engagement
        • organisational identification
        • reduced intention to leave
    • Role Identity as moderator of the relationship between Psychological Contract Breach and Intention to leave
    • Role of volunteer Role Identity
    • Managing Role Identity
      • Cultivation of role identity can lead to better retention and - eventually - better recruitment
      • How?
        • Recognising and finding legitimate forms for volunteer ‘ownership’
        • Appreciating the different forms taken by volunteer engagement
    • Propositions to be tested
    • Propositions to be tested
    • 5. The ‘job embeddedness’ of volunteers
      • Job Embeddedness Theory (JET) holds that employees are bound to their organisations by an idiosyncratic collage of perceptual, cognitive and structural factors
      • Some of these factors can be manipulated by management to increase retention
      • Potentially directly applicable to volunteers
    • So what is JET?
      • Volunteer attached to organisation by:
        • Organisational and community fit
        • Organisational and community linkage
        • Organisational and community sacrifice
      • The greater the embeddedness, the more ‘connected’ and the lower the intention to leave
    • Moderating role of volunteer embeddedness
    • Consequences of managing employee embeddedness
      • JET research has found that the different elements of embeddedness reliably predict employee outcomes such as:
        • Employee attachment and engagement
        • Organisational citizenship behaviours
      • Moderator of dissatisfaction and shock
    • A framework for volunteer management
      • Tools for a framework of volunteer attraction and attachment:
        • A model of recruitment
        • A model of retention
      • Provides a diagnostic tool for management interventions
    • Implications of JET for volunteer management
      • Volunteers decide to participate for a variety of reasons related to their community connection
      • Continuing volunteering can be explained through the growing organisational embeddedness
      • Management can adopt practices that integrate volunteers into the organisation
    • Propositions to be tested High impact High impact Lower impact
    • Propositions to be tested Medium impact Medium impact Medium impact
    • A JET model of volunteer recruitment and retention
    • Research challenge
    • Three potential research directions