escuela de idiomas passive voice almeida jorge luisPresentation Transcript
Passive VoiceThe passive voice is less usual than the active voice. The activevoice is the "normal" voice. But sometimes we need the passivevoice. In this lesson we look at how to construct the passivevoice, when to use it and how to conjugate it.Construction of the Passive VoiceThe structure of the passive voice is very simple:subject + auxiliary verb (be) + main verb (past participle)The main verb is always in its past participle form.
Look at these examples:subject auxiliary verb (to main verb (past be) participle)Water is drunk by everyone.100 people are employed by this company.I am paid in euro.We are not paid in dollars.Are they paid in yen?
Use of the Passive VoiceWe use the passive when:we want to make the active object more importantwe do not know the active subject subject verb object give President was killed by Lee importance to Kennedy Harvey active object Oswald. (President Kennedy) active subject My wallet has been ? unknown stolen.Note that we always use by to introduce the passive object (Fish areeaten by cats).
Look at this sentence:He was killed with a gun.Normally we use by to introduce the passiveobject. But the gun is not the active subject.The gun did not kill him. He waskilled by somebody with a gun. In the activevoice, it would be: Somebody killed him with agun. The gun is the instrument. Somebody isthe "agent" or "doer".
Conjugation for the Passive VoiceWe can form the passive in any tense. In fact,conjugation of verbs in the passive tense is rathereasy, as the main verb is always in past participleform and the auxiliary verb is always be. Toform the required tense, we conjugate theauxiliary verb. So, for example:present simple: It is madepresent continuous: It is being madepresent perfect: It has been made
Here are some examples with most of the possible tenses: infinitive to be washed simple present It is washed. past It was washed. future It will be washed. conditional It would be washed. continuous present It is being washed. past It was being washed. future It will be being washed. conditional It would be being washed. perfect simple present It has been washed. past It had been washed. future It will have been washed. conditional It would have been washed. perfect continuous present It has been being washed. past It had been being washed. future It will have been being washed. conditional It would have been being washed.
Examples of Passive: Tense Subject Verb Object Simple Active: Rita writes a letter. Present Passive: A letter is written by Rita. Simple Past Active: Rita wrote a letter. Passive: A letter was written by Rita. Present Active: Rita has written a letter. Perfect Passive: A letter has been written by Rita. Future I Active: Rita will write a letter. Passive: A letter will be written by Rita. Hilfsverben Active: Rita can write a letter. Passive: A letter can be written by Rita.
Examples of Passive: Tense Subject Verb ObjectPresent Active: Rita is writing a letter.Progressive Passive: A letter is being written by Rita.Past Active: Rita was writing a letter.Progressive Passive: A letter was being written by Rita.Past Perfect Active: Rita had written a letter. Passive: A letter had been written by Rita.Future II Active: Rita will have written a letter. Passive: A letter will have been written by Rita.Conditional I Active: Rita would write a letter. Passive: A letter would be written by Rita.Conditional II Active: Rita would have written a letter. Passive: A letter would have been written by Rita.
Passive Sentences with Two ObjectsRewriting an active sentence with two objects in passive voice meansthat one of the two objects becomes the subject, the other one remainsan object. Which object to transform into a subject depends on whatyou want to put the focus on Subject Verb Object 1 Object 2 Active: Rita wrote a letter to me. Passive: A letter was to me by Rita. written Passive: I was a letter by Rita. written