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DEVELOPMENT to lead long and healthy lives, to be knowledgeable, to have access to the resources needed for a decent standard of living and to be able to participate in the life of the community.' United Nations Development Programme
it is about local people taking control of their own lives, expressing their own demands and finding their own solutions to their problems.
Interpretation of the modern economic perspective of development.
Development is not only measured by economic growth, but also measured by
"what a person is, or can be, and does."
The capability of a person to function is partially determined by income, but it also is determined by what the person is able to do based on what is available to him.
The traditional economic perspective of development is growth defined through the use of economic measurements, such as GNP.
A country is often considered developing when its GNP is rising annually at a rate of 5% or more.
The problem with using this perspective of development is that it only looks at the nation as a whole and only based on its economy .
It ignores the fact that growth in GNP does not necessarily mean that poverty is being dealt with.
The strategy of looking at economic measurements does help determine what potential a country has to solve its problems or poverty, but it does not look at measurements that show progress towards ending poverty.
Recent United Nations documents emphasize
“ human development,” measured by
1) life expectancy,
2) adult literacy,
3) access to all three levels of education, as well
4) people’s average income, which is a necessary
condition of their freedom of choice .
In a broader sense the notion of human development incorporates all aspects of
individuals’ well-being, from their health status to their economic and political freedom.
“ human development is the end —
economic growth a means.”
Human Development Report 1996
Development is sustainable if it “meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.”
It is usually understood that this “intergenerational” equity would be impossible to achieve in the absence of present-day social equity, if the economic activities of some groups of people continue to jeopardize the well-being of people belonging to other groups or living in other parts of the world.
United Nations World Commission
on Environment and Development in 1987
“ Sustainable” development could probably be otherwise called “equitable and balanced,”
… in order for development to continue indefinitely, it should balance:
a) the interests of different groups of people,
within the same generation and among
do so simultaneously in three major interrelated
areas – economic, social, and environmental.
Sustainable Development is about long-term conditions for humanity’s multidimensional well-being.
“ Human beings are at the center of concern for sustainable development. They are entitled to a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature.”
Rio Declaration, adopted by the United Nations
Conference on Environment and
Development in 1992
(also called the Earth Summit,
held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)
WORLD DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS World Bank
Gross National Income
3. Gross National Product Per Capital
4. Life Expectancy
5. Adult Literary Rate
6. National Poverty Line
7. International Poverty Line
8. Response to Millennium Development
9. Economic Activity
10. Trade, Aid and Finance
… to reduce poverty, inequality, and unemployment
“ The Meaning of Development”
(1967 and 1979)
Purpose of Development
… reducing deprivation or broadening choice. Deprivation represents a multidimensional view of poverty that includes hunger, illiteracy, illness and poor health, powerlessness, voicelessness, insecurity, humiliation, and lack of access to basic infrastructure