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Poverty eradication action plan of andhra pradesh
 

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    Poverty eradication action plan of andhra pradesh Poverty eradication action plan of andhra pradesh Document Transcript

    • CONSOLIDATION OF THE POVERTY ERADICATIONACTION PLANBACKGROUNDThe State of Andhra Pradesh has a total geographical area of 27.44 mil-lion hectares. Out of a total population of 7.5 crore, the rural populationcomprises 5.5 crore. As a part of the State’s As a part of the State’s poverty eradication plan, a large number of poverty eradicationWomen’s Self Help Groups have been formed (with a total savings of over plan, a large numberRs.1500 crore) and networked into federations. Each of the 45,000 habi- of Women’s Self Helptations today has at-least one Self-Help Group. The membership of Self- Groups have beenHelp Groups is estimated to cross 8.5 million from the present 6 million in formed (with a totalthe next few years. savings of over The extreme poor in the State, including the disabled, child labour Rs.1500 crore) andand other disadvantaged sections, are being organised under a pro- networked into fed-gramme with special focus termed VELUGU. The Velugu Programme in- erations.cludes the District Poverty Initiative Project (Velugu Phase–I, with a Rs. 593crore outlay) and the A.P. Poverty Reduction Project (Velugu Phase– II, witha Rs.1486 crore outlay). Velugu proposes to cover 30 lakh families.The state has initiated plans to develop 10 million hectares of ‘wasted’lands or dry lands, which are also pockets of acute rural poverty. Along-side, programmes such as the DFID-supported Andhra Pradesh Rural Liveli-hoods Programme (which has joined the ongoing Watersheds Programme)have been taking forward the need for diversification and non-farm activi-ties and also bringing previously marginalized sections within the ambit ofSustainable Natural Resources Management-based developmental initia-tives. The Livelihoods Approach thus becomes the focus of the 20,000 pro-posed watersheds in the State, of which more than 7,500 are already un-derway.The Andhra Pradesh Urban Services for the poor (APUSP) is a Rs. 745 croreDFID-supported programme already under implementation in 32 urbancentres (Class I Towns). The Project covers poverty eradication, livelihoods,environmental and infrastructure issues through participatory processes forassessing needs. The Programme learnings will be scaled up to cover thepoor falling under all the urban local bodies in the State.PSU-APRLP 1
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN I. CONSOLIDATION OF THE POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN As a result of the initiatives of Swarna Andhra Pradesh and Janmabhoomi, rural poverty in Andhra Pradesh has come down to 11% and urban poverty to 26.6% ( Lakdawalla Methodology). The total number of people being covered by anti-poverty initia- tives is much more than that indicated in the lead programmes of Velugu and APUSP. This is especially so since the multi-pronged approach to pov- erty eradication has led to poverty-focused strategies and actions in vari-The progress being ous sectors, where, too, inclusion in programmes is based on Participatorymade by Andhra Identification of the poor (PIP).Pradesh in addressing The progress being made by Andhra Pradesh in addressing povertypoverty effectively is effectively is on account of holistic strategies for pro-poor growth and anon account of holistic integrated Poverty Eradication Action Plan.strategies for pro-poor To facilitate the integration of resources and achieve conver-growth and an inte- gence, AP has strategically addressed poverty issues through four keygrated Poverty Eradi- Missions (the Poverty Eradication, Water Conservation and Utilisation,cation Action Plan. Literacy, and Employment Generation Missions) and a focused approach in the Department of Health, Medical and Family Welfare. Each of these Missions, along with the Departments, Commissionerates and special initia- tives contributing to achieving their goals have set targets and identified in- dicators. These were integrated into the Poverty Eradication Strategy of the State Poverty Eradication Mission (SPEM) and the resultant Action Plan. However, it has been the State’s strategy to have a dynamic ap- proach to the operationalisation of the Poverty Eradication Action Plan. This is essential for optimal plan cycle management and effective feedback for corrective steps, where required. The process also ensures that the plan moves through the appropriate stages in becoming truly participatory. In order to achieve these objectives, the government has, in 2003, initiated steps to consolidate the Poverty Eradication Action Plan and outline the way forward from the critical juncture it has reached. The consolidation process will facilitate: a. Enhanced synergy among various Missions and Departments and clarify their linkages.2 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN I. CONSOLIDATION OF THE POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLANb. Build a stronger sense of ownership among all stakeholders in the State’s Poverty Eradication Strategy and Action Plan.c. Find agreement on key indicators, both intermediate and final.d. Facilitate mechanisms for monitoring and evaluation that are participa- tory.e. Create an enabling environment for inclusive policies and mid-course corrections. Processes have beenf. Integrate the Poverty Eradication Strategy and Action Plan more effec- initiated based on tively with the budgetary process. clear understanding ofg. Align various sectoral reforms with the Poverty Eradication Strategy and the purpose, for fur- goals ther integrating sec- toral strategies andh. Achieve role clarity, and define the stake and contributions of various Action Plans with the constituents in the Poverty Eradication Strategy and Action Plan. State Wide Action Plani. Create a conducive and transparent environment for the Union Govern- of the Poverty Eradi- ment’s initiatives in Poverty Eradication and also for initiatives by Donor cation Mission. Agencies / Lending Agencies, and their closer alignment with the State’s goals and Strategy in Poverty Eradication. Processes have been initiated, based on a clear understanding ofthe purpose, for further integrating sectoral strategies and Action Plans withthe State- Wide Action Plan of the Poverty Eradication Mission, keeping thefollowing guidelines in mind:1. As with the Poverty Eradication Strategy, the Action Plan assumes Sector Wide Approaches and Mission Mode, and the institutional implications of this needs to be further clarified.2. The plan horizon for each sector shall be of five years, with Participa- tory Annual Reviews and Social Audits.3. At each stage of review, Intermediate Indicators shall be used to ap- praise performance vis-à-vis Five Year Plans, Millennium Development Goals and Andhra Pradesh is Vision 2020.4. The Action Plan for each sector shall have a Communication Strategy that addresses the needs of participatory processes.PSU-APRLP 3
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN I. CONSOLIDATION OF THE POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN AP’s POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN LEAD MISSIONS AND THEIR MAJOR OBJECTIVES STATE POVERTY ERADICA- WATER MIS- EDUCATION EMPLOYMENT GENERA- DEPT. OF HEALTH, MEDI- TION MISSION SION FOR ALL TION MISSION CAL & FAMILY WELFAREo To develop a clear vision o Conservation o The primary o To develop a vision and o Every person will have for poverty eradication and and judicious goal of the strategy for employ- access to responsive ba- recommend strategies for use of water state is to in- ment generation and to sic healthcare and spe- time bound achievement of in the State. crease over- prepare a time bound cialised healthcare at this vision. all literacy action plan for imple- affordable prices. o To formulate levels from mentation of the same.o Take measures for ensuring the current o Women will have safe convergence of all sectoral - Effective 54% of the o To suggest measures to and successful pregnan- plans and programmes. plans and population to derive synergy of the cies. Infant / child mortal- methods for over 95% plans and programmes ity due to ailments likeo Ensure technical updation conserving wa- before 2005. of various departments ARI and diarrhoea will for sustainable development ter working directly or indi- be reduced drastically. of the poor. o Special focus rectly for employment - Time-bound on the back- generation. o The spread of AIDS will action plan for ward and less be containedo Suggest time bound and conservation of specific measures for em- literate areas o Advise on institutional water of the State. and organisational ployment security, food se- o Communicable diseases curity and universal provi- o To implement mechanisms for effec- like Malaria and TB will sion of health care, drinking the conserva- o Universalisa- tive implementation of be effectively prevented. water, housing and elemen- tion and use tion of Ele- the Action Plan for em- tary education among all of water with mentary edu- ployment generation. o Families will be small and poor households. the co- cation. better spaced. Equitable ordination of o Regularly monitor and access to quality healtho Effective implementation of all function- o During the oversee employment care will be ensured. the entitlements and rights ally related next 3 years generation action plans Health sector will be of the poor. Especially of departments. take adult in the State and advise equipped to deliver women, the scheduled literacy, on the future steps to be quality services for non castes., scheduled tribes, the o To carry-out through the taken. communicable diseases backward classes and the water conser- Akshara and trauma and injury minorities. vation pro- Sankranthi o Initiate public debate cases. grammes eco- Programme, on important policy is-o Promote social mobilisation: nomically to sues related to employ- o Life expectancy levels the self-help and other func- 105,00,000 ment generation and will reach 68 years for tional groups as the princi- o Encourage Adult illiter- build consensus for pol- males and 70.6 years for pal mechanism for poverty local people’s ates. icy reforms related to it. females from the current eradication. participation 62 years and 64 years in water con-oAdequate o Advise on Human Re- respectively.o Provide guidance on the servation infrastructure source Development best practices in the national and socio through institution build- o Enhancing technical effi- and international spheres. o Monitor and economic con- ing and suggest a ciency of key programs assess con- ditions to be framework for optimum and clinical effectiveness.o Advocate and recommend tinuously the c r e a t e d utilization of the infra- suitable pro-poor policies water conser- through con- structure available for o Ensuring micro/macro and ensure adequate budg- vation pro- certed sus- training on a continuous economic effectiveness in etary allocation. grammes tained and basis and identify fresh the use of resources multi pronged requirements of infra-o Monitor periodically. o To obtain the action. structure and the re- o Improving quality of people’s sources for training. care/consumer satisfac- views and o To use mod- tion suggestions ern technol- o To facilitate manpower on the ways, ogy to im- planning in key sectors o Assuring systems for long- means and prove deliv- of the economy. term sustainability. methods in ery of high respect to quality edu- o To identify and advise water conser- cation to un- on the regulatory as- vation. reached ar- pects of training. eas.4 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN I. CONSOLIDATION OF THE POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLANSource: Vision 2020 Swarna Andhra Pradesh Source: Vision 2020 Swarna Andhra PradeshPSU-APRLP 5
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN I. CONSOLIDATION OF THE POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLANMILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALSAt the Millennium Summit in September 2000, the states of the United Nations reaffirmed their commitment to workingtowards a world in which sustaining development and eliminating poverty would have the highest priority. The Millen-nium Development Goals grew out of the agreements and resolutions of world conferences organized by the United Na-tions in the past decade. The goals have been commonly accepted as a framework for measuring development progressThere are 8 Goals / 17 Targets and 49 Indicators. The Goals and Targets are given below.1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hungerTarget for 2015: Halve the proportion of people living on less than a dollar a day and those who suffer from hunger.2. Achieve universal primary educationTarget for 2015: Ensure that all boys and girls complete primary school.3. Promote gender equality and empower womenTargets for 2005 and 2015: Eliminate gender disparities in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and atall levels by 2015.4. Reduce child mortalityTarget for 2015: Reduce by two-thirds the mortality rate among children under five5. Improve maternal healthTarget for 2015: Reduce by three-quarters the ratio of women dying in childbirth.6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseasesTarget for 2015: Halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS and the incidence of malaria and other major diseases.7. Ensure environmental sustainabilityTargets:• Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reverse the loss of environ-mental resources.• By 2015, reduce by half the proportion of people without access to safe drinking water.• By 2020 achieve significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers.8. Develop a global partnership for developmentTargets:• Develop further an open trading and financial system that includes a commitment to good governance, development andpoverty reduction – nationally and internationally• Address the least developed countries’ special needs, and the special needs of landlocked and small island developingStates• Deal comprehensively with developing countries’ debt problems• Develop decent and productive work for youth• In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries• In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies – especially information and com-munications technologies.6 PSU-APRLP
    • KEY ELEMENTS OF THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESSLEVERAGING THE ENABLING ENVIRONMENTAP has a highly enabling environment, the aspects of which include: 1. A definite pro-poor policy focus. 2. A government committed to inclusive policies, governance reforms and harnessing ICT and other tools for greater transparency and re- sponsiveness. 3. A large number of Self Help Groups whose networking has created a tremendous opportunity for building social capital 4. A clear cut vision (Vision 2020) which covers Millennium Develop- ment Goals and exceeds their targets and also identifies the growth engines and reforms that support Poverty Eradication Strategies. SWARNA ANDHRA PRADESH—VISION 20201. a. 1999 • Andhra Pradesh takes stock of its standing on key points • Vision 2020 is initiated. • Growth engines identified b. Fourteen Cabinet Sub-committees constituted. • Strategies for realizing Vision 2020 goals evolved c. AP recognizes Poverty Eradication as a core element of socio-economic development d. Poverty Eradication Strategy and Action Plan aligned with the people-owned Janmabhoomi movement e. Poverty Eradication Action Plan put in Mission mode with sector-wide approaches f. State Poverty Eradication Mission to lead the Action Plan g. Other key Missions are: 1. Employment Generation Mission 2. Water Mission (NRM & Environment) 3. Education-For-All Mission h. Department of Health, Medical and Family Welfare works in a Mission mode. i. Sectoral Strategies, Approach Papers and Action Plans drawn up. • Convergence, Participatory process, Gender and other Equity issues become dominant themes2. Poverty Eradication Action Plan linked to macro-economic policies, Planning and Budgetary processes. • Public Investment Programme focusing on pro-poor growth3. Reforms in various sectors and Juridical initiatives to strengthen Poverty Eradication Action Plan4. 2003 Consolidation Process of Poverty Eradication Action Plan initiated: • Review of progress • Adoption of Plan Monitoring and Impact Assessment System • Establishment of Poverty Monitoring and Social Analysis Unit (PMASU) • Creation of Logical Framework for Action Plan and move to Project-based approaches • Disaggregated Poverty Analysis, better models for managing indicators and agreement of Intermediate and Final Indicators • Processes for taking the plan forward as a true People’s plan through participatory tools.PSU-APRLP 7
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN II. KEY ELEMENTS OF THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS In this context, it is important to bear in mind that AP’s human and other resources have the potential for an economic surge similar to that of the South East Asian Countries. The Poverty Eradication Action Plan is therefore integrated with the State’s overall growth plan and stresses the following: RAPID ECONOMIC GROWTH • Human Capital Development • Developing Social Capital of the poor • Promoting Sustainable Livelihoods • Focus on backward Mandals ALONGSIDE, WE HAVE TO ENSURE • More inclusive policy • Access to assets and markets • Public Investment Programme on Education, Health, Transport/ Infrastructures and Communications • Initiatives targeting Insecurities and Vulnerabilities of the poor and mechanisms for social protection LINKING WITH GROWTH ENGINES The expression “Pro-poor Growth” is being preferred to ‘Poverty Reduc- tion’, because it focuses on the key driver of Poverty Eradication. Growth- enhancing reforms matter a lot for Poverty Eradication, provided, of course, that non-income dimensions of poverty are strongly reflected in policies, strategies and actions.The Janmabhoomi initiative has created a very powerful plat- A PRO-POOR GROWTH STRAT-form and is a powerful leverage for all sectors in the Poverty EGY REQUIRES, AMONG OTHERSEradication Strategy of AP. It provides a thematic setting for • Strong incentives for investmentconvergence and the execution of the communication strategy (more capital per worker).essential to the success of the Action Plan. Sectoral Action • Fostering trade and businessPlans have to reflect how the Janmabhoomi Platform will be linkages for faster transfer ofleveraged synergistically. Aligning on a common platform, knowledge.along with other elements of the Action Plan, will also address • Policies and investments for in-the criticism of AP’s Poverty initiatives being fragmented and ternal market integration.having avoidable redundancies and duplications.8 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN II. KEY ELEMENTS OF THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS• Increased external economic integration.• More competitive agricultural markets.• Reducing spatial disparities in Infrastructure (In this context, at the macro plan level, it is worthwhile to relook policies on the manufacturing sec- tor.)From Garments and Leather products to Medicinal Herbs and Agro-services,over 40 areas have been identified as pro-poor growth engines. In one The growth of socialway or another, these areas also find a place in Vision 2020 as the engines networks in AP hasof GSDP growth. The Sectoral and Sub-sectoral Action Plans and the State- been remarkable andwide Action Plan for Poverty Eradication have to now establish clear links the State has suc-with these engines of growth. This will also facilitate positive responses in ceeded in organising aembedding the Action Plan in the budgetary process. range of groups basedLEVERAGING AND STRENGTHENING on needs and pro- grammes, etc., whichSOCIAL CAPITAL has led to accumula-The growth of social networks in AP has been remarkable and the State has tion of social capital.succeeded in organising a range of groups based on needs and pro-grammes, etc., which has led to accumulation of social capital. The State’smove from an individual beneficiary approach to group based approacheshas been a key element of its Poverty Eradication Strategy and has pro-moted collective action of the poor and augmented greater participationand more bargaining power for access to developmental resources.THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS OF THE ACTION PLAN HAS TOADDRESS THREE ISSUES IN THIS REGARD1. The routing of development resources through groups has the attendant risk of the very poor being excluded. However, the State has begun addressing these issues through DPIP, APRLP and APUSP initiatives. Sec- toral Action Plans could use the learnings of these initiatives and adapt their practices for ensuring participation and coverage of the very poor.2. Social Capital being a critical resource in Poverty Reduction Actions, the Poverty Eradication Action Plan has to make provisions for investment in social capital and incorporate, over time, indicators for monitoring social capital along with other socio-economic parameters.PSU-APRLP 9
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN II. KEY ELEMENTS OF THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS POVERTY MAPPING 3. The Poverty Eradication Action Plan The most critical and important milestone in rural poverty reduction is to identify the target poor. In addition to the in its consolidation needs to incorpo- Govt. of India using the Participatory Poverty Assessment rate steps to maximize the potential approach, Participatory Identification of Poor (PIP) was of Self-Help Group through: done. Tools like Transect Walk, Social Mapping, Vulner- a ) Training Needs Assessment based ability Analysis, Disability Mapping and Well Being Analy- sis were used to collect information and identify the poor- on their productive and reproduc- est of the poor and the poor through community partici- tive workload. pation. b ) Leverage the SHG movement for Capacity Building and consequent POOREST OF THE POOR POOR strengthening of Social Capital• Can eat when they • Not possessing land c ) Utilize SHGs as a platform for get work, part of • Can live on daily wages sensitization and action on gender social support from the State. • School going children are sent and other equity issues. for work• No shelter No proper clothing • Can get some credit• Cannot send chil- • Not able to repay debts dren to school • No proper shelter• Cannot get credit • No respect in the society Spatial distribution of SHGs Number of SHGs per habitation Dec 2001 Number of SHGs per habitation 5 20 50 183 APRLP Mandals Other Mandals National highway State highway Railway N 0 10 20 km DPAP10 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN II. KEY ELEMENTS OF THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS The circled areas are pockets of extreme female literacy Poverty. PARTICIPATORY IDENTIFICATION OF THE POOR (PIP) AS A PLANNING TOOL PIP is emerging as the dependable tool not only for identifying the poorest of the poor, but also the spatial distribution of concentrated poverty pockets. Plotting in- formation generated through PIP, using GIS tools and cross mapping it with informa- tion on related indicators in health, education, etc., creates a Geographic Manage- ment Information System on Poverty. This provides a critical Decision Support Sys- tem to AP’s two-track approach in poverty eradication, facilitating priority-based and focused action in chronic, high intensity poverty pockets.PSU-APRLP 11
    • 12 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN III. ORIENTING THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESSORIENTING THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESSPOLICIES FOR PRO-POOR GROWTHIt is observed that, the ability of the poor to earn higher incomes will de-pend on three factors: (1) Growth factor: the production potential of theeconomy; (2) The employment factor: that is, the extent to which potentialgrowth enhances the employment potential. How the increased demand forlabour gets split up between the quality and quantity of employment de-pends on the nature of the growth process that is employment intensive; (3)the integrability factor: that is, the extent to which the working poor areable to integrate into economic processes so that, when growth occurs andemployment potential expands, they can take advantage of such opportu-nities. If growth and employment opportunities are such that the capabilitiesthey demand do not match the capabilities of the poor, then either non-poor workers will seize the opportunities or they won’t be seized at all. Lackof integrability may also result from market failures, especially failure ofthe credit market, poor infrastructure, and lack of information.ENTERPRISE DEVELOPMENT AND NETWORKSThe Vision 2020 document of Andhra Pradesh states that around 18-20 million new jobs will haveto be created by 2020 in Andhra Pradesh to achieve its goals. Presently around 70 per cent of theworkers are dependent on agriculture. By the year 2020, only 35-40% of the workers are ex-pected to be dependent on agriculture in the state. It means that significant job opportunities needto be created in other sectors of the economy in the state. Macro-economic (GSDP) growthemerges as the foremost indicator of the success of our pro-poor growth strategy.The micro-enterprise growth plan of the State has private stake holding built into the model as amajor influencer. The government shall encourage private-public sector partnership models, with theaim of enhancing private investment. Efforts are under way to promote activities based on growthengines and sub-sectors identified on the principle of comparative advantage. The network of SHGsand their Federations are seen as a ‘potential producer’ as well as a ‘consumer’ of produce and theSHGs have reached a stage where they are looking for new business propositions with their hugeunutilised savings.PSU-APRLP 13
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN III. ORIENTING THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESSSELECTED GROWTH ENGINES SEMI-SKILLED POPULATION/ILLITERATES EDUCATED UNEMPLOYED Sector Activity Sector Activity Primary 1. Agro-processing and services Primary 1. Agricultural services 2. Vegetable cultivation, processing and 2. Agriculture extension trading 3. Input supply marketing 3. Horticulture and floriculture 4. Produce marketing 4. Sericulture 5. NTFP processing Secon- 1. Handicrafts (including Handlooms) Secon- dary 2. Leather tanning and goods dary 3. Stoneware & ceramics 4. Cement & construction material Tertiary 1. Rural services Tertiary 1. IT enabled services 2. Paramedics and Paravets 2. Tourism and hospitality 3. Transportation 3. Education and health care services 4. House-keeping 4. Business and financial services (including micro-finance, micro-insurance etc.) Basically the pro-poor growth should be labour intensive. Economic growth is necessary for Poverty Reduction. A pro-poor development Strategy re- quires more than economic growth alone. The impact of growth on poverty depends also on the character or pattern of growth. For growth to have the biggest impact on poverty, policy makers need to complement macroeco- nomic and adjustment policies with equity-enhancing sectoral and redistribu- tive measures. These include policies to foster more agricultural develop- ment and faster development of small and medium enterprises. MONITORING & EVALUATION, REVIEW AND MIDCOURSE CORRECTIONS The way Monitoring and Evaluation processes are incorporated in the Action Plan will make all the difference to its effectiveness. Through the PIP initiative of DPIP, AP has formalized the participa- tory approach to poverty mapping. The question in the Action Plan process is to see how PIP (Participatory Identification of Poor) can help us to use analytical tools in its context and take the Poverty Eradication agenda for- ward. This has a synergy with how Social Capital can energise the agenda.14 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN III. ORIENTING THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS The process of consolidating the Action Plan should enable us to re-think the policy implications of PIP and social capital resources. In terms of the structuring of the Action Plan, a critical implication ofthis is for the Monitoring and Evaluation processes. Currently, different initiatives, departments, etc., gather largeamounts of data from the community level which are archived withoutfeeding back into management decisions or policy. The M & E process in- corporated into the The Action Plan has to address this by incorporating MIS nodes at Action Plan shouldall critical interfaces and institutionalise feedback cycles that translate into have clear-cut provi-Decision Support Systems at various levels, and also as a Policy Resource sions for State-Leveland tool for midcourse corrections where required. Reviews and be sup- The M & E process incorporated into the Action Plan should have plemented by work-clear-cut provisions for State-Level Reviews and be supplemented by work- shops and other initia-shops and other initiatives to realize the vision of a Learning Community. tives to realize the vi- The process will also respect that Poverty is not a static concept and sion of a Learningthat participatory poverty mapping will alter indicators over time. The M Community.& E process should also be able to evaluate the performance of engines ofgrowth at the macro level vis-à-vis their impact on Poverty Reduction.CONTINUITY, LEARNING, PROCESSDOCUMENTATIONMissions, Departments and Commissionerates are coordinated by variousMinistries. Processes have to be in place to ensure that the strategies andAction Plan benefit from mechanisms for continuity in implementation. Thisrequirement in continuity also extends to the consolidation of individual andcollective learnings. A key requirement in this area is Process Documentation. Processdocumentation not only consolidates learnings in an experiential mode, butalso serves to reflect upon the how of things and communicate experiencesand best practices to other constituents / actors of the Poverty EradicationPlan.PSU-APRLP 15
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN III. ORIENTING THE CONSOLIDATION PROCESS Process documentation also translates the significance of their work to all the personnel of Departments, Missions and Commissionerates, beyond mere statistics, in a motivating fashion and in the context of the larger pic- ture spanning all sectors. The role of Process Documentation in implementing the Action Plan has to be stressed and seen as different from Annual Reports / Progress Reports.Process documentation PROGRAMME-PROJECT MODES AND ADDRESSINGnot only consolidates REDUNDANCIES AND DUPLICATIONSlearnings in an experi-ential mode, but also Chapter 2 (2.8) of the Draft Tenth Five-Year Plan of the Government of In-serves to reflect upon dia mentions that “the rapid growth in the number of schemes also entailedthe how of things and an undesirable build up of unproductive cost on administration and expen-communicate experi- diture”. Though it has been remarked that A.P. too has a significant amountences and best prac- of redundancy/duplication in its Poverty Eradication Programme, pro-tices to other constitu- grammes such as the APRLP (Andhra Pradesh Rural Livelihoods Programmeents / actors of the (APRLP) and Andhra Pradesh Urban Services for the Poor (APUSP) havePoverty Eradication already begun an alternative approach of joining ongoing programmesPlan. and bringing to them extended scope, holistic agendas and also new and best practices, apart from other resources. The success of these experiences also hold yet another important point for AP’s Poverty Eradication Action Plan. This is the need to implement programmes in the Project Mode. This has critical value in optimising re- sources, effective planning and better evolution of outcomes. The broad heads discussed above are critical saliences and coordi- nates which should guide the consolidation of the Poverty Eradication Action Plan.16 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXTPOVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXTMACRO POLICY AND LEAD INSTITUTIONSIn order to give concrete shape to its poverty eradication approaches andto realize the Vision 2020 goals, the State Government constituted a StateLevel Poverty Eradication Mission (SPEM). The SPEM is a committee of gov-ernment officials and representatives from research institutes and civil soci-ety, whose role is to coordinate and provide guidance on poverty reduction SERP focuses on theefforts in the state. very poor and communities not The SPEM’s strategy paper in 2001 lists a broader set of measures covered by previousto reduce poverty, which include: poverty reduction a. Generation of faster growth, especially in agriculture; initiatives, and also b. Promotion of health and education services; acts as a forum of c. Enhancing social capital through Self Help Groups (SHGs) advocacy for the d. Promoting sustainable livelihoods of the poor; formulation and implementation of pro- e. Focusing on backward regions and poorer sections of the society; poor policies, plans and and programmes. f. Improving the administrative machinery in order to improve the de- livery services for the poor and promote greater convergence of so- cial development and other poverty-focused programs in the state. The State government has promoted the Society for Elimination ofRural Poverty (SERP) to facilitate implementation of the strategies andapproaches by SPEM. The Velugu-I Project, known during its pilot phase asthe AP-District Poverty Initiative Programme (AP-DPIP), and currently knownas the Velugu-II or AP Rural Poverty Reduction Project (AP-RPRP), isimplemented by SERP, with special emphasis on empowerment of poorthrough social mobilization and institutional building, capacity building andresearch. It focuses on the very poor and communities not covered byprevious poverty reduction initiatives, and also acts as a forum of advocacyfor the formulation and implementation of pro-poor policies, plans andprogrammes.PSU-APRLP 17
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT While SERP focuses on rural poverty, needs of the urban poor are specially catered for through the APUSP or the AP Urban Services for the Poor project. The APUSP basically addresses urban poverty issues through Slum Improvement Programmes (SIPs) in several towns and cities governed by Municipal Corporations and Municipalities. In addition to the above initiatives, poverty issues are also ad- dressed through the Water, Employment and Literacy Missions and theThe selection of poor Dept. of Health and Family Welfare.at the community or The Andhra Pradesh Rural Livelihoods Programme (APRLP) under thehousehold levels has Water Mission is concentrating its efforts in the same locations developedundergone several under the Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP). The APRLP initiatives arepositive transitions systematic in their approach with special emphasis on communityfrom ad hoc participation and empowerment to identify, design and implementidentifications through livelihood options.baseline studyapproaches to IDENTIFYING THE POORParticipatory Poverty The most critical and primary task before the state government and theAppraisal (PPA). agencies entrusted with poverty eradication goals has been to identify the areas that need attention, and the target communities or individuals who need to be included in the designed programme. While the selection of districts to plan and implement pro-poor initiatives is still mostly done on the basis of SC / ST population concentrations, the selection of poor at the community or household levels has undergone several positive transitions from ad hoc identifications through baseline study approaches to Participatory Poverty Appraisal (PPA). DISTRICT PRIORITISATION Poverty is a manifestation of several inter-related factors. During the early days, district selection for poverty eradication programme implementation was taken up more on the initiatives of an area representative on some limited criteria or parameters. Later, with the definition of “Poverty Line”, the selection of districts was based on the concentration of BPL (Below Poverty Line) households generated from baseline surveys.18 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT However, with the process for below poverty level enumeration al-ways being under a grey cloud, the need to identify districts on a morelogical set of parameters or indicators became imperative. In line with theapproach proposed here, it may be logically assumed that the positive de-velopment scenario in a better off district is due to a ripple phenomena setoff by the abundance of one or two resources.A graphic analyses of data to demonstrate the relationship between impactof development and backwardness is given below:PSU-APRLP 19
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXTCLUSTERING OF DISTRICTS WITH THEIR SALIENT FEATURES20 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXTAPRLP INNOVATIONS FOR AREA SELECTIONThe Andhra Pradesh Rural Livelihoods Programme (APRLP) has adoptedinnovative techniques to identify its priority Mandals. Focusing on watersheddevelopment as the main canvas for its operations, APRLP has utilised thePoverty Atlas, a Remote Sensing Database and a Socio-economic Database.Since APRLP seeks to consider people’s livelihood situations in their entirety,it has sought to integrate the indicators identified through the above- APRLP seeks tomentioned sources and develop indices of Natural Resources Degradation consider people’sand Multiple Deprivations. The watershed analysis carried out by APSRAC livelihood situations in(Andhra Pradesh State Remote Sensing Applications Centre), giving the four their entirety.modified categories of Natural Resources Degradation, and the MultipleDeprivation (also called social and material deprivation) categories aregiven equal importance. When integrated, they generated sixteentypologies (Box – 1). Prioritisation of areas to be selected was based onthese typologies, with areas categorised under typologies 1, 2, 3 and 4receiving the highest priority in addition to areas which confirm totypologies 5, 9 and 13 as they have high poverty incidence irrespective ofthe natural resource status. The process of area selection is furtherstrengthened by the use of nine-point selection criteria (Box – 2).Weightage is given to each of these nine parameters based on marksallocated for different manifestations of these parameters. The finalselection of areas for implementation is also supported through qualitativeobservations as a ground-truth verification exercise.Box – 1 : Deprivation Typologies Box – 2 : 9 Point Selection Criteria for Selection of Micro Watershed Areas Adopted by APRLPTypologies 1 – 4Very high NRM deprivation with high, medium • Percentage of small and marginal farmersmoderate or low levels of poverty respectively • Percentage of SC / ST holdingsTypologies 5 – 8 • Percentage of women organised in SHGs andMedium NRM deprivation with high, medium participating in programmemoderate or low levels of poverty respectively • Status of ground waterTypologies 9 – 12Moderate NRM deprivation with high, medium • APSRAC prioritisationmoderate or low levels of poverty respectively • Livestock populationTypologies 13 – 16 • No. of families affected / involved in migrationLow NRM deprivation with high, medium moderate or • Contiguity of proposedlow levels of poverty respectively • Availability of fallow / wasteland & CPR for the poor to utilise usufructPSU-APRLP 21
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT THE AP-DPIP INITIATIVES The AP-District Poverty Initia- Box – 3 : Indicators for BPL Identification tive Programme (AP-DPIP), in 1. Size of operational holding of land 2. Type of house particular, has extended be- 3. Average availability of normal wear clothing (per person in pieces) yond the scope of GoI guide- 4. Food security 5. Sanitation lines by adopting the PIP ap- 6. Ownership of consumer durables 7. Literacy status of the highest literate adult proach in tandem with the 8. Status of the household in labour forceThe PIP process is routine BPL survey based on 9. Means of children (5-14 years) (Any child) 10. Status of livelihoodused with sufficient the 13 GoI recommended in- 11. Type of indebtednesscare to ensure total 12. Reasons for migration from household Prefer- dicators (Box – 3). Separate ence for assistancecommunity BPL lists are prepared usingparticipation through the BPL survey as well as the PIP process and the lists are compared topreliminary rapport shortlist the common households. While the disaggregated information onestablishment, these indicators is used for identifying the poorest of the poor and the mar-informal meetings ginally poor sections of the community, aggregated information from thesewith key community indicators is used for policy formulation.members,community Using the Participatory Poverty Assessment approach, specificallymeetings, sharing of the PIP (Participatory Identification of the Poor) process, DPIP has adoptedinformation and tools like Transect Walk, Social Mapping, Vulnerability Mapping, Disabilityinvolvement & Mapping and Well Being Analysis to gather the required information thatapproval of the helps identify the poorer households. The PIP process is used with sufficientvillage panchayats. care to ensure total community participation through preliminary rapport establishment, informal meetings with key community members, community meetings, sharing of information and involvement & approval of the village panchayats. Till the 31st March, 2003, DPIP has managed to undertake PIP exercises in 14, 585 villages spread across 792 Mandals in 16 Districts. PRO-POOR GROWTH STRATEGIES UNDERLYING THE ACTION PLAN Andhra Pradesh undertook many reforms in the last seven years. They are: fiscal reforms, power reforms, governance reforms and institutional reforms. The objectives of these reforms are to step up economic growth and allevi- ate poverty while protecting the environment. Reforms are underway in the power and irrigation sectors for expanding their capacity by improving ef- ficiency and cost-recovery.22 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT Significant strides have been made in respect of participatory man-agement of land, water and forest resources through the watershed devel-opment committees, water user associations and joint forest management.Women’s Self-Help Groups are a success story in the State and haveformed a central element in the Strategy for poverty eradication throughsocial mobilization, community empowerment and capacity building. These reforms will yield significant results in course of time and will Women’s self helpfacilitate realising the Goals of the Action Plan. groups are a success The reforms reflect the State’s strategies for achieving MDG’s by story in the State and2015 and eradicate poverty by 2020 through a focus on the following pol- have formed a centralicy areas: element in the Strat- egy for poverty eradi-ECONOMIC GROWTH cation through social mobilization, commu-The distance between AP and all India and fast performing State’s widened nity empowermentin the post-reform period on account of weak social and economic infra- and capacity building.structure. Therefore, the State is increasing capital outlays substantially tobuild up infrastructure.AGRICULTUREThe experience of developing countries shows that agricultural growth isconsidered as pro-poor because the majority of the poor are dependent onthis sector. Agriculture has been an area of strength for AP but has notreceived adequate priority in the last two decades. At the aggregate levelfor agriculture, the following policy issues are focuses for higher growth:(a) Augmenting the investment in agriculture and rural infrastructure;(b) Improving the quality and reach of technology dissemination,particularly in rain-fed areas; (c) Re-examining the legal framework forland-leasing to ensure adequate safeguard for both the tenants and thelandowner, as this is likely promote greater investment in agriculture;(d) Providing an enabling environment to facilitate the farmers to benefitfrom the emerging opportunities thrown up by the liberalization andglobalisation;PSU-APRLP 23
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT (e) Aggressively pursuing diversification in agriculture to optimise income and employment (f) Focusing on non-farm employment opportunities, by promoting appropriate agro-based processing industries; agro-based proc- essing industries; (g) Promoting rapid rural growth in drought-prone and rainfed areas of the State. In these areas, horticulture, forestry and live- stock will play a larger role. Basically, this signifies high priority for irriga- tion, agricultural research, especially in biotechnology focused on dry land farming, extension services and ensuring access to institutional credit for re- source-poor farmers.NATURAL RESOURCES MANAGEMENT (WATER MISSION)Vision 2020 document of the State of Andhra Pradesh has accorded prime importance for the de-velopment of agriculture, targeting an overall growth rate of 5.7 per cent. Six major “growth en-gines” have been identified for the sector (Watershed development, Agro services, Oilseeds, Vege-tables, Spices and Dairy). Strategies for development of agriculture feeds into three major missionsviz. Water Mission, Employment Mission as well as the Poverty Mission. Further the activities of eightgovernment departments are being coordinated under the popularly known programme Neeru–Meeru (Water and You).• Under a 10-year perspective watershed development plan from 1997 to 2007, it is aimed at developing 10 million ha wastelands.• A rainwater harvesting space of 0.71 bcm (25 tmc) has been created, resulting in additional an- nual groundwater recharge of about 6.09 bcm (215 tmc).There is focus on community mobilisation and production enhancement through:• Formation of 2 lakh Rythu Mitra User / Self-Help Groups.• 1 million acres of land to be brought under horticulture with drip irrigation systems, further in- creasing water use efficiency and reducing water demand, contributing to the objectives of Wa- ter Mission.• Productivity increase in Oilseeds is being pursued by the Technology Mission on Oilseeds, Pulses and Maize.• Livestock and rain-fed farming systems support each other very well. Feed and fodder, and the relations between livestock and management of natural resources are addressed as being of crucial importance for sustainable livestock production.24 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXTConservation of surface and groundwater has become imperative. This isbest achieved when water and power are priced according to the volumeof consumption. Involvement of rural communities is essential in setting usercharges as well as for assessing individual consumption.INDUSTRYSlow industrial growth has been an area of concern. Strengthening infra-structure, such as, power, roads and ports, expansion of institutional credit There is thrust in policyfor small scale and rural industries, and good governance by cutting down framework in AP to-delays in giving clearances and reducing corruption stand out prominently wards making IT anas areas of reform for attracting private investment domestic as well as for- enabler in develop-eign. ment and equalizer ofINFORMATION TECHNOLOGY opportunities.There is thrust in policy framework in AP towards making IT an enabler indevelopment and equalizer of opportunities. With the spread of educationand decentralization of governance, IT can become a powerful tool in thehands of the people at large for their socio-economic betterment and over-all empowerment.LABOUR - INTENSIVE PATTERN OF GROWTHOne of the main elements of pro-poor growth is labour intensive pattern ofgrowth. In all the sectors (agriculture, industry and services), there is a focuson increasing employment. Given the problem of unemployment for edu-cated and unemployment and underemployment for the masses, twin strate-gies for improving the livelihoods are developed. The first sub-strategyaims at rural and urban masses that are illiterate/semi-literate, unskilled,and semi-literate/skilled. The second sub-strategy addresses the problemsof educated unemployed. It will be on Selected Growth Engines and Clus-ters for these two categories. The current strategy of social mobilization for watershed develop-ment aims to be sustained in the long run by making land use more remu-nerative through new dry land technologies and the development of infra-structure.PSU-APRLP 25
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT POLICIES FOR FULFILLING TARGETS IN NON-INCOME DIMENSIONS OF POVERTY A. SOCIAL SECTOR EXPENDITURES The trends in social sector expenditures in A.P is positive. The Social Sector, is defined as the total of expenditure on ‘Social Services’ and ‘ RuralA.P. spent around 6 to Development’ as given in Central and State budgets. The head ‘Social11 per cent of its Services’ includes, among other things, education, health & family welfare,GSDP on the social water supply and sanitation. The expenditure under the head ‘Ruralsector in the last two Development’ (which is listed under ‘Economic Services’ in the budgetdecades. It may be classification) relates mostly to anti-poverty programmes. A.P. spent aroundnoted that the impact 6 to 11 per cent of its GSDP on the social sector in the last two decades. Iton the outcomes in may be noted that the impact on the outcomes in social sector depends onsocial sector depends both expenditures and on the effective utilization of these expenditures.on both and theeffective utilization of B. EDUCATIONthese expenditure. There are three issues that the State is addressing in improving literacy and primary education in the State. First, is resources allocation to education particularly to primary education from the budget. Second, the quality of education in terms of curriculum, better infrastructure and improvement of teaching. Third, retaining children in the schools which is more difficult than enrolling them. The A.P. government has designed schemes such as ‘Mabadi’ (our school), ‘Chaduvkundam’ (back to school) and akshara sankranti to improve access to children and women of disadvantaged communities. Retaining of children in the schools needs intensive institutional arrangements such as social mobilization of the community on child labour and education. Such attempts are being made successfully at the micro level.26 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXTEDUCATION FOR ALL MISSIONVision 2020 of Andhra Pradesh states that "Andhra Pradesh will not be just a literate society,but a knowledge society capable of meeting the challenges posed by the 21st century. It will bea state in which every person will be able to realise his or her full potential through access toeducational opportunities regardless of the class or region to which he or she belongs".To achieve the goals of Universalisation of Elementary Education (UEE) and Universalisa-tion of Adult Education (UAE), Government of A.P has constituted a State-level-Education-for-All Mission.The Mission’s objectives are: • To review the existing situation in the state in regard to literacy. • To identify areas of strength and critical areas of weakness. • To review all ongoing programmes relating to universalisation of elementary educa- tion and adult literacy in the state and suggest measures for coordinating, integrat- ing and strengthening them to achieve the best results. • To suggest measures to control dropout rate, promote retention, and improve quality at both primary and secondary levels in schools. • To draw upon the best national and international practices in literacy and school education identify new strategies and approaches to achieve the Vision 2020 objec- tives in the state. • To draw up a coordinated plan for promoting education among disadvantaged groups, in particular girls, minority communities, SCs and STs, Girl Child in remote tribal areas.C. HEALTHGreat stress has been placed on improving the major element of public healthcare, i.e. thePrimary Health Centres. Hospital Advisory Committees have been created and active publichealthcare system managements.PSU-APRLP 27
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT Public expenditure on the health sector is beng increased. It is not enough to allocate more resources to the sector. The efficiency of public spending is also being improved. More resources are being spent on preventive care. Poor benefit more from this. Primary healthcare services are being made accountable to the local communities. The share of private sector in the total health care sector is high and has increased over time. One cannot ignore, therefore, the role of private sector in the State. EffortsPrimary healthcare are on to make the private sector accountable to the poor. The Governmentservices are being is planning to promote institutions to regulate the private sector.made accountable tothe local communities.HEALTH (DEPT. OF HEALTH, MEDICAL AND FAMILYWELFARE)AP’s Vision 2020 is succinct and challenging in the goals it sets for the health sector.By 2020, the state aims at: • Achieving health indicators of international standards / levels • Stabilize population growthTo realize the Vision 2020 goals, AP’s health sector focuses on the following priorities: 1. Universal access to primary healthcare 2. Specific programmes to promote family welfare, particularly, the health of women and chil- dren and family planning. 3. Focusing on improving health status in disadvantaged groups and backward regions. 4. Ensuring a strong prevention focus 5. Enhance the reach and performance of the public health system. 6. Formulation of a state IEC (Information, Education and Communications) programme, including leveraging the electronic media. (Contributing to disease prevention, control, nutrition, sani- tation, personal hygiene and fitness) 7. Free health care access (basic and specialized) for poor and vulnerable groups and health insurance for other sections for access to these services. 8. Major diseases such as TB, malaria and HIV/AIDS to be contained and prevented. 9. Eliminate malnutrition.28 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXTThe need to promote community health insurance schemes (e.g. SEWA’sscheme) in order to provide health services at low cost to poor is a priority.D. FOOD AND NUTRITION SECURITY PROGRAMMESMajor programmes that improve food and nutrition security are PublicDistribution system (PDS), Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS),and Antyodaya Anna Yojana. PDS improves food security at householdlevel while ICDS helps in increasing nutrition of women and children. Major programmesAntyodaya Anna Yojana improves the food security of destitutes. that improve food andThese programmes are being strengthened in order to reach the benefits to nutrition security arethe target population more effectively. In all the above pro-poor policies, Public Distribution sys-the special problems of disadvantage sections of SCs and STs are recog- tem (PDS), Integratednized. Child Development Services (ICDS), and Antyodaya Anna Yo-URBAN POVERTY jana.Large -scale rural to urban migration of populations in search of more se-cure livelihoods triggers urban poverty. Unskilled labour force living in unor-ganised slums and working as manual labourers in construction jobs, as do-mestic servants and as odd-job contract labour lead pathetic lives. Whilesome of these migrants reach urban settlements lured by the opportunitiesto earn quick incomes, a large segment of rural to urban migrants areforced to come to the urban areas due to severe drought conditions, causingloss of livelihoods. In addition to causing high pressure on the planned civicamenities, the migrants, especially the women and children, are exploited inevery conceivable way by vested interest groups. Unfortunately, there is alack of appropriate processes to measure and document the inflow of mi-grants, whether seasonal or permanent.PSU-APRLP 29
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN IV. POVERTY AND THE ANDHRA PRADESH CONTEXT Concerning identification of the urban poor, the APUSP project has also adopted similar procedures by gathering information on seven non- economic parameters. Each parameter consists of six attributes indicating the condition from ‘worst’ to ‘better’. Accordingly, weightage scores are as- signed to each attribute, i.e. from ‘100’ (worst condition) to ‘0’ (better con- dition). Thus, a household scoring an average of 100 will be given top pri- ority under the programme Plan. Example of Household Rating for BPL Qualification by APUSP Parameter Attributes Score 1. Roof Asbestos 60 2. Floor Bajri 80 3. Water No water supply 100 4. Sanitation Community dry latrine 80 5. Education level Middle pass 60 6. Type of Employment Semi skilled 80 7. Status of Children in a House Working & attending 80 Literacy classes Sometimes ----------------- Total 540 ----------------- Average weighted score for a household = 540 / 7 = 77.1 i.e., future beneficiary30 PSU-APRLP
    • MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENTAPPROACH TO THE PLANThe last decade of the 20th Century has seen a visible shift in the focus ofdevelopment planning from the mere expansion of production of goods andservices, and the consequent growth of per capita income, to planning for The State has adoptedenhancement of human well being. This approach is most succinctly captured a Plan Cycle Manage-in the MDGs (millennium development goals) adopted by the United Nations ment Approach andin its Millennium Declaration. Similar to MDGs, the Tenth Plan, for the first created a Logicaltime, sets monitorable targets for the Tenth Plan period (2002-07) and be- Framework for itsyond. Some of the major targets at the national level are: (1) Reduction in Poverty Reduction Ac-poverty ratio by 5 percentage points by 2007 and 15 percentage points tion Plan.by 2012; (2) Providing gainful and high-quality employment at least to theaddition to the labour force over the Tenth Plan period; (3) All children inschool by 2003; all children to complete 5 years of schooling by 2007; (4)Reduction in gender gap in literacy and wage rates by at least 50 per centby 2007; (5) Reduction of infant mortality rate (IMR) to 45 per 1000 livebirths by 2007 and to 28 by 2012; (6) Reduction of maternal mortalityrate (MMR) to 2 per 1000 live births by 2007 and to 1 by 2012. The Vi-sion 2020 document of the GoAP reflects these goals.Andhra Pradesh’s Poverty Reduction / Eradication Strategy and Action Planhave emerged from this background.The State has adopted a Plan Cycle Management Approach and created aLogical Framework for its Poverty Reduction Action Plan.PSU-APRLP 31
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN V. MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT32 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN V. MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENTINDICATORS OF POVERTY AND TARGETSA baseline assessment of well being for A.P. that builds on the MDG’s, aug-mented by the development goals of Vision 2020 as well as the nationaldevelopment goals of the Tenth Five Year Plan has been done. Some of theindicators that emerged through this process are given in the table below.These serve as the intermediate indicators of the Action Plan Log Frame andwill be refined/replaced/augmented as the Draft Plan progresses towardsthe Final Action Plan.Table: Selected Indicators and Targets for Andhra Pradesh Indicator in Vision Development Goal AP:MDG Indicator 2000 or closest 2020 in 2015 year 2020 Poverty and Nutrition Head count poverty ratio 21.6* 13.1 0 Under nutrition under age 37.7 24.6 Reduce 5 malnutri- tion Child Labour 9.98 or 25 0 Universal primary Net enrolment ratio 90.3 99 100 education (primary) Students reaching from -- 95 90 grade 1 to grade 5 Literacy rate (7+) 61.1 99 Reduce child Infant mortality rate (per 66 23.3 10 1000 live births) mortality Under five mortality rate 85.5 30.3 20 (per 1000 live births) Improve maternal Maternal mortality ratio 154 75 -- health (per 100,000 live births)Source: World Bank (2003) except head count ratio for 2000. * Deaton adjusted estimates.PSU-APRLP 33
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN V. MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT MONITORING OUTCOMES AND INDICATORS The log frame approach to the Poverty Reduction Action Plan is not a sim- plistic force-fit of Goals, Targets and Indicators into prevailing formats of Logical Frameworks for development projects. It is rather, an adaptation of a conceptual framework and enlarging its scope to encompass the com- plexities of a Statewide Action Plan which subsumes sectoral Action Plans, District Action Plans, Mandal Level Action Plans and community Level plans.A Statewide Action It also provides for managing Intermediate Indicators in relation to targetedPlan which subsumes outcomes across annual and other time horizons.Sectoral Action Plans,District Action Plans, The Action Plan Log Frame, therefore, has features that go beyondMandal Level Action a conventional log frame and deploy management tools and strategiesPlans and Community which do not fall in the scope of standalone projects. Critical aspects, there-Level plans. fore, include: a) Combine the principles and best practices of Large Enterprise Man- agement and Good governance. b) A plan Cycle Management strategy that employs PERT/CPM Tools, which make it possible to integrate sectoral, sub-sectoral and District Plans into the Statewide plan. c) Adapt develop Enterprise-wide tools specific to the state for Re- source Planning, Management Information System and Forecasting. d) Institutional Change Management and ‘Business Process Reengineer- ing’ to ensure that the system is optimally geared to execute the Ac- tion Plan. These and other aspects of the plan emphasize the need to harness universally valid management strategies and Tools with the clear under- standing that governance and the Development field are not isolated is- lands of esoteric practices immune to management science. Equally much, the Log Frame approach takes into account that the execution of the Action Plan itself will alter the socio-economic realities it addresses.34 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN V. MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT The Action Plan, therefore, unfolds across a dynamic and complexenvironment, where changes in social structures, both desirable and dysfunc-tional, have to be accounted for. In fact, given the complex social fabric ofthe state, cultural factors and social change have to be part of the ActionPlan’s anchorages and references. The State Wide Poverty Reduction Action Plan, in assonance with theabove, provides for sectoral plans, District plans, Mandal plans and Com- The Log Frame ap-munity level plans to go beyond mere econometric modeling and incorpo- proach to the Actionrate social capital and planned social change (Caste, gender and atti- Plan, in order to real-tudes/perceptions/practices in other areas which have a direct or indirect ize its true potential, iscausal relationship with poverty) as critical elements. This is especially so in complemented by athe Community level, Mandal and District plans that emerge from and feed- Plan Monitoring andback into the State Wide Poverty Reduction Action Plan. Impact Assessment The Log Frame approach to the Action Plan, in order to realize its System.true potential, is complemented by a Plan Monitoring and Impact Assess-ment System. The Monitoring and Impact Assessment System of AP’s Poverty Re-duction Action Plan assumes the following in common with its strategy andLog Frame: a) The Poverty Reduction Action Plan has to synergies with the over- all state plan and the Government of India’s Five Year Plans. b) The Draft Action Plan has to become a “People’s Plan” in its final form, through Participatory Processes. c) It has to account for social change and social capital, however difficult these may be to monitor. d) It has to be the key driver of the “bottom-up approach” to formulate inclusive macro policies and planning for pro-poor growth. It has to have, as an integral element, plan cycle management andprovide for two-way feedback cycles, spanning all MIS nodes of the ActionPlan dendogram, essential for midcourse correction.PSU-APRLP 35
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN V. MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT Although the main objective of the monitoring system is to trace the progress in outcomes and impacts, both final (outcome and impact) and in- termediate indicators (input and output) are to be tracked. Monitoring final indicators helps to judge progress toward the goals set. But final indicators are the result of several factors, many of which are outside the control of policy makers and programme administrators. Intermediate indicators, on the other hand, generally change as a result of actions by the GovernmentParticipatory Plan and other agents. Moreover, final indicators generally change slowly overMonitoring and Impact time while, intermediate indicators change more rapidly, giving an indica-Assessment is part of tors with which is happening to some of its determinants.the process of inte-grating stakeholder Participatory Plan Monitoring and Impact Assessment is part of theparticipation not only process of integrating stake holder participation not only in planning andin planning and imple- implementation but also in reviewing the progress of plan implementationmentation but also in and evaluating outcomes. Such plan monitoring and Impact Assessment Sys-reviewing the progress tem will facilitate Participatory Learning and Action (PLA) and becomes aof plan implementation Learning, Capacity Building and Empowerment tool too.and evaluating out- In this context, it has to be noted that the Plan Monitoring and Im-comes. pact Assessment System (PMIAS) mooted in the Action Plan is a conceptual framework which will have to be made concrete through further processes. The conceptual framework for the PMIAS stresses the following. · Going beyond monitoring inputs and outputs, to also focus on out- comes. · Incorporate the logical consequences of participation being a con- tinuous process and, therefore, the need to go beyond “snap shots” and quantitative parameters.36 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN V. MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT• Identify mechanisms to assess the extent of facilitation by field staff for community participation.• Processes for data capture that translate the PMIAS also into a decision support system and a key component of MIS at various levels. The Action Plan addresses the multi-faceted nature of poverty, andthe scope for analyses it affords facilitates actions plans of missions, de- The PMIAS mooted inpartments and districts, with step-by-step approaches to operationalization, the Action Plan facili-capacity building needs assessment, focus of stakeholders role clarity and tates for primaryannual plan to achieve short term targets based on intermediate indicators. stakeholders a major The PMIAS mooted in the Action Plan facilitates for primary stake- stake in planning andholders a major stake in planning and implementation. The key tenet is that implementation. Thecommunities must be empowered to take steps at their level and very poor key tenet is that com-and other marginalized / resource poor sections have to be enabled to join munities must be em-in the deliberations and negotiations. Participatory methodologies, stake- powered to take stepsholder role analysis, wealth / poverty ranking etc., create the spaces for at their level and verythis. poor and other mar- The PMIAS mooted in the Action Plan facilitates for primary stake- ginalized / resourceholders a major stake in planning and implementation. The key tenet is that poor sections have tocommunities must be empowered to take steps at their level and very poor be enabled to join inand other marginalized / resource poor sections have to be enabled to join the deliberations andin the deliberations and negotiations. Participatory methodologies, stake- negotiations.holder role analysis, wealth / poverty ranking, etc., create the spaces forthis. The Action Plan’s PMIAS also tries to correct the prevailing trend ofsecondary stakeholders trying to gather information for decision making,and in its place suggests primary stakeholder empowerment for planningimplementation and monitoring through social audits.PSU-APRLP 37
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN V. MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT The Community-level generation of information should be cross checked through Random Audits at the District Level to ensure accuracy and validate the processes. The Government and Secondary stakeholders have to “Manage” the statewide Action Plan and its components by utilizing the PMIAS. In the AP Scenario, the Janmabhoomi initiatives create such capaci-In the AP Scenario, the ties and an enabling environment for primary stakeholder’s empowermentJanmabhoomi initia- and “People’s Planning”.tives create such ca- Sectoral lead actors and various departments and other constituentspacities and an ena- of the Action Plan have to have six-monthly initiatives to consolidate learn-bling environment for ings through the PMIAS and from pilot initiatives and NGO initiatives toprimary stakeholder’s benchmark best practices and introduce new practices. In tandem with An-empowerment and nual Plans, departments have to undertake comprehensive reviews and in-“People’s Planning”. trospections, and carry out Annual Random Evaluation of outcomes and processes. PARTICIPATORY MONITORING PARTICIPATORY MONITORING IMPACT ASSESSMENT SYSTEM (PMIAS) ASSESSMENT SYSTEM (PMIAS) The MIS nodes sustained by ANNUAL PLANS ANNUAL PLANS the PMIAs, spatial FIVE YEAR STATEWIDE PLAN NEXT YEAR PLANS planning and criti- FIVE YEAR STATEWIDE PLAN NEXT YEAR PLANS cal evaluation of FIVE YEAR TARGETS the previous years INTERMEDIATE INDICATORS FINAL INDICATORS TARGETS plan along pro- VISION 2020 GOALS VISION 2020 GOALS MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT MILLENIUM DEVELOPMENT jected versus actual ANDHRA PRADESH STATE ANDHRA PRADESH STATE GOALS (MDG) 2015 GOALS (MDG) 2015 outcomes analysis, can enable the next year’s plan to STATE WIDE ANNUAL PLAN be drawn up with SECTOR WIDE more insight. ANNUAL PLAN DEPARTMENTAL ANNUAL PLAN DISTRICT ANNUAL PLAN MANDAL LEVEL PLAN COMMUNITY LEVEL PLANS & PMIAS38 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN V. MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENTThe Poverty and Social Analysis and Monitoring Unit (PSAMU) will, in thisscheme, function as a macro-level integrate of PMIAS feedback cycles andalso analyze and monitor social change and social capital on institutionallinkages and the dependability and efficacy of MIS nodes at various levels.PSU-APRLP 39
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN V. MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT The PMIAS suggested by the Action Plan also helps manage indicators through appropriate disaggregations at different levels. Aggregate state- level indicators of the State-wide action plan can be effectively disaggre- gated so that they become extremely sensitive to community-level and dis- trict-specific contexts. Further, different sectoral plans will also be able to disaggregate indicators (eg. by geographic areas, geo climatic zones, gen- der, caste, etc.) and measure the functionality of its disaggregation typeThe purpose of the through the PMIAS. A key feature of the PMIAS will be its ability to handlestrategic Action Plan is qualitative and quantitative data and link data requirements to evaluationthen to identify the methods.correct lever to adjust,by how much, and OPERATIONALISING THE ACTION PLAN.when and to assess or The Log Frame approach enables the Strategic Action Plan to be convertedmonitor whether the to tactical and operational management, by following the steps of Projectdesired outcome is be- Cycle Management. The macro-framework for strategic action plan pro-ing obtained. vides an overview of the PCM process. It suggests that at the four levels of planning, balancing loops provide the key intervention areas. The balancing and reinforcing loops in the framework explain the dynamic nature of PCM. A “big picture” is necessary to be understood for setting “lever” targets to achieve the desired outcome at each level. The “levers” in the framework are the critical points that can be adjusted for the desired outcome. The framework also provides the dynamic linkages via loops to all other factors that affect the targets and outcomes. The purpose of the strategic Action Plan is then to identify the correct lever to adjust, by how much, and when, and to assess or monitor whether the desired outcome is being obtained. PROCESS DOCUMENTATION FOR STRENGTHENING AND SUSTAINING THE ACTION PLAN Reducing poverty requires multi-pronged action on various fronts and close coordination between different departments. Effective implementation of the PRAP will therefore require concerned departments to work closely and to understand each others activities as partners. It also requires us to look at outcomes, to understand processes and to revise them based on past ex- perience.40 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN V. MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENTCurrent methods of documentation and existing monitoring and review sys-tems that are based on outputs are unlikely to support this. Reporting onquantitative outputs does not allow us to reflect on mistakes made in thepast. Annual reports that provide figures on expenditure incurred over thelast financial year do not allow us to understand why the expenditure wasincurred, how effectively the money was spent and what lessons were learntin the process. To become wiser about the impact of actions and practices APRLP, a complex,requires us to carefully and systematically observe and reflect on key proc- multi-levelesses, to consult others and learn how to steer them. programme, has APRLP, a complex, multi-level programme, has initiated a process initiated a processdocumentation system to create information flow and allow for coordination documentation systembetween different project levels and to learn from past experience. This to create informationmodel has great relevance for AP’s Poverty Eradiation Action Plan (PEAP). flow and allow for APRLP is documenting its processes at the grassroots level to provide coordination betweendetails of how project activities are being carried out to improve pro- different project levelsgramme effectiveness, increase adaptability to grassroots problems and to and to learn from pastserve as an authoritative source of reference for continuity, training, and experience. This modelaccountability. Learning from process documentation will also be used for has great relevancemainstreaming APRLP pilot initiatives effectively within the ongoing State for AP’s PEAP.watershed programme. Over a period of time such documentation provides a record of ex-actly how the activity was conducted. Instead of residing in a few people’sminds, details of important processes can now be accessed by anyone in theproject. Newly recruited persons can now have easy access to how activitiesare to be performed, the quality of work expected from them and howthey can ensure this quality. When a person moves on from a post his/herefforts can be acknowledged by successors in the form of processes put inplace and its merits and disadvantages and not just as quantitative outputs.Such documentation will also make key actors/personnel involved with aplan, programme or project accountable to the processes they are follow-ing.Analysis of process documentation data is also being done to facilitate theformulation of appropriate policy for more effective project/plan manage-ment. Feedback from primary stakeholders about project/plan activitiesPSU-APRLP 41
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN V. MONITORING AND IMPACT ASSESSMENT can now reach managers periodically. Instead of simply knowing quantitative information about outputs- such as amount of Revolving Fund disbursed-managers can now know more about actual outcomes, such as how far poor persons have benefited and critical parameters in the process that are required to achieve desired outcomes. ANALYSIS FRAMEWORK FOR THE PEAP LOG FRAMESThe log frame for AP’sPoverty Eradication Sustainable development being the foundation of any Poverty EradicationAction Plan, therefore, Strategy, a Poverty Eradication Action Plan (PEAP) has to identify the link-centres on the “Five ages between key components of sustainable development and their inter-Capitals” essential for faces with governmental and administrative structures and macro economicsustainable develop- determinants.ment and also A basic premise of AP’s Poverty Eradication Action Plan is that it“Political Capital” and should be tailored to the specific context of the State. This means workingbuilds on their link- within the advantages, synergies and boundaries of being a large stateages. within a large nation state. Agreeing on goals, targets and indicators through participative processes requires a clear understanding of the “Capital” available to address poverty reduction. The log frame for AP’s Poverty Eradication Action Plan, therefore, centres on the “Five Capitals” essential for sustainable development and also “Political Capital” and builds on their linkages. The interrelationship/ link- ages of each of these capi- tals is taken into account by each mission/ sector and addressed in terms of strengths and vulnerabilities specific to the sector/ mis- sion. The action plan log frame will also reflect the interfacing of these capitals with policy, institutions and processes.42 PSU-APRLP
    • EVOLVING ACTION PLAN LOG FRAMESAs has been repeatedly emphasized, based on Vision 2020, all concernedMissions and Departments in the State have drawn up strategies and actionplans. However, these strategies and action plans have to be integrated intothe State Wide Poverty Eradication Action Plan of SPEM in ways that facili-tate good plan cycle management, appropriate macro policies and reformsand participatory processes. The Logical FrameThe Logical Frame work approach is a powerful tool to achieve this. It de- work approach is amands step-by-step action on the part of Missions in drawing up sectoral powerful tool toplans in conjunction with Departmental and Commissionerate plans. achieve this. ItIn this process, it is useful to begin translating sectoral and departmental demands step-by-stepstrategies into policy matrices as a preliminary step to converting Action action on the part ofPlans into Logical Framework formats. Missions in drawing up sectoral plans inLog Frames of Action Plans have to incorporate the following compo- conjunction withnents Departmental and• Identify final goals and outcomes against a timeline (in the case of AP, it Commissionerate is Present to 2020) plans.• Identify milestone targets along the way to final goals (AP uses the GoI’s Five Year Plan targets and their time-frames, as well as Millennium De- velopment goals with its milestone date of 2015)• For each goal, identify strategies• Elaborate action required to implement strategy.• Identify lead actors and joint actors, and their linkages for each action planned.• Identify internal and external resources required at critical milestones along the timeline.• Identify current perceptions on internal and external enablers and thwarters.PSU-APRLP 43
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN VI. EVOLVING ACTION PLAN LOG FRAMES • Identify reforms required and impact of ongoing reforms • Suggest juridical initiatives that are desirable • Identify time horizons for review and midcourse corrections (AP has An- nual reviews, Five-yearly reviews coinciding with GoI’s Five Year Plans and macro level review in 2015 on MDG indicators The most critical component is Indicators. The use of Intermediate Input/While drawing up the Output Indicators and Final Indicators and a strategic model for managingLog Frame of the Ac- indicators at the micro, meso and macro level are discussed elsewhere in thistion Plans of SPEM, document.Missions and Depart-ments, it has to be TAKING FORWARD THE LOG FRAME PROCESSkept in mind that theywill be revised and re- While drawing up the Log Frame of the Action Plan’s of SPEM, Missions andfined over a specified Departments, it has to be kept in mind that they will be revised and refinedperiod, through partici- over a specified period, through participatory processes and shall be struc-patory processes and tured to reflect community- level, mandal-level and district- level planningshall be structured to processes. They shall also provide for the two track approach of intense andreflect community - priority action in acute poverty pockets and regular state wide activity.level, mandal - level Through this participatory revision and refinement process of the sectoral andand district - level departmental plans, mechanisms shall also be identified for annual reviewsplanning processes. at all levels of the plan implementation, right down to the community level, and reliable feedback based on that in drawing up the next year’s plans. The State Wide Action Plan of SPEM in a Log Frame format will also enable the Cabinet, Finance Department and Planning Department to undertake ‘Sensitivity Analysis’ of the plan, keeping in view various externalities that are likely to affect the plan context and plan appropriate ‘Coping Strate- gies’. Similarly, the effective use of Indicators on which there is overall agreement among all stakeholders, also facilitates tracking and monitoring the plan in a Log Frame mode.44 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN VI. EVOLVING ACTION PLAN LOG FRAMESThough the main objective of the PMIAS is to track progress in poverty reduc-tion and impact of activities, it is also important to track indicators.In order to do this, all stakeholders should have clarity of Intermediate Inputand Output Indicators and Final Outcome and Impact Indicators. Monitoringfinal indicators helps assess progress towards the goals of the plan. How-ever, final indicators are the result of several factors, many of which are out-side the control of policymakers and plan managers. Intermediate Indicators, Tracking intermediateas this document repeatedly stresses, change more rapidly in comparison indicators is critical inwith final indicators which change slowly over time. making midcourse cor-Therefore, tracking intermediate indicators is critical in making midcourse cor- rections while the planrections while the plan is underway. Not only is it more easy to collect infor- is underway.mation on intermediate indicators, they are also extremely useful in plancycle management, especially when they refer to key impact outcome deter-minants and/or when they vary across areas or groups overtime. This is es-pecially important to a plan such as AP’s which is built on disaggregatedpoverty analysis and spatial distribution modelling.In this context, it has to be observed that part of the consensual/participatory decisions required in the consolidation process is that of thelevel of disaggregation of indicators, which is as important as the choice ofindicators. In the case of AP’s plan, this has to be done bearing in mind thetwo track approach. Sub-projects within the plan to address acute povertypockets.The section on managing indicators has already discussed the use of aggre-gate State Level Indicators for gaining a bird’s eye view at the macro policylevel, and the need for progressive disaggregation of indicators at variouslevels of implementation of the plan.GETTING THE RIGHT PERSPECTIVE ON LOG FRAMESApart from the complexity of the processes outlined for translating strategiesand Action Plans into the Log Frame format, Missions and Departments alsohave to note the supplementary tasks required with a Log Frame approach.PSU-APRLP 45
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN VI. EVOLVING ACTION PLAN LOG FRAMES Log frame approach is not a hold all solution. It has its strengthen and limi- tations which need to be addressed. Log Frame Strengths • Facilitates good plan design • Addresses past weaknesses in plan designAnalysis of institutional • Easy tool to learn and usearrangements, re- • Missions, Departments, District Authorities can use it internally for designsource flow charts, and appraisal processes.and various overviewsand analysis are essen- • Can equally be used externally with consultants.tial for clarifying com- • Can anticipate plan implementation requirements across the plan time-ponents of the plan lineand achieving roleclarity among all • Provides a framework for plan evaluationstakeholders Log Frame Limitations • Log Frames are not a substitute for other technical, economic, social and environmental analysis. • Overemphasizing objectives and externalities specified during design can bring rigidity in plan management • Log Frame approach requires a team building and convergence process with good leadership at all levels, and focus on skill building. Against the background of the strengths and limitations of the log frame approach, there has to be a focus on preliminary activities before evolving log frames and also supplementary analysis, modelling and initia- tives. We have already mentioned the need for sectoral and departmen- tal policy matrices. Similarly, analysis of institutional arrangements, resource flow charts, and various overviews and analysis are essential for clarifying components of the plan and achieving role clarity among all stakeholders. Such analysis is also critical from the point of view that building capacity for implementing the plan is not viable without having achieved role clarity among lead actors, joint actors and other stakeholders.46 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN VI. EVOLVING ACTION PLAN LOG FRAMESThe following is an example of such an analysis in graphic form. Preparedby the PSU as background work on the present document, it presents the Ag-riculture and Livestock strategies which are part of the Water Missions Sec-toral Plans, and feed into the Poverty Eradication Action Plan of SPEM.Sample of graphic analysis required to supplement Log Frames Poverty Mission Water Mission Objectives Objectives Regeneration of CPR Reduction in Poverty More fodder availability Reduction in Increase in Rural Income NTFP Soil Erosion Better live- Soil Fertility More Water Increase in Rural income stock quality Manage- Availability ment Better use of Creation of better quality Creation of rural irrigation water rural employment infrastructure includ- ing marketing Surplus for processing and value addition Increase in Agricultural productivity and im- proved post harvest proc- Input suppliers essing Better Water Harvesting Capacity Building of user groups and autonomous scaling up Consortium Approach Strengthening user (for convergence) groups Watershed Research activities Institutions User Group Formation Line Crop diversification Awareness Creation towards less water Departments demanding crops Development agen- Social Mobilization cies Pro-Poor strategies in Agriculture and LivestockPSU-APRLP 47
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN VI. EVOLVING ACTION PLAN LOG FRAMES Example of Spatial analysis for the Two-Track D I S T R IB U T I O N O F M A N D A L S T O F E M A LE LIT E R A C Y R A T E S ( 1 9 9 1 - 2 0 0 1 ) 0-10 1991 Approach — Mahabubnagar – A high priority district 500 2001 90-100 400 10-20 300 200 80-90 20-30 100 The progress has been uneven across the state; there is 0 major variation across districts, with literacy rates ranging 70-80 30-40 from 29.6 to 71.52 per cent in 1991 and 45.53 to 79.04 60-70 40-50 in 2001. There is a correlation between poverty indices 50-60 DISTRIBUTION OF M A N D A LS TO TOTAL and illiteracy, as can be seen from the graphs. The dis- LIT E R A C Y R A T E S ( 1 9 9 1 - 2 0 0 1 ) 0-10 1991 tricts in the western part suffer both with poverty and low 90-100 500 400 10-20 2001 literacy. This has implications for social development and 300 200 80-90 20-30 the outcome of development interventions. 100 0 The Mahbubnagar district is an extreme case, with 70-80 30-40 a very low level of educational performance. For 60-70 40-50 example, the district has a high dropout rate when 50-60 compared to the rest of the State (the District is 59.5 as D ISTRIBUTION OF M A N D A LS TO M A LE LIT E R A C Y R A T E S ( 1 9 9 1 - 2 0 0 1 ) 1991 against 34.5 for the state). Further, the dropout rate is 0-10 500 2001 90-100 400 10-20 higher in the mandals located in the western and eastern 300 200 part of the district. Traditionally, these are dry areas with 80-90 100 20-30 0 high reliance on migration. Another factor that concerns us 70-80 30-40 is high variation in drop out rate of SC children (65.8 against 41.3 for the state), ST (80.8 as against 62.6 for 60-70 40-50 50-60 the state) and girls. Drop out rate is less in urban pockets and irrigated areas.48 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN VI. EVOLVING ACTION PLAN LOG FRAMESBASELINE ANALYSISPolicy matrices and the identification of goals have to have baseline studiesand analysis as their point of departure. The current context has to be under-stood and All-India and India best figures compared with AP’s figures. Theprocess also leads to benchmarking on various aspects of the plan, especiallyon goals and indicators. The following Tables present analysis in this directiondone by the PSU and also sourced from other studies. These are examples toguide preparatory work to log frames by Missions and Departments.Examples of comparative analysis of data: S.No Developmental Parameters India Pre- UMI Ref- AP Pre- Vision Remarks sent erence sent AP 2020 for India 2020 1 Poverty as % of population below poverty line 26.00 13.00 15.80 0.00 2 Income distribution (gini index 100 = equality) 37.80 48.50 3 Unemployment rate % 7.30 6.80 6.70 4 Male adult literacy rate (%) 68.00 96.00 71.40 100.00 5 Females adult literacy rate (%) 44.00 94.00 51.50 100.00 6 Net primary school enrolment ratio 77.20 99.90 90.30 100.00 7 Public expenditure on education as % GNP 3.20 4.90 1.80 8 Life expectancy at birth in years 64.00 69.00 64.00 70.60 9 Infant mortality rate per 1000 live births 71.00 22.50 66.00 10.00 10 Child malnutrition as % of children under 5 years based on weight Reduces to 45.00 8.00 37.70 minimum for age 11 Public expenditure on health as % GNP 0.80 3.40 1.00 12 Commercial energy consumption per capita (kg of oil equiv.) 486.00 2002.00 13 Electric power consumption per capita (kwh) 384.00 2460.00 281.40 14 Telephones per 1000 population 34.00 203.00 29.40 15 Personal computers per 1000 population 3.30 52.30 16 Scientists & engineers in R & D per million population 149.00 590.00 17 Sectoral Composition of GDP in % a. Agriculture 28.00 6.00 33.00 12.00 b. Industry 26.00 34.00 18.10 21.00 c. Services 46.00 60.00 49.00 67.00 18 International trade in goods as % of ppp GDP 3.60 35.00 All India 19 Foreign direct investment as % of gross capital formation 2.10 24.50 All India 20 Gross FDI as % of ppp GDP 0.10 3.50 All IndiaPSU-APRLP 49
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN VI. EVOLVING ACTION PLAN LOG FRAMESEvaluation of Baseline data vis-à-vis MDGs and targets (Maria Louisa Ferreira 2003) Select Targetand Indictors for AP: 2000 indi- Vision In- 10th 10th Vision World AP cator 2020 Goal Indicator cluded Plan Plan 2020 BDG MDG or in in 2007 2012 (2010) (2015) (2015) closest 2020 year Eradicate Under weight children under five Re- extreme years duce poverty and inci- hunger MDG 37.7 24.6 dence (Nutrition) of malnu- trition Consumption of iodised salt Vision 27.4 100% 2020 Reduce Under five mortality (per 1000 Child live births) MDG 85.5 26 30.3 20 Mortality Infant mortality (per 1000 lives MDG births) 66 45 28 20 23.3 10 Plan Proportion of 1 year old children immunized against measles (%) MDG 56 100 Improve Maternal Mortality Ratio (per MDG maternal 100,000 live births) 154 200 100 75 plan health Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel (%) MDG Vision 67.9 80 80 100 2020 Fertility Rate V 2020 2.25 1.15 Proportion of women getting pregnant under the age of 21 years V 2020 37.3 Proportion of women using ante- natal care V 2020 89.7 100 Space between births V 2020 3 Combat Contraceptive prevalence rate HIV/AIDS, malaria and MDG 0.6 other dis- eases Prevalence of death rates associ- ated with tuberculosis MDG 592 Proportion of TB cases detected and cured under DOTS MDG 0.4550 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN VI. EVOLVING ACTION PLAN LOG FRAMESFIRST STAGE SAMPLES OF LOG FRAMESThe Log Frame of the State Wide Poverty Eradication Action Plan will in-clude all the MDG’s, Tenth Five Year Plan targets and Vision 2020 Goals,and reflect various sectoral and departmental Action Plans in analyzingrisks, assumptions and concerns. The Log Frame also indicates cross-sectoraldependencies and external and internal factors. The following are exam-ples of the matrices used for the purpose. The Log Frame also indicates cross-sectoralThe sectoral and departmental Action Plans drawn up based on Vision dependencies and ex-2020 Goals now need to be integrated with the Log Frame of the Action ternal and internal fac-Plan of the State Poverty Eradication Mission. The following are first stage tors.examples of sectoral Log Frame/Policy Matrix structures and are intendedto only guide Missions and Departments in evolving full scale Action PlanLog Frames. Area Poverty and Equality From: MDG / IDG Goal Reduce extreme poverty by half by 2015 Halve proportion of people suffering from hunger by 2015 Final Outcome Indicators Intermediate Input-output Concerns indicators activities/ strategies 1. Poverty gap ratio Productive Well defined Need for 2. Proportion of population below $1 per asset owner- safety net strengthening day ship (land, programmes, area focused 3. Share of poorest quintile in national con- cattle and/ specific focus approach sumption or other on developing 4. Prevalence of underweight of under 5s physical disadvan- Weak link- 5. Proportion of population below minimum capital) taged groups ages with so- level dietary energy consumption cial capitalPSU-APRLP 51
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN VI. EVOLVING ACTION PLAN LOG FRAMES Area Education From: MDG / IDG Goal Universal Primary Education by 2015 Final Outcome Indica- Intermediate in- tors dicators Input-output activities/ strategies Concerns 1. Net en- 1. % children 5-9 1. Classification of children in five categories 1. Skewed rolment attending and developing strategies for each, availability ratio in school 2. Focus on female literacy, special pro- of schools pri- 2. % children ap- grammes to eradicate child labour, and teach- mary pearing for 3. Promotion of specific schemes for encourag- ers educa- class VII exam ing enrolment in schools, 2. Involvement tion 3. % Children 4. Focus on disadvantaged groups and loca- of commu- 2. Propor- qualifying in tion, nity through tion of VII exam 5. promotion strategies for full enrolment in school edu- pupils 4. Literacy rate primary education s cation com- com- of 15-35 6. Classification of children in different age/ mittees and pleting 5. Teacher to pu- class groups panchayat grade pil ratio 7. Focus on reduction in drop out and increase education 4 6. Adult average retention through education volunteers at committees (cohort) age of school- primary school level ing Area : Education From: MDG / IDG Final Outcome Indicators Intermediate indicators Input- Concerns output ac- tivities/ strategies1.Ratio of literate female to males 1.Girls reaching grade 52.Ratio of girls to boys in primary, (cohort) secondary & tertiary education 2.Girls school life expectancy3.Female illiteracy rate 3.Repetition rates (by level of4.Proportion of seats held by schooling and gender) women in national parliament 4.Female control over earnings52 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN VI. EVOLVING ACTION PLAN LOG FRAMES Area : Health Final Outcome Intermediate indicators Input-output activities/ strategies Concerns Indicators 1. Infant mortality 1. Immunization of children 1. Fixed day clinics at village by 1.Drop out of rate (%) (measles, DPT3, all, ANM measles 2. Under 5 mor- none) 2. Janani team (sarpanch, youth 2.Community tality rate 2. Vitamin A supplementa- rep, mother, anganwadi worker ownership of 3. Life expec- tion for children 3. Fixed dates throughout the coun- Janani com- tancy at birth 3. Treatment of diarrhoea try - National campaign mittee 4. Low birth- in children (%) 4. Communication for home-based 3.Strong supply weight babies 4. Treatment of ARI in care and improving knowledge side (% of births) children (%) on new born care. 4.High NNMR 5. Children un- 5. Universalisation of PHC 5. Home available fluid, ORS rate derweight (%) care 6. Communication on early detec- 5.Plateauing of 6. Prevalence of 6. Increasing Institutional tion & treatment (ANM/MO) & IMR anaemia delivery / skilled birth management of sick newborns. 6.Low accep- 7. Children with- attendant 7. AP: Round the clock (RTCPHC); tance among out respiratory 7. Ensure 3 post natal visits Extra support to keep RTCPHC community infection (%) within 1st week after open 7.Training of 8. Children delivery 8. Provision for gyn/ped services ANM on safe stunted (%) 8. Reduction in incidence once a week delivery, new of low birth weight ba- born care bies and prompt referral. 9. Elimination of death due to natal tetanus.PSU-APRLP 53
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN VI. EVOLVING ACTION PLAN LOG FRAMES Goal : Improving Child Health Final Inter- Input-output activi- Concerns Out- mediat ties/ strategies come e indi- Indica- cators tors 1. Reduction in the in- 1. Home management of diarrhoea and ARI cidence of diar- 2. Improve mothers knowledge on when to seek rhoeal deaths by referral of sick children 75% & episodes of 3. Ensure availability of ORS Improve skills of diarrhoea by 50% ANM in identifying signs of dehydration and 2. Reduction in acute pneumonia and prompt referral E respiratory infec- 4. Early case detection and promote treatment tion death by 75% of malaria 3. Universal immuni- 5. Posting of pediatrician at sub-district level zation of children (CHCs / Area Hospitals) Eradication of po- 6. Promote personal hygiene (hand washing) lio (by 2005) among household members, promote birth 4. Elimination of mea- spacing sles deaths 7. Immunization 5. Reduce incidence 8. Nutrition of malaria among children • Tribal and Backward areas: Networking with NGOs working in these areas and continued training of the community health workers in tribal areas with special focus on malaria, epidemic management and safe delivery • Strengthen the MIS through computerization of data • Download MPHS data and cleanse it for use by ANMs • Generate output using personal digital assistant with ANMs or computer at PHCs • Systems study & development of software for computerization of PHCs, DM&HO offices, Com- missioner of Family Welfare & DH office • Strengthen the functioning of community advisory boards / community based structure to par- ticipate in planning processes and monitor services provided • Mobilize community based groups for various IEC activities including government incentives available • Strengthen SHG to create corpus funds for emergency situations54 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN VI. EVOLVING ACTION PLAN LOG FRAMESArea : Health From MDGGoal : Reduce maternal mortality ratio by 3/4th by 2015 Final Out- Intermediate come Indica- Input-output activities/ strategies Concerns indicators tors 1. Maternal 1. I n s t i t u - 1. Strong policy; analysis of infra- 1. Mobility in time of mortality tional de- structure availability key to urgency; ratio livery achieve; financial support pro- 2. Analysis of access 2. Proportion 2. F a m i l y vided through formal policy and mandal- wise; of births planning budget support 3. Focus on low access attended operations 2. 3 years gap between birth, mandals; by skilled 3. Spacing strong awareness campaigns ac- 4. Availability of SHGs health 4. Use of cess to multiple methods of con- in focus area; special personnel modern traceptives, strong monitoring monitoring in focus contracep- 3. Increase age of marriage from area tives (%) 18 -21 years, workshops for 5. Very strong data- 5. Age at adolescent girls, mothers, sar- base analysis and to birth of panches. be upgraded very first child 4. Focus on role of ANMs is critical regularly 6. % o f link; Para workers in critical 6. Availability of Gy- women re- (tribal and backward) areas. naecologist ceiving 5. National maternity benefit 7. Critical linkage with Compre- scheme ICDS hensive an- 6. 3 visits to institutional checkups 8. Increase institutional tenatal which includes nutritional coun- deliveries Skilled at- care seling tendance at birth for 7. Nutrition 7. IEC through community advisory all domiciliary deliv- boards or other community eries based structures on birth pre- 9. Increase in accessibil- paredness and complication ity to quality services readiness for medical termina- tion of pregnancies (including strict im- plem e n t a t i o n of PNDT Act) and for treatment of RTI/STI and prevention of HIV/AIDS.PSU-APRLP 55
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN VI. EVOLVING ACTION PLAN LOG FRAMESArea : Environmental Sustainability From MDGGoal : Integrate principles of sustainable development into country policies and program andreverse the loss of environmental resources1. Change in land area cov- 1. Strong policy for conservation and protection of ered by forest forest areas. Joint forest management with com-2. Land area protected to munity participation and saturation of fringe ar- maintain biological diver- eas. sity 2. A 10 year action plan to saturate waste lands3. GDP per under of energy including forest lands. use 3. Rural electricity coverage to 100% habitations.4. Carbon dioxide emissions 4. Minimum assured electricity supply for agricul- per capita ture purpose. 5. LPG assurance to women SHGs in rural and urban areasArea : Environmental Sustainability From MDGGoal : Halve proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water by 2015 Inter- medi Con- Final Outcome Indicators ate Input-output activities/ strategies cerns indi- cators1. Proportion of population 1. Water Users Association and Participatory with sustainable access to Hydrological Management of irrigation an improved water source sources. 2. Water Mission to facilitate assured Drinking Water to communities. 3. Water and sanitation cover to be demand driven as community owned and maintained.Goal : A significant improvement in lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers1. Proportion of population 1. Rural Sanitation is given priority in Janmab- with access to improved hoomi and individuals as members of SHGs are sanitation being covered in the proposal.2. Proportion of population with access to secure ten- ure (urban/rural disaggre- gation56 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN VI. EVOLVING ACTION PLAN LOG FRAMESArea : Macro economic stability From MDG Interme- Final Outcome Indi- diate in- Input-output activities/ strategies Concerns cators dicators 1.Unemployment rate 3. U n e m - Increase availability of skilled man- Linkages & conver- of 15-24 years ployment power by gence among depts. 2.Per capita economic 4. Inflation 1. Establishing more technical insti- and Missions growth rate 5. Exchange tutions 1.Common platform rate fluc- 2. Enhancing capacity of existing for focused interac- tuation institutes tions 6. F i s c a l 3. Promotion of TTDC as a nodal 2.C o m b i n e d / deficit agency to integrate all trginings integrated data (through networking), collection/ 4. Promotion of cluster develop- association ment approach 3.Taking SHG to 5. Focus on identified growth en- higher level of em- gines ployment, Promo- tion/strengthening 6. creating employment genera- of micro-markets tion opportunities for SHG (6) Promotion of special corpora- 4.Effective /fast tions to focus on specified target credit support groupsArea : Security From: IDG 1.Food consumption 1.U n e m - • variability ployment 2.Income variability rate 3.Malnutrition preva- 2.Variabil- lence ity in 4.Death rates due to produc- violence tion of chief sta- ple sPSU-APRLP 57
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN VI. EVOLVING ACTION PLAN LOG FRAMES INDICATORS FOR PRO POOR STRATEGIES IN AGRICULTURE AND LIVESTOCK Objectives Intermediate outputs Indicators Final Out- puts Increased Increased number of multi Active exchange of information be- Increased synergy in disciplinary networks, tween the stakeholders in work- synergy in the the activities comprising line depart- shops and through sharing data- activities of of the differ- ments, development bases and reports different ent stake- agencies, research insti- Increased influence of Small and stakeholders holders of tutes, development pro- Marginal farmer groups, NGOs on of Rural De- Rural Devel- jects etc addressing spe- the agenda of research institutions velopment opment in cific issues of farming sys- where in the Increased participation of farmers’ Andhra tem through to Consor- stake holders organizations in testing out promis- Pradesh. tium approach complement ing technologies Increased number of each others Records of annual water budgets of farming system pro- works user departments planned every grammes where NGOs, All activities year farmer groups and Gov- and strate- Communications of NGOs actively ernment closely cooper- gies and co- involved in providing support to the ate and complement ordination ef- Govt in preparing water budget at each other’s roles forts are fi- the local level All seven Water User De- nally linked Cropping pattern recommended is to overriding partments develop effec- appropriate to the water budget policies and tive coordination mecha- which is unique to each watershed guidelines nisms in order to effi- ciently utilize available Annual water audit at the water- water shed level done The respective depart- 30% increase in employment gen- ments of growth engines erated by investing in growth iden- devise strategies in order tified growth engines. to exploit the compara- All the stakeholders are aware of tive advantage and in- the pros and cons of a globalized crease rural employment economy and its impact on rural potential communities especially the poorer sections Indicators, which have been given above, are primarily the process indicators, which help in monitoring the processes that goes in attaining the objectives.58 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN VI. EVOLVING ACTION PLAN LOG FRAMES Objectives • Intermediate outputs • Indicators Final Outputs Increased • Increased integration of agriculture • Fodder cultivation • Farmers, Farmer availability and livestock programmes taken up in at least Groups are of technol- • Healthier and better quality of live- ___ No. of farms as a aware of the dif- ogy and in- stock maintained at the village level part of the initiative to ferent technolo- puts and as- by farmers increase farm diversity gies of farming sets for inte- • Emphasis on Participatory Technol- and fodder availabil- systems and are grated ogy Development (PTD) by research ity use it depending farming institutions for location specific re- • Better quality fodder upon their spe- systems search on farming systems through that can withstand cific needs the consortium approach wider variation in cli- • Increased diver- • Emphasis on crop diversification to- matic conditions have sity in farm enter- wards less water demanding crops been introduced and prises integrating like millets along with cereals are being cultivated crop and live- • Increase in soil fertility in marginal by farmers stock. lands through increase in pulse culti- • Fodder requirement on • Large area of vation and biological nitrogen fixa- a watershed basis is CPR regenerated tion assessed and is known and the outputs • Emphasis on regeneration and con- to all the stakeholders of these CPR are servation of Common Property Re- in the watershed for being used sus- sources (CPR) as a necessary base making fodder plans tainbly by the for livestock and farming systems • Agricultural residues farmers development are effectively recy- • Fertility status of • Water conservation measures with cled for fodder pur- the farms in- more emphasis on reducing erosion pose through enriching creased due to primarily through increase in ground them through low cost higher level of cover by flora as well as low cost silage preparation organic matter local structures constructed by the • ___% increase in the availability local communities with community area and ___% in- • Reduction in loss knowledge crease in production of of food grains • Reduction in erosion of soil due to millets and pulses and due to improved watershed management and in- similar less water de- and low cost crease in natural regeneration manding crops grain storage • Rural assets in the form of increased • Milk and other dairy methods adopted better quality cattle, and small rumi- production increased nants and poultry become a part of by____% and thereby the farming system enhancing the income of the rural communityPSU-APRLP 59
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN VI. EVOLVING ACTION PLAN LOG FRAMES Objectives Intermediate outputs Indicators Final OutputsIncreased The records of technologies tested Farmer groups, NGOs and Gender andavailability and adapted in the PTD process Government departments use Social meth-of social address social and process as- include social methods in their ods main-methods in pects of PTD such as gender divi- planning streaming inorganizing sion of labour, and gender spe- all agricul-platforms at cific perceptions about technolo- Equitable decision making, ac- ture andwatershed gies available cess and control of resources w atershedlevel, includ- by men and women plansing gender Availability of descriptions of so- cial approaches promoted in agri- culture, available in hand books or field manuals of NGOs and Governments departments Application of these methods by NGOs and departments autono- mouslyReduction in Reduction in the use of chemical __% Increase in farmers in- Enhancedexternal pesticides and fertilizers and in- come due to reduction in costs farm incomechemical in- creasing substitution by natural leading toputs at the fertilizers resulting in enhanced Increase in biodiversity by __ reduction infarm level soil fertility and increased organic % due to reduction in pesticide povertythereby re- matter usageducing the Improvedcost of culti- Reduction in the use of pesticide Enhanced bio diversity due to Rural andvation as resulting in improved ecological regeneration and conservation Agro eco-well as in- balance in agro eco systems of CPR by rural communities logical con-creasing ditionsprofitability ___ No. of people facilitated in CPR regeneration Farmers apply __% more or-60 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN VI. EVOLVING ACTION PLAN LOG FRAMES Objectives Intermediate Indicators Final Outputs outputs Empower- Social coher- Collective decision making on input pur- Small and mar- ment of ence is chase, pest and disease management and ginal farmers women and strengthened marketing and especially small and among rural women are able marginal communities Women are empowered by increasing to contribute sig- farmers among men their knowledge and hence more self re- nificantly and through so- and women spect and respected by others because of confidently to im- cial learn- their capacity to effectively contribute to provement of ing proc- Social reali- farming systems farming systems esses zation of and thereby im- women as Mobility of women increased and they visit proving their own equal role agricultural knowledge centres, training livelihood and as part- centres and regional farmer meetings ners in agri- culture devel- Women are able to pursue a more eco opment friendly approach to agriculture in spite of pressure of pesticide dealers and husbands to go back to chemical farming Women gain more confidence in their own capacity to improve agriculturePSU-APRLP 61
    • 62 PSU-APRLP
    • THE WAY FORWARDWhile it is true that various departments and Commissionerates with a stakein the State’s Poverty Eradication Action Plan have clearly stated strategypapers and action plans, there is need to integrate these into a StatewidePoverty Eradication Action Plan to be led by the SPEM. Further, cross-sectoralprocesses for synergised planning, optimising resource use and synchroniza-tion of activities too will have to be coordinated. There is also the need to Missions and Depart-evolve a ‘final’ Action Plan, which incorporates sectoral Policy matrices and ments need to bring toreflects the models, tools and methodologies recommended in this draft docu- the Public domainment. their long term plan For this to happen, missions and Departments need to bring to the (2020) with interimpublic domain their long term plan (2020) with interim targets (Five year targets (Five year planplan targets and 2015 MDG targets). Putting these plans, with interim indi- targets and 2015cators, into a Log Frame format is essential. MDG targets) Departmental and Mission Action Plans will have to be discussed atthe districts level and also at representative community levels. Mandal, dis-trict and State level workshops involving civil society, and partner/ resourceorganisations, academics, advocacy and policy groups etc., are required tofinalize sectoral and Departmental Action Plans. In the process final sets ofindicators can be adopted.The ‘Final’ Action Plan Log Frames of Missions and Departments will:• Be integrated with the Action Plan log frame of SPEM.• Provide the basis for State level annual review and ‘next year plan’ process.• Provide the basis for decentralized planning and review as per the model recommended in the present document.• Provide the framework for the Poverty Monitoring and Social Analysis Unit (PSAMU) to carryout its mandated responsibilities.PSU-APRLP 63
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN VII. THE WAY FORWARD The Advantage of log frame approach to planning The Logical Frame work exercise to be undertaken by all Missions, Depart- ments and Commissionerates with stakes in the State’s Poverty Eradication Action Plan, facilitates a very dynamic process in monitoring of goals and outcomes. The Intermediate Output Indicators linked to target- driven activi- ties play a crucial role in Annual Reviews, enabling planners to zero down onThe Intermediate Out- the factors that enabled planned outcomes and outputs, and those that pre-put Indicators linked to vented them being realized.targets driven activi- The next year’s perspective plan could be much more localized andties play a crucial role ‘debugged’ as a result of the above process. The Log Frame approach,in Annual Reviews therefore enables a high order of detailing and spatio-temporal specificity,enabling planners to without losing sight of the long-term goals. In this process, it has to be kept inzero down on the fac- mind that final indicators involve several factors and complexities which aretors that enabled beyond the control of policy makers and plan implementers. Similarly, Inter-planned outcomes and mediate Indicators cannot be frozen, since they will change through the very implementation of the Action Plan. Draft Document: OVERVIEW OF THE WAY FORWARD “Consolidating AP’s Pov- erty Reduction Action Plan” Conversion of Action Plans of New Methodologies, other Missions and Depart- Tools, Processes etc. ments into Log Frame format Draft Action Plan Log Participatory Process, Frame of SPEM Public Discussions Consolidate Intermediate (input-output) Indicators Link to Vision Consolidate Intermediate and Final (outcome- 2020, MDG (input-output) Indicators and impact) Indicators 2015 10th Five Final (outcome) Indicators for Year Plan Sectoral Action Plans ‘Final’ Action Plan Log PSAMU Frame of SPEM ‘Final’ Sectoral Ac- ActionPlans of tionPlans (ActionPlan Depts., Commission- Log Frames of Mis- erates in Final sions) Log Frame form64 PSU-APRLP
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN VII. THE WAY FORWARD A central feature of the Monitoring and Im- pact Assessment Sys- tem and the Annual Review and Next Year Planning process is the recognition of the apex role of the State Poverty Eradica-MONITORING AND REVIEW tion Mission in leadingThe Monitoring and Review mechanism of the Poverty Reduction strategy of the Poverty Eradica-AP has already taken shape during the past four to five years. In adopting tion Action Plan.a log frame approach to the Action Plan, it will also be possible to incorpo-rate a Plan Monitoring and Impact Assessment System (PMIAS). The PMIASmethod will facilitate both convergence at the community level and the man-agement of challenges of a complex system at the State Level. The Mission mode, in such a situation, facilitates inputs of the stake-holders and various departments falling within the purview of each sector,and also the managing of externalities to achieve optimum results. A central feature of the Monitoring and Impact Assessment Systemand the Annual Review and Next Year Planning process is the recognition ofthe apex role of the State Poverty Eradication Mission in leading the PovertyEradication Action Plan. In this role, it will also have a coordination role; inthe review of the annual plan performance of other Missions and Depart-ments to the extent of their relevance and impact on the Poverty EradicationAction Plan Log Frame. SPEM will be supported in this process by PSAMU inits mandated role and the PSU-APRLP as a Resource Agency.PSU-APRLP 65
    • POVERTY ERADICATION ACTION PLAN VII. THE WAY FORWARD66 PSU-APRLP
    • Abbreviations AP Andhra Pradesh APRLP Andhra Pradesh Rural Livelihoods Programme AP-RPRP Andhra Pradesh Rural Poverty Reduction Project APSRAC Andhra Pradesh State Remote Sensing Applications Centre APUSP Andhra Pradesh Urban Services for the Poor BPL Below Poverty Line BPR Business Process Reengineering CM Chief Minister CPR Common Property Resources DFID Department For International Development DPAP Drought Prone Area Programme DPIP District Poverty Initiative Project GDP Gross Domestic Product GIS Geographical Information System GoAP Government of Andhra Pradesh GoI Government of India ICDS Integrated Child Development Services ICM Institutional Change Management ICT Information and Communication Technology IDG International Development Goals IEC Information, Education and Communications IG Intermediate Goals IT Information Technology M&E Monitoring & Evaluation MDG Millennium Development Goals MIS Management Information System MPHS Multi - Purpose Household SurveyPSU-APRLP 67
    • NGO Non-Government Organisation NRM Natural Resource Management PCM Project Cycle Management PDS Public Distribution System PEAP Poverty Eradication Action Plan PHC Primary Health Centers PHM Participatory Hydrological Management PIP Participatory Identification of Poor PLA Participatory Learning and Action PMIAS Plan Monitoring and Impact Assessment System PPA Participatory Poverty Appraisal PPMIA Participatory Plan Monitoring and Impact Assessment PSAMU Poverty and Social Analysis and Monitoring Unit PSU Programme Support Unit PTD Participatory Technology Development RD Rural Development SC Scheduled Caste ST Scheduled Tribe SERP Society for Elimination of Rural Poverty SGE Selected Growth Engines SHG Self Help Group SIP Slum Improvement Programmes SPEM State Poverty Eradication Mission SWPRAP State Wide Poverty Reduction Action Plan UAE Universalisation of Adult Education UEE Universalisation of Elementary Education UG User Group68 PSU-APRLP