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dr manuel's lecture last saturday.

dr manuel's lecture last saturday.



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  • 2. DEVELOPMENT to lead long and healthy lives, to be knowledgeable, to have access to the resources needed for a decent standard of living and to be able to participate in the life of the community.'   United Nations Development Programme
  • 3.
    • Achieving human development is linked to a condition wherein people are freed from obstacles that affect their ability to develop their own lives and communities.
  • 4.
    • Development, therefore, is empowerment :
    • it is about local people taking control of their own lives, expressing their own demands and finding their own solutions to their problems.
  • 5.
    • Interpretation of the modern economic perspective of development.
    • Development is not only measured by economic growth, but also measured by
    • "what a person is, or can be, and does."
  • 6.
    • The capability of a person to function is partially determined by income, but it also is determined by what the person is able to do based on what is available to him.  
    • Amaryta Sen
  • 7.
    • The traditional economic perspective of development is growth defined through the use of economic measurements, such as GNP. 
    • A country is often considered developing when its GNP is rising annually at a rate of 5% or more.
  • 8.
    • The problem with using this perspective of development is that it only looks at the nation as a whole and only based on its economy .
    • It ignores the fact that growth in GNP does not necessarily mean that poverty is being dealt with.
  • 9.
    • The strategy of looking at economic measurements does help determine what potential a country has to solve its problems or poverty, but it does not look at measurements that show progress towards ending poverty.
  • 10.
    • Recent United Nations documents emphasize
    • “ human development,” measured by
    • 1) life expectancy,
    • 2) adult literacy,
    • 3) access to all three levels of education, as well
    • as
    • 4) people’s average income, which is a necessary
    • condition of their freedom of choice .
  • 11.
    • In a broader sense the notion of human development incorporates all aspects of
    • individuals’ well-being, from their health status to their economic and political freedom.
  • 12.
    • “ human development is the end —
    • economic growth a means.”
    • Human Development Report 1996
  • 13.
    • Development is sustainable if it “meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”
  • 14.
    • It is usually understood that this “intergenerational” equity would be impossible to achieve in the absence of present-day social equity, if the economic activities of some groups of people continue to jeopardize the well-being of people belonging to other groups or living in other parts of the world.
    • United Nations World Commission
    • on Environment and Development in 1987
  • 15.
    • “ Sustainable” development could probably be otherwise called “equitable and balanced,”
    • … in order for development to continue indefinitely, it should balance:
    • a) the interests of different groups of people,
    • within the same generation and among
    • generations, and
    • do so simultaneously in three major interrelated
    • areas – economic, social, and environmental.
  • 16.
    • Sustainable Development is about long-term conditions for humanity’s multidimensional well-being.
  • 17.
    • “ Human beings are at the center of concern for sustainable development. They are entitled to a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature.”
    • Rio Declaration, adopted by the United Nations
    • Conference on Environment and
    • Development in 1992
    • (also called the Earth Summit,
    • held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)
    • Population
    • Gross National Income
    • 3. Gross National Product Per Capital
    • 4. Life Expectancy
    • 5. Adult Literary Rate
  • 19.
    • 6. National Poverty Line
    • 7. International Poverty Line
    • 8. Response to Millennium Development
    • Goals
    • 9. Economic Activity
    • 10. Trade, Aid and Finance
  • 20.
    •   … to reduce poverty, inequality, and unemployment  
    • Dudley Seers
    • “ The Meaning of Development”
    • (1967 and 1979)
    Purpose of Development
  • 21.
    • … reducing deprivation or broadening choice. Deprivation represents a multidimensional view of poverty that includes hunger, illiteracy, illness and poor health, powerlessness, voicelessness, insecurity, humiliation, and lack of access to basic infrastructure
    • Narayan et al, 2000
    Purpose of Development
  • 22.  
  • 23.  
  • 24.