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Torrefaction technology by ECN

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This presentation will help you to understand the advantages of biomass to energy conversion

This presentation will help you to understand the advantages of biomass to energy conversion

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Torrefaction technology by ECN Torrefaction technology by ECN Document Transcript

  • Torrefaction for biomass upgrading into commodity fuels Jaap Kiel IEA Bioenergy Task 32 workshop “Fuel storage, handling and preparation and system analysis for biomass combustion technologies”, Berlin, 7 May 2007 Presentation overview • ECN • Torrefaction principles • ECN TOP technology • Economics • Development status and market implementation 2 Meeting Cargill, 15 May 2006 Torrefaction for biomass upgrading into commodity fuels – Jaap Kiel 1
  • Energy research Centre of the Netherlands in the dunes of North Holland ECN develops high-quality knowledge and technology for the transition to a sustainable energy supply and brings it to the market • Independent energy research institute • 650 staff • Annual turnover: 80 million EURO • Activities: - Biomass, Solar, Wind - Fuel Cell Technology - Clean Fossil Fuels - Energy Efficiency - Policy Studies 3 Meeting Cargill, 15 May 2006 Torrefaction for biomass upgrading into commodity fuels – Jaap Kiel Torrefaction for biomass upgrading general process description Gas Temperature: 200-300 °C Torrified Biomass 0.3 0.1 biomass Pressure: near atmospheric 1 0.7 Torrefaction Absence of oxygen 1 0.9 Product: solid fuel 0.9 Particle size < 4 cm thickness Energy densification (E/kg) 1 = 1.3 0.7 Residence time 10-30 min mass energy Heating rate: <50 °C/min 4 Meeting Cargill, 15 May 2006 Torrefaction for biomass upgrading into commodity fuels – Jaap Kiel 2
  • From biomass/waste to commodity fuels Woody biomass Agricultural residues Friable and less fibrous 19 - 22 MJ/kg (LHV, ar) Superior fuel properties: Hydrophobic • Transport, handling, feeding Preserved Reduced contaminant level • Milling Homogeneous • Combustion/gasification • Feedstock bandwith • Standardisation Torre fac pulve tion and risati Mixed on waste Pelle Tenacious and fibrous tisati on Fuel powder 10 - 17 MJ/kg (LHV, ar) Hydrophilic Vulnerable to biodegradation Contaminated Bulk density 750-850 kg/m3 Heterogeneous Bulk energy density 15-20 GJ/m3 Fuel pellets 5 Meeting Cargill, 15 May 2006 Torrefaction for biomass upgrading into commodity fuels – Jaap Kiel Hemicellulose Lignin Cellulose Decomposition regimes Extensive E E 300 Devolatilisation 300 and carbonisation (E) D TORREFACTION 250 D D 250 Limited devolatilisation Temperature (°C) Temperature (°C) and carbonisation (D) C 200 200 C depolymerisation and recondensation (C) 150 150 glass transition/ A softening (B) drying (A) A 100 100 Hemicellulose Lignin Cellulose 6 Meeting Cargill, 15 May 2006 Torrefaction for biomass upgrading into commodity fuels – Jaap Kiel 3
  • Starting points ECN TOP technology development (1) • Torrefaction (combined with pelletisation) has the potential of becoming a key unit operation in biomass upgrading schemes for a wide range of applications, including: − Biomass storage and (long-distance) transport – biomass import − Co-firing in pf boilers − (Co-)firing in entrained-flow gasifiers for producing power (IGCC) or transportation fuels (e.g., Fischer-Tropsch diesel) − Small-scale pellet boilers and stoves ⇒ Torrefied biomass pellets may become a biomass commodity fuel 7 Meeting Cargill, 15 May 2006 Torrefaction for biomass upgrading into commodity fuels – Jaap Kiel Starting points ECN TOP technology development (2) • Torrefaction principle not new, but many aspects relevant to application for upgrading biomass into biomass fuel for thermal conversion processes were not addressed, including: − Scale of operation in relation to reactor technology and process layout − Characterisation and quantification of product quality and how this relates to process conditions − Nature and quantity of emissions − Prospects of heat integration including utilisation of the energy containing torrefaction gases − The economic viability of torrefaction as a biomass upgrading technique for bulk applications ⇒ 2002 start ECN TOP technology development 8 Meeting Cargill, 15 May 2006 Torrefaction for biomass upgrading into commodity fuels – Jaap Kiel 4
  • 5 kg/h screw Proof-of-concept approach reactor Pellet press (batch) Pellet quality Continuous screw reactor (pyromaat) Torrefied Biomass biomass Batch reactor Cutting mill Grindability TGA analysis Lab-scale combustion Simulator (LCS) Combustibility Torrefaction gas Sampling methods 20 l batch reactor Process Torrefaction Analysis methods simulation database & design tools Product distribution (M & E yields) 9 Meeting Cargill, 15 May 2006 Torrefaction for biomass upgrading into commodity fuels – Jaap Kiel Torrefaction Typical experimental results Gas phase composition CO 0.1 % CO2 3.3 % H2O 89.3 % acetic acid 4.8 % furfural 0.2 % methanol 1.2 % formic acid 0.1 % remainder 1.0 % Tad = 1045 ºC Torrefaction 32 min, 260 ºC Feed: Willow Torrefied Willow Size: 10 - 30 mm Size: 10 - 30 mm LHV = 14.8 MJ/kg (ar) LHV = 18.5 MJ/kg (ar) MC = 14.4% MC = 1.9% Mass yield: 75.3% (ar) Fixed carbon: 16.8 % Fixed carbon: 22.1% Energy yield: 94.3% (ar) 10 Meeting Cargill, 15 May 2006 Torrefaction for biomass upgrading into commodity fuels – Jaap Kiel 5
  • Grindability of (torrefied) biomass 90 360 C(270,21) 80 C(280,18) 320 C(290,12) 70 280 Power consumption (kWe/MWth) W(290,24) W(260,24) chipper capacity (kWth) 60 240 Willow (MC=10-13%) 50 Willow (dried) 200 Cutter wood 40 AU bituminous coal 160 Borssele run 30 demolition wood 120 D(300,11) 20 80 10 40 - - - 0.5 1.0 1.5 - 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 average particle size (mm, volume based) average particle size (mm, volume based) Torrefaction leads to a dramatic decrease in required milling power and increase in milling capacity 11 Meeting Cargill, 15 May 2006 Torrefaction for biomass upgrading into commodity fuels – Jaap Kiel Torrefaction of willow (280 oC, 17.5 min) 100% Product distribution mass composition Permanent gases 75% energy 94.9 100 composition 87.5 90 50% Mass y ield 80 Energy y ield 70 25% 60 50 0% 40 CO CO2 Other 30 20 Organics 8.0 10 1.4 0.1 1.7 1.6 1.4 3.4 70% 0 60% mass composition Solid Permanent Organics Lipids Reaction 50% energy composition Gas Water 40% Main product groups (dry basis) 30% 20% 10% 0% ol r ol te ol de id de id e n he ton an en yd no an eta ac Ac hy hy Ot ce eth Ph eh ta th ic lac lde lde c me ya bu eti ion ald M thy ra eta ox 2- Ac 2- fur op Fu y- Me dr n- Ac Pr 2- ox 2- Hy ra yl - dr Fu eth Hy 1- M 5- 12 Meeting Cargill, 15 May 2006 Torrefaction for biomass upgrading into commodity fuels – Jaap Kiel 6
  • Combustion reactivity of torrefied wood Lab-scale Combustion Simulator experiments high-volatile coal low-volatile coal torr. (300° demolition wood C) HVC (LOI) LVC (LOI) torr. (300° demolition wood (LOI) C) torr. (280° prune wood C) torr. (280° prune wood (LOI) C) torr. (280° demolition wood C) torr. (280° demolition wood (LOI) C) prune wood (fresh) prune wood (fresh, LOI) 100 90 conversion [%] or LOI [% d.b.] 80 70 60 50 40 30 High reactivity for 20 torrefied wood 10 0 0 500 1000 1500 2000 2500 time [ms] 13 Meeting Cargill, 15 May 2006 Torrefaction for biomass upgrading into commodity fuels – Jaap Kiel Semi-industrial pelletisation tests Features: • 10 kg/h • No automatic moisture supply • Preliminary findings: − Easy pelletisation − Low energy input required − Pellet quality strongly dependent on pelletisation conditions 14 Meeting Cargill, 15 May 2006 Torrefaction for biomass upgrading into commodity fuels – Jaap Kiel 7
  • TOP pellets vs. wood pellets Properties unit Wood Torrefied biomass Wood pellets TOP pellets low high low high Moisture content % wt. 35 3 7 10 1 5 Calorific value (LHV) dry MJ/kg 17.7 20.4 17.7 17.7 20.4 22.7 as received MJ/kg 10.5 19.9 15.6 16.2 19.9 21.6 Mass density (bulk) kg/m3 550 230 500 650 750 850 Energy density (bulk) GJ/m3 5.8 4.6 7.8 10.5 14.9 18.4 Pellet strength - - Good Very good Dust formation Moderate High Limited Limited Swelling / Water Limited swelling / Hygroscopic nature Water uptake Hydrophobic uptake Hydrophobic Biological degradation Possible Impossible Possible Impossible Seasonal influences High Poor Moderate Poor (noticable for end-user) Handling properties Normal Normal Good Good 15 Meeting Cargill, 15 May 2006 Torrefaction for biomass upgrading into commodity fuels – Jaap Kiel ECN directly heated torrefaction technology Air Features: Utillity fuel • High energy efficiency (> 90%) • Heat integration Flue gas • Conventional drying and pelletisation Combustion • Compact moving bed Torrefaction technology gas Gas • Cost effective recycle Biomass TOP pellets Drying Torrefaction Cooling Pelletisation ∆P Flue gas 15-20% Heat exchange Flue gas moisture 16 Meeting Cargill, 15 May 2006 Torrefaction for biomass upgrading into commodity fuels – Jaap Kiel 8
  • ECN torrefaction technology Innovative moving bed reactor • Compact reactor • Small footprint • High heat transfer rates • Accurate T-control • Uniform product quality • Feedstock flexibility • Low capital investment Pilot-scale torrefaction reactor at ECN 17 Meeting Cargill, 15 May 2006 Torrefaction for biomass upgrading into commodity fuels – Jaap Kiel Total capital investment – study estimate (TOP pellets vs. wood pellets) Total Capital Investment TOP and Pelletisation (Feedstock: 180 kton/a woodchips @ 50%mc) 8 7 6 5 TCI (MEuro) Drying 4 Torrefaction 3 Size Reduction and Pelletisation Storage 2 Indirect Cost Working Capital 1 0 TOP Process Conventional Pelletisation 18 Meeting Cargill, 15 May 2006 Torrefaction for biomass upgrading into commodity fuels – Jaap Kiel 9
  • Total production cost (TOP pellets vs. wood pellets) 4,0 3,5 Production Cost Indication (Euro/GJ product) 3,0 2,5 2,0 1,5 1,0 0,5 0,0 Green Wood Saw Dust 47 MW / 47 MW / 47 MW / 47 MW / 47 MW / Pellets Pellets 75 kton/a 75 kton/a 75 kton/a 36 kton/a 112 kton/a MC = 50% MC = 35% MC = 25% MC = 35% MC = 35% BASE CASE Total Cost Other Power Support Fuel Personnel Maintenance Depreciation and Financing Feedstock (=0 Euro/tonne) 19 Meeting Cargill, 15 May 2006 Torrefaction for biomass upgrading into commodity fuels – Jaap Kiel Chain study (TOP pellets vs. wood pellets) TOP process Sawdust Logistics (South Africa) 0.7 EUR/GJ <2.0 EUR/GJ 2.0 EUR/GJ <4.7 EUR/GJ Favourable (Co-)firing coal-fired power stations economics! Higher co-firing capacity or entrained-flow gasifiers Lower capital investment Higher co-firing flexibility North-West Europe and availability 2.3 EUR/GJ 5.9 EUR/GJ 0.7 EUR/GJ Conventional 2.9 EUR/GJ Sawdust Pelletisation Logistics (South Africa) 20 Meeting Cargill, 15 May 2006 Torrefaction for biomass upgrading into commodity fuels – Jaap Kiel 10
  • Road map ECN TOP technology development capacity 5-10 kg/h 100 kg/h 20 kton/a 60-100 kton/a Green Proof-of- Prototype Technical Commercial Proof-of-concept biomass principle (pilot-scale) demonstration demonstration Time 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Proof-of- Prototype Technical Waste Proof-of-concept principle (pilot-scale) demonstration Proof-of-concept Prototype (pilot-scale evaluation) Technical demonstration •Experimentally based process design •Pilot plant / prototype technology •Demonstration plant (semi-commercial) •Technology identification •Demonstration technical feasibility •Technical feasibility (refined design) •Knowledge base torrefaction •Process and product characterisation (design data) •Product applications (large scale) •Experimental infrastructure torrefaction •Economic evaluation full-scale •Economic evaluation full-scale •Economic evaluation full-scale (preliminary estimate 20%) (definite estimate <10%) (study estimate 30%) •Business plan(s) •Business plan(s) •Set-up pilot phase of development (technical demo, semi-commercial) (commercial operation) 21 Meeting Cargill, 15 May 2006 Torrefaction for biomass upgrading into commodity fuels – Jaap Kiel ECN TOP technology development – 2007 activities • Pilot-scale testing − Validation of reactor and process concept − Optimisation of process conditions for a broad feedstock range − Industrial pelletisation tests − Extensive quality evaluation TOP pellets (e.g., hygroscopic nature, biodegradation, strength, milling characteristics, combustion/gasification reactivity) • Demonstration plant basic design • Business plan for technical demonstration(s) through BO2 Energy Concepts • Continued basic R&D (co-operation with TU Eindhoven) − Contaminated biomass (residues) and waste 40-100 kg/h torrefaction pilot-plant at ECN 22 Meeting Cargill, 15 May 2006 Torrefaction for biomass upgrading into commodity fuels – Jaap Kiel 11
  • In conclusion • ECN TOP technology allows cost effective production of commodity fuels from a wide range of biomass/waste feedstocks with a high energy efficiency (>90%) • ECN TOP fuels show: − High energy density − High water resistance − No/Limited biological degradation − Excellent grindability − Good combustion properties • Fields of application: − Long distance biomass transport − Co-firing in pf boilers − (Co-)firing in entrained-flow gasifiers − Small-scale pellet boilers/stoves • In 2007 pilot-plant testing and initiation of demo-projects 23 Meeting Cargill, 15 May 2006 Torrefaction for biomass upgrading into commodity fuels – Jaap Kiel For further information please contact: Dr.ir. Jaap Kiel e: kiel@ecn.nl t: +31 224 56 4590 w: www.ecn.nl ECN P.O. Box 1 NL 1755 ZG Petten the Netherlands 24 Meeting Cargill, 15 May 2006 Torrefaction for biomass upgrading into commodity fuels – Jaap Kiel 12