1986 WEA, Ruskin College and the Open University blended learning programme for adults, without qualifications, returning to education
a mix of distance (DL) and face-to-face (f2f) learning: evening/weekend courses with residential learning sessions and distance learning support
summer schools and monthly tutorial-group meetings were typical f2f interventions in a predominantly DL mix
1990s corporate training
short courses blended with pre-course readings and post course activities such as action-learning sets and project-based learning teams
course participants receive electronic materials (i.e. spreadsheet-based project finance models, trading simulations, technical process modelling, etc.), on portable media, initially floppy disk and later CD and eventually through web services
2000 web-based DL and training is “blended back” with supplementary printed manuals and optional f2f seminars (“at a location near you”)
The mix is in the diversity of people that can be blended
I would also want to widen access to all those other learning activities. I want sales and customer services staff, shop floor production workers, nurses, support workers and people from all levels within our organisations to benefit from properly structured inputs from skilled coaches, to have a chance to be part of an action learning set and to benefit from supported work-based projects where the learning gained from the task is more important than the output of the task itself.
Collaboration is the extent to which the learning programme is dependent on learners working together to learn or work individually.
Collocation is the extent to which the learning programme is advanced and propagated through face to face sessions where the learners are gathered in a room for lectures or seminars, or through distributed (distance) learning.
Computerisation is the extent to which information and communication technologies (ICT) is used in the learning programme
Blended learning: 3-C hi collocation hi collaboration traditional laboratory lo computerisation hi collocation whiteboards in classrooms hi collaboration virtual field trips hi computerisation lo collocation CACL, online forums hi collaboration “Learning to teach online” hi computerisation hi collocation lo collaboration video link lecture hi computerisation lo collocation lo collaboration “traditional” DL lo computerisation lo collocation lo collaboration CBT training hi computerisation
Modes of Engagement Mode 1: baseline admin and support Mode 2: Blended Learning Mode 3: FDL
initially through basic stimulus-response conditioning, later through the capacity to associate concepts in a chain of reasoning, or to associate steps in a chain of activity to build a composite skill
Cognitive constructivist, whereby people learn by active construction of ideas and building of skills
through exploration, experimentation, receiving feedback, and adapting themselves accordingly. Cognitive constructivity leads to integration of concepts and skills into the learner’s existing conceptual or competency structures.
Social constructivist whereby people and groups learn with the support of dialogue and in the process of collaborative activity.
Situativist, whereby people learn through participation in communities of practice
progressing from novice to expert through observation, reflection, mentorship, and legitimate peripheral participation in community activities. Situativity leads to the development of habits, values, identities and skills that are relevant to and supported by that community.
Positivism: the “traditional” empirical-idealist view
Reality is objectively “out there”
Positivists aim to construct value-free laws arguing from the observation of phenomena to the creation of theories (the specific to the general) in order subsequently to explain other phenomena through deductive reasoning (general to specific), rules and procedures. ...
Social perspective: the new orthodoxy (Goodman, 2003)
Knowledge is emergent rather than given or discoverable, it arises from social practice and is constructed.
There is variation in what is known and how it is known and this variation is context-dependent. ...
Commonsense epistemology of normalisation which adopts forms from both the social perspective and positivism in order to reproduce a culture through its many tacit codes. ...
New critical (post-foundational) approach
Acknowledges the cognitive disconnect in much learning and teaching practice. Learners assert their desire for student-centred programmes, yet ask, “is it on the exam?”