Addiction
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Addiction Addiction Document Transcript

  • nformation MARIJUANA Marijuana is also called "grass," "pot," "reefer," "joint," "hashish," "cannabis," "weed," and "Mary Jane." About 2 in 5 Americans have used marijuana at least once in their life. Marijuana comes from a plant called hemp (cannabis sativa). The main, active ingredient in marijuana is THC (short for delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol). This and other ingredients, called cannabinoids, are found in the leaves and flowering parts of the marijuana plant. Hashish is a substance taken from the tops of female marijuana plants. It contains the highest amount of THC. How fast you feel the effects of marijuana depend on how you use it: If you breathe in marijuana smoke (such as from a joint or pipe), you may feel the effects within seconds to several minutes. If you eat foods containing the drug (such as "hash brownies,") you may feel the effects with 30 -60 minutes. Marijuana acts on your central nervous system. Low-to-moderate amounts of the drug may cause: Increased appetite ("the munchies") Feeling of joy (euphoria) Relaxed feeling Increased sensations of sight, hearing, and taste Other effects can include: Feelings of panic, or rarely severe paranoia Decreased ability to perform tasks that require a lot of coordination (such as driving a car) Decreased interest in completing tasks Delirium or seeing or hearing things that aren't there (hallucinations) Bloodshot eyes Changes in body image Increased heart rate and blood pressure Infections such as sinusitis, bronchitis, and asthma in heavy users Irritation of the airways causing narrowing or spasms Possibly weakening of the immune system Sore throat Trouble concentrating and paying attention, which can interfere with learning Trouble telling oneself from others Violence (may be related to marijuana that is laced with a drug called PCP) Regular users may have withdrawal effects when they stop marijuana use. These may include: Agitation Anxiety Insomnia Irritability MEDICAL MARIJUANA The medical use of marijuana is controversial, yet it's active ingredient (THC) is legal for medical purposes in at least 16 states. (Whole marijuana is illegal, even for medical use.) THC has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the following medical purposes:
  • Relieving chronic pain and spasticity Stimulating appetite in patients with AIDS or who have undergone chemotherapy Treating glaucoma Treating nausea caused by chemotherapy in cancer patients PHENCYCLIDINE (PCP, "angel dust") PCP is an illegal drug that comes as a white powder, which can be dissolved in alcohol or water. PCP may be smoked, shot into a vein, or taken by mouth. How quickly it affects you depends on how you take it. Shooting up: If given through a vein, PCP's effects start within 2-5 minutes. Smoked: The effects begin within 2 - 5 minutes, peaking at 15 - 30 minutes. Taken by mouth: In pill form, or mixed with food or drinks, PCP's effects usually start within 30 minutes. The effects tend to peak in about 2 - 5 hours. Different doses of PCP will cause different effects: Lower doses of PCP typically produce feelings of joy (euphoria) and less inhibition, similar to being drunk. Higher doses cause numbness throughout the body, and perception changes that may lead to extreme anxiety and violence. Large doses may produce paranoia, "hearing voices" (auditory hallucinations), and psychosissimilar to schizophrenia. Massive doses, usually from taking the drug by mouth, may cause acute kidney failure, heartarrhythmias, muscle rigidity, seizures, and even death. Because of the pain-killing (analgesic) properties of PCP, users who get seriously injured may not feel any pain. OTHER DRUGS A number of other illegal drugs have become popular and available in recent years, including: Ketamine, a substance related to PCP, commonly called "Special K" "Ecstasy," or MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine) GHB and Rohypnol, also called "date rape," "acquaintance rape," or "drug-assisted assault" drugs LSD AND OTHER HALLUCINOGENS LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) is a very strong hallucinogen. Only tiny amounts are needed to cause effects, such as hallucinations. Other commonly abused hallucinogens include: Psilocybin (mushrooms, "shrooms") Peyote (a cactus plant containing the active ingredient mescaline) LSD use may cause: Anxiety Blurred vision Dilated pupils Seeing things that aren't there (hallucinations) Paranoid delusions Tremors Hallucinogens can lead to extreme anxiety and lack of reality, called "bad trips". These experiences can come back as a "flashback," even without using the drug again. Such experiences typically occur during times of increased stress, and tend to occur less often and intensely after stopping the drugs. COCAINE
  • The abuse of cocaine increased dramatically in the late 1980s and early 1990s, but is now on the decline. Other names to describe different forms of cocaine include "crack," "coke," "snow," and "speedball." Cocaine may be taken in different ways: Snorting: Inhaling it through the nose Shooting up: Dissolving it in water and injected it into a vein Speedball: Mixed with heroin and shot into a vein Smoked: Cocaine may be changed into a smokeable form known as freebase or crack Smoking cocaine produces a nearly instant and intense sense of joy (euphoria), which is attractive to abusers. Other effects include: Feelings of increased confidence and energy Less inhibition Local numbness Powerful stimulation of the central nervous system Regular users of cocaine may need larger amounts of the drug to feel these effects. Regular users of cocaine may have: Loss of interest in school, work, family, and friends Memory loss Mood swings Sleep problems Social withdrawal Heavy use may cause paranoia, which can lead to violence. AMPHETAMINES Amphetamines are stimulants. Other names used to desrribe amphetamines or methamphetamines include "crystal," "go," "crank," and "cross-tops." See: Methamphetamine overdose Amphetamines are very addictive. Prescription amphetamines are considered controlled substances. Over-the-counter (OTC) amphetamine look-alike drugs are often abused. These drugs typically contain caffeine and other stimulants, and are sold as appetite suppressants or stay-awake/stay-alert aids. Signs and symptoms of stimulant use: Dilated pupils Exaggerated feeling of well-being (euphoria) Fast heart rate Restlessness and hyperactivity Skin flushing Sleep disturbances Tremors Weight loss INHALANTS Inhalant use became popular with young teens in the 1960s with "glue sniffing." Since then, a greater variety of inhalants have become popular. Inhalant use typically involves younger teens or school-age children. Commonly abused inhalants include: Aerosols for deodorants or hair sprays Cleaning fluids
  • Gasoline Liquid typewriter correction fluid Model glue Spray paints Negative effects of inhalant abuse include: Brain damage Convulsions Liver or kidney damage Nerve damage (peripheral neuropathy) Sudden death OPIATES, OPIOIDS, AND NARCOTICS Opiates come from opium poppies. These drugs include morphine and codeine. Opioids are artificial substances that have the same effect as morphine or codeine. The term "narcotic" refers to either type of drug. Narcotics are powerful painkillers that cause drowsiness (sedation) and sometimes, feelings of euphoria. These drugs include: Codeine Heroin Hydromorphone (Dilaudid) Methadone Meperidine (Demerol) Opium Oxycodone (Percocet or Oxycontin) Signs and symptoms of narcotic use: Coma, respiratory depression leading to coma, and death in high doses Needle marks on the skin ("tracks") if drug use is by injection Rapid heart rate Relaxed or euphoric state Scars from skin abscesses if drug use is by injection Small "pinpoint" pupils Because heroin is commonly injected into a vein (used intravenously), there are health concerns about sharing contaminated needles among IV drug users. Complications of sharing contaminated needles include hepatitis, HIV infection, and AIDS. CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DEPRESSANTS These substances produce a sedative and anxiety-reducing effect, which can lead to dependence. These types of drugs include: Alcohol Barbiturates (amobarbital, pentobarbital, secobarbital), also called "yellow jackets" Benzodiazepines (Valium, Ativan, Xanax) Chloral hydrate Paraldehyde Signs and symptoms of alcohol or other depressant use: Decreased attention span Impaired judgment
  • Lack of coordination Slurred speech CALL YOUR HEALTH CARE PROVIDER If you are concerned about the possibility of getting addicted to any prescribed medications If you are concerned about possible drug abuse by yourself or a family member If you are interested in getting more information on drug abuse If you are seeking treatment of drug abuse for yourself or a family member SUPPORT GROUPS There are a number of different support groups available to help those with drug abuse. They include: Al-anon/Alateen Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) Narcotics Anonymous (NA) LifeRing Recovery,Moderation Management, SMART Recovery Drugdependence Drug dependence means that a person needs a drug to function normally. Abruptly stopping the drug leads to withdrawal symptoms. Drug addiction is the compulsive use of a substance, despite its negative or dangerous effects. A person may have a physical dependence on a substance without having an addiction. For example, certain blood pressure medications do not cause addiction but they can cause physical dependence. Other drugs, such as cocaine, cause addiction without leading to physical dependence. Tolerance to a drug (needing a higher dose to attain the same effect) is usually part of addiction. See also: Drug abuse Drug abuse first aid Causes of Drug dependence Drug abuse can lead to drug dependence or addiction. People who use drugs for pain relief may become dependent, although this is rare in those who don't have a history of addiction. The exact cause of drug abuse and dependence is not known. However, a person's genes, the action of the drug, peer pressure, emotional distress, anxiety, depression, and environmentalstress all can be factors. Peer pressure can lead to drug use or abuse, but at least half of those who become addicted have depression, attention deficit disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, or another mental health problem. Children who grow up in an environment of illicit drug use may first see their parents using drugs. This may put them at a higher risk for developing an addiction later in life for both environmental and genetic reasons. People who are more likely to abuse or become dependent on drugs include those who: Have depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders, and schizophrenia Have easy access to drugs Have low self-esteem, or problems with relationships Live a stressful lifestyle, economic or emotional Live in a culture where there is a high social acceptance of drug use Commonly abused substances include:
  • Opiates and narcotics are powerful painkillers that cause drowsiness (sedation) and sometimes feelings of euphoria. These include heroin, opium, codeine, meperidine(Demerol), hydromorphone (Dilaudid), and oxycodone (Oxycontin). Central nervous system (CNS) stimulants include amphetamines, cocaine,dextroamphetamine, methamphetamine, and methylphenidate (Ritalin). These drugs have a stimulating effect, and people can start needing higher amounts of these drugs to feel the same effect (tolerance). Central nervous system depressants include alcohol, barbiturates (amobarbital, pentobarbital, secobarbital), benzodiazepines (Valium, Ativan, Xanax), chloral hydrate, and paraldehyde. These substances produce a sedative and anxiety-reducing effect, which can lead to dependence. Hallucinogens include LSD, mescaline, psilocybin ("mushrooms"), and phencyclidine (PCPor "angel dust"). They can cause people to see things that aren't there (hallucinations) and can lead to psychological dependence. Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the active ingredient found in marijuana (cannabis) andhashish. There are several stages of drug use that may lead to dependence. Young people seem to move more quickly through the stages than do adults. Experimental use -- typically involves peers, done for recreational use; the user may enjoy defying parents or other authority figures. Regular use -- the user misses more and more school or work; worries about losing drug source; uses drugs to "fix" negative feelings; begins to stay away from friends and family; may change friends to those who are regular users; shows increased tolerance and ability to "handle" the drug. Daily preoccupation -- the user loses any motivation; does not care about school and work; has obvious behavior changes; thinking about drug use is more important than all other interests, including relationships; the user becomes secretive; may begin dealing drugs to help support habit; use of other, harder drugs may increase; legal problems may increase. Dependence -- cannot face daily life without drugs; denies problem; physical condition gets worse; loss of "control" over use; may become suicidal; financial and legal problems get worse; may have broken ties with family members or friends. Drug dependence Symptoms Some of the symptoms and behaviors of drug dependence include: Confusion Continuing to use drugs even when health, work, or family are being harmed Episodes of violence Hostility when confronted about drug dependence Lack of control over drug abuse - being unable to stop or reduce alcohol intake Making excuses to use drugs Missing work or school, or a decrease in performance Need for daily or regular drug use to function Neglecting to eat Not caring for physical appearance No longer taking part in activities because of drug abuse Secretive behavior to hide drug use Using drugs even when alone
  • See: Drug abuse for more information about symptoms that may be present when using these drugs. For information about symptoms of withdrawal, see also: Cocaine withdrawal Opiate withdrawal Tests and Exams Drug tests (toxicology screens) on blood and urine samples can show many chemicals and drugs in the body. How sensitive the test is depends upon the drug itself, when the drug was taken, and the testing laboratory. Blood tests are more likely to find a drug than urine tests. However, urine drug screens are done more often. Opiates and narcotics are usually in the urine 12 to 36 hours after the last use, depending on the amount used and how often the drug was used. CNS stimulants such as cocaine can be found in urine for 1 to 12 days, again depending on how often the drug was used. CNS depressants such as Valium and Xanax are found up to 7 days after the last day of use, mostly depending on the substance used and how quickly the body removes it (its half-life). Most hallucinogens also can be found in the urine up to 7 days after the last use. However, evidence of marijuana can be found for up to 28 days after its last use in regular users. Treatment of Drug dependence Treatment for drug abuse or dependence begins with recognizing the problem. Though "denial" used to be considered a symptom of addiction, recent research has shown that people who are addicted have far less denial if they are treated with empathy and respect, rather than told what to do or "confronted." Treatment of drug dependency involves stopping drug use either gradually or abruptly (detoxification), support, and staying drug free (abstinence). People with acute intoxication or drug overdose may need emergency treatment. Sometimes, the person loses consciousness and might need to be on a breathing machine (mechanical respirator) temporarily. The treatment depends on the drug being used. Detoxification is the withdrawal of an abused substance in a controlled environment. Sometimes a drug with a similar action is taken instead, to reduce the side effects and risks of withdrawal. Detoxification can be done on an inpatient or outpatient basis. As with any other area of medicine, the least intensive treatment should be the starting point. Residential treatment programs monitor and address possible withdrawal symptoms and behaviors. These programs use behavior modification techniques, which are designed to get users to recognize their behaviors. Treatment programs include counseling, both for the person (and perhaps family), and in group settings. Drug abuse treatment programs have a long after-care part (when the user is released from the medical facility), and provide peer support. Drug addiction is a serious and complicated health condition that requires both physical and psycholocial treatment and support. It is important to be evaluated by a trained professional to determine the best care. If the person also has depression or another mood disorder, it should be treated. Very often, people start abusing drugs in their effort to self-treat mental illness.
  • For narcotic dependence, some people are treated with methadone or similar drugs to prevent withdrawal and abuse. The goal is to enable the person to live as normal a life as possible. Support Groups Many support groups are available in the community. They include Narcotics Anonymous (NA), Ala-Teen, and Al-Anon. Most of these groups follow the 12-Step program used in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). SMART Recovery and LifeRing Recovery are programs that do not use the 12-step approach. You can find support groups in your phone book. Prognosis (Outlook) Drug abuse and dependence may lead to a fatal drug overdose. Some people start taking the drugs again after they have stopped. Relapses can lead to continued dependence. Potential Complications The complications of drug abuse and dependence include: Bacterial endocarditis, hepatitis, thrombophlebitis, pulmonary emboli, malnutrition, or respiratory infections, caused by drug use by injection Depression Drug overdose Increase in various cancer rates; for example, lung and pharynx cancer are linked to nicotineuse; mouth and stomach cancer are associated with alcohol abuse and dependence Infection with HIV through shared needles Problems with memory and concentration, for example with hallucinogen use, including marijuana (THC) Problems with the law Relapse of drug abuse Unsafe sexual practices, which may result in unwanted pregnancies, sexually transmitted diseases, HIV, or hepatitis When to Contact a Health Professional Call for an appointment with your health care provider if you are addicted to drugs and would like to get off of them, or if you have been cut off from your drug supply and are at risk of withdrawal. Most employers also offer referral services for their employees with substance abuse problems. Prevention of Drug dependence Drug education programs may be helpful though none has proved effective in the long term. References Kleber HD, Weiss Rd, Anton RF, George TP, Greenfield SF, Kosten TR, et al. Treatment of patients with substance use disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 2007;164:5-123. Griswold KS, Atronoff H, Kernan JB, Kahn LS. Adolescent substance use and abuse: recognition and management. Am Fam Physician. 2008;77:331-336. NIDA InfoFacts: Club Drugs (GHB, Ketamine, and Rohypnol). National Institute on Drug Abuse NIDA. NIDA InfoFacts: Hallucinogens - LSD, Peyote, Psilocybin, and PCP. National Institute on Drug Abuse. NIDA. Revised 6/09. Samet JH. Drug abuse and dependence. In: Goldman L, Ausiello D, eds. Cecil Medicine. 23rd ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2007:chap 32. Drugabusefirstaid
  • Drug abuse is the misuse or overuse of any medication or drug, including alcohol. This article discusses first aid for drug overdose and withdrawal. Injury Considerations Many street drugs have no therapeutic benefits. Any use of these drugs is a form of drug abuse. Legitimate medications can be abused by people who take more than the recommended dose or who intentionally take them with alcohol or other drugs. Drug interactions may also produce adverse effects. Therefore, it is important to let your doctor know about all the drugs you are taking, including vitamins and other over-the- counter medications. Many drugs are addictive. Sometimes the addiction is gradual. However, some drugs (such ascocaine) can cause addiction after only a few doses. Someone who has become addicted to a drug usually will have withdrawal symptoms when the drug is suddenly stopped. Withdrawal is greatly assisted by professional help. A drug dose that is large enough to be toxic is called an overdose. This may occur suddenly, when a large amount of the drug is taken at one time, or gradually, as a drug builds up in the body over a longer period of time. Prompt medical attention may save the life of someone who accidentally or deliberately takes an overdose. Causes of Drug abuse first aid An overdose of narcotics can cause sleepiness, slowed breathing, and even unconsciousness. Uppers (stimulants) produce excitement, increased heart rate, and rapid breathing. Downers (depressants) do just the opposite. Mind-altering drugs are called hallucinogens. They include LSD, PCP (angel dust), and other street drugs. Using such drugs may cause paranoia, hallucinations, aggressive behavior, or extreme social withdrawal. Cannabis-containing drugs such as marijuana may cause relaxation, impaired motor skills, and increased appetite. Legal prescription drugs are sometimes taken in higher than recommended amounts to achieve a feeling other than the therapeutic effects for which they were intended. This may lead to serious side effects. The use of any of the above mentioned drugs may result in impaired judgment and decision-making skills. Symptoms for Drug abuse first aid Drug overdose symptoms vary widely depending on the specific drug used, but may include: Abnormal pupil size Agitation Convulsions Death Delusional or paranoid behavior Difficulty breathing Drowsiness Hallucinations Nausea and vomiting Nonreactive pupils (pupils that do not change size when exposed to light) Staggering or unsteady gait (ataxia) Sweating or extremely dry, hot skin Tremors
  • Unconsciousness (coma) Violent or aggressive behavior Drug withdrawal symptoms also vary widely depending on the specific drug used, but may include: Abdominal cramping Agitation Cold sweat Convulsions Delusions Depression Diarrhea Hallucinations Nausea and vomiting Restlessness Shaking Death First Aid for Drug abuse first aid Check the patient's airway, breathing, and pulse. If necessary, begin CPR. If the patient isunconscious but breathing, carefully place him or her in the recovery position. If the patient is conscious, loosen the clothing, keep the person warm, and provide reassurance. Try to keep the patient calm. If an overdose is suspected, try to prevent the patient from taking more drugs. Call for immediate medical assistance. Treat the patient for signs of shock, if necessary. Signs include: weakness, bluish lips and fingernails, clammy skin, paleness, and decreasing alertness. If the patient is having seizures, give convulsion first aid. Keep monitoring the patient's vital signs (pulse, rate of breathing, blood pressure) until emergency medical help arrives. If possible, try to determine which drug(s) were taken and when. Save any available pill bottles or other drug containers. Provide this information to emergency medical personnel. DO NOT Do NOT jeopardize your own safety. Some drugs can cause violent and unpredictable behavior. Call for professional assistance. Do NOT try to reason with someone who is on drugs. Do not expect them to behave reasonably. Do NOT offer your opinions when giving help. You do not need to know why drugs were taken in order to give effective first aid. When to Contact a Health Professional Drug emergencies are not always easy to identify. If you suspect someone has overdosed, or if you suspect someone is experiencing withdrawal, give first aid and seek medical assistance. Try to find out what drug the person has taken. If possible, collect all drug containers and any remaining drug samples or the person's vomit and take them to the hospital. The National Poison Control Center (1-800-222-1222) can be called from anywhere in the United States. They will give you further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United States use this national number. You should call if you have any questions about poisoning or poison prevention. It does NOT need to be an emergency. You can call for any reason, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.
  • See: Poison control center - emergency number Prevention of Drug abuse first aid A variety of resources are available for treating substance abuse and chemical dependency. See also: Alcoholism - resources abuse (ah-būs´) misuse, maltreatment, or excessive use. child abuse see battered-child syndrome. drug abuse substance a. physical abuse any act resulting in a nonaccidental physical injury. psychoactive substance abuse substance a. sexual abuse assault or other crime of a sexual nature, which need not be physical. Acts of a sexual nature are considered abuse if performed with minors or nonconsenting adults. substance abuse use of a substance that modifies mood or behavior in a manner characterized by a maladaptive pattern of use. See alsosubstance dependence, under dependence. Dorland's Medical Dictionary for Health Consumers. © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved. drug abuse n. Habitual use of drugs to alter one's mood, emotion, or state of consciousness. The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. drug abuse, the use of a drug for a nontherapeutic effect. Some of the most commonly abused drugs are alcohol; nicotine; marijuana; amphetamines; barbiturates; cocaine; methaqualone; opium alkaloids; synthetic opioids; benzodiazepines, including flunitrazepam (Rohypnol); gamma-hydroxybutyrate; 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy); phencyclidine; ketamine; and anabolic steroids. Drug abuse may lead to organ damage, addiction, and disturbed patterns of behavior. Some illicit drugs, such as heroin, lysergic acid diethylamide, and phencyclidine hydrochloride, have no recognized therapeutic effect in humans. Use of these drugs often incurs criminal penalty in addition to the potential for physical, social, and psychologic harm. See also drug addiction. Mosby's Medical Dictionary, 8th edition. © 2009, Elsevier.
  • abuse [ah-būs´] misuse, maltreatment, or excessive use. child abuse see CHILD ABUSE. domestic abuse abuse of a person by another person with whom the victim is living, has lived, or with whom a significant relationship exists. The abuse may take the form of verbal abuse, sexual abuse, physical battering, or psychological (emotional) unavailability. Abuse is a learned behavior and has an escalating cycle; abusive behavior cuts across all racial, ethnic, educational, and socioeconomic boundaries. drug abuse see DRUG ABUSE. elder abuse maltreatment of an older adult, ranging from passive neglect of needs to overt mental, physical, or sexual assault. physical abuse any act resulting in a nonaccidental physical injury, including not only intentional assault but also the results of unreasonable punishment. psychoactive substance abuse substance abuse. sexual abuse any act of a sexual nature performed in a criminal manner, as with a child or with a nonconsenting adult, including RAPE,INCEST, oral copulation, and penetration of genital or anal opening with a foreign object. The term also includes lewd or lascivious acts with a child; any sexual act that could be expected to trouble or offend another person when done by someone motivated by sexual interest; acts related to sexual exploitation, such as those related to pornography, prostitution involving minors, or coercion of minors to perform obscene acts. substance abuse a substance use disorder characterized by the use of a mood or behavior-altering substance in a maladaptive pattern resulting in significant impairment or distress, such as failure to fulfill social or occupational obligations or recurrent use in situations in which it is physically dangerous to do so or which end in legal problems, but without fulfilling the criteria for substance DEPENDENCE. Specific disorders are named for their etiology, such as alcohol abuse and anabolic steroid abuse. DSM-IV includes specific abuse disorders for alcohol, amphetamines or similar substances, cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens, inhalants, opioids, PCP or similar substances, and sedatives, hypnotics, or anxiolytics. See also DRUG ABUSE. Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved. abuse, n the improper use of program benefits, resources, and/or services by either dental professionals, institutions, or patients. abuse, child, n See child abuse. abuse, drug, n the misuse of legal or illegal substances with the intent to alter the user's feelings, behavior, or perception. abuse, elder, n the behavior or treatment toward an elderly person, by another person in a position of care, that has the purpose or effect of harming the elderly person's well-being. Such harm may include economic, physical, sexual, or mental abuse. abuse, nitrous oxide,
  • n the deliberate inhalation of nitrous oxide to produce mood-altering effects. A type of substance abuse. abuse, polysubstance, n the physical dependence on at least three substances that have been classified as habit forming, but without any one of the substances having greater importance or influence than the others. The concept does not include caffeine or nicotine. abuse, sexual, n sexual acts performed with children or with nonconsenting adults in a criminal manner. abuse, substance, n the misuse of legal or illegal substances with the intent to alter some aspect of the user's experience. May include medications, illicit drugs, legal substances with potential mood-altering effects (such as alcohol or tobacco), or substances whose primary use may not be for human consumption (such as inhalants). drug(s), n a substance used in the prevention, cure, or alleviation of disease or pain or as an aid in some diagnostic procedures. drug absorption, n See absorption, drug. drug abuse, n an excessive or improper use of drugs, especially through self-administration for nonmedical purposes. This term has increased significance because of the enactment of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970, which replaces the Harrison Narcotic Act. See also substance abuse. drug combinations, n.pl the use of drugs together to enhance the properties of both to the benefit of the patient. drug dependence, n a physical or psychologic state in which a person displays withdrawal symptoms if drug use is halted suddenly; can lead to addiction. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), n.pr the federal agency charged with monitoring use and abuse of narcotics. It provides the drug schedules used to determine the addiction potential of dental drugs. drug hypersensitivity, n an allergic reaction that occurs after exposure to a suspect medication. It may manifest with a fever or rash and in severe cases, organ damage or death. It is classified as (1) immediate or occurring rapidly after exposure, or (2) delayed or occurring several days after exposure. drug idiosyncrasy n an adverse drug reaction that occurs in a small number of persons and presents no correlation to dosage or means of therapy. drug interaction, n a modification of the effect of a drug when administered with another drug. The effect may be an increase or a decrease in the action of either substance, or it may be an adverse effect that is not normally associated with either drug. drug resistance, n the capacity of a microorganism to build a tolerance to a drug. drug stability,
  • n the length of time a drug retains its properties without loss of potency; usually referred to as shelf life. drug therapy, n the use of a drug in the treatment of a patient with a specific disease or illness. drug tolerance, n the body's ability to increasingly withstand the effects of the substance being used, thereby requiring larger quantities of said substance in order to bring about the desired result. drug toxicity, n the critical or lethal reaction to an erroneous dosage of a medication. Drug toxicity may occur due to human error or intentional overdose in the case of suicide or homicide. drugs, antibiotic, n.pl the chemical compounds obtained from certain living cells of lower plant forms, such as bacteria, yeasts, and molds, and from synthesis. They are antagonistic to certain pathogenic organisms and have a lethal effect on them. drugs, antimicrobial, n.pl the drugs, mainly penicillin and its derivatives, used to combat viral, fungal, and parasitic infections. drugs, antiseptic, n.pl the chemical compounds used to reduce the number of microorganisms in the oral cavity. drugs, autonomic, n.pl the drugs that mimic or block the effects of stimulation of the autonomic nervous system. drugs, desensitizing, n.pl the agents used to diminish or eliminate sensitivity of teeth, especially the dentin, to physical, chemical, thermal, or other irritants (e.g., strontium chloride, silver ammoniacal] or potassium nitrate, sodium fluoride, formalin, zinc chloride). Seehypersensitivity, dentin. drugs, endodontic, n.pl the drugs used in treating the dental pulp and dental periapical tissues. drugs, nonofficial, n.pl the drugs that are not listed in the United States Pharmacopeia (U.S.P.) or the National Formulary (N.F.). drugs, official, n.pl the drugs listed in the U.S.P. or N.F. drugs, officinal n.pl drugs that may be purchased without a prescription. More commonly called over-the-counter (OTC) drugs. drugs, over-the-counter (OTC), n.pl the drugs that may be purchased without a prescription. Sometimes called nonlegend drugs because the label does not bear the prescription legend required on all drugs that may be dispensed only on prescription. drugs, parasympathetic n.pl the belladonna alkaloids that inhibit glandular secretions of the nose, oral cavity, pharynx, and bronchi. This is the main reason for using atropine and scopolamine for preanesthetic or preprocedural medication. drugs, parasympatholytic
  • (per´ sim´p thōlit´ik), n.pl the drugs that block nerve impulses passing from parasympathetic nerve fibers to postganglionic neuroeffectors. drugs, parasympathomimetic (per´ sim´p thōmimet´ik), n.pl the drugs that have an effect similar to that produced when the parasympathetic nerves are stimulated. drugs, proprietary (pr prī´iter´ē), n.pl the drugs that are patented or controlled by a private organization or manufacturer. drugs, psychoactive n.pl the drugs or other agents that have the capacity to become habit forming because of their influence on mood, behavior, or conscious thought; may be therapeutic or recreational. drugs, sympathetic, n.pl the agents that imitate the sympathetic autonomic nervous system actions. They usually cause raised levels of alertness and anxiety. Various types are used in dentistry as vasoconstricters in conjunction with local anesthetics. See also adrenergic agents. Mosby's Dental Dictionary, 2nd edition. © 2008 Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved. drug abuse See Substance abuse. McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. drug a·buse habitual use of drugs not needed for therapeutic purposes, solely to alter one's mood, affect, or state of consciousness, or to affect a body function unnecessarily (as in laxative abuse). Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012 drug a·buse (drŭg ă-byūs') Habitual use of drugs not needed for therapeutic purposes (e.g., such as solely to alter one's mood, affect, or state of consciousness) or to affect a body function unnecessarily (e.g., laxative abuse); nonmedical use of drugs. Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012 drug a·buse (drŭg ă-byūs') Habitual use of drugs not needed for therapeutic purposes, solely to alter one's mood, affect, or state of consciousness, or to affect a body function unnecessarily (e.g., laxative abuse). Medical Dictionary for the Dental Professions © Farlex 2012 Patient discussion about drug abuse. Q. If the baby movement is quick, will it be harmful …..? Hi to all here…….I am 24 and 3 week pregnant. I am so happy because pregnancy is vital in every women’s life. I am curious to know when I could feel the baby movement and how it will be. If the baby movement is quick, will it be harmful …..?
  • First, congratulations for Olivia.. You should feel your baby's first movements, called "quickening," between weeks 16 and 24 of your pregnancy. If this is your first pregnancy, you may not feel your baby move until closer to 24 weeks. By the second pregnancy, some women start to feel movements as early as 13 weeks (this varies in every pregnant moms). So when you reach your second trimester later, you need to monitor your baby's movement sometimes (just like saloni explained to you). Feel free to consult with your OB-GYN doctor whenever you feel a problem with your pregnancy. But I wish you all the best for your pregnancy. Good luck! Stay healthy always.. Q. Is coffee so harmful? I am Saloni, 17 and a keen coffee-lover. Now-a-days, I drink lot of coffee which my brother has noticed and advised me to minimize the quantity. He also blames coffee for heart diseases and addiction status of the person. Is coffee so harmful? The last response says "coffee is bad for you". This response gives no basis for its conclusion. Coffee is served in hospitals. If coffee was really bad for you, then hospitals are doing bad things to patients and would have been sued for malpractice. A judge would laugh you right out of court for trying. There are no FDA health warnings on coffee. Coffee is served in restaurants everywhere in the world. Its everywhere in the work place. There aren't any rules concerning coffee. Q. I am going for my first mammography, Is this test harmful? I am going for my first mammography on coming Tuesday…….just was worried as the doctor is suspecting a tumor….Is this test harmful? Generally there is no harm. It may be harmful when you have them during or a week before the menstrual periods as due the tenderness of the breasts may cause discomfort. Read more or ask a question about drug abuse This content is provided by iMedix and is subject to iMedix Terms. The Questions and Answers are not endorsed or recommended and are made available by patients, not doctors. Want to thank TFD for its existence? Tell a friend about us, add a link to this page, add the site to iGoogle, or visit the webmaster's page for free fun content. Drug abuse and addiction facts Drug abuse is a disorder that is characterized by a destructive pattern of using a substance that leads to significant problems or distress. Drug addiction is a disease that is characterized by a destructive pattern of drug abuse that leads to significant problems involving tolerance to or withdrawal from the substance, as well as other problems use of the substance can cause for the sufferer.
  • Drug abuse and addiction are unfortunately quite common, affecting 7% and more than 2% of people at some point in their lives, respectively. Dual diagnosis refers to the presence of both a drug-abuse or dependence issue in addition to a serious mental-health problem in an individual. Virtually any substance whose ingestion can result in a euphoric ("high") feeling can be abused. Inhalants like household cleaners are some of the most commonly abused substances. While the specific physical and psychological effects of drug abuse and addiction tend to vary based on the particular substance involved, the general effects of abuse or addiction to any drug can be devastating. Although drug abuse and addiction have no single cause, there are a number of biological, psychological, and social risk factors that can increase a person's likelihood of developing a chemical abuse or chemical dependency disorder. Symptoms of drug abuse include recurrent drug use that results in legal problems, occurs in potentially dangerous situations, interferes with important obligations, or results in social or relationship problems. Symptoms of drug dependence include tolerance, withdrawal, using a lot of the drug or for a long period of time, persistent desire to use the drug, unsuccessful efforts to stop using the drug, neglecting other aspects of life because of their drug use, and spending inordinate amounts of time or energy getting, using, or recovering from the effects of the drug. While the specific effects of drugs on the brain can somewhat vary depending on the drug that is being used, virtually every drug that is abused has an effect on the executive functioning areas of the brain. Drugs particularly affect the brain's ability to inhibit actions that the person would otherwise delay or prevent. Since there is no one test that definitively indicates that someone has chemical abuse or addiction, health care practitioners diagnose these disorders by gathering comprehensive medical, family, and mental-health information, as well as securing a physical examination and lab tests to assess the sufferer's medical state. Treatment services for drug abuse and addiction remain largely unutilized by most sufferers of these conditions. The primary goals of recovery are abstinence, relapse prevention, and rehabilitation. During the initial stage of abstinence, an individual who suffers from chemical dependency may need detoxification treatment to help avoid or lessen the effects of withdrawal. Often, much more challenging and time consuming than recovery from the physical aspects of addiction is psychological addiction. The treatment of dual diagnosis seems to be more effective when treatment of the sufferer's mental illness is integrated with the treatment of the individual's chemical dependency. Drug addiction increases the risk of a number of negative life stressors and conditions, particularly if left untreated. Recovery from substance abuse is usually characterized by episodes of remission and relapse. Next: What is drug abuse? Patient Comments Viewers share their comments
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