Presentation power point2.


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dr manuel's lecture last saturday.

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Presentation power point2.

  2. 2. DEVELOPMENT to lead long and healthy lives, to be knowledgeable, to have access to the resources needed for a decent standard of living and to be able to participate in the life of the community.'   United Nations Development Programme
  3. 3. <ul><li>Achieving human development is linked to a condition wherein people are freed from obstacles that affect their ability to develop their own lives and communities. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Development, therefore, is empowerment : </li></ul><ul><li>it is about local people taking control of their own lives, expressing their own demands and finding their own solutions to their problems. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Interpretation of the modern economic perspective of development. </li></ul><ul><li>Development is not only measured by economic growth, but also measured by </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;what a person is, or can be, and does.&quot; </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The capability of a person to function is partially determined by income, but it also is determined by what the person is able to do based on what is available to him.   </li></ul><ul><li> Amaryta Sen </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>The traditional economic perspective of development is growth defined through the use of economic measurements, such as GNP.  </li></ul><ul><li>A country is often considered developing when its GNP is rising annually at a rate of 5% or more. </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>The problem with using this perspective of development is that it only looks at the nation as a whole and only based on its economy . </li></ul><ul><li>It ignores the fact that growth in GNP does not necessarily mean that poverty is being dealt with. </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>The strategy of looking at economic measurements does help determine what potential a country has to solve its problems or poverty, but it does not look at measurements that show progress towards ending poverty. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Recent United Nations documents emphasize </li></ul><ul><li>“ human development,” measured by </li></ul><ul><li>1) life expectancy, </li></ul><ul><li>2) adult literacy, </li></ul><ul><li>3) access to all three levels of education, as well </li></ul><ul><li>as </li></ul><ul><li>4) people’s average income, which is a necessary </li></ul><ul><li>condition of their freedom of choice . </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>In a broader sense the notion of human development incorporates all aspects of </li></ul><ul><li>individuals’ well-being, from their health status to their economic and political freedom. </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>“ human development is the end — </li></ul><ul><li>economic growth a means.” </li></ul><ul><li>Human Development Report 1996 </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Development is sustainable if it “meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>It is usually understood that this “intergenerational” equity would be impossible to achieve in the absence of present-day social equity, if the economic activities of some groups of people continue to jeopardize the well-being of people belonging to other groups or living in other parts of the world. </li></ul><ul><li>United Nations World Commission </li></ul><ul><li>on Environment and Development in 1987 </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>“ Sustainable” development could probably be otherwise called “equitable and balanced,” </li></ul><ul><li>… in order for development to continue indefinitely, it should balance: </li></ul><ul><li>a) the interests of different groups of people, </li></ul><ul><li>within the same generation and among </li></ul><ul><li>generations, and </li></ul><ul><li>do so simultaneously in three major interrelated </li></ul><ul><li>areas – economic, social, and environmental. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Sustainable Development is about long-term conditions for humanity’s multidimensional well-being. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>“ Human beings are at the center of concern for sustainable development. They are entitled to a healthy and productive life in harmony with nature.” </li></ul><ul><li>Rio Declaration, adopted by the United Nations </li></ul><ul><li>Conference on Environment and </li></ul><ul><li>Development in 1992 </li></ul><ul><li>(also called the Earth Summit, </li></ul><ul><li>held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) </li></ul>
  18. 18. WORLD DEVELOPMENT INDICATORS World Bank <ul><li>Population </li></ul><ul><li>Gross National Income </li></ul><ul><li>3. Gross National Product Per Capital </li></ul><ul><li>4. Life Expectancy </li></ul><ul><li>5. Adult Literary Rate </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>6. National Poverty Line </li></ul><ul><li>7. International Poverty Line </li></ul><ul><li>8. Response to Millennium Development </li></ul><ul><li>Goals </li></ul><ul><li>9. Economic Activity </li></ul><ul><li>10. Trade, Aid and Finance </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>  … to reduce poverty, inequality, and unemployment   </li></ul><ul><li>Dudley Seers </li></ul><ul><li>“ The Meaning of Development” </li></ul><ul><li>(1967 and 1979) </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>Purpose of Development
  21. 21. <ul><li>… reducing deprivation or broadening choice. Deprivation represents a multidimensional view of poverty that includes hunger, illiteracy, illness and poor health, powerlessness, voicelessness, insecurity, humiliation, and lack of access to basic infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Narayan et al, 2000 </li></ul>Purpose of Development