Climate Change Rainwater harvesting

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Presentation made to the school teachers from different states in India

Presentation made to the school teachers from different states in India

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  • What are the dependencies that affect the timeline, cost, and output of this project?

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  • 1. Rain Water Harvesting
    12.9.2011
    Dr. N. Sai Bhaskar Reddy
    CEO, GEO
    http://e-geo.org
    Centre for Cultural Resources Training
    (Ministry of Culture, Govt. of India), Hyderabad
  • 2.
  • 3. Climate Changes in India
    • Increase in surface temperature by 0.4 degree C over the past century.
    • 4. Warming trend along the west coast, in central India, the interior peninsula, and northeastern India.
    • 5. Cooling trend in northwest India and parts of South India.
    • 6. Regional monsoon variations: increased monsoon seasonal rainfall along the west coast, northern Andhra Pradesh and North-western India, decreased monsoon seasonal rainfall over eastern Madhya Pradesh, North-eastern India, and parts of Gujarat and Kerala.
    3
  • 7. Climate Changes in India
    • Observed trends of multi-decadal periods of more frequent droughts, followed by less severe droughts.
    • 8. Studies have shown a rising trend in the frequency of heavy rain events and decrease in frequency of moderate events over central India from 1951 to 2000.
    • 9. Records of coastal tide gauges in the north Indian ocean for the last 40 years has revealed an estimated sea level rise between 1.06-1.75 mm per year.
    • 10. The available monitoring data on Himalayan glaciers indicates recession of some glaciers.
    4
  • 11. Per-capita Carbon –dioxide emission (Metric Tons)
  • 12.
  • 13.
  • 14. WASTED WATER
    The Barefoot College, Tilonia
  • 15. STRUGGLE FOR WATER
    The Barefoot College, Tilonia
  • 16. POLLUTED WATER
    The Barefoot College, Tilonia
  • 17. The Barefoot College, Tilonia
  • 18. Roof top rainwater harvesting
    At AVANI, Berinag, Uttarakhand
  • 19. RECHARGE WELLS
    While it would normally take between 20-30 years for water to percolate 100 feet from an open tank, it has been noticed in an open well 300,000 litres can percolate to the same depth within a week.
    The Barefoot College, Tilonia
  • 20. Every drop counts
  • 21. INDIA’S LAND RESOURCE, IRRIGATION AND FOOD PRODUCTION
    • India has 2% of world’s land, 4% of freshwater, 16% of population, and 10% of its cattle.
    • 22. Geographical area = 329 Mha of which 47% (142 Mha) is cultivated, 23% forested, 7% under non-agri use, 23% waste.
    • 23. Per capita availability of land 50 years ago was 0.9 ha, could be only 0. 14 ha in 2050.
    uk-energy-saving.com
  • 24. Out of cultivated area, 37% is irrigated which produces 55% food; 63% is rain-fed producing 45% of 200 M t of food.
    In 50 years (ultimate), proportion could be 50:50 producing 75:25 of 500 M t of required food.
  • 25. Freshwater management in India
    Anupma Sharma
  • 26. What Is Rainwater Harvesting?
    RWH technology consists of simple systems to collect, convey, and store rainwater. Rainwater capture is accomplished primarily from roof-top, surface runoff, and other surfaces.
    RWH either captures stored rainwater for direct use (irrigation, production, washing, drinking water, etc.) or is recharged into the local ground water and is call artificial recharge.
    In many cases, RWH systems are used in conjunction with Aquifer Storage and Recovery (ASR). ASR is the introduction of RWH collected rainwater to the groundwater / aquifer through various structures in excess of what would naturally infiltrate then recovered for use
  • 27. Why Rainwater Harvesting?
    Conserve and supplement existing water resources
    Available for capture and storage in most global locations
    Potentially provide improved quality of water
    Supply water at one of the lowest costs possible for a supplemental supply source.
    Capturing and directing storm water (run-off) and beneficially use it
    Commitment as a corporate citizen - showcasing environmental concerns
    Public Mandate (India)
    Replenishing local ground water aquifers where lowering of water tables has occured
  • 28. Why Not RWH?
    Not applicable in all climate conditions over the world
    Performance seriously affected by climate fluctuations that sometimes are hard to predict
    Increasingly sophisticated RWH systems (ASR) necessarily increases complexities in cost, design, operation, maintenance, size and regulatory permitting
    Collected rainwater can be degraded with the inclusion of storm water runoff
    Collected water quality might be affected by external factors
    Collection systems require monitoring and continuous maintenance and improvement to maintain desired water quality characteristics for water end-use
    Certain areas will have high initial capital cost
  • 29. Condensation
    Let’s take a look at
    The Water Cycle
    Precipitation
    Evapotranspiration
    Evaporation
    Infiltration
    Surface Runoff
    Surface Water
    Consumption
    Groundwater
    .ppt (21)
    Sea water intrusion
  • 30. Design and Feasibility Criteria
  • 31. Collection Area and Characteristics
    Measure Area
    Runoff Characteristics
    Roof top 0.75 – 0.95
    Paved area 0.50 – 0.85
    Bare ground 0.10 – 0.20
    “Green area” 0.05 – 0.10
    Water harvesting potential(m3) = Area (m2) X Rainfall (m) X Collection Efficiency
  • 32. Quality Issues
    Roofs contain: bird droppings, atmospheric dust, industrial and urban air pollution
  • 33. Operational Procedures and Design Considerations
  • 34. GEO WATER FILTER
    SAND
    CHARCOAL
    GRAVEL AND SAND
    THREE 15 LITER TIN CANS, SAND, GRAVEL , TAP AND PVC PIPE
  • 35. Operational Procedures and Design Considerations
  • 36. Storage
    Ponds and Reservoirs
    Artificial recharge of Groundwater
    Water Tanks
    Rainwater runoff in surface water
    Rainwater runoff in groundwater
    Rainwater runoff in tanks
    Effluent in surface water
    Effluent in ground water
    Every drop counts
  • 37. Every drop counts
  • 38. Every drop counts
  • 39.
  • 40. Every drop counts
  • 41. Jnnurm – URBAN RAIN WATER HARVESTING
  • 42. Means of water conservation
  • 43. Water Conservation…
    Every drop counts!!!
    Prof. T. I. Eldho ,
  • 44. Water Conservation
    Water conservation interventions includes contour trenches, gully plugging, vegetative and field bunding, percolation tanks.
    Overall land treatment against potential area is varying between 40-60%.
    Type of land ownership for soil and water conservation measures
    Techniques of soil and water conservation measures
    Prof. T. I. Eldho ,
  • 45.
  • 46. THANK YOU