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Women Workers in the History of Philippine Trade Unionism
 

Women Workers in the History of Philippine Trade Unionism

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    Women Workers in the History of Philippine Trade Unionism Women Workers in the History of Philippine Trade Unionism Presentation Transcript

    • Women Workers In the History of Trade Unionism in the Philippines
    • SPANISH COLONIZATION 1816 • cigarreras (tobacco workers) • unfair wages and sexual harrasment
    • • 1901 •  Carmelo and Bauerman Printing Press in Manila •  first women unionists • • Celerina dela Cruz Fausta Bernardo Antonia Zamora Pasamola Zamora • Involvement in organizing unions
    • 19TH CENTURY • Cigarreras • Bordaderas (embroideres) • Sinamayeras (abaca weavers) • sex discrimination • sexual harassment • low wages
    • 19TH CENTURY • Tobacco factories in Manila, Navotas and Malabon • low wages and deplorable working condition • 1906 •  women vendors in Divisoria  increase install rentals 1934  tobacco workers – general workers’ strike  Narcisa Paguibitan  General Frank Murphy in Malacanang
    • CONGRESO OBRERO DE FILIPINAS • May 1, 1913 •  includes protection for women and child laborers • 1918 •  more than 8000 women workers in factories • Mid 19th century •  3000 in various cigar companies
    • WOMEN-ONLY TRADE UNIONS • Union de Cigarillas la Alejandria • Tobacco Women’s Labor Union • 1923 •  provisions of working seats and separate toilets • 1931 •  more than 7500 members •  Bureau of Labor •  membership of women in all 12 major organizations
    • THE FILIPINO WOMAN: HER SOCIAL ECONOMIC STATUS (Alzona)  women joined unions for protection and benefits  show loyalty to organizations consciousness of the need for cooperation in labor movements
    • • 1936 •  maternity leave equal pay prohibition of child labour  struggle in women’s right to vote
    • • Tribune Manila •  May, 1936 • Alhambra Cigar Factory •  July, 1936 • 10,000 women and men workers in front of Malcanang •  equal pay for equal work in women and men •  prohibition of children worker below 14 years old •  grant of education to poor children
    • JAPANESE OCCUPATION AND POSTWAR YEARS • Closure of tobacco and sugar factories • Lowest pay among children and women workers • 1949 •  70 trade unions
    • 50’S AND 60’S • Decline in the employment of women
    • 70’S • MAKIBAKA • Malayang Kilusan ng Bagong Kababaihan • Mother’s core •  involvement of women workers • 1972 •  export-oriented economic development policy •  increase in the number of factories
    • 90’S •  very much economically active
    • GLOBALIZATION • Employment not only grew but expanded everywhere
    • • globalization growth of women informal workers weakening power of unions
    • • the culture of workers and the traditional organizing approach have not adapted to the changing times.
    • GALIN AND HORN • the growth of the service sector, the expansion of the labor market and the privatization of the public sector and with no previous union experience. •  the need for trade unions to seek a new organizing approach and strategy.
    • THE ORGANIZING EXPERIENCE OF MAKALAYA Early Beginnings 1988 – Women Trade Unionists noticed a maledominated trade union movement The need to motivate women to be active in trade unionism Gender Program of LEARN Women Workers’ Forum
    • THE ORGANIZING EXPERIENCE OF MAKALAYA The need to integrate women’s issues in trade union agenda 1995 WWF renamed Manggagawang Kababihang Mithi ay Paglaya (MAKALAYA)
    • OBJECTIVES • Institutionalize gender education programs in trade unions • Representation of women in trade unions • Formation of Women’s Committees in trade unions • Inclusion of women-friendly provisions in collective bargaining negotiations • Women-friendly laws in trade union agendas • Integration of women’s concerns in trade union policies
    • MAKALAYA Aims to Organize unity beyond the federation and labour center Structures
    • PROGRAMS 1. Education Programs A. WET (Women’s Empowerment Training) B. WILD (Women Intensive Labor Development) 2. Women Counselling, Entrepreneurial, Livelihood and Legal Services 3. WORD (Women research for Development) 4. WOMB (Women Bulletin)
    • ORGANIZING STRATEGIES • Vertical or sectoral organizing -categorizing members based on what they do -define women worker’s role and agenda Horizontal organizing - geographical grouping of its members regardless of individual classification as a worker
    • ORGANIZING STRATEGIES • The use of gender lens or perspective in organizing women workers • Adoption of the Social Movement Unionism through the combination of labor-community unionism and organizing women in formal and informal economies • Feminist values as part of its practice
    • ORGANIZING STRATEGIES • Revisioning the notion of leadership by challenging machisimo in all forms
    • DEVELOPING WOMEN’S LEADERSHIP • Conducts courses that aim to • 1. develop women’s organizing skills and ability to improve their conditions • 2. enhance their capacities in negotiations and capacitate them to represent them • 3. build their confidence
    • CONFRONTING SEXISM • 1. Everyday experiences of sexism and male resistance • 2. Personal attack to women leaders • 3. Anything that concerns gender as butt of male jokes
    • GAINS Empowered to address gender issues in workplace Increase in awareness on sexual harassment Integration of benefits Adoption of Anti-Sexual Harassment policy for companies • Formation of women committees in trade union • • • •