ALGAE Upscaling and costs


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Good overview on ALGAE technologies advances and future, by prof Rene Wijffels at WUR

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ALGAE Upscaling and costs

  1. 1. 10/29/2008 Biodiesel from microalgae René H. Wijffels Contents Biofuels Truth about microalgae Production methods Feasibility study Our microalgae research agenda Biorefinery of microalgae Demonstration Conclusions 1
  2. 2. 10/29/2008 Biofuels Botryococcus Alkanes (C34) High concentrations (40 70%) Other algae 20 60% lipids High productivity Palm oil: 6,000 l/ha/year Algae: 20,000 150,000 l/ha/jaar No competition with food Salt water Investmens in US: US$ 2.4 billion (NYTimes) Many new companies A2BE Carbon Capture Green Star Products Algaelink Infinifuel Biodiesel Algoil Inventure Chemical Aquaflow Binomic Corporation LiveFuels Aquaflow Bionomics OriginOil Aquatic Energy PetroAlgae Aurora Biofuels PetroSun Blue Marble Energy Seambiotic Bionavitas Solazyme Circle Biodiesel & Ethanol Solena Group Corporation Solix Biofuels Enhanced Biofuels &Technologies Texas Clean Fuels GreenFuel Technologies Valcent Products Greenshift Vertical Algae Biofuel Growing Truth about algae 300 Biomass productivity (ton ha -1 yr -1) 250 Eindhoven Bonaire 200 150 100 50 0 Ponds Tubular Flat panel Theoretical maximum Lipid content algae is 20-60% 2
  3. 3. 10/29/2008 Production methods of algae Open systems Raceway Cheap? Closed systems Bubble column Tubular reactors Flat panels Expensive? Open systems: raceway ponds Cyanotech (Hawaii), 75 ha Open Mixing via paddle wheels System that is used most Low investments costs Limitation in CO2 supply Productivity 20 tonnes. ha 1. year 1 Biomass concentration <0.5 g/l High costs for harvesting Wageningen Univ, 70 l Bubble column ECN, 70 l Closed Mixing via air and CO2 Productivity 50 tonnes. ha 1. year 1 Biomass concentration 2 g/l Hard to scale up (forest) Mario Tredici, Univ. Florence 3
  4. 4. 10/29/2008 Tubular reactor Closed Mixing via air and CO2 Productivity 60 tonnes. ha 1. Algatechnology, Israel year 1 High surface/volume ratio Biomass concentration 3 g/l Accumulation oxygen Scalable Technogrow/LGem, Made Tubular reactor + dilution of light +++ Tubular reactor Dilution of light 1.2 ha Klötze (Germany) Productivity 80 tonnes. ha 1. year 1 Bioprodukte Prof. Steinberg Produktions und Vertriebs GmbH Flat panel reactor Intensive mixing Short light dark periods High biomass concentrations (>15 g/l) Productivity 100 ton. ha 1. Wageningen University year 1 Scalable? Ben Gurion Universiteit, Israël 4
  5. 5. 10/29/2008 Feasibility study Delta nv Raceway ponds Horizontal tubes Flat panels Tubular reactor Monitor and Control Unit Centrifuge Harvest Nutrient tank Inlet DO Biomass Stack pH gas Degasser CO2 25 % T Pump Headspace Solar collector Stack gas /CO2 Biomass production costs horizontal tubular reactor 1 ha plant 10.62 / kg biomass Power 42% 100 ha plant 4.02 / Centrifuge w estfalia separator AG Centrifuge Feed Pump Medium Filter Unit kg biomass Medium Feed pump Medium preparation tank Harvest broth storage tank Seaw ater pump station Automatic Weighing Station w ith Silos Culture circulation pump Installations costs Instrumentation and control Piping 150 /GJ Buildings Carbon dioxide Polyethylene tubes Photobioreactor Media Filters Culture medium Air filters Pow er Labor Payroll charges Present value Maintenance General plant overheads 10 /GJ 5
  6. 6. 10/29/2008 Sensitivity analysis Curacao PE 5%, CO2 Incentive, medium and CO2 free Mixing 10*, PE 5%, CO2 incentive, mdium and CO2 free Mixing w ith 10* less energy PE 5%; CO2 and medium for free, CO2 incentive No centrifugation CO2 incentive (15 € / ton CO2) Photosynthetic Efficiency 5% Dilution rate 10% v/v per day Both CO2 and medium for free CO2 for free Culture medium for free -100 -90 -80 -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 % Decrease in production cost Biomass production cost 1 ha 10.62 € / kg biomass Labor 28% Power 22% 100 ha Power 42% 4.02 € / kg biomass Centrif uge w estf alia separator AG Centrif uge Feed Pump Medium Filter Unit Medium Feed pump Medium preparation tank Harvest broth storage tank 89% decrease Seaw ater pump station Automatic Weighing Station w ith Silos Culture circulation pump Installations costs Instrumentation and control Piping Buildings Polyethylene tubes Photobioreactor Culture medium Carbon dioxide Media Filters Air f ilters Pow er Labor Payroll charges potential Maintenance General plant overheads 0.4 € / kg biomass 15 €/GJ Comparison of systems (100ha) Units Raceway Flat panel Horizontal pond reactor tubular reactor Biomass Production ton /year 2071 6363 4141 Photosynthetic Efficiency % 1.5 5 3 Light path m 0.2 0.03 0.034 Daily dilution rate % 10 30 30 Culture volume m3 180180 57692 29671 Investment M€ /ha 647 938 341 Biomass production cost € / kg DW 5.70 4.03 4.02 Main contributor to Centrifuge Air blowers Circulation biomass production % 15 % 24% pump 46% cost 6
  7. 7. 10/29/2008 Research programs Photosynthetic Cell Factories (NWO) Solar H and Solar H2 (EU) Sealand Sole (Min. Agriculture, province Sealand, companies) IWT: collaboration with University of Ghent Proviron EOS LT (Akzo, Ingrepro, Essent) Wetsus (13 companies) WETSUS research project Feasibility study as basis Aim: reduction of production costs Biofuel is not the only product Several breakthroughs needed to realize economical feasibility Joining forces Basis for demonstration projects Technological Top Institute; funding 25% university (Wageningen University) 25% companies 50% government 13 companies 5 million Participating companies AFF Dow Chemicals Delta Eneco Energie Essent Friesland Foods Hednesford Ingrepro Landustrie Neste Oil Nuon Rosendaal Energy Syngenta 7
  8. 8. 10/29/2008 Research topics Energy for mixing Productivity/photosynthetic efficiency Lipid productivity CO2 fixation O2 production Make use of residual nutrients Harvesting Extraction Production scenarios Biorefinery of microalgae Assumption: 1,000 kg of microalgae Production costs: 400 Production plant CO2 fixation: 1,800 kg: 35 Nutrient removal from waste: 65 Use of waste heat: Production of pure O2: 1,600 kg 50 Product isolation Lipids for chemistry: 100 kg 200 Lipids for fuel: 300 kg 150 Proteins for food: 100 kg 500 Proteins for feed: 400 kg 300 Polysaccharide fractions: 100 kg 100 Summary Total costs: 300 Total income: 1,300 Development plans Fundamental research is taking place We look for further expansion of that We wish to demonstrate feasibility Production Product isolation: protein, lipid and polysaccharide fractions Supply of biomass for product isolation 8
  9. 9. 10/29/2008 Objectives of pilot/demo plant phase Development of a process chain Experience with systems Information for design of full scale plants Comparison of systems Comparison of strains Comparison of feeds (nutrients, CO2, sunlight…) Supply of biomass for further processing Further processing Conclusions Production of chemicals and biofuels feasible Productivity high and no competition with food production Technology not ready Join forces Combination of applications © Wageningen UR 9