Geo 24 28

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B.S.N.L. Training Report 01

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Geo 24 28

  1. 1. Industrial Training at B.S.N.L. Training Report’12 BSM (Base Station Manager) The functions of Base Station Manage (hereinafter, referred to a BSM) include initialization, downloading, status management, configuration management, performance statistics, and subscriber authentication on the BSC and BTS. Since the BTS operating device accommodates several subsystems, it has the minimum effect on the system operation and maintenance when faults occur. FSU (Fixed Subscriber Unit) Fixed Subscriber Unit (hereinafter, referred to as FSU), placed between BTS and subscriber provides the wireless interface function. It can be classified into various forms depending on how many antennas, lines and applications it has. It can also provide voice services, voice bandwidth data and digital data services Broad Band Services Introduction: The confluence of two forces—the globalization of business and the networking of information technology—has created the Internet economy. Advances in telecommunications and data technology are creating new opportunities for countries, businesses and individuals—just as the Industrial Revolution changed fortunes around the globe. The new economy is defining how people do business, communicate , shop, have fun, learn, and live on a global basis—connecting anyone to anything. The evolution of Internet has come into existence & Internet service is expanding rapidly. The demands it has placed upon the public network, especially the access network, are great. However, technological advances promise big increases in access speeds, enabling public networks to play a major role in delivering new and improved telecommunications services and applications to consumers .The Internet and the network congestion that followed, has led people to focus both on the first and last mile as well as on creating a different network infrastructure to avoid the network congestion and access problems. The solution to this is Broadband.Applied Electronics 24 Model Polytechnic College, Poonjar
  2. 2. Industrial Training at B.S.N.L. Training Report’12 Broadband indicates a means of connectivity at a high or ‘broad’ bandwidth, which is capable of delivering multiple services simultaneously. It generally refers to transmission of data over numerous frequencies. There were no uniform standards for Broadband connectivity and various countries followed various standards. Recently ITU had stepped in and has defined Broadband. According to International Telecommunication Union Broadband is defined as “Transmission capacity that is faster than primary rate ISDN, at 1.5 to 2 Mb/s” But in developing countries, as the average financial capability as well as usage, is low, broadband is redefined.Recognizing the potential of ubiquitous Broadband service in growth of GDP and enhancementin quality of life through societal applications including tele-education, tele-medicine, e-governance, entertainment as well as employment generation by way of high speed access toinformation and web-based communication, Government ofIndia have finalised a policy to accelerate the growth of Broadband services.Applied Electronics 25 Model Polytechnic College, Poonjar
  3. 3. Industrial Training at B.S.N.L. Training Report’12 Broadband Policy 2004 defines Broadband as “An ‘always-on’ data connection supporting interactive services including, – Internet access and has the capability of the minimum download speed of 256 kilo bits per second (kbps) to an individual subscriber from the Point Of Presence (POP) of the service provider”. –The interactive services will exclude any services for which a separate licence is specifically required, for example, real-time voice transmission, except to the extent that it is presently permitted under ISP licence with Internet Telephony. Features of Broadband Fast connection to the Internet Access to the services which would otherwise be impossible on a slower dial up connection. These include facilities such as downloading music or video footage, listening to your favourite radio station or downloading (or sending) large attached files with emails. “Always-on” connection means that you are permanently connected to the internet;hence no need to dial up a connection every time you want to surf the web, send email, etc. Flat-rate billing if you choose an uncapped rate there will be no additional charges for the time you are online.You can use it as much or as little as you would like, for a fixed fee. Some connections are available at a lower cost, but limit you to the amount of data being downloaded (known as capped rate). Dedicated connection Simultaneous use of both telephone & data line. Broadband Services High speed Internet means that you are permanently connected to the internet, and dont need to dial up a connection every time you want to surf the web, send email, etc.Applied Electronics 26 Model Polytechnic College, Poonjar
  4. 4. Industrial Training at B.S.N.L. Training Report’12 Video on Demand Enables the user to select from an online library of content and select any of the available choices for viewing at a convenient time with full DVD like controls. This is similar to borrowing a Video for viewing. Video Multicasting Similar to cable or terrestrial broadcast – the user can join at any time but the stream begins and ends at the preappointed times. Interactive Gaming Enables multiple players to play online games pitted against each other or against computers, through gaming servers employed by gaming content providers. Audio and Video Conferencing Share ideas, information, and applications using video or audio. Distant Learning Consists of electronic classrooms with 2-way and multi-way communication among teachers and students. All these services require the service provider to have tie-ups with the various content providers. Network Architecture of Broadband Network architecture can be broadly classified into three categories: 1. Last mile connecting the subscriber – Access Network 2. Metro Area Network comprising of Core Network. NIB II Backbone supporting Multi Service Platform 3. Service Provisioning Equipment at the Provider’s Premises. Broadband Access Technology Broadband access technology is broadly classified into two categories. They are Wired Line & Wireless which is further classified as given below. Wireline technologies include traditional telephone lines, coaxial cable lines, and fiber optic lines. Wireless communications involve cellular and fixed wireless technology, high speed short range communications and satellite transmission.Applied Electronics 27 Model Polytechnic College, Poonjar
  5. 5. Industrial Training at B.S.N.L. Training Report’12 Wireless Wireline 3G Mobile DSL (Digital Sub’s Line) Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) Cable Modem WiMAX Optical Fibre Technologies LMDS & MMDS PLC (Power Line Communication) FSO (Free Space Optics) Satellite For utilizing the existing copper cable, we have adopted DSL Technology. Because physical infrastructure and geography are vastly different from country to country, technology that works well in one geographic area may not work as well in another. Therefore, it is up to each individual locality to determine the technologies that best meet its needs. To handle the increasing bandwidth demand, localities are considering upgrading their current telecommunications infrastructure or installing new infrastructure. It is essential that communities and operators consider the present and future needs of their citizens when examining the most appropriate systems. Broadband should be considered an accelerator of economic development . Factors affecting Broadband Access Choices o Population density o Existing infrastructure (e.g., twisted pair, cable, fiber) o Government policies o Competitive and regulatory dynamics o Technology evolutionApplied Electronics 28 Model Polytechnic College, Poonjar
  6. 6. Industrial Training at B.S.N.L. Training Report’12Applied Electronics 29 Model Polytechnic College, Poonjar

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