Sexual revolution

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Sexual revolution

  1. 1.  SEXUAL REVOLUTION- (also known as a time of "sexual liberation") was a social movement that challenged traditional codes of behavior related to sexuality and interpersonal relationships throughout the Western world from the 1960s to the 1980s.Sexual liberation included increased acceptance of sex outside of traditional heterosexual, monogamous relationships (primarily marriage). Contraception and the pill, public nudity, the normalization of premarital sex, homosexuality and alternative forms of sexuality, and the legalization of abortion all followed. Gender roles are socially constructed Gender roles are created by humans to meet the needs of their societies Life chances in the stratification system depend upon the combination of age and sex (and other categories as well) Sex, gender, and stratification Sex- usually thought of as a biological term referring to ascribed genetic, anatomical, and hormonal differences between males and females, but it is actually determined by socially accepted biological criteria, e.g.: o Intersexed- persons with ambiguous genitalia (usually ascribed one or another sex in different cultures) Gender identity - the socially constructed meanings associated with males or females and how individuals construct their gender identity within these constraints o Gender roles- rigidly assigned tasks or expected behaviors of individuals because of their sex category Sexuality - how we experience our own bodies and our bodies in relation to others The three terms are frequently used interchangeably, but are all distinct Sex, gender, and sexuality at the micro-level Agents of socialization teach us from birth how to display “proper” gendered behaviors o Failure to comply often results in sanctions o Compliance is celebrated Sex, gender, and sexuality at the meso-level Adults roles and responsibilities in social institutions differ by age and sex
  2. 2. Rites of passage differ by age and sex Women’s reduced power in micro-level settings is often related to a lack of power in meso-level organizations and institutions Sex, gender, and sexuality at the macro-level Inequality at the global/national level is independent of personal prejudices Institutionalized discrimination- patterns of social action that are imbedded in the entire social system may influence women and men, providing unrecognized privileges or disadvantages Gender socialization Gender socialization is the process by which people learn the cultural norms, attitudes, and behaviors appropriate to their gender through sanctions The workplace itself is gendered Gender discrimination De jure discrimination- done legally & deliberately because of cultural images of women as inferior/weaker to or fundamentally different from men De facto discrimination- unequal treatment that is unintended,customary o Side effect discrimination o Past-in-present discrimination Theories of sex-based stratification Symbolic interactionism- gender is socially constructed; physical, biological differences come to be regarded as symbols that differentiate rights and rewards in society o Gender is not intrinsically related to sex o Humans have agency to influence the society around them o “Doing” gender is an option Structural-functionalist theory- each sex has a role to play in the interdependent groups and institutions of society
  3. 3. Conflict theory- by keeping women in subordinate roles, men ensure that they control the means of production and protect their privileges o Men will not voluntarily give up their current beneficial positions of power Feminist theory- patriarchy is the cause of women’s oppression o Patriarchy- a few men dominate and hold authority over all others, including women, children, and less powerful men o Class, race, and gender intersect in a way that privileges some women over others, though most women are still subordinate to most men Gender and minority group status Women are a “minority group” because: o Distinguished by physical, cultural, or social characteristics o Share of desired goods is limited by the dominant group o Ideological or other justifications are used to deny them equal treatment o They have a collective identity used to help insulate them from unequal treatment o Minority group status is generally determined by rules of descent, with members born into a status they cannot change o Benefited from the Civil Rights Era Gender, homosexuality, and minority status The government and dominant religious group determines how gay men and lesbians are treated in society o Lesbians seen as threatening because they are not reliant on men o Gay men seen as inferior because they are perceived to be more feminine Homophobia and heterosexism Homophobia- intense fear and hatred of homosexuality and homosexuals o Highly correlated with a belief in traditional gender roles o Homosexual slurs are used to reinforce gender conformity
  4. 4. Heterosexism- society reinforces heterosexuality and marginalizes anyone who does not conform to this norm Micro costs and consequences of gender stratification Rigid stereotyping can have psychological and social consequences for individuals o For men- guilt, anxiety; early death o For women- superwoman image; beauty image  Gender roles are socially constructed  Gender roles are created by humans to meet the needs of their societies  Life chances in the stratification system depend upon the combination of age and sex (and other categories as well)  SEX- either of the two major forms of individuals that occur in many species and that are distinguished respectively as female or male especially on the basis of their reproductive organs and structures.  HERMAPHRODITE-A person or animal having both male and female sex organs or other sexual characteristics, either abnormally or naturally.  MALE PSEUDO HERMAPHRODITE –with fully developed male sex organ.  FEMALE PSEUDO HERMAPHRODITE-with fully developed female se organ.  GENDER-is the range of physical, mental and behavioral characteristics pertaining to, and differentiating between, masculinity and femininity.  SEX STRATIFICATION- The ranking and differential reward system of the sexes.  Interactionist researchers often examine gender stratification on the micro level of everyday behaviour. Studies show that men initiate up to 96% of all interruptions in cross-sex (male-female) conversations. Men are more likely than women to change topics of conversation, to ignore topics chosen by members of the opposite sex, to minimise the contributions and ideas of members of the opposite sex, and to validate their own contributions  GENDER STRATIFICATION- a society's unequal distribution of wealth, power and privilege between the two sexes.  Sex- usually thought of as a biological term referring to ascribed genetic, anatomical, and hormonal differences between males and females, but it is actually determined by socially accepted biological  Gender identity - the socially constructed meanings associated with males or females and how individuals construct their gender identity within these constraints
  5. 5.  Gender roles- rigidly assigned tasks or expected behaviors of individuals because of their sex category  Sexuality - how we experience our own bodies and our bodies in relation to others  The three terms are frequently used interchangeably, but are all distinct  MALE AND FEMALE DIFFERENCES  Keep in mind that researchers like these are writing about average differences between most males and females .They're not arguing that all boys are one way and all girls another.  Just as important as the average, males and females are different at the extremes. Females tend to cluster in the middle. Males tend to end up at the top of the heap or the bottom of the barrel. That's why you see more geniuses who are male and also so many males who are mentally retarded.  Even so, here are the average differences between the sexes.  Spatial Abilities: Males are far and away better than females on abilities like seeing an object in their minds from different angles. On a more practical note, I would say men are also better at packing odd-shaped luggage and parcels in the trunk of a car, a similar spatial skill.  Verbal Abilities: Females talk earlier, use more words, and are better at language and verbal skills throughout their lives. They often win arguments with men because the men can't handle so many words.  Aggression: This is a hot topic. Males are generally more physically aggressive but females are more aggressive in subtle, interpersonal ways. "Mean Girls" is what the movies call it. "Relational aggression" is what the psychologists call it. Boys may gang up on each other in a fight. But girls fight too, with gossip, trying to isolate certain girls and make them unpopular.  Activity Levels: Boys are more active than girls, engage in more rough and tumble play, and emphasize their large motor skills like riding bicycles and running around the playground (when they're allowed to. Many schools now frown on letting boys run around outside). Girls are more apt to talk together or do other activities that don't involve lots of continual movement.  Interests: Females as a group are more apt to want to go into fields involving people or helping others like becoming teachers, social workers, or veterinarians. Indeed twothirds of students in veterinary schools are now women. Males as a group have more physical and abstract interests, wanting to become plumbers, engineers, or scientists in fields like computers or physics.  These differences aren't all biological. Social learning makes a difference as well. Mothers talk more to girls, according to some researchers, which could have some effect on girls' greater verbal abilities. But then again, maybe mothers talk more to girls because the girls are more verbal and talk more to them.  Contraceptives:
  6. 6.  57% of women not currently using contraception intend to use a method in the future  28% of these non-users intend to use a method within the next 12 months Preferred method for women who intend to use contraception in the future SOURCE: (http://www.adn.com/2009/10/05/962108/whats-the-difference-betweenmales.html) THE USED OF CONTRACEPTIVE METHOd
  7. 7. SUBMITTED BY: KENETH CABARLE AND GERALDINE PEREZ

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