Poverty eradication action plan of andhra pradesh

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Poverty eradication action plan of andhra pradesh

  1. 1. CONSOLIDATION OF THE POVERTY ERADICATIONACTION PLANBACKGROUNDThe State of Andhra Pradesh has a total geographical area of 27.44 mil-lion hectares. Out of a total population of 7.5 crore, the rural populationcomprises 5.5 crore. As a part of the State’s As a part of the State’s poverty eradication plan, a large number of poverty eradicationWomen’s Self Help Groups have been formed (with a total savings of over plan, a large numberRs.1500 crore) and networked into federations. Each of the 45,000 habi- of Women’s Self Helptations today has at-least one Self-Help Group. The membership of Self- Groups have beenHelp Groups is estimated to cross 8.5 million from the present 6 million in formed (with a totalthe next few years. savings of over The extreme poor in the State, including the disabled, child labour Rs.1500 crore) andand other disadvantaged sections, are being organised under a pro- networked into fed-gramme with special focus termed VELUGU. The Velugu Programme in- erations.cludes the District Poverty Initiative Project (Velugu Phase–I, with a Rs. 593crore outlay) and the A.P. Poverty Reduction Project (Velugu Phase– II, witha Rs.1486 crore outlay). Velugu proposes to cover 30 lakh families.The state has initiated plans to develop 10 million hectares of ‘wasted’lands or dry lands, which are also pockets of acute rural poverty. Along-side, programmes such as the DFID-supported Andhra Pradesh Rural Liveli-hoods Programme (which has joined the ongoing Watersheds Programme)have been taking forward the need for diversification and non-farm activi-ties and also bringing previously marginalized sections within the ambit ofSustainable Natural Resources Management-based developmental initia-tives. The Livelihoods Approach thus becomes the focus of the 20,000 pro-posed watersheds in the State, of which more than 7,500 are already un-derway.The Andhra Pradesh Urban Services for the poor (APUSP) is a Rs. 745 croreDFID-supported programme already under implementation in 32 urbancentres (Class I Towns). The Project covers poverty eradication, livelihoods,environmental and infrastructure issues through participatory processes forassessing needs. The Programme learnings will be scaled up to cover thepoor falling under all the urban local bodies in the State.PSU-APRLP 1
  2. 2. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN I. CONSOLIDATION OF THE POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN As a result of the initiatives of Swarna Andhra Pradesh and Janmabhoomi, rural poverty in Andhra Pradesh has come down to 11% and urban poverty to 26.6% ( Lakdawalla Methodology). The total number of people being covered by anti-poverty initia- tives is much more than that indicated in the lead programmes of Velugu and APUSP. This is especially so since the multi-pronged approach to pov- erty eradication has led to poverty-focused strategies and actions in vari-The progress being ous sectors, where, too, inclusion in programmes is based on Participatorymade by Andhra Identification of the poor (PIP).Pradesh in addressing The progress being made by Andhra Pradesh in addressing povertypoverty effectively is effectively is on account of holistic strategies for pro-poor growth and anon account of holistic integrated Poverty Eradication Action Plan.strategies for pro-poor To facilitate the integration of resources and achieve conver-growth and an inte- gence, AP has strategically addressed poverty issues through four keygrated Poverty Eradi- Missions (the Poverty Eradication, Water Conservation and Utilisation,cation Action Plan. Literacy, and Employment Generation Missions) and a focused approach in the Department of Health, Medical and Family Welfare. Each of these Missions, along with the Departments, Commissionerates and special initia- tives contributing to achieving their goals have set targets and identified in- dicators. These were integrated into the Poverty Eradication Strategy of the State Poverty Eradication Mission (SPEM) and the resultant Action Plan. However, it has been the State’s strategy to have a dynamic ap- proach to the operationalisation of the Poverty Eradication Action Plan. This is essential for optimal plan cycle management and effective feedback for corrective steps, where required. The process also ensures that the plan moves through the appropriate stages in becoming truly participatory. In order to achieve these objectives, the government has, in 2003, initiated steps to consolidate the Poverty Eradication Action Plan and outline the way forward from the critical juncture it has reached. The consolidation process will facilitate: a. Enhanced synergy among various Missions and Departments and clarify their linkages.2 PSU-APRLP
  3. 3. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN I. CONSOLIDATION OF THE POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLANb. Build a stronger sense of ownership among all stakeholders in the State’s Poverty Eradication Strategy and Action Plan.c. Find agreement on key indicators, both intermediate and final.d. Facilitate mechanisms for monitoring and evaluation that are participa- tory.e. Create an enabling environment for inclusive policies and mid-course corrections. Processes have beenf. Integrate the Poverty Eradication Strategy and Action Plan more effec- initiated based on tively with the budgetary process. clear understanding ofg. Align various sectoral reforms with the Poverty Eradication Strategy and the purpose, for fur- goals ther integrating sec- toral strategies andh. Achieve role clarity, and define the stake and contributions of various Action Plans with the constituents in the Poverty Eradication Strategy and Action Plan. State Wide Action Plani. Create a conducive and transparent environment for the Union Govern- of the Poverty Eradi- ment’s initiatives in Poverty Eradication and also for initiatives by Donor cation Mission. Agencies / Lending Agencies, and their closer alignment with the State’s goals and Strategy in Poverty Eradication. Processes have been initiated, based on a clear understanding ofthe purpose, for further integrating sectoral strategies and Action Plans withthe State- Wide Action Plan of the Poverty Eradication Mission, keeping thefollowing guidelines in mind:1. As with the Poverty Eradication Strategy, the Action Plan assumes Sector Wide Approaches and Mission Mode, and the institutional implications of this needs to be further clarified.2. The plan horizon for each sector shall be of five years, with Participa- tory Annual Reviews and Social Audits.3. At each stage of review, Intermediate Indicators shall be used to ap- praise performance vis-à-vis Five Year Plans, Millennium Development Goals and Andhra Pradesh is Vision 2020.4. The Action Plan for each sector shall have a Communication Strategy that addresses the needs of participatory processes.PSU-APRLP 3
  4. 4. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN I. CONSOLIDATION OF THE POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN AP’s POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN LEAD MISSIONS AND THEIR MAJOR OBJECTIVES STATE POVERTY ERADICA- WATER MIS- EDUCATION EMPLOYMENT GENERA- DEPT. OF HEALTH, MEDI- TION MISSION SION FOR ALL TION MISSION CAL & FAMILY WELFAREo To develop a clear vision o Conservation o The primary o To develop a vision and o Every person will have for poverty eradication and and judicious goal of the strategy for employ- access to responsive ba- recommend strategies for use of water state is to in- ment generation and to sic healthcare and spe- time bound achievement of in the State. crease over- prepare a time bound cialised healthcare at this vision. all literacy action plan for imple- affordable prices. o To formulate levels from mentation of the same.o Take measures for ensuring the current o Women will have safe convergence of all sectoral - Effective 54% of the o To suggest measures to and successful pregnan- plans and programmes. plans and population to derive synergy of the cies. Infant / child mortal- methods for over 95% plans and programmes ity due to ailments likeo Ensure technical updation conserving wa- before 2005. of various departments ARI and diarrhoea will for sustainable development ter working directly or indi- be reduced drastically. of the poor. o Special focus rectly for employment - Time-bound on the back- generation. o The spread of AIDS will action plan for ward and less be containedo Suggest time bound and conservation of specific measures for em- literate areas o Advise on institutional water of the State. and organisational ployment security, food se- o Communicable diseases curity and universal provi- o To implement mechanisms for effec- like Malaria and TB will sion of health care, drinking the conserva- o Universalisa- tive implementation of be effectively prevented. water, housing and elemen- tion and use tion of Ele- the Action Plan for em- tary education among all of water with mentary edu- ployment generation. o Families will be small and poor households. the co- cation. better spaced. Equitable ordination of o Regularly monitor and access to quality healtho Effective implementation of all function- o During the oversee employment care will be ensured. the entitlements and rights ally related next 3 years generation action plans Health sector will be of the poor. Especially of departments. take adult in the State and advise equipped to deliver women, the scheduled literacy, on the future steps to be quality services for non castes., scheduled tribes, the o To carry-out through the taken. communicable diseases backward classes and the water conser- Akshara and trauma and injury minorities. vation pro- Sankranthi o Initiate public debate cases. grammes eco- Programme, on important policy is-o Promote social mobilisation: nomically to sues related to employ- o Life expectancy levels the self-help and other func- 105,00,000 ment generation and will reach 68 years for tional groups as the princi- o Encourage Adult illiter- build consensus for pol- males and 70.6 years for pal mechanism for poverty local people’s ates. icy reforms related to it. females from the current eradication. participation 62 years and 64 years in water con-oAdequate o Advise on Human Re- respectively.o Provide guidance on the servation infrastructure source Development best practices in the national and socio through institution build- o Enhancing technical effi- and international spheres. o Monitor and economic con- ing and suggest a ciency of key programs assess con- ditions to be framework for optimum and clinical effectiveness.o Advocate and recommend tinuously the c r e a t e d utilization of the infra- suitable pro-poor policies water conser- through con- structure available for o Ensuring micro/macro and ensure adequate budg- vation pro- certed sus- training on a continuous economic effectiveness in etary allocation. grammes tained and basis and identify fresh the use of resources multi pronged requirements of infra-o Monitor periodically. o To obtain the action. structure and the re- o Improving quality of people’s sources for training. care/consumer satisfac- views and o To use mod- tion suggestions ern technol- o To facilitate manpower on the ways, ogy to im- planning in key sectors o Assuring systems for long- means and prove deliv- of the economy. term sustainability. methods in ery of high respect to quality edu- o To identify and advise water conser- cation to un- on the regulatory as- vation. reached ar- pects of training. eas.4 PSU-APRLP
  5. 5. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN I. CONSOLIDATION OF THE POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLANSource: Vision 2020 Swarna Andhra Pradesh Source: Vision 2020 Swarna Andhra PradeshPSU-APRLP 5
  6. 6. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN I. CONSOLIDATION OF THE POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLANMILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALSAt the Millennium Summit in September 2000, the states of the United Nations reaffirmed their commitment to workingtowards a world in which sustaining development and eliminating poverty would have the highest priority. The Millen-nium Development Goals grew out of the agreements and resolutions of world conferences organized by the United Na-tions in the past decade. The goals have been commonly accepted as a framework for measuring development progressThere are 8 Goals / 17 Targets and 49 Indicators. The Goals and Targets are given below.1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hungerTarget for 2015: Halve the proportion of people living on less than a dollar a day and those who suffer from hunger.2. Achieve universal primary educationTarget for 2015: Ensure that all boys and girls complete primary school.3. Promote gender equality and empower womenTargets for 2005 and 2015: Eliminate gender disparities in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and atall levels by 2015.4. Reduce child mortalityTarget for 2015: Reduce by two-thirds the mortality rate among children under five5. Improve maternal healthTarget for 2015: Reduce by three-quarters the ratio of women dying in childbirth.6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseasesTarget for 2015: Halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS and the incidence of malaria and other major diseases.7. Ensure environmental sustainabilityTargets:• Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environ-mental resources.• By 2015, reduce by half the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water.• By 2020 achieve significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers.8. Develop a global partnership for developmentTargets:• Develop further an open trading and financial system that includes a commitment to good governance, development andpoverty reduction – nationally and internationally• Address the least developed countries’ special needs, and the special needs of landlocked and small island developingStates• Deal comprehensively with developing countries’ debt problems• Develop decent and productive work for youth• In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries• In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies – especially information and com-munications technologies.6 PSU-APRLP
  7. 7. KEY ELEMENTS OF THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESSLEVERAGING THE ENABLING ENVIRONMENTAP has a highly enabling environment, the aspects of which include: 1. A definite pro-poor policy focus. 2. A government committed to inclusive policies, governance reforms and harnessing ICT and other tools for greater transparency and re- sponsiveness. 3. A large number of Self Help Groups whose networking has created a tremendous opportunity for building social capital 4. A clear cut vision (Vision 2020) which covers Millennium Develop- ment Goals and exceeds their targets and also identifies the growth engines and reforms that support Poverty Eradication Strategies. SWARNA ANDHRA PRADESH—VISION 20201. a. 1999 • Andhra Pradesh takes stock of its standing on key points • Vision 2020 is initiated. • Growth engines identified b. Fourteen Cabinet Sub-committees constituted. • Strategies for realizing Vision 2020 goals evolved c. AP recognizes Poverty Eradication as a core element of socio-economic development d. Poverty Eradication Strategy and Action Plan aligned with the people-owned Janmabhoomi movement e. Poverty Eradication Action Plan put in Mission mode with sector-wide approaches f. State Poverty Eradication Mission to lead the Action Plan g. Other key Missions are: 1. Employment Generation Mission 2. Water Mission (NRM & Environment) 3. Education-For-All Mission h. Department of Health, Medical and Family Welfare works in a Mission mode. i. Sectoral Strategies, Approach Papers and Action Plans drawn up. • Convergence, Participatory process, Gender and other Equity issues become dominant themes2. Poverty Eradication Action Plan linked to macro-economic policies, Planning and Budgetary processes. • Public Investment Programme focusing on pro-poor growth3. Reforms in various sectors and Juridical initiatives to strengthen Poverty Eradication Action Plan4. 2003 Consolidation Process of Poverty Eradication Action Plan initiated: • Review of progress • Adoption of Plan Monitoring and Impact Assessment System • Establishment of Poverty Monitoring and Social Analysis Unit (PMASU) • Creation of Logical Framework for Action Plan and move to Project-based approaches • Disaggregated Poverty Analysis, better models for managing indicators and agreement of Intermediate and Final Indicators • Processes for taking the plan forward as a true People’s plan through participatory tools.PSU-APRLP 7
  8. 8. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN II. KEY ELEMENTS OF THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS In this context, it is important to bear in mind that AP’s human and other resources have the potential for an economic surge similar to that of the South East Asian Countries. The Poverty Eradication Action Plan is therefore integrated with the State’s overall growth plan and stresses the following: RAPID ECONOMIC GROWTH • Human Capital Development • Developing Social Capital of the poor • Promoting Sustainable Livelihoods • Focus on backward Mandals ALONGSIDE, WE HAVE TO ENSURE • More inclusive policy • Access to assets and markets • Public Investment Programme on Education, Health, Transport/ Infrastructures and Communications • Initiatives targeting Insecurities and Vulnerabilities of the poor and mechanisms for social protection LINKING WITH GROWTH ENGINES The expression “Pro-poor Growth” is being preferred to ‘Poverty Reduc- tion’, because it focuses on the key driver of Poverty Eradication. Growth- enhancing reforms matter a lot for Poverty Eradication, provided, of course, that non-income dimensions of poverty are strongly reflected in policies, strategies and actions.The Janmabhoomi initiative has created a very powerful plat- A PRO-POOR GROWTH STRAT-form and is a powerful leverage for all sectors in the Poverty EGY REQUIRES, AMONG OTHERSEradication Strategy of AP. It provides a thematic setting for • Strong incentives for investmentconvergence and the execution of the communication strategy (more capital per worker).essential to the success of the Action Plan. Sectoral Action • Fostering trade and businessPlans have to reflect how the Janmabhoomi Platform will be linkages for faster transfer ofleveraged synergistically. Aligning on a common platform, knowledge.along with other elements of the Action Plan, will also address • Policies and investments for in-the criticism of AP’s Poverty initiatives being fragmented and ternal market integration.having avoidable redundancies and duplications.8 PSU-APRLP
  9. 9. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN II. KEY ELEMENTS OF THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS• Increased external economic integration.• More competitive agricultural markets.• Reducing spatial disparities in Infrastructure (In this context, at the macro plan level, it is worthwhile to relook policies on the manufacturing sec- tor.)From Garments and Leather products to Medicinal Herbs and Agro-services,over 40 areas have been identified as pro-poor growth engines. In one The growth of socialway or another, these areas also find a place in Vision 2020 as the engines networks in AP hasof GSDP growth. The Sectoral and Sub-sectoral Action Plans and the State- been remarkable andwide Action Plan for Poverty Eradication have to now establish clear links the State has suc-with these engines of growth. This will also facilitate positive responses in ceeded in organising aembedding the Action Plan in the budgetary process. range of groups basedLEVERAGING AND STRENGTHENING on needs and pro- grammes, etc., whichSOCIAL CAPITAL has led to accumula-The growth of social networks in AP has been remarkable and the State has tion of social capital.succeeded in organising a range of groups based on needs and pro-grammes, etc., which has led to accumulation of social capital. The State’smove from an individual beneficiary approach to group based approacheshas been a key element of its Poverty Eradication Strategy and has pro-moted collective action of the poor and augmented greater participationand more bargaining power for access to developmental resources.THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS OF THE ACTION PLAN HAS TOADDRESS THREE ISSUES IN THIS REGARD1. The routing of development resources through groups has the attendant risk of the very poor being excluded. However, the State has begun addressing these issues through DPIP, APRLP and APUSP initiatives. Sec- toral Action Plans could use the learnings of these initiatives and adapt their practices for ensuring participation and coverage of the very poor.2. Social Capital being a critical resource in Poverty Reduction Actions, the Poverty Eradication Action Plan has to make provisions for investment in social capital and incorporate, over time, indicators for monitoring social capital along with other socio-economic parameters.PSU-APRLP 9
  10. 10. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN II. KEY ELEMENTS OF THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS POVERTY MAPPING 3. The Poverty Eradication Action Plan The most critical and important milestone in rural poverty reduction is to identify the target poor. In addition to the in its consolidation needs to incorpo- Govt. of India using the Participatory Poverty Assessment rate steps to maximize the potential approach, Participatory Identification of Poor (PIP) was of Self-Help Group through: done. Tools like Transect Walk, Social Mapping, Vulner- a ) Training Needs Assessment based ability Analysis, Disability Mapping and Well Being Analy- sis were used to collect information and identify the poor- on their productive and reproduc- est of the poor and the poor through community partici- tive workload. pation. b ) Leverage the SHG movement for Capacity Building and consequent POOREST OF THE POOR POOR strengthening of Social Capital• Can eat when they • Not possessing land c ) Utilize SHGs as a platform for get work, part of • Can live on daily wages sensitization and action on gender social support from the State. • School going children are sent and other equity issues. for work• No shelter No proper clothing • Can get some credit• Cannot send chil- • Not able to repay debts dren to school • No proper shelter• Cannot get credit • No respect in the society Spatial distribution of SHGs Number of SHGs per habitation Dec 2001 Number of SHGs per habitation 5 20 50 183 APRLP Mandals Other Mandals National highway State highway Railway N 0 10 20 km DPAP10 PSU-APRLP
  11. 11. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN II. KEY ELEMENTS OF THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS The circled areas are pockets of extreme female literacy Poverty. PARTICIPATORY IDENTIFICATION OF THE POOR (PIP) AS A PLANNING TOOL PIP is emerging as the dependable tool not only for identifying the poorest of the poor, but also the spatial distribution of concentrated poverty pockets. Plotting in- formation generated through PIP, using GIS tools and cross mapping it with informa- tion on related indicators in health, education, etc., creates a Geographic Manage- ment Information System on Poverty. This provides a critical Decision Support Sys- tem to AP’s two-track approach in poverty eradication, facilitating priority-based and focused action in chronic, high intensity poverty pockets.PSU-APRLP 11
  12. 12. 12 PSU-APRLP
  13. 13. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN III. ORIENTING THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESSORIENTING THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESSPOLICIES FOR PRO-POOR GROWTHIt is observed that, the ability of the poor to earn higher incomes will de-pend on three factors: (1) Growth factor: the production potential of theeconomy; (2) The employment factor: that is, the extent to which potentialgrowth enhances the employment potential. How the increased demand forlabour gets split up between the quality and quantity of employment de-pends on the nature of the growth process that is employment intensive; (3)the integrability factor: that is, the extent to which the working poor areable to integrate into economic processes so that, when growth occurs andemployment potential expands, they can take advantage of such opportu-nities. If growth and employment opportunities are such that the capabilitiesthey demand do not match the capabilities of the poor, then either non-poor workers will seize the opportunities or they won’t be seized at all. Lackof integrability may also result from market failures, especially failure ofthe credit market, poor infrastructure, and lack of information.ENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT AND NETWORKSThe Vision 2020 document of Andhra Pradesh states that around 18-20 million new jobs will haveto be created by 2020 in Andhra Pradesh to achieve its goals. Presently around 70 per cent of theworkers are dependent on agriculture. By the year 2020, only 35-40% of the workers are ex-pected to be dependent on agriculture in the state. It means that significant job opportunities needto be created in other sectors of the economy in the state. Macro-economic (GSDP) growthemerges as the foremost indicator of the success of our pro-poor growth strategy.The micro-enterprise growth plan of the State has private stake holding built into the model as amajor influencer. The government shall encourage private-public sector partnership models, with theaim of enhancing private investment. Efforts are under way to promote activities based on growthengines and sub-sectors identified on the principle of comparative advantage. The network of SHGsand their Federations are seen as a ‘potential producer’ as well as a ‘consumer’ of produce and theSHGs have reached a stage where they are looking for new business propositions with their hugeunutilised savings.PSU-APRLP 13
  14. 14. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN III. ORIENTING THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESSSELECTED GROWTH ENGINES SEMI-SKILLED POPULATION/ILLITERATES EDUCATED UNEMPLOYED Sector Activity Sector Activity Primary 1. Agro-processing and services Primary 1. Agricultural services 2. Vegetable cultivation, processing and 2. Agriculture extension trading 3. Input supply marketing 3. Horticulture and floriculture 4. Produce marketing 4. Sericulture 5. NTFP processing Secon- 1. Handicrafts (including Handlooms) Secon- dary 2. Leather tanning and goods dary 3. Stoneware & ceramics 4. Cement & construction material Tertiary 1. Rural services Tertiary 1. IT enabled services 2. Paramedics and Paravets 2. Tourism and hospitality 3. Transportation 3. Education and health care services 4. House-keeping 4. Business and financial services (including micro-finance, micro-insurance etc.) Basically the pro-poor growth should be labour intensive. Economic growth is necessary for Poverty Reduction. A pro-poor development Strategy re- quires more than economic growth alone. The impact of growth on poverty depends also on the character or pattern of growth. For growth to have the biggest impact on poverty, policy makers need to complement macroeco- nomic and adjustment policies with equity-enhancing sectoral and redistribu- tive measures. These include policies to foster more agricultural develop- ment and faster development of small and medium enterprises. MONITORING & EVALUATION, REVIEW AND MIDCOURSE CORRECTIONS The way Monitoring and Evaluation processes are incorporated in the Action Plan will make all the difference to its effectiveness. Through the PIP initiative of DPIP, AP has formalized the participa- tory approach to poverty mapping. The question in the Action Plan process is to see how PIP (Participatory Identification of Poor) can help us to use analytical tools in its context and take the Poverty Eradication agenda for- ward. This has a synergy with how Social Capital can energise the agenda.14 PSU-APRLP
  15. 15. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN III. ORIENTING THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS The process of consolidating the Action Plan should enable us to re-think the policy implications of PIP and social capital resources. In terms of the structuring of the Action Plan, a critical implication ofthis is for the Monitoring and Evaluation processes. Currently, different initiatives, departments, etc., gather largeamounts of data from the community level which are archived withoutfeeding back into management decisions or policy. The M & E process in- corporated into the The Action Plan has to address this by incorporating MIS nodes at Action Plan shouldall critical interfaces and institutionalise feedback cycles that translate into have clear-cut provi-Decision Support Systems at various levels, and also as a Policy Resource sions for State-Leveland tool for midcourse corrections where required. Reviews and be sup- The M & E process incorporated into the Action Plan should have plemented by work-clear-cut provisions for State-Level Reviews and be supplemented by work- shops and other initia-shops and other initiatives to realize the vision of a Learning Community. tives to realize the vi- The process will also respect that Poverty is not a static concept and sion of a Learningthat participatory poverty mapping will alter indicators over time. The M Community.& E process should also be able to evaluate the performance of engines ofgrowth at the macro level vis-à-vis their impact on Poverty Reduction.CONTINUITY, LEARNING, PROCESSDOCUMENTATIONMissions, Departments and Commissionerates are coordinated by variousMinistries. Processes have to be in place to ensure that the strategies andAction Plan benefit from mechanisms for continuity in implementation. Thisrequirement in continuity also extends to the consolidation of individual andcollective learnings. A key requirement in this area is Process Documentation. Processdocumentation not only consolidates learnings in an experiential mode, butalso serves to reflect upon the how of things and communicate experiencesand best practices to other constituents / actors of the Poverty EradicationPlan.PSU-APRLP 15
  16. 16. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN III. ORIENTING THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS Process documentation also translates the significance of their work to all the personnel of Departments, Missions and Commissionerates, beyond mere statistics, in a motivating fashion and in the context of the larger pic- ture spanning all sectors. The role of Process Documentation in implementing the Action Plan has to be stressed and seen as different from Annual Reports / Progress Reports.Process documentation PROGRAMME-PROJECT MODES AND ADDRESSINGnot only consolidates REDUNDANCIES AND DUPLICATIONSlearnings in an experi-ential mode, but also Chapter 2 (2.8) of the Draft Tenth Five-Year Plan of the Government of In-serves to reflect upon dia mentions that “the rapid growth in the number of schemes also entailedthe how of things and an undesirable build up of unproductive cost on administration and expen-communicate experi- diture”. Though it has been remarked that A.P. too has a significant amountences and best prac- of redundancy/duplication in its Poverty Eradication Programme, pro-tices to other constitu- grammes such as the APRLP (Andhra Pradesh Rural Livelihoods Programmeents / actors of the (APRLP) and Andhra Pradesh Urban Services for the Poor (APUSP) havePoverty Eradication already begun an alternative approach of joining ongoing programmesPlan. and bringing to them extended scope, holistic agendas and also new and best practices, apart from other resources. The success of these experiences also hold yet another important point for AP’s Poverty Eradication Action Plan. This is the need to implement programmes in the Project Mode. This has critical value in optimising re- sources, effective planning and better evolution of outcomes. The broad heads discussed above are critical saliences and coordi- nates which should guide the consolidation of the Poverty Eradication Action Plan.16 PSU-APRLP
  17. 17. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXTPOVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXTMACRO POLICY AND LEAD INSTITUTIONSIn order to give concrete shape to its poverty eradication approaches andto realize the Vision 2020 goals, the State Government constituted a StateLevel Poverty Eradication Mission (SPEM). The SPEM is a committee of gov-ernment officials and representatives from research institutes and civil soci-ety, whose role is to coordinate and provide guidance on poverty reduction SERP focuses on theefforts in the state. very poor and communities not The SPEM’s strategy paper in 2001 lists a broader set of measures covered by previousto reduce poverty, which include: poverty reduction a. Generation of faster growth, especially in agriculture; initiatives, and also b. Promotion of health and education services; acts as a forum of c. Enhancing social capital through Self Help Groups (SHGs) advocacy for the d. Promoting sustainable livelihoods of the poor; formulation and implementation of pro- e. Focusing on backward regions and poorer sections of the society; poor policies, plans and and programmes. f. Improving the administrative machinery in order to improve the de- livery services for the poor and promote greater convergence of so- cial development and other poverty-focused programs in the state. The State government has promoted the Society for Elimination ofRural Poverty (SERP) to facilitate implementation of the strategies andapproaches by SPEM. The Velugu-I Project, known during its pilot phase asthe AP-District Poverty Initiative Programme (AP-DPIP), and currently knownas the Velugu-II or AP Rural Poverty Reduction Project (AP-RPRP), isimplemented by SERP, with special emphasis on empowerment of poorthrough social mobilization and institutional building, capacity building andresearch. It focuses on the very poor and communities not covered byprevious poverty reduction initiatives, and also acts as a forum of advocacyfor the formulation and implementation of pro-poor policies, plans andprogrammes.PSU-APRLP 17
  18. 18. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT While SERP focuses on rural poverty, needs of the urban poor are specially catered for through the APUSP or the AP Urban Services for the Poor project. The APUSP basically addresses urban poverty issues through Slum Improvement Programmes (SIPs) in several towns and cities governed by Municipal Corporations and Municipalities. In addition to the above initiatives, poverty issues are also ad- dressed through the Water, Employment and Literacy Missions and theThe selection of poor Dept. of Health and Family Welfare.at the community or The Andhra Pradesh Rural Livelihoods Programme (APRLP) under thehousehold levels has Water Mission is concentrating its efforts in the same locations developedundergone several under the Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP). The APRLP initiatives arepositive transitions systematic in their approach with special emphasis on communityfrom ad hoc participation and empowerment to identify, design and implementidentifications through livelihood options.baseline studyapproaches to IDENTIFYING THE POORParticipatory Poverty The most critical and primary task before the state government and theAppraisal (PPA). agencies entrusted with poverty eradication goals has been to identify the areas that need attention, and the target communities or individuals who need to be included in the designed programme. While the selection of districts to plan and implement pro-poor initiatives is still mostly done on the basis of SC / ST population concentrations, the selection of poor at the community or household levels has undergone several positive transitions from ad hoc identifications through baseline study approaches to Participatory Poverty Appraisal (PPA). DISTRICT PRIORITISATION Poverty is a manifestation of several inter-related factors. During the early days, district selection for poverty eradication programme implementation was taken up more on the initiatives of an area representative on some limited criteria or parameters. Later, with the definition of “Poverty Line”, the selection of districts was based on the concentration of BPL (Below Poverty Line) households generated from baseline surveys.18 PSU-APRLP
  19. 19. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT However, with the process for below poverty level enumeration al-ways being under a grey cloud, the need to identify districts on a morelogical set of parameters or indicators became imperative. In line with theapproach proposed here, it may be logically assumed that the positive de-velopment scenario in a better off district is due to a ripple phenomena setoff by the abundance of one or two resources.A graphic analyses of data to demonstrate the relationship between impactof development and backwardness is given below:PSU-APRLP 19
  20. 20. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXTCLUSTERING OF DISTRICTS WITH THEIR SALIENT FEATURES20 PSU-APRLP
  21. 21. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXTAPRLP INNOVATIONS FOR AREA SELECTIONThe Andhra Pradesh Rural Livelihoods Programme (APRLP) has adoptedinnovative techniques to identify its priority Mandals. Focusing on watersheddevelopment as the main canvas for its operations, APRLP has utilised thePoverty Atlas, a Remote Sensing Database and a Socio-economic Database.Since APRLP seeks to consider people’s livelihood situations in their entirety,it has sought to integrate the indicators identified through the above- APRLP seeks tomentioned sources and develop indices of Natural Resources Degradation consider people’sand Multiple Deprivations. The watershed analysis carried out by APSRAC livelihood situations in(Andhra Pradesh State Remote Sensing Applications Centre), giving the four their entirety.modified categories of Natural Resources Degradation, and the MultipleDeprivation (also called social and material deprivation) categories aregiven equal importance. When integrated, they generated sixteentypologies (Box – 1). Prioritisation of areas to be selected was based onthese typologies, with areas categorised under typologies 1, 2, 3 and 4receiving the highest priority in addition to areas which confirm totypologies 5, 9 and 13 as they have high poverty incidence irrespective ofthe natural resource status. The process of area selection is furtherstrengthened by the use of nine-point selection criteria (Box – 2).Weightage is given to each of these nine parameters based on marksallocated for different manifestations of these parameters. The finalselection of areas for implementation is also supported through qualitativeobservations as a ground-truth verification exercise.Box – 1 : Deprivation Typologies Box – 2 : 9 Point Selection Criteria for Selection of Micro Watershed Areas Adopted by APRLPTypologies 1 – 4Very high NRM deprivation with high, medium • Percentage of small and marginal farmersmoderate or low levels of poverty respectively • Percentage of SC / ST holdingsTypologies 5 – 8 • Percentage of women organised in SHGs andMedium NRM deprivation with high, medium participating in programmemoderate or low levels of poverty respectively • Status of ground waterTypologies 9 – 12Moderate NRM deprivation with high, medium • APSRAC prioritisationmoderate or low levels of poverty respectively • Livestock populationTypologies 13 – 16 • No. of families affected / involved in migrationLow NRM deprivation with high, medium moderate or • Contiguity of proposedlow levels of poverty respectively • Availability of fallow / wasteland & CPR for the poor to utilise usufructPSU-APRLP 21
  22. 22. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT THE AP-DPIP INITIATIVES The AP-District Poverty Initia- Box – 3 : Indicators for BPL Identification tive Programme (AP-DPIP), in 1. Size of operational holding of land 2. Type of house particular, has extended be- 3. Average availability of normal wear clothing (per person in pieces) yond the scope of GoI guide- 4. Food security 5. Sanitation lines by adopting the PIP ap- 6. Ownership of consumer durables 7. Literacy status of the highest literate adult proach in tandem with the 8. Status of the household in labour forceThe PIP process is routine BPL survey based on 9. Means of children (5-14 years) (Any child) 10. Status of livelihoodused with sufficient the 13 GoI recommended in- 11. Type of indebtednesscare to ensure total 12. Reasons for migration from household Prefer- dicators (Box – 3). Separate ence for assistancecommunity BPL lists are prepared usingparticipation through the BPL survey as well as the PIP process and the lists are compared topreliminary rapport shortlist the common households. While the disaggregated information onestablishment, these indicators is used for identifying the poorest of the poor and the mar-informal meetings ginally poor sections of the community, aggregated information from thesewith key community indicators is used for policy formulation.members,community Using the Participatory Poverty Assessment approach, specificallymeetings, sharing of the PIP (Participatory Identification of the Poor) process, DPIP has adoptedinformation and tools like Transect Walk, Social Mapping, Vulnerability Mapping, Disabilityinvolvement & Mapping and Well Being Analysis to gather the required information thatapproval of the helps identify the poorer households. The PIP process is used with sufficientvillage panchayats. care to ensure total community participation through preliminary rapport establishment, informal meetings with key community members, community meetings, sharing of information and involvement & approval of the village panchayats. Till the 31st March, 2003, DPIP has managed to undertake PIP exercises in 14, 585 villages spread across 792 Mandals in 16 Districts. PRO-POOR GROWTH STRATEGIES UNDERLYING THE ACTION PLAN Andhra Pradesh undertook many reforms in the last seven years. They are: fiscal reforms, power reforms, governance reforms and institutional reforms. The objectives of these reforms are to step up economic growth and allevi- ate poverty while protecting the environment. Reforms are underway in the power and irrigation sectors for expanding their capacity by improving ef- ficiency and cost-recovery.22 PSU-APRLP
  23. 23. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT Significant strides have been made in respect of participatory man-agement of land, water and forest resources through the watershed devel-opment committees, water user associations and joint forest management.Women’s Self-Help Groups are a success story in the State and haveformed a central element in the Strategy for poverty eradication throughsocial mobilization, community empowerment and capacity building. These reforms will yield significant results in course of time and will Women’s self helpfacilitate realising the Goals of the Action Plan. groups are a success The reforms reflect the State’s strategies for achieving MDG’s by story in the State and2015 and eradicate poverty by 2020 through a focus on the following pol- have formed a centralicy areas: element in the Strat- egy for poverty eradi-ECONOMIC GROWTH cation through social mobilization, commu-The distance between AP and all India and fast performing State’s widened nity empowermentin the post-reform period on account of weak social and economic infra- and capacity building.structure. Therefore, the State is increasing capital outlays substantially tobuild up infrastructure.AGRICULTUREThe experience of developing countries shows that agricultural growth isconsidered as pro-poor because the majority of the poor are dependent onthis sector. Agriculture has been an area of strength for AP but has notreceived adequate priority in the last two decades. At the aggregate levelfor agriculture, the following policy issues are focuses for higher growth:(a) Augmenting the investment in agriculture and rural infrastructure;(b) Improving the quality and reach of technology dissemination,particularly in rain-fed areas; (c) Re-examining the legal framework forland-leasing to ensure adequate safeguard for both the tenants and thelandowner, as this is likely promote greater investment in agriculture;(d) Providing an enabling environment to facilitate the farmers to benefitfrom the emerging opportunities thrown up by the liberalization andglobalisation;PSU-APRLP 23
  24. 24. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT (e) Aggressively pursuing diversification in agriculture to optimise income and employment (f) Focusing on non-farm employment opportunities, by promoting appropriate agro-based processing industries; agro-based proc- essing industries; (g) Promoting rapid rural growth in drought-prone and rainfed areas of the State. In these areas, horticulture, forestry and live- stock will play a larger role. Basically, this signifies high priority for irriga- tion, agricultural research, especially in biotechnology focused on dry land farming, extension services and ensuring access to institutional credit for re- source-poor farmers.NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT (WATER MISSION)Vision 2020 document of the State of Andhra Pradesh has accorded prime importance for the de-velopment of agriculture, targeting an overall growth rate of 5.7 per cent. Six major “growth en-gines” have been identified for the sector (Watershed development, Agro services, Oilseeds, Vege-tables, Spices and Dairy). Strategies for development of agriculture feeds into three major missionsviz. Water Mission, Employment Mission as well as the Poverty Mission. Further the activities of eightgovernment departments are being coordinated under the popularly known programme Neeru–Meeru (Water and You).• Under a 10-year perspective watershed development plan from 1997 to 2007, it is aimed at developing 10 million ha wastelands.• A rainwater harvesting space of 0.71 bcm (25 tmc) has been created, resulting in additional an- nual groundwater recharge of about 6.09 bcm (215 tmc).There is focus on community mobilisation and production enhancement through:• Formation of 2 lakh Rythu Mitra User / Self-Help Groups.• 1 million acres of land to be brought under horticulture with drip irrigation systems, further in- creasing water use efficiency and reducing water demand, contributing to the objectives of Wa- ter Mission.• Productivity increase in Oilseeds is being pursued by the Technology Mission on Oilseeds, Pulses and Maize.• Livestock and rain-fed farming systems support each other very well. Feed and fodder, and the relations between livestock and management of natural resources are addressed as being of crucial importance for sustainable livestock production.24 PSU-APRLP
  25. 25. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXTConservation of surface and groundwater has become imperative. This isbest achieved when water and power are priced according to the volumeof consumption. Involvement of rural communities is essential in setting usercharges as well as for assessing individual consumption.INDUSTRYSlow industrial growth has been an area of concern. Strengthening infra-structure, such as, power, roads and ports, expansion of institutional credit There is thrust in policyfor small scale and rural industries, and good governance by cutting down framework in AP to-delays in giving clearances and reducing corruption stand out prominently wards making IT anas areas of reform for attracting private investment domestic as well as for- enabler in develop-eign. ment and equalizer ofINFORMATION TECHNOLOGY opportunities.There is thrust in policy framework in AP towards making IT an enabler indevelopment and equalizer of opportunities. With the spread of educationand decentralization of governance, IT can become a powerful tool in thehands of the people at large for their socio-economic betterment and over-all empowerment.LABOUR - INTENSIVE PATTERN OF GROWTHOne of the main elements of pro-poor growth is labour intensive pattern ofgrowth. In all the sectors (agriculture, industry and services), there is a focuson increasing employment. Given the problem of unemployment for edu-cated and unemployment and underemployment for the masses, twin strate-gies for improving the livelihoods are developed. The first sub-strategyaims at rural and urban masses that are illiterate/semi-literate, unskilled,and semi-literate/skilled. The second sub-strategy addresses the problemsof educated unemployed. It will be on Selected Growth Engines and Clus-ters for these two categories. The current strategy of social mobilization for watershed develop-ment aims to be sustained in the long run by making land use more remu-nerative through new dry land technologies and the development of infra-structure.PSU-APRLP 25
  26. 26. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT POLICIES FOR FULFILLING TARGETS IN NON-INCOME DIMENSIONS OF POVERTY A. SOCIAL SECTOR EXPENDITURES The trends in social sector expenditures in A.P is positive. The Social Sector, is defined as the total of expenditure on ‘Social Services’ and ‘ RuralA.P. spent around 6 to Development’ as given in Central and State budgets. The head ‘Social11 per cent of its Services’ includes, among other things, education, health & family welfare,GSDP on the social water supply and sanitation. The expenditure under the head ‘Ruralsector in the last two Development’ (which is listed under ‘Economic Services’ in the budgetdecades. It may be classification) relates mostly to anti-poverty programmes. A.P. spent aroundnoted that the impact 6 to 11 per cent of its GSDP on the social sector in the last two decades. Iton the outcomes in may be noted that the impact on the outcomes in social sector depends onsocial sector depends both expenditures and on the effective utilization of these expenditures.on both and theeffective utilization of B. EDUCATIONthese expenditure. There are three issues that the State is addressing in improving literacy and primary education in the State. First, is resources allocation to education particularly to primary education from the budget. Second, the quality of education in terms of curriculum, better infrastructure and improvement of teaching. Third, retaining children in the schools which is more difficult than enrolling them. The A.P. government has designed schemes such as ‘Mabadi’ (our school), ‘Chaduvkundam’ (back to school) and akshara sankranti to improve access to children and women of disadvantaged communities. Retaining of children in the schools needs intensive institutional arrangements such as social mobilization of the community on child labour and education. Such attempts are being made successfully at the micro level.26 PSU-APRLP
  27. 27. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXTEDUCATION FOR ALL MISSIONVision 2020 of Andhra Pradesh states that "Andhra Pradesh will not be just a literate society,but a knowledge society capable of meeting the challenges posed by the 21st century. It will bea state in which every person will be able to realise his or her full potential through access toeducational opportunities regardless of the class or region to which he or she belongs".To achieve the goals of Universalisation of Elementary Education (UEE) and Universalisa-tion of Adult Education (UAE), Government of A.P has constituted a State-level-Education-for-All Mission.The Mission’s objectives are: • To review the existing situation in the state in regard to literacy. • To identify areas of strength and critical areas of weakness. • To review all ongoing programmes relating to universalisation of elementary educa- tion and adult literacy in the state and suggest measures for coordinating, integrat- ing and strengthening them to achieve the best results. • To suggest measures to control dropout rate, promote retention, and improve quality at both primary and secondary levels in schools. • To draw upon the best national and international practices in literacy and school education identify new strategies and approaches to achieve the Vision 2020 objec- tives in the state. • To draw up a coordinated plan for promoting education among disadvantaged groups, in particular girls, minority communities, SCs and STs, Girl Child in remote tribal areas.C. HEALTHGreat stress has been placed on improving the major element of public healthcare, i.e. thePrimary Health Centres. Hospital Advisory Committees have been created and active publichealthcare system managements.PSU-APRLP 27
  28. 28. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT Public expenditure on the health sector is beng increased. It is not enough to allocate more resources to the sector. The efficiency of public spending is also being improved. More resources are being spent on preventive care. Poor benefit more from this. Primary healthcare services are being made accountable to the local communities. The share of private sector in the total health care sector is high and has increased over time. One cannot ignore, therefore, the role of private sector in the State. EffortsPrimary healthcare are on to make the private sector accountable to the poor. The Governmentservices are being is planning to promote institutions to regulate the private sector.made accountable tothe local communities.HEALTH (DEPT. OF HEALTH, MEDICAL AND FAMILYWELFARE)AP’s Vision 2020 is succinct and challenging in the goals it sets for the health sector.By 2020, the state aims at: • Achieving health indicators of international standards / levels • Stabilize population growthTo realize the Vision 2020 goals, AP’s health sector focuses on the following priorities: 1. Universal access to primary healthcare 2. Specific programmes to promote family welfare, particularly, the health of women and chil- dren and family planning. 3. Focusing on improving health status in disadvantaged groups and backward regions. 4. Ensuring a strong prevention focus 5. Enhance the reach and performance of the public health system. 6. Formulation of a state IEC (Information, Education and Communications) programme, including leveraging the electronic media. (Contributing to disease prevention, control, nutrition, sani- tation, personal hygiene and fitness) 7. Free health care access (basic and specialized) for poor and vulnerable groups and health insurance for other sections for access to these services. 8. Major diseases such as TB, malaria and HIV/AIDS to be contained and prevented. 9. Eliminate malnutrition.28 PSU-APRLP
  29. 29. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXTThe need to promote community health insurance schemes (e.g. SEWA’sscheme) in order to provide health services at low cost to poor is a priority.D. FOOD AND NUTRITION SECURITY PROGRAMMESMajor programmes that improve food and nutrition security are PublicDistribution system (PDS), Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS),and Antyodaya Anna Yojana. PDS improves food security at householdlevel while ICDS helps in increasing nutrition of women and children. Major programmesAntyodaya Anna Yojana improves the food security of destitutes. that improve food andThese programmes are being strengthened in order to reach the benefits to nutrition security arethe target population more effectively. In all the above pro-poor policies, Public Distribution sys-the special problems of disadvantage sections of SCs and STs are recog- tem (PDS), Integratednized. Child Development Services (ICDS), and Antyodaya Anna Yo-URBAN POVERTY jana.Large -scale rural to urban migration of populations in search of more se-cure livelihoods triggers urban poverty. Unskilled labour force living in unor-ganised slums and working as manual labourers in construction jobs, as do-mestic servants and as odd-job contract labour lead pathetic lives. Whilesome of these migrants reach urban settlements lured by the opportunitiesto earn quick incomes, a large segment of rural to urban migrants areforced to come to the urban areas due to severe drought conditions, causingloss of livelihoods. In addition to causing high pressure on the planned civicamenities, the migrants, especially the women and children, are exploited inevery conceivable way by vested interest groups. Unfortunately, there is alack of appropriate processes to measure and document the inflow of mi-grants, whether seasonal or permanent.PSU-APRLP 29
  30. 30. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT Concerning identification of the urban poor, the APUSP project has also adopted similar procedures by gathering information on seven non- economic parameters. Each parameter consists of six attributes indicating the condition from ‘worst’ to ‘better’. Accordingly, weightage scores are as- signed to each attribute, i.e. from ‘100’ (worst condition) to ‘0’ (better con- dition). Thus, a household scoring an average of 100 will be given top pri- ority under the programme Plan. Example of Household Rating for BPL Qualification by APUSP Parameter Attributes Score 1. Roof Asbestos 60 2. Floor Bajri 80 3. Water No water supply 100 4. Sanitation Community dry latrine 80 5. Education level Middle pass 60 6. Type of Employment Semi skilled 80 7. Status of Children in a House Working & attending 80 Literacy classes Sometimes ----------------- Total 540 ----------------- Average weighted score for a household = 540 / 7 = 77.1 i.e., future beneficiary30 PSU-APRLP
  31. 31. MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENTAPPROACH TO THE PLANThe last decade of the 20th Century has seen a visible shift in the focus ofdevelopment planning from the mere expansion of production of goods andservices, and the consequent growth of per capita income, to planning for The State has adoptedenhancement of human well being. This approach is most succinctly captured a Plan Cycle Manage-in the MDGs (millennium development goals) adopted by the United Nations ment Approach andin its Millennium Declaration. Similar to MDGs, the Tenth Plan, for the first created a Logicaltime, sets monitorable targets for the Tenth Plan period (2002-07) and be- Framework for itsyond. Some of the major targets at the national level are: (1) Reduction in Poverty Reduction Ac-poverty ratio by 5 percentage points by 2007 and 15 percentage points tion Plan.by 2012; (2) Providing gainful and high-quality employment at least to theaddition to the labour force over the Tenth Plan period; (3) All children inschool by 2003; all children to complete 5 years of schooling by 2007; (4)Reduction in gender gap in literacy and wage rates by at least 50 per centby 2007; (5) Reduction of infant mortality rate (IMR) to 45 per 1000 livebirths by 2007 and to 28 by 2012; (6) Reduction of maternal mortalityrate (MMR) to 2 per 1000 live births by 2007 and to 1 by 2012. The Vi-sion 2020 document of the GoAP reflects these goals.Andhra Pradesh’s Poverty Reduction / Eradication Strategy and Action Planhave emerged from this background.The State has adopted a Plan Cycle Management Approach and created aLogical Framework for its Poverty Reduction Action Plan.PSU-APRLP 31
  32. 32. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN V. MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT32 PSU-APRLP
  33. 33. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN V. MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENTINDICATORS OF POVERTY AND TARGETSA baseline assessment of well being for A.P. that builds on the MDG’s, aug-mented by the development goals of Vision 2020 as well as the nationaldevelopment goals of the Tenth Five Year Plan has been done. Some of theindicators that emerged through this process are given in the table below.These serve as the intermediate indicators of the Action Plan Log Frame andwill be refined/replaced/augmented as the Draft Plan progresses towardsthe Final Action Plan.Table: Selected Indicators and Targets for Andhra Pradesh Indicator in Vision Development Goal AP:MDG Indicator 2000 or closest 2020 in 2015 year 2020 Poverty and Nutrition Head count poverty ratio 21.6* 13.1 0 Under nutrition under age 37.7 24.6 Reduce 5 malnutri- tion Child Labour 9.98 or 25 0 Universal primary Net enrolment ratio 90.3 99 100 education (primary) Students reaching from -- 95 90 grade 1 to grade 5 Literacy rate (7+) 61.1 99 Reduce child Infant mortality rate (per 66 23.3 10 1000 live births) mortality Under five mortality rate 85.5 30.3 20 (per 1000 live births) Improve maternal Maternal mortality ratio 154 75 -- health (per 100,000 live births)Source: World Bank (2003) except head count ratio for 2000. * Deaton adjusted estimates.PSU-APRLP 33
  34. 34. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN V. MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT MONITORING OUTCOMES AND INDICATORS The log frame approach to the Poverty Reduction Action Plan is not a sim- plistic force-fit of Goals, Targets and Indicators into prevailing formats of Logical Frameworks for development projects. It is rather, an adaptation of a conceptual framework and enlarging its scope to encompass the com- plexities of a Statewide Action Plan which subsumes sectoral Action Plans, District Action Plans, Mandal Level Action Plans and community Level plans.A Statewide Action It also provides for managing Intermediate Indicators in relation to targetedPlan which subsumes outcomes across annual and other time horizons.Sectoral Action Plans,District Action Plans, The Action Plan Log Frame, therefore, has features that go beyondMandal Level Action a conventional log frame and deploy management tools and strategiesPlans and Community which do not fall in the scope of standalone projects. Critical aspects, there-Level plans. fore, include: a) Combine the principles and best practices of Large Enterprise Man- agement and Good governance. b) A plan Cycle Management strategy that employs PERT/CPM Tools, which make it possible to integrate sectoral, sub-sectoral and District Plans into the Statewide plan. c) Adapt develop Enterprise-wide tools specific to the state for Re- source Planning, Management Information System and Forecasting. d) Institutional Change Management and ‘Business Process Reengineer- ing’ to ensure that the system is optimally geared to execute the Ac- tion Plan. These and other aspects of the plan emphasize the need to harness universally valid management strategies and Tools with the clear under- standing that governance and the Development field are not isolated is- lands of esoteric practices immune to management science. Equally much, the Log Frame approach takes into account that the execution of the Action Plan itself will alter the socio-economic realities it addresses.34 PSU-APRLP
  35. 35. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN V. MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT The Action Plan, therefore, unfolds across a dynamic and complexenvironment, where changes in social structures, both desirable and dysfunc-tional, have to be accounted for. In fact, given the complex social fabric ofthe state, cultural factors and social change have to be part of the ActionPlan’s anchorages and references. The State Wide Poverty Reduction Action Plan, in assonance with theabove, provides for sectoral plans, District plans, Mandal plans and Com- The Log Frame ap-munity level plans to go beyond mere econometric modeling and incorpo- proach to the Actionrate social capital and planned social change (Caste, gender and atti- Plan, in order to real-tudes/perceptions/practices in other areas which have a direct or indirect ize its true potential, iscausal relationship with poverty) as critical elements. This is especially so in complemented by athe Community level, Mandal and District plans that emerge from and feed- Plan Monitoring andback into the State Wide Poverty Reduction Action Plan. Impact Assessment The Log Frame approach to the Action Plan, in order to realize its System.true potential, is complemented by a Plan Monitoring and Impact Assess-ment System. The Monitoring and Impact Assessment System of AP’s Poverty Re-duction Action Plan assumes the following in common with its strategy andLog Frame: a) The Poverty Reduction Action Plan has to synergies with the over- all state plan and the Government of India’s Five Year Plans. b) The Draft Action Plan has to become a “People’s Plan” in its final form, through Participatory Processes. c) It has to account for social change and social capital, however difficult these may be to monitor. d) It has to be the key driver of the “bottom-up approach” to formulate inclusive macro policies and planning for pro-poor growth. It has to have, as an integral element, plan cycle management andprovide for two-way feedback cycles, spanning all MIS nodes of the ActionPlan dendogram, essential for midcourse correction.PSU-APRLP 35
  36. 36. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN V. MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT Although the main objective of the monitoring system is to trace the progress in outcomes and impacts, both final (outcome and impact) and in- termediate indicators (input and output) are to be tracked. Monitoring final indicators helps to judge progress toward the goals set. But final indicators are the result of several factors, many of which are outside the control of policy makers and programme administrators. Intermediate indicators, on the other hand, generally change as a result of actions by the GovernmentParticipatory Plan and other agents. Moreover, final indicators generally change slowly overMonitoring and Impact time while, intermediate indicators change more rapidly, giving an indica-Assessment is part of tors with which is happening to some of its determinants.the process of inte-grating stakeholder Participatory Plan Monitoring and Impact Assessment is part of theparticipation not only process of integrating stake holder participation not only in planning andin planning and imple- implementation but also in reviewing the progress of plan implementationmentation but also in and evaluating outcomes. Such plan monitoring and Impact Assessment Sys-reviewing the progress tem will facilitate Participatory Learning and Action (PLA) and becomes aof plan implementation Learning, Capacity Building and Empowerment tool too.and evaluating out- In this context, it has to be noted that the Plan Monitoring and Im-comes. pact Assessment System (PMIAS) mooted in the Action Plan is a conceptual framework which will have to be made concrete through further processes. The conceptual framework for the PMIAS stresses the following. · Going beyond monitoring inputs and outputs, to also focus on out- comes. · Incorporate the logical consequences of participation being a con- tinuous process and, therefore, the need to go beyond “snap shots” and quantitative parameters.36 PSU-APRLP
  37. 37. POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN V. MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT• Identify mechanisms to assess the extent of facilitation by field staff for community participation.• Processes for data capture that translate the PMIAS also into a decision support system and a key component of MIS at various levels. The Action Plan addresses the multi-faceted nature of poverty, andthe scope for analyses it affords facilitates actions plans of missions, de- The PMIAS mooted inpartments and districts, with step-by-step approaches to operationalization, the Action Plan facili-capacity building needs assessment, focus of stakeholders role clarity and tates for primaryannual plan to achieve short term targets based on intermediate indicators. stakeholders a major The PMIAS mooted in the Action Plan facilitates for primary stake- stake in planning andholders a major stake in planning and implementation. The key tenet is that implementation. Thecommunities must be empowered to take steps at their level and very poor key tenet is that com-and other marginalized / resource poor sections have to be enabled to join munities must be em-in the deliberations and negotiations. Participatory methodologies, stake- powered to take stepsholder role analysis, wealth / poverty ranking etc., create the spaces for at their level and verythis. poor and other mar- The PMIAS mooted in the Action Plan facilitates for primary stake- ginalized / resourceholders a major stake in planning and implementation. The key tenet is that poor sections have tocommunities must be empowered to take steps at their level and very poor be enabled to join inand other marginalized / resource poor sections have to be enabled to join the deliberations andin the deliberations and negotiations. Participatory methodologies, stake- negotiations.holder role analysis, wealth / poverty ranking, etc., create the spaces forthis. The Action Plan’s PMIAS also tries to correct the prevailing trend ofsecondary stakeholders trying to gather information for decision making,and in its place suggests primary stakeholder empowerment for planningimplementation and monitoring through social audits.PSU-APRLP 37

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