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Macasu, gerrell c.
Macasu, gerrell c.
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Macasu, gerrell c.

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  • 1. A final requirement for programminghttp://eglobiotraining.com
  • 2. Programming We first define the word “programming”, it is a computerlanguage programmers use to develop applications, scripts, orother set of instructions for a computer to execute. programming is instructing a computer to do somethingfor you with the help of a programming language. The role of aprogramming language can be described in two ways: Technical: It is a means for instructing a Computer to perform Tasks Conceptual: It is a framework within which we organize our ideas about things and processes. http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 3. As an individual, I have learned that programming is avery broad because it composes many scripts, applications andcan be used to run a program that has been part of theprogramming language. A programming language should both provide means todescribe primitive data and procedures and means to combineand abstract those into more complex ones. The distinction between data and procedures is not thatclear cut. In many programming languages, procedures can bepassed as data (to be applied to ``real data) and sometimesprocessed like ``ordinary data. Conversely ``ordinary data canbe turned into procedures by an evaluation mechanism. http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 4. At first, programming is confusing because you haveso much to understand about codes that will enable to runa program. Programming has applications and programdevelopment, the best example for this is the Internetbowser… Programming is a creative process done byprogrammers to instruct a computer on how to do a task.Fundamentally programs manipulate numbers and text.These are the building blocks of all programs.Programming languages let you use them in differentways, e.g adding numbers, etc… or storing data on disk forlater retrieval. http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 5. You have to consider languages to run or write yourown program, most demanded language in programming isthe DEV C++ (a full-featured Integrated DevelopmentEnvironment (IDE)). C++ is one of the most used programminglanguages in the world. Also known as "C with Classes".New to programming or thinking about it? It might surpriseyou to know that there are many programmers whoprogram just for fun and it can lead to a job. http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 6. Switch Case Switch case statements are a substitute for long if statements that compare a variable to several "integral" values ("integral" values are simply values that can be expressed as an integer, such as the value of a char). http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 7. basic format for using switch case: switch ( <variable> ) { case this-value: Code to execute if <variable> == this-value break; case that-value: Code to execute if <variable> == that-value break; ... default: Code to execute if <variable> does not equal the value following any of the cases break; } The value of the variable given into switch is compared to the value following each of the cases, and when one value matches the value of the variable, the computer continues executing the program from that point. http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 8. The condition of a switch statement isa value. The case says that if it has thevalue of whatever is after that case then dowhatever follows the colon. The break isused to break out of the case statements.An important thing to note about the switchstatement is that the case values mayonly be constant integral expressions. http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 9. “Break” is a keyword that breaks outof the code block, usually surrounded bybraces, which it is in. In this case, breakprevents the program from falling throughand executing the code in all the othercase statements. http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 10. The default case is optional, but it iswise to include it as it handles anyunexpected cases. Switch statementsserves as a simple way to write long ifstatements when the requirements aremet. Often it can be used to process inputfrom a user. http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 11. This shows how would you use a Switch in a Program #include <iostream> using namespace std; void playgame() { cout << "Play game called"; } void loadgame() } cout << "Load game called"; void playmultiplayer() { cout << "Play multiplayer game called"; } int main() { int input; cout<<"1. Play gamen"; cout<<"2. Load gamen"; cout<<"3. Play multiplayern"; cout<<"4. Exitn"; cout<<"Selection: "; cin>> input; switch ( input ) { case 1: // Note the colon, not a semicolon playgame(); break; case 2: // Note the colon, not a semicolon loadgame(); break; case 3: // Note the colon, not a semicolon playmultiplayer(); break; case 4: // Note the colon, not a semicolon cout<<"Thank you for playing!n"; break; default: // Note the colon, not a semicolon cout<<"Error, bad input, quittingn"; break; } cin.get(); } http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 12. That program will compile, but cannot be run untilthe undefined functions are given bodies, but itserves as a model (albeit simple) for processinginput. If you do not understand this then try mentallyputting in if statements for the case statements. Defaultsimply skips out of the switch case construction andallows the program to terminate naturally. If you do notlike that, then you can make a loop around the wholething to have it wait for valid input. You could easily makea few small functions if you wish to test the code. http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 13. Looping Loops are used to repeat a block of code. Being able to have your program repeatedly execute a block of code is one of the most basic but useful tasks in programming -- many programs or websites that produce extremely complex output (such as a message board) are really only executing a single task many times. http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 14. (They may be executing a small numberof tasks, but in principle, to produce a list ofmessages only requires repeating theoperation of reading in some data anddisplaying it.) Now, think about what thismeans: a loop lets you write a very simplestatement to produce a significantly greaterresult simply by repetition. http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 15. One Caveat: before going further, you shouldunderstand the concept of C++s true andfalse, because it will be necessary when working withloops (the conditions are the same as with if statements). Three types of Loops: for, while, and do.. http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 16. FORFor ( variable initialization; condition; variable update ) { Code to execute while the condition is true} http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 17. The variable initialization allows you to either declare a variable andgive it a value or give a value to an already existing variable.Second, the condition tells the program that while the conditionalexpression is true the loop should continue to repeat itself. Thevariable update section is the easiest way for a for loop to handlechanging of the variable. It is possible to do things like x++, x = x +10, or even x = random ( 5 ), and if you really wanted to, you couldcall other functions that do nothing to the variable but still have auseful effect on the code. Notice that a semicolon separates each of these sections, thatis important. Also note that every single one of the sections may beempty, though the semicolons still have to be there. If the conditionis empty, it is evaluated as true and the loop will repeat untilsomething else stops it. http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 18. Example: #include <iostream> using namespace std; // So the program can see cout and endl int main() { // The loop goes while x < 10, and x increases by one every loop for ( int x = 0; x < 10; x++ ) { // Keep in mind that the loop condition checks // the conditional statement before it loops again. // consequently, when x equals 10 the loop breaks. // x is updated before the condition is checked. cout<< x <<endl; } cin.get(); } This program is a very simple example of a for loop. x is set to zero, while x is less than 10 it calls cout<< x <<endl; and it adds 1 to x until the condition is met. Keep in mind also that the variable is incremented after the code in the loop is run for the first time. http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 19. WHILEThe basic structure: While ( condition ) { Code to execute while the condition is true } The true represents a boolean expression which could be x == 1 or while ( x != 7 ) (x does not equal 7). It can be any combination of boolean statements that are legal. Even, (while x ==5 || v == 7) which says execute the code while x equals five or while v equals 7. Notice that a while loop is the same as a for loop without the initialization and update sections. However, an empty condition is not legal for a while loop as it is with a for loop. http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 20. Example: #include <iostream> using namespace std; // So we can see cout and endl int main() { int x = 0; // Dont forget to declare variables while ( x < 10 ) { // While x is less than 10 cout<< x <<endl; x++; // Update x so the condition can be met eventually } cin.get(); } The easiest way to think of the loop is that when it reaches the brace at the end it jumps back up to the beginning of the loop, which checks the condition again and decides whether to repeat the block another time, or stop and move to the next statement after the block. http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 21. DO..WHILE are useful for things that want to loop at least once.The Structure: do { } while ( condition ) ; http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 22. Notice that the condition is tested at the endof the block instead of the beginning, so theblock will be executed at least once. If thecondition is true, we jump back to the beginningof the block and execute it again. A do..whileloop is basically a reversed while loop. Awhile loop says "Loop while the condition istrue, and execute this block of code", a do..whileloop says "Execute this block of code, andloop while the condition is true". http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 23. Example: #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { int x; x = 0; do { // "Hello, world!" is printed at least one time // even though the condition is false cout<<"Hello, world!n"; } while ( x != 0 ); cin.get(); } Keep in mind that you must include a trailing semi-colon after the while in the above example. A common error is to forget that a do..while loop must be terminated with a semicolon (the other loops should not be terminated with a semicolon, adding to the confusion). Notice that this loop will execute once, because it automatically executes before checking the condition. http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 24. http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 25. LOOPING STATEMENT 1#include <iostream>int main(){ using namespace std; // nSelection must be declared outside do/while loop int nSelection; do { cout << "Please make a selection: " << endl; cout << "1) Addition" << endl; cout << "2) Subtraction" << endl; cout << "3) Multiplication" << endl; cout << "4) Division" << endl; cin >> nSelection; } while (nSelection != 1 && nSelection != 2 && nSelection != 3 && nSelection != 4); // do something with nSelection here // such as a switch statement return 0;} http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 26. LOOPING STAEMENT 2 #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { int nSelection; double var1, var2; do { cout << "Please make a selection: " << endl; cout << "1) Addition" << endl; cout << "2) Subtraction" << endl; cout << "3) Multiplication" << endl; cout << "4) Division" << endl; cin >> nSelection; } while (nSelection != 1 && nSelection != 2 && nSelection != 3 && nSelection != 4); if (nSelection == 1) { cout << "Please enter the first whole number "; cin >> var1; cout << "Please enter the second whole number "; cin >> var2; cout << "The result is " << (var1+var2) << endl; } http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 27. LOOPING STATEMENT 3 if (nSelection == 2) { cout << "Please enter the first whole number "; cin >> var1; cout << "Please enter the second whole number "; cin >> var2; cout << "The result is " << (var1-var2) << endl; } if (nSelection == 3) { cout << "Please enter the first whole number "; cin >> var1; cout << "Please enter the second whole number "; cin >> var2; cout << "The result is " << (var1*var2) << endl; } if (nSelection == 4) { cout << "Please enter the first whole number "; cin >> var1; cout << "Please enter the second whole number "; cin >> var2; cout << "The result is " << (var1/var2) << endl; } return 0; } http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 28. LOOPING STATEMENT 3 #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main() { int nSelection; double var1, var2; while (1) { do { cout << "Please make a selection: " << endl; cout << "1) Addition" << endl; cout << "2) Subtraction" << endl; cout << "3) Multiplication" << endl; cout << "4) Division" << endl; cout << "5) Exit" << endl; cin >> nSelection; } while (nSelection != 1 && nSelection != 2 && nSelection != 3 && nSelection != 4 && nSelection != 5); if (nSelection == 1) { cout << "Please enter the first whole number "; cin >> var1; cout << "Please enter the second whole number "; cin >> var2; cout << "The result is " << (var1+var2) << endl; } http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 29. LOOPING STATEMENT 4 else if (nSelection == 2) { cout << "Please enter the first whole number "; cin >> var1; cout << "Please enter the second whole number "; cin >> var2; cout << "The result is " << (var1-var2) << endl; } else if (nSelection == 3) { cout << "Please enter the first whole number "; cin >> var1; cout << "Please enter the second whole number "; cin >> var2; cout << "The result is " << (var1*var2) << endl; } else if (nSelection == 4) { cout << "Please enter the first whole number "; cin >> var1; cout << "Please enter the second whole number "; cin >> var2; cout << "The result is " << (var1/var2) << endl; }else { return 0; } }} http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 30. LOOPING STATEMENT 5 #include <iostream> using namespace std; // So the program can see cout and endl int main() { // The loop goes while x < 10, and x increases by one every loop for ( int x = 0; x < 10; x++ ) { // Keep in mind that the loop condition checks // the conditional statement before it loops again. // consequently, when x equals 10 the loop breaks. // x is updated before the condition is checked. cout<< x <<endl; } cin.get(); } http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 31. LOOPING STATEMENT 6#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main(){ int x; x = 0; do { // "Hello, world!" is printed at least one time // even though the condition is false cout<<"Hello, world!n"; } while ( x != 0 ); cin.get();} http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 32. LOOPING STATEMENT 7#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main (){int n;cout << "Enter the starting number > ";cin >> n;while (n>0) {cout << n << ", ";--n;}cout << "FIRE!n";return 0;} http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 33. SWITCH CASE 1SWITCH CASE#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main (){ int score; cout << "What was your score?"; cin >> score; if (score <= 25) { cout << "nOuch, less than 25...!"; } http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 34. SWITCH CASE 2else if (score <= 50) { cout << "nYou score aint great mate.."; } else if (score <= 75) { cout << "nYour pretty good, wel done man!"; } else if (score <= 100) { cout << "nYou got to the top!!!"; } http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 35. SWITCH CASE 3else { cout << "nYou cant score higher than 100!!! Cheater!!!!"; } cin.ignore(); cin.get(); return 0;} http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 36. SWITCH CASE 4#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main(){cout << "Enter a number between 1 and 5!" << endl;int number;cin >> number;if(number == 1){cout << "one";}else if(number == 2){cout << "two";}else if(number == 3){cout << "three";}else if(number == 4){cout << "four";}else if(number == 5){cout << "five";}else{cout << number << " is not between 1 and 5!";}cout << endl;system("pause");} http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 37. SWITCH CASE 5#include <iostream>using namespace std;int main(){int price_before_discount, RM, dozen, total_price;cout<< "How much is the price before discount for 1 dozen boxes of tissue?n";cout<<"RM ";cin>>price_before_discount;cout<<"nn";cout<< "How many dozen boxes of tissue you buy?n";cin>>dozen;cout<<"nn";switch (dozen){total_price = ((price_before_discount*dozen) * (95/100));case 1: cout<< "Total price is RM ";cout<<RM;cout<<"nn";break;total_price = ((price_before_discount*dozen) * (88/100));case 2: cout<< "Total price is RM ";cout<<RM;cout<<"nn";break;total_price = ((price_before_discount*dozen) * (75/100));case 3: cout<< "Total price is RM ";cout<<RM;cout<<"nn";break;total_price = ((price_before_discount*dozen) * (60/100));case 4 : cout<< "Total price is RM ";cout<<RM;cout<<"nn";break;total_price = ((price_before_discount*dozen) * (40/100));default : cout<< "Total price is RM ";cout<<RM;cout<<"nn";}return 0;} http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 38. SWITCH CASE 6#include <stdlib.h>#include <stdio.h>int main(void) { int n; printf("Please enter a number: "); scanf("%d", &n); switch (n) { case 1: { printf("n is equal to 1!n"); break; } case 2: { printf("n is equal to 2!n"); break; } case 3: { printf("n is equal to 3!n"); break; } default: { printf("n isnt equal to 1, 2, or 3.n"); break; } } system("PAUSE"); return 0;} http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 39. SWITCH CASE 7 #include <iostream> using namespace std; int main(void) { char grade; cout << "Enter your grade: "; cin >> grade; switch (grade) { case A: cout << "Your average must be between 90 - 100" << endl; break; case B: cout << "Your average must be between 80 - 89" << endl; break; case C: cout << "Your average must be between 70 - 79" << endl; break; case D: cout << "Your average must be between 60 - 69" << endl; break; default: cout << "Your average must be below 60" << endl; } return 0; } http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 40. http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 41. In this looping statement, I used “while” looping, and I choose to show MDASjust as an example for the program to run. If logical Expression evaluatesto true, the statement executes. The logical Expression is reevaluated. Thebody of the loop continues to execute until the logicalExpression is false http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 42. I have came up with this by just starting to write this code: #include<iostream> and then enter the succeeding codes, compiled and run. http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 43. I noticed that sometimes if the program does not run, it is because somebraces are not included and I accidentally put braces on the same line andit causes the program not to read its contents. Programming issensitive, when there is missing variable or braces or some words it doesnot run. http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 44. When I learned that programming is very sensitive and at the sametime very detailed when it comes to entering codes, I make sure that itis clear means that I put everything important codes in it so that theprogram would run. http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 45. So much codes that should be entered that even the spaces are neededprogramming is very specific that whatever you have entered in to it youshould specify because when the statement is false it wouldn’t let you runthe program, I have experienced it before I arrived at this result. http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 46. Because of so many experiences I had before this program run, I foundprogramming is also interesting for the more you are practicing to make aprogram run, the more questions that came up in my mind and trysomething that will fit to this or entering new codes to make matrix etc…that I know is possible. http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 47. In this switch case missing out a break statement causes control to fallthrough to the next case label. Switches can always be replaced by nested if-else statements, but in some cases this may be more clumsy.Each break statement terminates the enclosing switch statement. Controlflow continues with the first statement http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 48. Unlike if-then and if-then-else statements, the switch statement can have anumber of possible execution paths, A switch works withthe byte, short, char, and int primitive data types. http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 49. The switch statement evaluates its expression, then executes all statementsthat follow the matching case label. http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 50. The switch statement can include any number of case instances, but no twocase constants within the same switch statement can have the same value.Execution of the statement body begins at the selected statement andproceeds until the jump-statement transfers control out of the case body. http://eglobiotraining.com
  • 51. Submitted to: Prof. Erwin Globio Submitted by:Macasu, Gerrell C.BM10203 http://www.slideshare.net/upload ?from_source=loggedin_newsfeed http://eglobiotraining.com

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