Personal development planning, portfolios, e-portfolios,  assessment and reflective learning George Roberts Oxford Centre ...
<ul><li>3 Computers </li></ul><ul><li>4 Careers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chef </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community education ...
Personal development planning, portfolios, e-portfolios, assessment and reflective learning <ul><li>Aims </li></ul><ul><li...
Introductions <ul><li>Name </li></ul><ul><li>Role </li></ul><ul><li>One thing to do with IT in education in Cornwall that ...
Stance <ul><li>What have we done? </li></ul><ul><li>Channel </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Topic </li></...
Virtual reality <ul><li>Imagine the opportunities and the barriers offered by the use of “virtual” or “online” tools </li>...
 
Personal development planning, portfolios, e-portfolios, assessment and reflective learning Free mind is also used at Gold...
Wider aims: good practice <ul><li>encourage student-tutor contact </li></ul><ul><li>encourage student-student co-operation...
<ul><li>“ Assessment is at the heart of the student experience” </li></ul><ul><li>(Brown, S & Knight, P., 1994)  </li></ul...
<ul><li>“ Students second-guess the assessment and make that their syllabus; they will underestimate the requirements if t...
Bloom’s taxonomy <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>  6.  Evaluation  Ability to make a judgement of   the worth of something  </li><...
<ul><li>Good Learning </li></ul><ul><li>based on  </li></ul><ul><li>reciprocity  </li></ul><ul><li>authenticity  </li></ul...
<ul><li>If we accept the statements of good practice, there are consequences for our assesment practice. </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>Reciprocity  </li></ul><ul><li>Authenticity  </li></ul><ul><li>Credibility </li></ul><ul><li>Exemplification </li>...
<ul><li>Reciprocity Self/institutional exposure </li></ul><ul><li>VLE, annual review, league  tables, dashboard, QA, CPD <...
Outer Layers : Re-engaging with formal learning, e.g.: * Access to HE in FE * Building a CV using simple tools online and ...
Assessment for learning <ul><li>AfL is more than marking and feeding back grades. It involves teachers in identifying the ...
ePortfolio Practice
Portfolio-like practice <ul><li>ePortfolio </li></ul><ul><li>Identity presentation tools </li></ul><ul><li>Framed by polic...
Travel required Access to HE in FE Professional Pathways Professional CVs for Recruitment HND Multimedia Access to Art PGC...
Questions <ul><li>What do you use computers for? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social contact? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Games? <...
Responses <ul><li>Uses :   MSN and Yahoo Messenger, e-Blueies, Hotmail, Yahoo mail, Skype conferencing (“10 of us have all...
Learner voices: Laura http://www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/programmes/elearning_pedagogy/elp_learneroutcomes/elp_learnervoices.a...
Response to ePortfolio - <ul><li>Hasn't got a front end, needs personalisation, “UCAS system is more immediately obvious” ...
Response to ePortfolio + <ul><li>So it is like a diary system where you can keep all your course work and then like give i...
Social Software: Web2.0 <ul><li>Blogs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stephen Downes </l...
Social Software <ul><li>Blogs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Livejournal ,  Elgg </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wikis </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
Beyond the filing cabinet case studies 1: Blogs http://www.globalvoicesonline.org/   http://del.icio.us   http://www.downe...
http://www.brookes.ac.uk/schools/education/arts/diaries/home.html !  http://blogs.warwick.ac.uk/groups/en-all
http://pdp.coventry.ac.uk/blog.aspx?blogoid=2824   http://www.pebblelearning.co.uk/
http://elgg.net/
http://my-world.typepad.com/my_weblog/   http://tao4learning.wordpress.com/
Landscape: social software An ‘”underworld” of digital communication among learners’ (LEX, Creanor et al 2006) Google and ...
Reflective Practice <ul><li>As critically reflective practitioners we aim to move from focusing upon self (performance) to...
Visual arts portfolios <ul><li>Odilon Redon’s &quot;portfolios” were collections intended not for display on a wall but fo...
Covert [meta] Curricula <ul><li>The less obvious--but more important curriculum--is the covert curriculum, which is compos...
Widening participation <ul><li>Widening participation policies are focused in two conflicting directions:  </li></ul><ul><...
Flexible distributed Learning (FDL) QAA Precepts <ul><li>Overall, the revision [to the QAA precepts] may be characterised ...
<ul><li>Politicians would love, simply, to say &quot;we spent money and things are better&quot; but to do so they would ne...
Link  to legible pdf (404K) of map
<ul><li>Thank you! </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address]   </li></ul>Big Fire Kitchen  by Gonzalo Barrientos Land Rig  by Rooz...
References <ul><li>Biggs, J. (1999).  Teaching for Quality Learning at University . Buckingham, The Society for Research i...
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ePortfolios and Assessment

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  • Learning outcomes, or expected or anticipated, learning outcomes, are an expression of what students should be able/expected to do at the end of the course.. The ‘do’ is important. Outcomes are the demonstrable behaviour resulting from the student learning. How can students demonstrate that they have learned? (you’ll note using learning outcomes nicely integrates learning and assessment or ‘assessment for learning’). So an outcome isn’t that students will ‘understand’ a given topic, but that they will demonstrate their understanding through e.g. Comparing the main ideas outlined in the course syllabus Solving a problem Designing a novel solution Making a clear and reasoned argument, backed up by the literature covered in the syllabus
  • ePortfolios and Assessment

    1. 1. Personal development planning, portfolios, e-portfolios, assessment and reflective learning George Roberts Oxford Centre for Staff and Learning Development Falmouth 14 December 2006
    2. 2. <ul><li>3 Computers </li></ul><ul><li>4 Careers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chef </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oil industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lecturer </li></ul></ul>Big Fire Kitchen by Gonzalo Barrientos Land Rig by Roozbeh Feiz Computers from the bad old days Bike by Marin Me by Al
    3. 3. Personal development planning, portfolios, e-portfolios, assessment and reflective learning <ul><li>Aims </li></ul><ul><li>To use this session to illustrate and explore the use of electronic portfolios to support learning: we may touch on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment for learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Objective-based assessment and constructive alignment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback and dialogue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer and self assessment </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Introductions <ul><li>Name </li></ul><ul><li>Role </li></ul><ul><li>One thing to do with IT in education in Cornwall that rocks your boat </li></ul>
    5. 5. Stance <ul><li>What have we done? </li></ul><ul><li>Channel </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Topic </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrate phone conversation: Bodgett, Scarper & Donne </li></ul>
    6. 6. Virtual reality <ul><li>Imagine the opportunities and the barriers offered by the use of “virtual” or “online” tools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>While in a face-to-face situation. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>How would you do this with a distributed group? </li></ul>
    7. 8. Personal development planning, portfolios, e-portfolios, assessment and reflective learning Free mind is also used at Goldsmiths’ College, London as front end to an ePortfolio (IMS ePortfolio, BS8788)
    8. 9. Wider aims: good practice <ul><li>encourage student-tutor contact </li></ul><ul><li>encourage student-student co-operation </li></ul><ul><li>encourage active learning </li></ul><ul><li>give prompt feedback </li></ul><ul><li>emphasise time on task </li></ul><ul><li>have and communicate high expectations </li></ul><ul><li>respect diverse talents and ways of learning </li></ul><ul><li>(Chickering & Ehrman, 1987) </li></ul><ul><li>independent of the mode of engagement </li></ul>
    9. 10. <ul><li>“ Assessment is at the heart of the student experience” </li></ul><ul><li>(Brown, S & Knight, P., 1994) </li></ul><ul><li>“ From our students’ point of view, assessment always defines the actual curriculum” </li></ul><ul><li>(Ramsden, P.,1992) </li></ul>But… “ Assessment defines what students regard as important, how they spend their time and how they come to see themselves as students and then as graduates.........If you want to change student learning then change the methods of assessment” (Brown, G et al, 1997)
    10. 11. <ul><li>“ Students second-guess the assessment and make that their syllabus; they will underestimate the requirements if the assessment tasks let them. In aligned teaching … assessment reinforces learning” (Biggs 1999, p 160). </li></ul><ul><li>“ The assessment tasks need to be ‘authentic’ to the objectives” (Biggs 1999, p 161). </li></ul>Course design and assessment
    11. 12. Bloom’s taxonomy <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li> 6. Evaluation Ability to make a judgement of the worth of something </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5. Synthesis Ability to combine separate elements into a whole </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4. Analysis Ability to break a problem into its constituent parts and establish the relationships between each one </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3. Application Ability to apply rephrased knowledge in novel situation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Manipulation Ability to rephrase or paraphrase knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>1. Knowledge That which can be recalled </li></ul><ul><li>Bloom. B.S. (1965) A Taxonomy of Educational Objectives Handbook 1: Cognitive Domain New York: McKay 2nd Edition </li></ul>
    12. 13. <ul><li>Good Learning </li></ul><ul><li>based on </li></ul><ul><li>reciprocity </li></ul><ul><li>authenticity </li></ul><ul><li>credibility </li></ul><ul><li>Good Teaching </li></ul><ul><li>sets ground rules </li></ul><ul><li>provides alternatives </li></ul><ul><li>exemplifies models </li></ul><ul><li>gives access to experience </li></ul>Qualitative typologies <ul><li>Good Design </li></ul><ul><li>Permeability </li></ul><ul><li>Variety </li></ul><ul><li>Legibility </li></ul><ul><li>Robustness </li></ul><ul><li>Visual appropriateness </li></ul><ul><li>Richness </li></ul><ul><li>Personalisation </li></ul><ul><li>Good Practice </li></ul><ul><li>encourages </li></ul><ul><li>contact </li></ul><ul><li>co-operation </li></ul><ul><li>active learning </li></ul><ul><li>gives prompt feedback </li></ul><ul><li>emphasises time on task </li></ul><ul><li>has high expectations </li></ul><ul><li>respects diversity </li></ul>
    13. 14. <ul><li>If we accept the statements of good practice, there are consequences for our assesment practice. </li></ul><ul><li>What are they? </li></ul>
    14. 15. <ul><li>Reciprocity </li></ul><ul><li>Authenticity </li></ul><ul><li>Credibility </li></ul><ul><li>Exemplification </li></ul><ul><li>Student-tutor contact </li></ul><ul><li>Student-student co-operation </li></ul>Assessment consequences of …
    15. 16. <ul><li>Reciprocity Self/institutional exposure </li></ul><ul><li>VLE, annual review, league tables, dashboard, QA, CPD </li></ul><ul><li>Authenticity Simulations, diaries, witness evidence, testamonies, </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge management, CRM </li></ul><ul><li>Credibility Evidenced, empirical, </li></ul><ul><li>published, cited, examined,, </li></ul><ul><li>reviewed </li></ul><ul><li>Exemplification Criteria-referenced, apprenticeship </li></ul><ul><li>Student-tutor Feedback, marking, personalisation </li></ul><ul><li>Student-student Peer assessment </li></ul>Assessment consequences of …
    16. 17. Outer Layers : Re-engaging with formal learning, e.g.: * Access to HE in FE * Building a CV using simple tools online and on a memory stick Community Core Middle Layers: acculturation to education; people move towards the core through legitimate peripheral participation in communities of knowledge and inquiry, e.g.: * Virtual personal tutee network * From Foundation Degree to * Final year Inner Layers: Moving towards mastery, e.g.: * Modelling authentic learning experience on a publishing project * Students mentor other students in a virtual social learning space Learning is a journey through concentric layers towards the core or heart of communities of knowledge, inquiry or practice
    17. 18. Assessment for learning <ul><li>AfL is more than marking and feeding back grades. It involves teachers in identifying the next steps for learning as well as responding to the errors pupils make and the difficulties they experience. Essential to good AfL are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the sharing of learning objectives and outcomes with pupils </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>pupils’ peer and self assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>feedback to pupils to inform next steps in learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Good planning and teaching skills are crucial for making AfL a productive part of lessons. </li></ul><ul><li>Source DfES, Standards site, http://www.standards.dfes.gov.uk/keystage3/respub/afl_ws </li></ul>
    18. 19. ePortfolio Practice
    19. 20. Portfolio-like practice <ul><li>ePortfolio </li></ul><ul><li>Identity presentation tools </li></ul><ul><li>Framed by policies (there is never only one) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Global </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assessment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Employability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diversity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>WP admissions (APEL) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    20. 21. Travel required Access to HE in FE Professional Pathways Professional CVs for Recruitment HND Multimedia Access to Art PGCE Primary Refugees in HE Arts Foundation Wine Studies Brookes: Social Care Brookes: Certificate Teaching in HE CMALT BLITZ CV Builder
    21. 22. Questions <ul><li>What do you use computers for? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social contact? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Games? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Study? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shopping? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What do you like most about computers? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you like least about computers? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you think computers will be used in your future? </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think about the e-portfolio system? </li></ul>
    22. 23. Responses <ul><li>Uses : MSN and Yahoo Messenger, e-Blueies, Hotmail, Yahoo mail, Skype conferencing (“10 of us have all gone off to study and we meet on line every weekend”), Skype video, e-Bay, mySpace (&quot;I love mySpace&quot;), IM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But note Colleges block sites (Live Journal, Bebo, others?) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Likes Most : instant info at fingertips, cut and paste, shopping (Next, Top Shop), comparison shopping, friendly, pretty pictures, banking, Yahoo, Google, Dogpile, not taking notes, MSN Messenger (“we set up a self-help network using IM as a study tool to share challenges and relay information on the Access course”) </li></ul><ul><li>Likes Least : impersonal, unsociable, when it doesn't work, freezing up, limiting what we can do, killing the high st, hate pop-ups, junk mail, </li></ul><ul><li>Future : more Skype, more online admin, will be used a lot more </li></ul><ul><li>See JISC Learner Experience Studies: </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.jisc.ac.uk/elp_learneroutcomes.htm </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/programmes/elearning_pedagogy/elp_learnerpresentations.aspx </li></ul>
    23. 24. Learner voices: Laura http://www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/programmes/elearning_pedagogy/elp_learneroutcomes/elp_learnervoices.aspx
    24. 25. Response to ePortfolio - <ul><li>Hasn't got a front end, needs personalisation, “UCAS system is more immediately obvious” </li></ul><ul><li>Need it for life not duration of term, put feedback link on the system </li></ul><ul><li>can't log on, need step-by-step guide, do not know what you want me to do exactly </li></ul><ul><li>issue of trust, personalisation of templates, need to go to so many places. Scroll down click, scroll, click. It is hard when you are cooking tea at the same time. </li></ul><ul><li>Like a 2d photocopy. Not simple to use. I am a visual learner: too much text; need more structure in the white spaces; needs spell check; feels like hard work </li></ul><ul><li>Why can’t we use Blackboard to do this? </li></ul><ul><li>Do not know &quot;if we are doing it right&quot;; limited to certain things; sometimes it &quot;throws a head fit&quot;. </li></ul>
    25. 26. Response to ePortfolio + <ul><li>So it is like a diary system where you can keep all your course work and then like give it to someone to look at </li></ul><ul><li>Good start to a CV </li></ul><ul><li>Good you can keep stuff </li></ul><ul><li>Like your own website for College </li></ul><ul><li>It’s not all or nothing. You can choose what to show. </li></ul>
    26. 27. Social Software: Web2.0 <ul><li>Blogs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stephen Downes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Seb Schmoller </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Josie Fraser </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>My Blogs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Benchmarking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pathfinding </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Portfolios </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Wikis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collaborative work space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Project development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flickr and Flicker Creative Commons </li></ul><ul><li>Others? </li></ul>Identity presentation tools? Authoritative and yet very personal Detached voice Authoritative and personal Project voice Personal voice Collective voice Common voice
    27. 28. Social Software <ul><li>Blogs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Livejournal , Elgg </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wikis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open source development documentation: Moodle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wikipedia </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Others? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>YouTube </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mySpace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>e-Bay </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Google docs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SlideShare, Gliffy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ePortfolio: PebblePad, Sakai/Petal , Vitaetality, Giunti, Careers Wales Online </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Second life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Podcasts and threaded audio messaging </li></ul></ul>
    28. 29. Beyond the filing cabinet case studies 1: Blogs http://www.globalvoicesonline.org/ http://del.icio.us http://www.downes.ca
    29. 30. http://www.brookes.ac.uk/schools/education/arts/diaries/home.html ! http://blogs.warwick.ac.uk/groups/en-all
    30. 31. http://pdp.coventry.ac.uk/blog.aspx?blogoid=2824 http://www.pebblelearning.co.uk/
    31. 32. http://elgg.net/
    32. 33. http://my-world.typepad.com/my_weblog/ http://tao4learning.wordpress.com/
    33. 34. Landscape: social software An ‘”underworld” of digital communication among learners’ (LEX, Creanor et al 2006) Google and Wikipedia preferred information search & retrieval tools (LXP, Conole et al 2006) “ The concept of ‘time’ is changing – both in terms of expectation of information and results on demand. There is evidence of a fragmentation of the learning timetable” (LXP, Conole et al 2006) thanks to Greg Benfield for this slide ©BBC http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/technology/3830527.stm
    34. 35. Reflective Practice <ul><li>As critically reflective practitioners we aim to move from focusing upon self (performance) to focusing on student learning by taking on the role of learner in the context of our own teaching. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Val Clifford </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    35. 36. Visual arts portfolios <ul><li>Odilon Redon’s &quot;portfolios” were collections intended not for display on a wall but for private viewing. </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Typically a print portfolio consists of a set of images conceived as a thematic unit and organised into a specific sequence or order. Portfolios are often accompanied by a brief text and individual captions. ... </li></ul><ul><li>Redon … [portfolios] rarely function in any obviously sequential way. ... [They] offer a new kind of storytelling with the viewer/reader playing a far more active role.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>I am reminded of Shane Sutherland's frequent assertion that e-portfolios are a form of storytelling through which the owner of the portfolio can choose to reveal themselves in multiple ways. </li></ul><ul><li>The work of French graphic artist Odilon Redon (1840-1916), &quot; Beyond the Visible ”, </li></ul><ul><li>Museum of Modern Art, NYC (attended 06/01/06) </li></ul>
    36. 37. Covert [meta] Curricula <ul><li>The less obvious--but more important curriculum--is the covert curriculum, which is composed of the skills and characteristics the student develops as a result of successfully completing the overt curriculum. (Appleby) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.psichi.org/pubs/articles/article_59.asp </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Industrial era </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ 3 Rs”: reading, ‘riting and ‘rithmatic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Covert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>punctuality, subordination, repetition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Postmodern era </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Overt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>flexibility, community, personalisation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Covert </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>piecework, normalisation, surveillance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>see Roberts (2004) http://www.shef.ac.uk/nlc2004/Proceedings/Individual_Papers/Roberts.htm </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    37. 38. Widening participation <ul><li>Widening participation policies are focused in two conflicting directions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>emancipatory and empowering for the individual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>stimulate the growth of autonomous, entrepreneurial, IT-literate, multi-skilled individuals capable of creating and taking advantage of the flexible opportunities inherent in a post fordist economy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ensuring a supply of appropriately skilled workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>create a compliant low-expectation labour force inured to the demands of flexibilisation in order to attract inward investment not on the basis of high skills available but on the basis of low costs </li></ul></ul></ul>
    38. 39. Flexible distributed Learning (FDL) QAA Precepts <ul><li>Overall, the revision [to the QAA precepts] may be characterised as moving from the 'process-based' style of the earlier version to a more [flexible] 'outcome-based' approach. </li></ul><ul><li>The focus now is on ends rather than means. Institutions … will see that the basics remain in the content of the revised version but will, it is hoped, appreciate the flexibility now offered by the greater attention to outcomes. </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility has become an epi-phenomenon, part of the meta-curriculum </li></ul>are themselves flexible ( link )
    39. 40. <ul><li>Politicians would love, simply, to say &quot;we spent money and things are better&quot; but to do so they would need to trap children in the &quot;criterion referencing&quot; of past children's performances, so that they could evidence &quot;better standards&quot; or whatever. This would be an impossible brake on learning. </li></ul><ul><li>In practice they can only say &quot;we spent money and things are different; here is why [we think] different is better&quot; and there is an evidence gap between &quot;better&quot; and &quot;different”. </li></ul><ul><li>Stephen Heppell, http://www.learnometer.net/ </li></ul>
    40. 41. Link to legible pdf (404K) of map
    41. 42. <ul><li>Thank you! </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>Big Fire Kitchen by Gonzalo Barrientos Land Rig by Roozbeh Feiz Computers from the bad old days Bike by Marin Me by Al
    42. 43. References <ul><li>Biggs, J. (1999). Teaching for Quality Learning at University . Buckingham, The Society for Research into Higher Education and Open University Press </li></ul><ul><li>Bloom, B. S., Ed. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives Book 1: Cognitive Domain . London, Longman. </li></ul><ul><li>Brown G, Bull J & Pendlebury M. (1997). Assessing student learning in higher education . London: Routledge </li></ul><ul><li>Brown, S. and Knight, P. T. (1994). Assessing Learners in Higher Education . London, Kogan Page. </li></ul><ul><li>Gibbs, G (1992). Improving the quality of student learning , Bristol, TES </li></ul><ul><li>Ramsden, P. (1992). Learning to teach in higher education . London: Routledge </li></ul>

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