Key IndividualsGiuseppe MazziniBorn in GenoaStudied to be a lawyerBecame member of the Carbonari in 1827"charcoal burners” were groups of secret revolutionary societies founded in early 19th-centuryItalyLed failed attempts at revolution during the 1830sFounded ‘Young Italy’Criticized new Italian state after 1870What were Mazzini’s aims?What were Mazzini’s methods?How big an impact did Mazzini have on the Unification of Italy?Gave encouragement to Italian patriotismPresented new view of ItalyInspired Garibaldi to join movementHelped to win international publicity for Italian freedom. Defence of Rome in 1849 was heroicfailureBy his actions put pressure on Cavour and others to act more positivelyHow successful was Mazzini?Had little practical experienceOverestimated level of support – ignored problems of the peasantsSupport was limitedAll his plots failed!Some middle class alienated by his revolutionary stanceMade no attempt to win support from peasants and town workersMazzini’s verdict on Italy, 1871Italian territory under foreign controlForeigners had played too important a role in unification
Unhappy with new constitutionCamilloBenso, Count of CavourMember of Piedmontese ruling classGreat admirer of British system of governmentInitially aimed at expanding Piedmont rather than uniting ItalyCavour – Foreign PolicyAware of shortcomings of ‘Italia fara da se’(Italy will operate on its own”)Aimed to move Austrians out of Lombardy & VenetiaAs PM had considerable control over foreign policy1854 – outbreak of Crimean War: Britain & France vs Russia15,000 troops sent to support France & GBCavour and the Crimean WarSome doubt over motivation but perhaps aimed to gain support from GB & FranceTroops played only minor role but did win respect & gratitude from alliesCongress of Paris (1856) dealt with peace negotiationsCavour not directly involved in talksCavour wins supportForeign support & diplomacy seen as main successesAlso important was link with National SocietyNumber of its leaders beginning to accept Piedmont as focus for unificationCavour now looked to France for help against AustriaNapoleon III and Italian UnityFormer member of the CarbonariHis troops had crushed Roman Republic in 1849Had his own reasons for aiding PiedmontProbably favoured federation headed by PopeThe Orsini Bomb Plot!In January 14, 1858 FeliceOrsini (an Italian patriot) attempted to assassinate Napoleon IIIFelt Nap. III was responsible for failure of earlier revolutionsHoped that this would aid Italian unityHis act, designed to arouse world interest in the Italian cause, paradoxically influencedNapoleons own decision to intervene in favor of Italian unification.Orsini was sent to the guillotine on 13 March 1858.
War with Austria1859 War provoked with AustriaFrench (with limited help from Piedmont) won 2 closely fought victoriesAustria on brink of surrenderNapoleon III now pulled put of the war – unexpectedlyCavour was furious – resigned as PMIV. Italian UnificationNapoleon III committed his troopsVictory for S-P but only the Northern States fell under their controlSomeone else would have to unify the southCavour and GaribaldiGaribaldi raised volunteers to fight for SavoyInstead went to SicilyCavour not happy – feared consequences of Garibaldi’s actionsWas torn between trying to stop Garibaldi and offering supportAttempts to stop him failed!Cavour and the Papal StatesBiggest problem for Cavour was fear of French or Austrian interventionTo forestall Garibaldi marching on Rome, Cavour sent troops into the Papal StatesPiedmontese troops successful but did not receive the same level of support as Garibaldi’s menBy end of 1861 Victor Emmanuel acclaimed first King of ItalyCavour died end of 1861Giuseppe GaribaldiGreat romantic figure of the RisorgimentoCharismatic guerrilla leaderHad distinguished himself in the defence of RomeWas a follower of MazziniGaribaldi & the campaign of 1861Hi-jacked the popular revolt in SicilyUsed great cunning to gain control of the islandHis ‘1000 Red Shirts’ gained more and more supportHad more problems on the mainland but was successful in defeating King of NaplesHanded his conquests over to VE II
VI. Unified Italy1861 - Italy formally unified as a nation.Victor Emmanuel II was their first king.Count Cavour their 1st Prime Minister.Florence was first capital.1871 – capital moved to RomeItaly 1861-1870Kingdom of Italy declared – Victor Emmanuel II ‘by the grace of God and the rule of the people’Constitutional MonarchyFirst parliament met in Turin, March 18611866 VE II anxious to prove Italian military prowessItaly 1861-1870 (2)Venetia occupied after Austrian defeat – voted to join with ItalyGaribaldi made 2 failed attempts to seize Rome (1862, 1867) – little support from the Romans1870 Franco-Prussian War saw withdrawal of French garrisonPius XI soon withdrew to the VaticanHow united was Italy by 1870?Bad relations with the PapacyLack of common languageSpread of Piedmontese constitution caused conflictFranchise restricted – ½ million/22 millionLiberal aims had little in common with peasantrySevere economic problems‘Brigands’ War’ in the South for many yearsPolitical system did not develop wellPapal StatesPope would continue to govern a section of Rome, known as Vatican CityLateran Treaty, 1929made in 1929 between the Kingdom of Italy and the Holy See, ratifiedJune 7, 1929, ending the "Roman Question”(political dispute between the Italian Governmentand the Papacy from 1861 to 1929).Papal States con’t…
signed for King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy by Prime Minister Benito Mussolini and for Pope PiusXI by Cardinal Secretary of State PietroGasparri. The agreements were signed in the LateranPalace, hence the name by which they are known.*guaranteed full and independent sovereignty to the Holy See*established Catholicism as the religion of ItalySigner’s of the Lateran TreatyPM Benito Mussolini; Cardinal Secretary of State PietroGasparri.The “Holy See”episcopal jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome (who is commonly known as the Pope)The Holy See is not the same as the Vatican City State, which came into existence only in 1929,while the Holy See dates back to early Christian times.VATICAN CITY STATE CELEBRATES 83 YEARSOn February 11th, 1929, an historic treaty was signed between the Italian Government and theVatican re-establishing the political power and diplomatic standing of the Catholic Church, whichhad been lost when Italy seized Rome, the last of the Papal States, on September 20th, 1870.