Using Native plants in the Home Landscape Geraldine Adamich Laufer
Natural Gardening <ul><li>Gardening offers greatest reward when done in concert with nature </li></ul>
What is a native plant? <ul><li>All plants native somewhere  </li></ul><ul><li>Many mainstream gardeners don’t know which ...
A native plant <ul><li>Indigenous to locale </li></ul><ul><li>Comes from 1 region </li></ul><ul><li>Native prior to Columb...
Plant Ecology <ul><li>Particular combination of environmental, physical + biotic factors </li></ul><ul><li>Biome has disti...
Plant Competition <ul><li>Plants are not independent </li></ul><ul><li>Compete for scarce natural resources </li></ul><ul>...
Natural Succession <ul><li>Plant community in state of continual flux </li></ul><ul><li>Predictable series of changes “ser...
Plant Tolerance Range <ul><li>Conditions determine where plant can grow + reproduce </li></ul><ul><li>Similar tolerance ra...
Types of Native Communities/Ecosystems <ul><li>Aquatic </li></ul><ul><li>Grasslands </li></ul><ul><li>Desert </li></ul><ul...
Great Eastern Forest <ul><li>Mixed forests Atlantic and Gulf coasts </li></ul><ul><li>40” annual rainfall, evenly distribu...
Southeastern Mixed Forest <ul><li>Open forest of Loblolly, shortleaf + other pines </li></ul><ul><li>Understory grasses, p...
Outer Coastal Plain Forest <ul><li>Northern Florida to Gulf Coast + inland to Mississippi Valley </li></ul><ul><li>Live oa...
Regional Natives <ul><li>Colonized in limited range; just one place </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Bartram/ Franklinia </li></ul><...
Non-Natives + “Straddlers” <ul><li>Flowering plants developed ~ 100M years ago: Pangea </li></ul><ul><li>Then plates began...
American plants introduced to Europe <ul><li>Wealthy patrons sent plant explorers to the Newe Found Worlde </li></ul><ul><...
Non-native plants + Nursery Trade <ul><li>Early colonial nurseries did not sell natives </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><...
Non-natives favored in trade <ul><li>Colonists preferred familiar favorites from the “old country” </li></ul><ul><li>Fence...
Non-natives favored in U.S. nursery trade   <ul><li>Native flora looked wild and unfamiliar </li></ul><ul><li>If not sold ...
Native American flora + other eyes <ul><li>Savvy European plant breeders continued to “improve” garden-worthiness of Ameri...
Changing perspectives <ul><li>After WWII a large middle class bought homes + yards </li></ul><ul><li>Copied English border...
Political backing for natives  <ul><li>1965 Highway Beautification Act eliminated billboards </li></ul><ul><li>1973 Operat...
Implications of government actions <ul><li>Created a supply bottleneck  </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial scarcity of natives  ...
Governmental actions controversial <ul><li>Impact of government on Nursery business </li></ul><ul><li>Over-collection to g...
Tolerance Range and Provenance <ul><li>Nurseries needed propagation material and got it anywhere they could </li></ul><ul>...
Interest in regional designs <ul><li>Henry David Thoreau </li></ul><ul><li>Pioneering work Darrel Morrison University Wisc...
Tradition of Regional Centers for Natives <ul><li>Avoid horticultural homogenization </li></ul><ul><li>1900 Garden in the ...
Straight species vs. cultivars debate <ul><li>Straight species has wide genetic diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Selections can...
Today  (present company excepted) <ul><li>Average home landscape is ecological disaster </li></ul><ul><li>Angular, geometr...
Native Plant Lovers <ul><li>Merger of ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Use natives to create optimum e...
Benefits of Natural Landscaping <ul><li>Link to tradition </li></ul>Cornus florida
Benefits of Natural Landscaping <ul><li>Link to tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of place, “genius loci” </li></ul>Fother...
Benefits of Natural Landscaping <ul><li>Link to tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of place, “genius loci” </li></ul><ul><l...
Benefits of Natural Landscaping <ul><li>Link to tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of place, “genius loci” </li></ul><ul><l...
Benefits of Natural Landscaping <ul><li>Link to tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of place, “genius loci” </li></ul><ul><l...
Benefits of Natural Landscaping <ul><li>Link to tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of place, “genius loci” </li></ul><ul><l...
Benefits of Natural Landscaping <ul><li>Link to tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of place, “genius loci” </li></ul><ul><l...
Benefits of Natural Landscaping <ul><li>Link to tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of place, “genius loci” </li></ul><ul><l...
Benefits of Natural Landscaping <ul><li>Link to tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of place, “genius loci” </li></ul><ul><l...
Benefits of Natural Landscaping <ul><li>Link to tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of place, “genius loci” </li></ul><ul><l...
Benefits of Natural Landscaping <ul><li>Link to tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of place, “genius loci” </li></ul><ul><l...
How to start? <ul><li>Evaluate landscape </li></ul>plan areas
How to start? <ul><li>Evaluate landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental considerations  </li></ul>ecosystems
How to start? <ul><li>Evaluate landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental considerations  </li></ul><ul><li>Personal requir...
How to start? <ul><li>Evaluate landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental considerations  </li></ul><ul><li>Personal requir...
How to start? <ul><li>Evaluate landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental considerations  </li></ul><ul><li>Personal requir...
How to start? <ul><li>Evaluate landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental considerations  </li></ul><ul><li>Personal requir...
How to start? <ul><li>Evaluate landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental considerations  </li></ul><ul><li>Personal requir...
How to start? <ul><li>Evaluate landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental considerations  </li></ul><ul><li>Personal requir...
How to start? <ul><li>Evaluate landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental considerations  </li></ul><ul><li>Personal requir...
How to start? <ul><li>Evaluate landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental considerations  </li></ul><ul><li>Personal requir...
How to start? <ul><li>Evaluate landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental considerations  </li></ul><ul><li>Personal requir...
Plan A:  100% Native <ul><li>Your list depends on the specific conditions of your piece of land </li></ul><ul><li>Two main...
Plan B: Mixed Landscapes <ul><li>Add native plants to traditional landscapes </li></ul><ul><li>Widest choice of plants </l...
Natural approach to the home garden <ul><li>Site inventory </li></ul>principles of landscape design
Natural approach to the home garden <ul><li>Site inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Home end and wild end of landscape </li></ul>...
Natural approach to the home garden  <ul><li>Site inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Home end and wild end of landscape </li></ul...
Natural approach to the home garden <ul><li>Site inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Home end and wild end of landscape </li></ul>...
Natural approach to the home garden <ul><li>Site inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Home end and wild end of landscape </li></ul>...
Natural approach to the home garden <ul><li>Site inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Home end and wild end of landscape </li></ul>...
Natural approach to the home garden <ul><li>Site inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Home end and wild end of landscape </li></ul>...
Natural approach to the home garden <ul><li>Site inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Home end and wild end of landscape </li></ul>...
Natural approach to the home garden <ul><li>Site inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Home end and wild end of landscape </li></ul>...
Maintaining gardens naturally <ul><li>Understand natural processes </li></ul><ul><li>Tough love  </li></ul><ul><li>Select ...
Natural gardening <ul><li>Nature designs a world of gardens . . .  </li></ul><ul><li>and we can adopt  the same principles...
In summary <ul><li>Include natives </li></ul><ul><li>Match plant requirements to available location </li></ul><ul><li>Use ...
Thank You + Go Native!
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Natural Gardening

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Explore the benefits of using SE U.S. native plants in the home landscape for exceptional beauty and reduced maintenance. Discuss the influence of introduced plants on the horticulture industry, cultivars v.s. species, and more..

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  • Gardens get more shady over time, or an act of nature take out trees and let sun pour in
  • Gardener has control
  • Veronicastrum virginicum ‘Album’
  • Transcript of "Natural Gardening"

    1. 1. Using Native plants in the Home Landscape Geraldine Adamich Laufer
    2. 2. Natural Gardening <ul><li>Gardening offers greatest reward when done in concert with nature </li></ul>
    3. 3. What is a native plant? <ul><li>All plants native somewhere </li></ul><ul><li>Many mainstream gardeners don’t know which are native and which aren’t </li></ul><ul><li>Everyday natives are </li></ul><ul><li>familiar </li></ul><ul><li>Pass-along plants </li></ul>Cypredium acaule
    4. 4. A native plant <ul><li>Indigenous to locale </li></ul><ul><li>Comes from 1 region </li></ul><ul><li>Native prior to Columbus </li></ul><ul><li>Adapting for thousands of years </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship to climate, soil, pests, other plants </li></ul><ul><li>ID by botanical name </li></ul>Cypredium kentuckiense
    5. 5. Plant Ecology <ul><li>Particular combination of environmental, physical + biotic factors </li></ul><ul><li>Biome has distinctive patterns: soil, rainfall, topography, wind, temperature, light </li></ul><ul><li>Each plant takes its place in a web of interactions </li></ul><ul><li>The natural gardener mimics nature’s design </li></ul><ul><li>Most efficient landscape </li></ul>Trilliam grandiflorum
    6. 6. Plant Competition <ul><li>Plants are not independent </li></ul><ul><li>Compete for scarce natural resources </li></ul><ul><li>In the garden too </li></ul>Podophyllum peltatum
    7. 7. Natural Succession <ul><li>Plant community in state of continual flux </li></ul><ul><li>Predictable series of changes “seral stages” </li></ul><ul><li>Gradual replacement of plant communities in a given area </li></ul><ul><li>Develops dynamic equilibrium, called climax vegetation </li></ul><ul><li>Where does your garden fall in this succession? </li></ul>
    8. 8. Plant Tolerance Range <ul><li>Conditions determine where plant can grow + reproduce </li></ul><ul><li>Similar tolerance ranges overlap and produce a community </li></ul><ul><li>Plants repeatedly found together </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Wetlands –bog plants; </li></ul>wetlands garden
    9. 9. Types of Native Communities/Ecosystems <ul><li>Aquatic </li></ul><ul><li>Grasslands </li></ul><ul><li>Desert </li></ul><ul><li>Shrublands </li></ul><ul><li>Pinelands </li></ul><ul><li>Woodlands </li></ul><ul><li>Forest* </li></ul>Lysichiton americanum
    10. 10. Great Eastern Forest <ul><li>Mixed forests Atlantic and Gulf coasts </li></ul><ul><li>40” annual rainfall, evenly distributed </li></ul><ul><li>Deep, fertile, slightly acidic soils </li></ul><ul><li>Mild winters </li></ul><ul><li>Oak, beech, maple, elm, tulip poplar, ash, dogwood, redbud </li></ul>
    11. 11. Southeastern Mixed Forest <ul><li>Open forest of Loblolly, shortleaf + other pines </li></ul><ul><li>Understory grasses, palms </li></ul><ul><li>40-60” rainfall evenly distributed, fire </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrient-poor soils due to high precipitation </li></ul><ul><li>Gum, bald cypress, oak, hickory, blueberry, dogwood </li></ul>Loblolly and palmetto
    12. 12. Outer Coastal Plain Forest <ul><li>Northern Florida to Gulf Coast + inland to Mississippi Valley </li></ul><ul><li>Live oak, laurel, magnolia, understory of shrubs, small palms </li></ul><ul><li>Mosses, woody vines, orchids, epiphytes </li></ul><ul><li>Extensive stands of pines </li></ul>Live oak
    13. 13. Regional Natives <ul><li>Colonized in limited range; just one place </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Bartram/ Franklinia </li></ul><ul><li>Indigenous to a small area </li></ul>Franklinia altamaha
    14. 14. Non-Natives + “Straddlers” <ul><li>Flowering plants developed ~ 100M years ago: Pangea </li></ul><ul><li>Then plates began shifting ~ 75M years ago </li></ul><ul><li>So we have “Straddlers” --same genus, far-flung spp. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: Magnolia, Cornus, Rhododendron </li></ul>Asian Magnolia liliflora
    15. 15. American plants introduced to Europe <ul><li>Wealthy patrons sent plant explorers to the Newe Found Worlde </li></ul><ul><li>Influx of North American plants to Europe </li></ul><ul><li>“ American Gardens” fad </li></ul><ul><li>American plants were outlandish novelties </li></ul><ul><li>America 16-18 th C </li></ul><ul><li>Asia 18-20 th C </li></ul>c. 1650
    16. 16. Non-native plants + Nursery Trade <ul><li>Early colonial nurseries did not sell natives </li></ul><ul><li>Why? </li></ul><ul><li>Colonists had neither time nor money to indulge in gardening </li></ul>
    17. 17. Non-natives favored in trade <ul><li>Colonists preferred familiar favorites from the “old country” </li></ul><ul><li>Fences and enclosed spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Clipped hedges and tidy flower beds </li></ul>
    18. 18. Non-natives favored in U.S. nursery trade <ul><li>Native flora looked wild and unfamiliar </li></ul><ul><li>If not sold in a nursery, must be a weed </li></ul><ul><li>Easy to dig up natives from the woods, fields, (not purchase them) </li></ul><ul><li>Later, European bedding targeted non-native tropicals </li></ul>Swamp hibiscus
    19. 19. Native American flora + other eyes <ul><li>Savvy European plant breeders continued to “improve” garden-worthiness of American native plants </li></ul><ul><li>Grow, evaluate, hybridize and sell back to American markets our native wildflowers </li></ul><ul><li>Often with German names </li></ul>Rudbeckia “Goldstrum’
    20. 20. Changing perspectives <ul><li>After WWII a large middle class bought homes + yards </li></ul><ul><li>Copied English borders + European lawns </li></ul><ul><li>Failure of English borders in U.S. </li></ul><ul><li>1962 Environmental Movement, Rachel Carson </li></ul><ul><li>Ladybird Johnson “Beautify America” </li></ul>rapid growth of suburbs
    21. 21. Political backing for natives <ul><li>1965 Highway Beautification Act eliminated billboards </li></ul><ul><li>1973 Operation Wildflower, National Council of State Garden Clubs + DOT </li></ul><ul><li>1987 Surface Transportation Act </li></ul><ul><li>1994 Executive Mandate stipulated % regional plants on all federal grounds </li></ul>Roadside natives
    22. 22. Implications of government actions <ul><li>Created a supply bottleneck </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial scarcity of natives </li></ul><ul><li>America Association of Nurserymen resisted “interference” </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Sourwood Oxydendron slow - growing, 8”/year </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Black Gum Nyssa problematic taproot </li></ul>Oxydendron arboreum
    23. 23. Governmental actions controversial <ul><li>Impact of government on Nursery business </li></ul><ul><li>Over-collection to get starter plants </li></ul><ul><li>Destruction of habitats </li></ul><ul><li>Non-regional seed, question of provenance </li></ul>Torreya taxifolia seed collection
    24. 24. Tolerance Range and Provenance <ul><li>Nurseries needed propagation material and got it anywhere they could </li></ul><ul><li>Just because one species is native over a wide range doesn’t mean an individual will do well anywhere in that range </li></ul>Echinaceae purpurea
    25. 25. Interest in regional designs <ul><li>Henry David Thoreau </li></ul><ul><li>Pioneering work Darrel Morrison University Wisconsin, Madison </li></ul><ul><li>Prairie restoration + Jens Jensen + O.C. Simmons </li></ul>natives and grasses
    26. 26. Tradition of Regional Centers for Natives <ul><li>Avoid horticultural homogenization </li></ul><ul><li>1900 Garden in the Woods + New England Wildflower Society </li></ul><ul><li>1930s Madison, WI native prairie </li></ul><ul><li>Cullowhee and Gatlinburg Symposia </li></ul><ul><li>National Wildflower Research Center, Austin, TX </li></ul>Monarch on Helianthus
    27. 27. Straight species vs. cultivars debate <ul><li>Straight species has wide genetic diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Selections can be chosen + vegetatively propagated </li></ul><ul><li>Solution: Preserve diversity on federal lands </li></ul><ul><li>Use higher-cost cultivars + selections in private gardens </li></ul>Cornus florida ‘ Cherokee Chief ’
    28. 28. Today (present company excepted) <ul><li>Average home landscape is ecological disaster </li></ul><ul><li>Angular, geometric shapes </li></ul><ul><li>Level, unchanging lawn monocultures </li></ul><ul><li>40 M lawnmowers </li></ul><ul><li>2 B gallons gas used annually for mowing </li></ul><ul><li>Sprinkling lawns triples water consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Herbicides, insecticides, fungicides used </li></ul><ul><li>Dead soils </li></ul>evaporation
    29. 29. Native Plant Lovers <ul><li>Merger of ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Use natives to create optimum environment </li></ul><ul><li>Follow nature’s guide </li></ul><ul><li>Learn by trowel + error </li></ul>Creative uses of native plants
    30. 30. Benefits of Natural Landscaping <ul><li>Link to tradition </li></ul>Cornus florida
    31. 31. Benefits of Natural Landscaping <ul><li>Link to tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of place, “genius loci” </li></ul>Fothergilla gardenii
    32. 32. Benefits of Natural Landscaping <ul><li>Link to tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of place, “genius loci” </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxing retreat from straight lines + square corners </li></ul>Edge of woodland
    33. 33. Benefits of Natural Landscaping <ul><li>Link to tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of place, “genius loci” </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxing retreat from straight lines + square corners </li></ul><ul><li>Re-discover little-known plants </li></ul>Bog planting for rain garden
    34. 34. Benefits of Natural Landscaping <ul><li>Link to tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of place, “genius loci” </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxing retreat from straight lines + square corners </li></ul><ul><li>Re-discover little-known plants </li></ul><ul><li>Celebrate biodiversity </li></ul>Cleistes bifaria
    35. 35. Benefits of Natural Landscaping <ul><li>Link to tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of place, “genius loci” </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxing retreat from straight lines + square corners </li></ul><ul><li>Re-discover little-known plants </li></ul><ul><li>Contribute to biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>Provide habitat for wildlife </li></ul>American Goldfinch
    36. 36. Benefits of Natural Landscaping <ul><li>Link to tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of place, “genius loci” </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxing retreat from straight lines + square corners </li></ul><ul><li>Re-discover little-known plants </li></ul><ul><li>Contribute to biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>Provide habitat for wildlife </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance + expense are substantially reduced </li></ul>easy to grow native ferns
    37. 37. Benefits of Natural Landscaping <ul><li>Link to tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of place, “genius loci” </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxing retreat from straight lines + square corners </li></ul><ul><li>Re-discover little-known plants </li></ul><ul><li>Contribute to biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>Provide habitat for wildlife </li></ul><ul><li>Substantially less long-term maintenance and expense </li></ul><ul><li>Lower water needs once established </li></ul>Tough native
    38. 38. Benefits of Natural Landscaping <ul><li>Link to tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of place, “genius loci” </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxing retreat from straight lines + square corners </li></ul><ul><li>Re-discover little-known plants </li></ul><ul><li>Contribute to biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>Provide habitat for wildlife </li></ul><ul><li>Substantially less long-term maintenance and expense </li></ul><ul><li>Lower water needs once established </li></ul><ul><li>Conserve natural resources </li></ul>Viburnum dentatum
    39. 39. Benefits of Natural Landscaping <ul><li>Link to tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of place, “genius loci” </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxing retreat from straight lines + square corners </li></ul><ul><li>Re-discover little-known plants </li></ul><ul><li>Contribute to biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>Provide habitat for wildlife </li></ul><ul><li>Substantially less long-term maintenance and expense </li></ul><ul><li>Lower water needs once established </li></ul><ul><li>Conserve natural resources </li></ul><ul><li>Better suited to local conditions </li></ul>Trillium luteum
    40. 40. Benefits of Natural Landscaping <ul><li>Link to tradition </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of place, “genius loci” </li></ul><ul><li>Relaxing retreat from straight lines + square corners </li></ul><ul><li>Re-discover little-known plants </li></ul><ul><li>Contribute to biodiversity </li></ul><ul><li>Provide habitat for wildlife </li></ul><ul><li>Substantially less long-term maintenance and expense </li></ul><ul><li>Lower water needs once established </li></ul><ul><li>Conserve natural resources </li></ul><ul><li>Better suited to local conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Seasonal change and variation </li></ul>fall color
    41. 41. How to start? <ul><li>Evaluate landscape </li></ul>plan areas
    42. 42. How to start? <ul><li>Evaluate landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental considerations </li></ul>ecosystems
    43. 43. How to start? <ul><li>Evaluate landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Personal requirements </li></ul>Eupatorium purpureum
    44. 44. How to start? <ul><li>Evaluate landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Personal requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Planting preferences </li></ul>Trillium grandiflorum
    45. 45. How to start? <ul><li>Evaluate landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Personal requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Planting preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence of spaces </li></ul>Native groundcover planting
    46. 46. How to start? <ul><li>Evaluate landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Personal requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Planting preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence of spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Meandering, non-bordered path is naturalistic </li></ul>riot of color
    47. 47. How to start? <ul><li>Evaluate landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Personal requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Planting preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence of spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Meandering non-bordered path is naturalistic </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate toxic chemicals </li></ul>Aesculus pavia
    48. 48. How to start? <ul><li>Evaluate landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Personal requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Planting preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence of spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Meandering non-bordered path is naturalistic </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate toxic chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage beneficial organisms </li></ul>bees
    49. 49. How to start? <ul><li>Evaluate landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Personal requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Planting preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence of spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Meandering non-bordered path is naturalistic </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate toxic chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage beneficial organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Add compost and humus </li></ul>Podophyllum peltatum
    50. 50. How to start? <ul><li>Evaluate landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Personal requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Planting preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence of spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Meandering non-bordered path is naturalistic </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate toxic chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage beneficial organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Add compost and humus </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce lawn area or try native grasses </li></ul>native border + small grassy area
    51. 51. How to start? <ul><li>Evaluate landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental considerations </li></ul><ul><li>Personal requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Planting preferences </li></ul><ul><li>Sequence of spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Meandering non-bordered path is naturalistic </li></ul><ul><li>Eliminate toxic chemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage beneficial organisms </li></ul><ul><li>Add compost and humus </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce lawn area or try native grasses </li></ul><ul><li>Consider progression of seasons </li></ul>Spring bluebells
    52. 52. Plan A: 100% Native <ul><li>Your list depends on the specific conditions of your piece of land </li></ul><ul><li>Two main habitats: grasslands + woodlands </li></ul><ul><li>Visit near-by nature preserves and make a survey </li></ul><ul><li>Copy nature’s plant lists from functional natural habitats </li></ul><ul><li>Specialty or theme garden approach </li></ul>Hydrangea quercifolia
    53. 53. Plan B: Mixed Landscapes <ul><li>Add native plants to traditional landscapes </li></ul><ul><li>Widest choice of plants </li></ul><ul><li>Common sense approach </li></ul><ul><li>Dr. Armitage “Does a chocoholic spurn Ghiradelli or Godiva because they are not made in Hershey, Pa?” </li></ul><ul><li>Mainstream natives alongside Japanese Maple </li></ul><ul><li>Overall, reduce workload </li></ul>Natives
    54. 54. Natural approach to the home garden <ul><li>Site inventory </li></ul>principles of landscape design
    55. 55. Natural approach to the home garden <ul><li>Site inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Home end and wild end of landscape </li></ul>rock steps
    56. 56. Natural approach to the home garden <ul><li>Site inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Home end and wild end of landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Few straight lines in nature </li></ul>graceful conifers
    57. 57. Natural approach to the home garden <ul><li>Site inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Home end and wild end of landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Few straight lines in nature </li></ul><ul><li>Use odd numbers </li></ul>Rhododendron prunifolium
    58. 58. Natural approach to the home garden <ul><li>Site inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Home end and wild end of landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Few straight lines in nature </li></ul><ul><li>Use odd numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Plants seldom grow at regular intervals </li></ul>Tiarella cordifolia
    59. 59. Natural approach to the home garden <ul><li>Site inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Home end and wild end of landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Few straight lines in nature </li></ul><ul><li>Use odd numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Plants seldom grow at regular intervals </li></ul><ul><li>Group the plants and group the groups </li></ul>Natural groupings
    60. 60. Natural approach to the home garden <ul><li>Site inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Home end and wild end of landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Few straight lines in nature </li></ul><ul><li>Use odd numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Plants seldom grow at regular intervals </li></ul><ul><li>Group the plants and group the groups </li></ul><ul><li>Vary plant SIZES to mimic succession in plant community </li></ul>stream banks
    61. 61. Natural approach to the home garden <ul><li>Site inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Home end and wild end of landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Few straight lines in nature </li></ul><ul><li>Use odd numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Plants seldom grow at regular intervals </li></ul><ul><li>Group the plants and group the groups </li></ul><ul><li>Vary plant SIZES to mimic succession in plant community </li></ul><ul><li>Group according to water needs + reduce water use </li></ul>Sarracenia leucophyllum
    62. 62. Natural approach to the home garden <ul><li>Site inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Home end and wild end of landscape </li></ul><ul><li>Few straight lines in nature </li></ul><ul><li>Use odd numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Plants seldom grow at regular intervals </li></ul><ul><li>Group the plants and group the groups </li></ul><ul><li>Vary plant SIZES to mimic succession in plant community </li></ul><ul><li>Group according to water needs + reduce water use </li></ul><ul><li>Stop raking leaves </li></ul>Hickory
    63. 63. Maintaining gardens naturally <ul><li>Understand natural processes </li></ul><ul><li>Tough love </li></ul><ul><li>Select plants appropriately </li></ul><ul><li>Choose plants for their mature size </li></ul><ul><li>Use Integrated Pest Management </li></ul><ul><li>Weed control + Mulch </li></ul>Graceful grasses and coneflower
    64. 64. Natural gardening <ul><li>Nature designs a world of gardens . . . </li></ul><ul><li>and we can adopt the same principles </li></ul>Culver’s root
    65. 65. In summary <ul><li>Include natives </li></ul><ul><li>Match plant requirements to available location </li></ul><ul><li>Use varying sizes of plants </li></ul><ul><li>Enjoy your private Eden </li></ul>deck over wetland
    66. 66. Thank You + Go Native!

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