Grammar Lesson 10 Verbals


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A review lesson on participles, infinitives, and gerunds.

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Grammar Lesson 10 Verbals

  1. 1. Verbals Grammar Lesson 10 English 10
  2. 2. Is it a VERB or a VERBAL?? <ul><li>Telling the difference between a verb and a verbal is not done by looking only at the word itself. </li></ul><ul><li>You have to see how the word is being used. </li></ul><ul><li>In both cases, the word looks like a verb, but if it’s used as something other than a verb…it’s a VERBAL </li></ul>
  3. 3. Is it a VERB or a VERBAL?? <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Waxed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flowing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Playing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleeping </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These can be verbs or verbals depending upon how they are used in the sentence. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Is it a VERB or a VERBAL?? <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Our butler waxed the floors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The waxed floors were slippery and dangerous. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In the first sentence, the word is being used as a verb to tell what action is being done. </li></ul><ul><li>In the other one, the word still looks like a verb, but it is being used as an adjective </li></ul>
  5. 5. Is it a VERB or a VERBAL?? <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water was flowing over the rocks in the stream. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flowing water carries a great deal of potential energy. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The same thing is true here as in the other example. </li></ul><ul><li>The second sentences shows the verb working as an adjective instead of a verb. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Basic Information on Verbals <ul><li>Verbals are verb forms (words that look like verbs or could be verbs in other sentences) that are used as one of the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Noun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adjective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adverb </li></ul></ul><ul><li>A verbal can never be the verb of the sentence. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Basic Information on Verbals <ul><li>There are three different kinds of verbals: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infinitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gerund </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each verbal has a specific purpose and use in a sentence. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Infinitives <ul><li>An infinitive is a verb form that is proceeded by the word “to.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To play </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To sleep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To be seen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To steal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To have been stolen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To speak </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Infinitives <ul><li>In some sentences (following certain verbs), the “sign of the infinitive” (the word “to) is omitted. </li></ul><ul><li>This is done for clarity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Help him (to) move the sofa. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watch the fish (to) snap at the hook. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can you feel the floor (to) move? </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Infinitives <ul><li>The verbs which call for an omitted “to” are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Help </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Let </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Watch </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Infinitives <ul><li>An infinitive has three possible functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>As a noun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As an adjective </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As an adverb </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knowing where an infinitive should go helps make the structure of the sentence more clear. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Infinitives <ul><li>As a noun: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I hate to go . (direct object) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To steal is a crime. (subject) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As an adjective: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s time to go . (modify time) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are jobs to be done (modify jobs) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As an adverb: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He always plays to win . (modify plays) </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Infinitives <ul><li>Infinitives can also have modifiers or complements. </li></ul><ul><li>This can be done because there is a verb form in the infinitive that (if being used as a verb in another sentence) could take a complement such as an indirect or direct object or a predicate complement. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Infinitives <ul><li>Be careful not to create “split” infinitives. </li></ul><ul><li>This is done when an adverb is placed between the “to” and the verb form. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To boldly go…. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To strenuously object… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To always comply… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is bad structure for this to be formed. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Participles <ul><li>Verb forms that are used as adjectives are called participles. </li></ul><ul><li>They will have two forms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Present (ending in “-ing”) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Past (ending in “-ed” or “-en”) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These contain action, but they are not used as verbs in the sentence. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Participles <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoking gun </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Snoring spouse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broken window </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elected official </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Streaming video </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buzzing noise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Winning touchdown </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Walking track </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Participles <ul><li>Participles can appear in several places in the sentence, but they are most commonly found describing / modifying the subject. </li></ul><ul><li>Participle phrases can also be made from single participles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Running along the path </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Participles <ul><li>Most participle phrases will have commas setting them off. This is especially true when they open a sentence and modify the subject. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Running at full speed, the back raced twenty yards for a score. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crying loudly, the baby wanted some attention. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Gerunds <ul><li>A gerund looks a lot like a participle because it ends in “-ing.” </li></ul><ul><li>However, the gerund is going to be used as a noun. </li></ul><ul><li>Gerunds will show up as subjects, direct or indirect objects or objects of prepositions. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Gerunds <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chewing gum in class is not allowed. (subject) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I liked eating at the new restaurant . (direct object) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Without running very hard I won the race. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abusing the warm fuzzy kitten is not allowed in this class. (subject) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Practice: <ul><li>You will be shown ten sentences with a word or phrase underlined. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the word or phrases as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Infinitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gerund </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Practice: <ul><li>Sleeping soundly in his bed , Ron was not going to be disturbed by anyone in his house. </li></ul><ul><li>I wanted to try out for the lacrosse team this spring. </li></ul><ul><li>The rushing waters of the Colorado River were great for rafting. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Practice: <ul><li>4. The warm fuzzy kitten, meowing loudly in the hallway , was a nuisance. </li></ul><ul><li>5. We tried shooting with the NBA’s new basketball and found it to be challenging. </li></ul><ul><li>6. To run a mile in less than four minutes is nearly impossible. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Practice: <ul><li>7. Charging wildly down the street , the bulls tried to crush the citizens of Pamplona . </li></ul><ul><li>8. Cheating on a final exam in English is not an advisable solution to not studying. </li></ul><ul><li>9. To sleep , perchance to dream. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Practice: <ul><li>10. On the sixth day of Xmas, my true love gave to me six geese a-laying , five gold rings, four calling birds, three French hens, two turtle doves and a partridge in a pear tree. </li></ul>
  26. 26. SURPRISE, SURPRISE, SURPRISE!! <ul><li>Now that you can identify these verbals, you have the great privilege of going on to the next great step in verbals…….. </li></ul>
  27. 27. DIAGRAMMING!!