Geoinformation Technologyand Disaster ManagementPaper to the Interexpo Geo-Siberia-2012 by Gottfried Konecny Emeritus Professor Leibniz University Hannover, Germany
Geoinformation Technology and Disaster Management1. Introduction – the Role of ISPRS and EARSeL2. Possible Actors in Disaster Management National Actors (EMERCOM) International Actors (UNOOSA & Space Agencies)3. Conclusion
ISPRS and EARSeL Experiences- The Oder (Odra) Flood with impacts for Poland, Czech Republic and Germany (EU application)- Council of Europe Support to EMERCOM, Ministry of the Russian Federation (Review)- UN-OOSA Charter for Disasters and cooperation with the Space Agencies
Successful Model 1: a powerful national agencywith the needed infrastructure
Required Disaster Mitigation Infrastructure of EMERCOM1. Central Emergency Decision Centre2. Real Time Satellite Imagery Reception (NOAA, etc.)3. Seismic Networks4. GIS Information of all endangered regions based on: - digital topographic maps - population data as a GIS layer - evacuation routes - layer on building material type used5. Fire, Contamination or Accident reporting system6. Computer enhanced Analysis capabilities7. Studies on frequency of disasters8. Preparation of Manuals for Disaster Actions
Human Induced Hazards:Nuclear Power PlantsChemical HazardsIndustrial FiresPipelinesTransportHydraulic Stuctures (dams)Municipal engineering constructionMunicipal engineering energy and water supplyCombined effects (water, oil or gas extraction causing subsidence, earth quake damages)
Lessons Learnt from past disasters:Examples: Indian OceanTsunami 2004 New Orleans Flood 2005 Wenchuan Earthquake 2008 Sendai Tsunami and Fukushima 2011Attempts for bilateral technical cooperation: India refused foreign cooperation, it claimed to have national facilities, while Sri Lanka, Thailand and Indonesia did not have them German (GFZ) installation of Tsunami Early Warning system for Indonesia difficulties: complexity of system operations, local acceptance?
Satellite Images before and after Tsunami in Japan 2011
SO2 Distribution after Volcanic Eruption in Iceland May 2010
Tsunami Early Warning SystemSeismometer Tidal Stations Pressure Gauges GPS Buoys Earthand GPS Observation Datacontinuous continuous after significant seismic event post eventUse in Decision Support System for - prediction - determination of risk areas - evacuation plans - use of earth observation data for emergeny mapping
Successful Model 2:Cooperation with the United Nations(International Charter for Disasters) and the Space Agencies
Bridging the Gap From Data to Information calibrate, georeference, retrieve, map, validate, assimilate, model, analyze, assess, archive, access, Utilize
Over 40 Analysis Products and Maps in Two Weeks
Conclusion:the two operational models discussed are effectiveModel 1: a national model has the advantages: the entire chain of disaster aspects, from prediction, preparedness, obervation, relief strategies to damage assessment. It needs a national infrastructure backed by politics, finances and a strong relief forceModel 2: an international model restricted to observation, managed by the UN and by specialized global agencies (e.g. for rapid observation from space in cooperation)
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