DefinitionsEthnographic Research•Researcher observes the subject in the natural or social environment.•Data is collected based on observations.•Recorded data is refererred to as "field notes".(Richards, 2010:40)Participatory Research•Researcher interacts with the subject in the natural or social environment.•Direct involvement is used to collect data.•Also referred to as Participatory Action Research (PAR).(Marshall & Rossman, 2006:7)(Willis, 2012:232)
Research ToolsParticipatory Research•Notebooks•Pre-research kits for the target group•Interviews•Audio recorders•Data collection: “collective” or group analysis, experiential analysis(Pant, 2013:99).Ethnographic Research•Diaries and notebooks•Photography•Video and Film•Audio recorders•Interviews•Data is usually analysed through a narrative context.(Creswell, 2013, 96)(Phill-Brett, 2011)
Data Coding Process•Codes = keywords, phrases, concepts, ideas, and other pieces of data.•Field notes and participatory data are labeled, categorised and sorted accordingto common patterns.•Memoirs are used to analyse the coding process.•Categorising refers to arranging data according to similar traits.•Sorting refers to the logical way in which data is categorised.(Creswell, 2013:184) (Phill-Brett, 2011)
Research EffectivenessEthnographic ResearchBenefits•Researcher gains direct knowledgeand experience.•More accurate data is extractedfrom the subject.•Data is more likely to retainviability after an extended timeperiod(Camtools, 2013)Flaws•Subjects may refuse to reveal keyinformation due to privacy issues(Marshall & Rossman, 2006:84).•Researcher must not disrupt thenatural behaviour of the subject(Bazanger & Dodier, 2009:11).
Research EffectivenessParticipatory ResearchBenefits•Researcher is able to get involved inthe subjects activities (Marshall &Rossman, 2006).•Researcher is able to utilise theresources available in the studylocation (Watters, 2010:7).•Helps develop critical thinkingskills, as well as networking abilities(Watters, 2010:7).Flaws•collaborative nature of research requiresfull participation of participants.•More time is needed to train theparticipants and extract necessary data .(The Community Tool Box, 2013)
Points To Ponder•Both research methods help to improve observational skills.•It is important to keep a meticulous record of collected data.• Informal sources can also be effective research tools.•Culture is an important factor in the research process.•Critical thinking skills are enhanced through social interaction.
Bibliography• AHRQ. 2009. AHRQ Activities Using Community-Based Participatory Research to Address HealthCare Disparities. AHRQ. [Online]. Availabe: http://www.ahrq.gov/research/cbprbrief.htm. [19 February2013].• Alasutari, P. 1995. Qualitative Method and Cultural Studies. London: Sage Publications.• Bazanger, I. & Dodier, N. 2009. Ethnography: Relating The Part To The Whole. In: QualitativeResearch: Theory, Method and Practice. Edited by: Silverman, D. 2nd ed. LosAngeles, London, New Delhi, Singapore & Washington D.C: Sage Publications.• Camtools 2013. Ethnographic and Field Study Techniques. Camtools. [Online]. Available:https://camtools.cam.ac.uk/wiki/site/e30faf26-bc0c-4533-acbc-cff4f9234e1b/ethnographic%20and%20field%20study.html. [20 February 2013].• Creswell, J. 2013. Qualitative Inquiry & Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches. LosAngeles, London, New Delhi, Singapore, & Washington D.C: Sage Publications.
• Fountain, L. 2010. Usability Techniques To Help: Communicate Creative Ideas. System Concepts Ltd. &YouTube LLC. (Video Recording). [Online]. Available: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-vXUCNlicQQ. [19February 2013].• Marshall, C. & Rossman, G. 2006. Designing Qualitative Research. Thousand Oaks, London & New Delhi:Sage Publications.• Pant, M. 2012. Participatory Research. UNESCO. [Online]. Available:http://www.unesco.org/education/aladin/paldin/pdf/course01/unit_08.pdf. [18 February 2013].• Prill-Brett, J. 2011. Ethnographic Research Methods. University of the Philippines Baguio. [Online]. Available:http://www.tebtebba.org/index.php/all-resources/category/108-day-5?download=805:ethnographic-research-methods. [20 February 2013].• Richards, L. 2010. Handling Qualitative Data: A Practical Guide. 2nd ed. Los Angeles, London, NewDelhi, Singapore, & Washington DC: Sage Publications.• The Community Tool Box. 2013. Participitory Evaluation. University of Kansas. [Online]. Available:http://ctb.ku.edu/TempDocuments/en/36.6_000.ppt. [20 February2013].• Watters, J. 2010. Participatory Action Research: An Educational Tool For Citizen-Users Of Community MentalHealth Services. University of Manitoba. [Online]. Available:• Willis, J. 2007. Foundations of Qualitative Research: Interpretive and Critical Approaches. ThousandOaks, London & New Delhi: Sage Publications.
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