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Iwrm sai Iwrm sai Document Transcript

  • Integrated Water Resources ManagementWater Resources Management is the integrating concept for a number of water sub-sectors such as hydropower, water supply and sanitation, irrigation and drainage, and environment. An integrated water resources perspective ensures that social, economic, environmental and technical dimensions are taken into account in the management and development of water resources. In September 2000, the United Nations adopted the Millennium Declaration. 191 UN member states pledged to meet global proverty reduction targets, the so-called Millennium Development Goals by 2015. In environment, they committed themselves to halve the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water.Needed are greater efficiency in the use of water and fair allocation to balance the limited supply with rising demand, as well as improved sanitation services and good hygiene practices.<br />Water is a vital resource for human survival and economic development; as populations and economies grow, water demand increases while the availability of the resource remains constant. Shortages engender water use conflicts, both in terms of quantity and quality. There is considerable variation across countries in laws and institutions related to water, and planning and project implementation ability is not uniform. Therefore the Eighth General Increase in the Financial Resources of the Bank calls for guidelines that are flexible enough to be tailored to different situations involving institutions, legal instruments, and the technical means to achieve an integrated approach to planning that considers all sources and uses of water in a given basin. <br />One consideration is the identification and preparation of water resources project investments (potable water supply, sewerage, wastewater treatment, irrigation, etc.) that are efficient (net benefit maximizing) or at least cost effective (cost minimizing), and that consider non-monetized impacts under a multiple objective framework. Better use and quality of water resources might also be obtained through reduction of water system losses, optimal water pricing or marketing policies, privatization, decentralization, effluent discharge regulation, water quality monitoring and enforcement, soil and water conservation programs, non-point source pollution control, and water and soil conservation measures.<br />Integrated Water Resources Management Activity List     IWRM ACTIVITY BASIC APPROACH COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH 1. Establish regional & catchment goals Short-term needs considering long-term factors Long-term needs considering short-term impacts 2. Comprehensive information base Obtain existing information and experience Combined available information with new data reflecting management needs 3. Projecting future conditions Predictions based on recent experience and goals Develop alternative scenarios reflecting alternative goals and investments 4. Governance Accept existing but review concepts that assist in new goals Analyze alternative concepts and opportunities for change 5. Strategy development Design activities consistent with multiple existing goals Consider alternative strategies and their relative value in achieving multiple objectives 6. Environmental integration Considered sustainability of projects in the context of present and likely policies on sustainability Develop integrated programs that optimally achieve multiple objectives to assure asset and environmental sustainability 7. Operating practices Assure coordination of present and proposed activities Create new efficient operating practices to optimize public service 8. Strengthen local capacity to implement IWRM Optimize existing capacities to support IWRM goals Carry out diagnosis of capacity gaps and prioritize actions to strengthen those capacities considered to be strategic for improving sustainability of IWRM. Source: Industry Sector Report for WSSD prepared by IWA <br />Cap-Net the program <br />Cap-Net is an international network for capacity building in IWRM. It is made up of a partnership of autonomous international, regional and national institutions and networks committed to capacity building in the water sector. Networks have proven to be effective at promoting the understanding of integrated water resources management and will play a key role in supporting the development of IWRM and water efficiency plans by 2005, a committment of all countries<br />WWF<br />WWF believes that these two goals are not opposed, that social and development goals are not in conflict with biodiversity conservation. Instead, Integrated Water Resource Management can contribute to poverty reduction and sustainable development. WWF's framework for achieving these goals includes tools of its Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM), an approach that conserves rivers from source to sea.<br />WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME <br />The total geographical area of our country is 329 million hectares. While at one end 50% of our lands are degraded, at the other, nearly 40% of our people are poor or below poverty line. With proper planning, scientific approach and efficient management it is possible to increase the productivity of the degraded lands, while creating huge employment opportunities for the poor. It is now firmly believed that the development of degraded lands is an important input required for eradication of poverty.<br />Andhra Pradesh is the fifth largest state of India, both in terms of area and population. The state is situated between 120 37’ and 190 54’ North Latitude and 760 46’ and 840 46’ East Longitude. The state has an area of 274.85 lakh ha. It has tropical to sub-tropical climate. The coastal area covers a length of 972 KMs and therefore, it has humid and semi-humid conditions. The maximum and minimum mean temperatures are 38.950 C and 15.650 C respectively. <br />WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT - INITIAL STAGES <br />In order to combat the frequent recurrence of drought in the state, Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP) was introduced during the year 1975, as a Centrally Sponsored Scheme (CSS) with matching state share of 50:50. Integrated Wasteland Development Programme (IWDP) was introduced during 1991 with 100% central assistance. The wasteland development programmes taken up before April 1995 had not performed well, mainly because they had been planned and implemented on departmental basis by government officials and in isolated patches, without any regard for the complete micro-watershed principle or with people’s participation. <br />The programmes of dry land development in Andhra Pradesh have undergone a major change from 1995-96 with the introduction of new watershed guidelines, based on the recommendations of Dr. Hanumantha Rao’s Committee Report. The main principle adopted in the guidelines lays special emphasis on the active mobilization and participation of the stakeholders in the programme including planning, implementation and subsequent management.  <br />WATERSHED DEVELOPMENT – A GREAT OPPORTUNITY <br />A great opportunity exists for improving the productivity, profitability and sustainability of dry farming areas through social mobilization. Rainfed agriculture to become productive, should be based on watershed as the unit of development. Watershed is not a technology but a concept, which integrates conservation, management and budgeting of rainwater through simple but discreet hydrological units. Simultaneously, a watershed supports a holistic framework which means the combined application of technologies on soil and water conservation with improved crop varieties, farming systems and agronomic management, taking into account both arable and non-farm land. Water resource development, management, harvesting and equity in sharing, form the nucleus of watershed development. With assured availability of water, farmers are motivated to accept more profitable, sustainable and innovative farming systems. Water availability has also catalyzed the adoption and spread of value-added activities in the entire area of the watershed, such as horticulture. Cropping systems need to be tailored to suit different rainfall-cum-soil zones. Watershed development is the only solution to ensure drought proofing and to mitigate the distress caused by frequent droughts. <br />ACTION PLAN <br />A massive programme for development of all the degraded lands in Andhra Pradesh in ten year-period was launched during 1997. The Ten Year Action Plan for development includes wastelands, degraded lands (i.e. dry lands which are being cultivated under rain-fed conditions) and degraded reserve forests. It is envisaged to develop 10 million hectares of degraded and wastelands, with an outlay of about about US $ 888.89 million(*Rs.4000.00 crores) from 1997 to 2007 at the rate of 1 million hectares every year. About 3.36 million hectares have been covered through 9216 watersheds, which is the largest number in the whole country.   <br />YEAR-WISE WATERSHEDS UNDER IMPLEMENTATION  <br />IN ANDHRA PRADESH FROM 1995-96 ONWARDS  <br />Sl. No. Year Total Watersheds Area in million Ha. 1 1995-96 1297 0.649 2 1996-97 426 0.213 3 1997-98 851 0.425 4 1998-99 1594 0.797 5 1999-2000 783 0.392 6 2000-2001 523 0.261 7 2001-2002 (upto August 2002) 3742 0.623   TOTAL 9216 3.36 <br /> Prior to 1994 a total area of 1.94 million ha. has been treated by Department of Agriculture. The Department of Rural Development has taken up 3.36 million ha. for treatment from 1995 onwards. <br />EVALUATION OF WATERSHEDS <br />Evaluation studies are taken up in the watersheds on quarterly basis. Andhra Pradesh State Remote Sensing Application Centre (APSRAC) is using satellite application and the satellite imageries are used for evaluation. Required database is made available for monitoring and mid term evaluation. ARC view software is being used for effective monitoring and evaluation. <br />THE ANDHRA PRADESH IRRIGATION REFORM POLICY FOR PIM<br />The Andhra Pradesh irrigation reform policy seeks to address all three dimensions of irrigation management as a form of water control. The major focus is the organizational component: the establishment of Water Users Associations (WUAs) and Distributary Committees (DCs), and finally even Project Committees, fully controlled by water users.This organisational intervention is accompanied by a technical intervention and a sociopolitical change. The rehabilitation of the physical infrastructure is the technical intervention. The formulation of a new law that defines the powers delegated to the new institutions, and the overall procedures and conditions within which they can operate, is the most important element of the change of the socio-political environment. This can thus be called a comprehensive approach, though we will comment later on how well the three dimensions of the reform policy fit together.7 The specific characteristics of the Andhra Pradesh approach to irrigation reform have been discussed in detail in several publications (see for example Oblitas and Peter, 1999; Raju, 1999) and I will only highlight some of the main elements as they exist on the ground.8 In 1997 the Andhra Pradesh State Legislature adopted the Andhra Pradesh Farmers Management of Irrigation Systems Act.9 In the same year the water rates were increased by a factor three, and State-wide elections were held for the establishment of WUAs (June) and DCs (November).10 WUAs are based on hydraulic units and composed of Territorial Constituences (TCs), each having one representative on the WUA Managing Committee. Each WUA has a president, elected by the TC members from among them in case of `unanimous’ nomination.11 Clusters of around 9 WUAs form a DC. The WUA presidents form the DC Managing Committee and they choose a DC president among them. So far, Project Committees have not been formed. The WUAs and DCs have legal personality, and their own bank account. In the first years after implementation of the Act, the State government has given a fixed amount per acre for maintenance and rehabilitation work on the canal infrastructure, directly to the bank accounts of WUAs and DCs.12 The first year this was mainly used for canal clearing and desilting, the second year for repairs of structures. The WUAs and DCs can prioritise <br />